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What is nanomedicine, and how can it improve childhood cancer treatment? – Phys.Org

§ May 24th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on What is nanomedicine, and how can it improve childhood cancer treatment? – Phys.Org

May 24, 2017 by Maria Kavallaris, Joshua Mccarroll And Thomas P Davis, The Conversation Therapies on a nano scale rely on engineered nanoparticles designed to package and deliver drugs to exactly where theyre needed. Credit: shutterstock.com

A recent US study of people treated for cancer as children from the 1970s to 1999 showed that although survival rates have improved over the years, the quality of life for survivors is low. It also showed this was worse for those who were treated in the 1990s.

About 70% of childhood cancer survivors experience side effects from their treatment, including secondary cancers. And as survival rates improve, the worldwide population of childhood cancer survivors is growing.

Side effects cause stress for survivors and families and increase demand on health systems. But an emerging area of medicine, nanomedicine, offers hope for better children’s cancer treatment that will have fewer side effects and improve quality of life for survivors.

What is nanomedicine?

Nanomedicine is the application of nanomaterials, or nanoparticles, to medicine. Nanoparticles are a form of transport for drugs and can go places drugs wouldn’t be able to go on their own.

Nano means tiny. A nanometre (nm) is one-billionth of a metre. Nanoparticles used for drug delivery are usually in the 20 to 100 nanometre range, although this can vary depending on the design of the nanoparticle.

Nanoparticles can be engineered and designed to package and transport drugs directly to where they’re needed. This targeted approach means the drugs cause most harm in the particular, and intended, area of the tumour they are delivered to. This minimises collateral damage to surrounding healthy tissues, and therefore the side effects.

The first cancer nanomedicine approved by the US Food and Drug Administration was Doxil. Since 1995, it has been used to treat adult cancers including ovarian cancer, multiple myeloma and Karposi’s sarcoma (a rare cancer that often affects people with immune deficiency such as HIV and AIDS).

Currently, there is a stream of new nanomedicine treatments for adult cancers in clinical trials (trials in humans), or on the market. But only a limited number of these have been approved for children’s cancers, although this is arguably where nanomedicine’s strengths could have the most benefit.

How does nanomedicine work?

The nanoparticle drug-delivery systems can work in different ways. Along with carrying the drug for delivery, nanoparticles can be engineered to carry specific compounds that will let them bind, or attach, to molecules on tumour cells. Once attached, they can safety deliver the drug to the specific tumour site.

Nanoparticles can also help with drug solubility. For a drug to work, it must be able to enter the bloodstream, which means it needs to be soluble. For example, the cancer drug paclitaxel (Taxol) is insoluble so has to be dissolved in a delivery agent to get into the blood. But this agent can cause allergic reactions in patients.

To overcome these issues, chemists have developed a nanoparticle out of the naturally occurring protein albumin. It carries the paclitaxel and makes it soluble but without the allergic reactions.

Tumours commonly have disordered and leaky blood vessels sprouting through and off them. These vessels allow chemotherapy drugs to readily enter the tumour, but because chemotherapy molecules are so small, they also diffuse through the vessels and out of the tumour, attacking surrounding tissues. Nanoparticles are larger molecules that get trapped inside the tumour, where they do all the damage.

Once they have delivered their drug cargo to cells, nanoparticles can be designed to break down into harmless byproducts. This is particularly important for children who are still developing.

Types of nanoparticles

Nanoparticles vary in characteristics like shape and size. Researchers need to match the right nanoparticle to the drug it’s to deliver and the particular tumour.

An array of nanoparticle structures are currently being engineered. One example of an interesting structure is the shape of a DNA origami. Because DNA is a biological material, nanoparticles engineered into DNA origami shapes won’t be seen as foreign by the immune system. So these can transport a drug to diseased cells while evading the body’s immune system, therefore lessening the side effects of drugs.

Another example of nanomedicine structures are polymeric nanocarriers. We have recently identified a gene that promotes the growth of tumours, cancer spread and resistance to chemotherapy in pancreatic cancers.

We used a nanomedicine called a polymeric nanocarrier and combined it with a drug that silences the cancer gene. We packaged this up to form a nanomedicine and delivered the drugs into the tumour.

These nanomedicines reduced the expression of the cancer gene, blocked tumour growth and reduced the spread of pancreatic cancer. But we also showed that polymeric nanocarriers can be combined in the lab with other gene-silencing drugs. This means the method can be used for a range of other gene-based cancers.

How can nanomedicines help treat kids’ cancer?

In standard treatment for children’s cancer, chemotherapy drugs are often prescribed at the maximum tolerable dose for a child’s age or size, based on adult dosages. But children aren’t small adults. The processes underlying children’s growth and development might lead to a different effect and response to a chemotherapy drug not seen in adults.

Also, if a child becomes resistant to a drug and they’re on the maximum tolerable dose, there’s no scope to increase it without toxic side effects. By packaging up drugs and moving them through the body directly to diseased cells to reduce collateral damage, in theory, nanomedicine allows higher doses of drugs to be used.

Nanomedicine has great potential to safely treat children’s cancer. However, it is currently stymied by too little research. About two-thirds of research attention in nanomedicine therapeutics, of more 250 nanomedicine products, is focused on cancer. Yet this isn’t translating into new cancer treatments for children coming to market.

But we are making progress. Our work is exploring the design of nanoparticles to deliver gene-silencing drugs to treat the most common brain cancer in children medulloblastoma.

We’re also working on nanomedicines for other significant childhood cancers. These include drug-refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, the most common childhood cancer, and neuroblastoma, the cancer that claims more lives of those under five than any other.

Explore further: New nanotechnology application for difficult-to-treat cancers

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

A new treatment combining shock waves with nanoparticles can successfully treat tumours that are difficult to target using conventional chemotherapy. This is the first time this combined therapy has been tested in live animals. …

Australian cancer researchers have developed a highly promising nanomedicine that could improve treatment for pancreatic cancer the most deadly cancer in Australia.

Nanomedicine has the potential to help personalize cancer treatments and reduce side effects of therapeutic drugs. While some progress has been made toward the latter goal, customized treatments are still hard to come by. …

A Mayo Clinic research team has developed a new type of cancer-fighting nanoparticle aimed at shrinking breast cancer tumors, while also preventing recurrence of the disease. In the study, published today in Nature Nanotechnology, …

New research carried out by drug delivery experts at The University of Nottingham has highlighted more advantages to using nanoparticles for the delivery of cancer drugs.

Targeting cancer cells for destruction while leaving healthy cells alonethat has been the promise of the emerging field of cancer nanomedicine. But a new meta-analysis from U of T’s Institute of Biomaterials & Biomedical …

Researchers from AMOLF and Swiss EPFL have shown that the surface of minuscule water drops surrounded by a hydrophobic substance such as oil is surprisingly ordered. At room temperature, the surface water molecules of these …

Computers process and transfer data through electrical currents passing through tiny circuits and wires. As these currents meet with resistance, they create heat that can undermine the efficiency and even the safety of these …

Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are layered semiconductors that can be exfoliated into layers only a few atoms thick. Recent research has shown that some TMDs can contain quantum light sources that can emit single …

Inspired by how mammals see, a new “memristor” computer circuit prototype at the University of Michigan has the potential to process complex data, such as images and video orders of magnitude, faster and with much less power …

Scientists at Rice University and Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU) have discovered that laser-induced graphene (LIG) is a highly effective anti-fouling material and, when electrified, bacteria zapper.

Rutgers University-New Brunswick scientists have created a graphene-based sensor that could lead to earlier detection of looming asthma attacks and improve the management of asthma and other respiratory diseases, preventing …

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What is nanomedicine, and how can it improve childhood cancer treatment? – Phys.Org

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Research and Markets – Global $350.8 Billion Nanomedicine Market Analysis 2013 – 2025: Major Players are Pfizer … – PR Newswire (press release)

§ May 24th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Research and Markets – Global $350.8 Billion Nanomedicine Market Analysis 2013 – 2025: Major Players are Pfizer … – PR Newswire (press release)

The global nanomedicine market is anticipated to reach USD 350.8 billion by 2025

Development of novel nanotechnology-based drugs and therapies is driven by the need to develop therapies that have fewer side effects and that are more cost-effective than traditional therapies, in particular for cancer.

Application of nanotechnology-based contrast reagents for diagnosis and monitoring of the effects of drugs on an unprecedented short timescale is also attributive drive growth in the coming years. Additionally, demand for biodegradable implants with longer lifetimes that enable tissue restoration is anticipated to influence demand.

As per the WHO factsheet, cancer is found to be one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with approximately 14 million new cases in 2012 and 8.2 million cancer-related deaths. Thus, demand for nanomedicine in order to curb such high incidence rate is expected to boost market progress during the forecast period.

Solutions such as nanoformulations with triggered release for tailor-made pharmacokinetics, nanoparticles for local control of tumor in combination with radiotherapy, and functionalized nanoparticles for targeted in-vivo activation of stem cell production are anticipated to drive R&D, consequently resulting in revenue generation in the coming years.

Biopharmaceutical and medical devices companies are actively engaged in development of novel products as demonstrated by the increasingly growing partnerships between leading enterprises and nanomedicine startups. For instance, in November 2015, Ablynx and Novo Nordisk signed a global collaboration and a licensing agreement for development and discovery of innovative drugs with multi-specific nanobodies. This strategic partnership is anticipated to rise the net annual sales of the products uplifting the market growth.

However, in contrary with the applications of nanotechnology, the entire process of lab to market approval is a tedious and expensive one with stringent regulatory evaluation involved thereby leading investors to remain hesitant for investments.

Further key findings from the report suggest:

Key Topics Covered:

1 Research Methodology

2 Executive Summary

3 Nanomedicine Market Variables, Trends & Scope

4 Nanomedicine Market: Product Estimates & Trend Analysis

5 Nanomedicine Market: Application Estimates & Trend Analysis

6 Nanomedicine Market: Nanomolecule Type Estimates & Trend Analysis

7 Nanomedicine Market: Regional Estimates & Trend Analysis, by Product, Application, & Nanomolecule Type

8 Competitive Landscape

For more information about this report visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/vgtxtn/nanomedicine

Media Contact:

Research and Markets Laura Wood, Senior Manager press@researchandmarkets.com

For E.S.T Office Hours Call +1-917-300-0470 For U.S./CAN Toll Free Call +1-800-526-8630 For GMT Office Hours Call +353-1-416-8900

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To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/research-and-markets—global-3508-billion-nanomedicine-market-analysis-2013—2025-major-players-are-pfizer-ablynx-nanotherapeutics-nanoviricides-abraxis-arrowhead-research-celgene-corporation-bio-gate–merck-300462286.html

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Research and Markets – Global $350.8 Billion Nanomedicine Market Analysis 2013 – 2025: Major Players are Pfizer … – PR Newswire (press release)

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Explainer: what is nanomedicine and how can it improve childhood cancer treatment? – The Conversation AU

§ May 23rd, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Explainer: what is nanomedicine and how can it improve childhood cancer treatment? – The Conversation AU

Therapies on a nano scale rely on engineered nanoparticles designed to package and deliver drugs to exactly where theyre needed.

A recent US study of people treated for cancer as children from the 1970s to 1999 showed that although survival rates have improved over the years, the quality of life for survivors is low. It also showed this was worse for those who were treated in the 1990s.

About 70% of childhood cancer survivors experience side effects from their treatment, including secondary cancers. And as survival rates improve, the worldwide population of childhood cancer survivors is growing.

Side effects cause stress for survivors and families and increase demand on health systems. But an emerging area of medicine, nanomedicine, offers hope for better childrens cancer treatment that will have fewer side effects and improve quality of life for survivors.

Nanomedicine is the application of nanomaterials, or nanoparticles, to medicine. Nanoparticles are a form of transport for drugs and can go places drugs wouldnt be able to go on their own.

Nano means tiny. A nanometre (nm) is one-billionth of a metre. Nanoparticles used for drug delivery are usually in the 20 to 100 nanometre range, although this can vary depending on the design of the nanoparticle.

Nanoparticles can be engineered and designed to package and transport drugs directly to where theyre needed. This targeted approach means the drugs cause most harm in the particular, and intended, area of the tumour they are delivered to. This minimises collateral damage to surrounding healthy tissues, and therefore the side effects.

The first cancer nanomedicine approved by the US Food and Drug Administration was Doxil. Since 1995, it has been used to treat adult cancers including ovarian cancer, multiple myeloma and Karposis sarcoma (a rare cancer that often affects people with immune deficiency such as HIV and AIDS).

Currently, there is a stream of new nanomedicine treatments for adult cancers in clinical trials (trials in humans), or on the market. But only a limited number of these have been approved for childrens cancers, although this is arguably where nanomedicines strengths could have the most benefit.

The nanoparticle drug-delivery systems can work in different ways. Along with carrying the drug for delivery, nanoparticles can be engineered to carry specific compounds that will let them bind, or attach, to molecules on tumour cells. Once attached, they can safety deliver the drug to the specific tumour site.

Nanoparticles can also help with drug solubility. For a drug to work, it must be able to enter the bloodstream, which means it needs to be soluble. For example, the cancer drug paclitaxel (Taxol) is insoluble so has to be dissolved in a delivery agent to get into the blood. But this agent can cause allergic reactions in patients.

To overcome these issues, chemists have developed a nanoparticle out of the naturally occurring protein albumin. It carries the paclitaxel and makes it soluble but without the allergic reactions.

Tumours commonly have disordered and leaky blood vessels sprouting through and off them. These vessels allow chemotherapy drugs to readily enter the tumour, but because chemotherapy molecules are so small, they also diffuse through the vessels and out of the tumour, attacking surrounding tissues. Nanoparticles are larger molecules that get trapped inside the tumour, where they do all the damage.

Once they have delivered their drug cargo to cells, nanoparticles can be designed to break down into harmless byproducts. This is particularly important for children who are still developing.

Nanoparticles vary in characteristics like shape and size. Researchers need to match the right nanoparticle to the drug its to deliver and the particular tumour.

An array of nanoparticle structures are currently being engineered. One example of an interesting structure is the shape of a DNA origami. Because DNA is a biological material, nanoparticles engineered into DNA origami shapes wont be seen as foreign by the immune system. So these can transport a drug to diseased cells while evading the bodys immune system, therefore lessening the side effects of drugs.

Another example of nanomedicine structures are polymeric nanocarriers. We have recently identified a gene that promotes the growth of tumours, cancer spread and resistance to chemotherapy in pancreatic cancers.

We used a nanomedicine called a polymeric nanocarrier and combined it with a drug that silences the cancer gene. We packaged this up to form a nanomedicine and delivered the drugs into the tumour.

These nanomedicines reduced the expression of the cancer gene, blocked tumour growth and reduced the spread of pancreatic cancer. But we also showed that polymeric nanocarriers can be combined in the lab with other gene-silencing drugs. This means the method can be used for a range of other gene-based cancers.

In standard treatment for childrens cancer, chemotherapy drugs are often prescribed at the maximum tolerable dose for a childs age or size, based on adult dosages. But children arent small adults. The processes underlying childrens growth and development might lead to a different effect and response to a chemotherapy drug not seen in adults.

Also, if a child becomes resistant to a drug and theyre on the maximum tolerable dose, theres no scope to increase it without toxic side effects. By packaging up drugs and moving them through the body directly to diseased cells to reduce collateral damage, in theory, nanomedicine allows higher doses of drugs to be used.

Nanomedicine has great potential to safely treat childrens cancer. However, it is currently stymied by too little research. About two-thirds of research attention in nanomedicine therapeutics, of more 250 nanomedicine products, is focused on cancer. Yet this isnt translating into new cancer treatments for children coming to market.

But we are making progress. Our work is exploring the design of nanoparticles to deliver gene-silencing drugs to treat the most common brain cancer in children medulloblastoma.

Were also working on nanomedicines for other significant childhood cancers. These include drug-refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, the most common childhood cancer, and neuroblastoma, the cancer that claims more lives of those under five than any other.

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Explainer: what is nanomedicine and how can it improve childhood cancer treatment? – The Conversation AU

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Nanomedicine: A Vast Horizon on a Molecular Landscape – Part X, Magnetic Nanoparticles theranostics II – Lexology (registration)

§ May 23rd, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Nanomedicine: A Vast Horizon on a Molecular Landscape – Part X, Magnetic Nanoparticles theranostics II – Lexology (registration)

This is the tenth article in a review series on Nanomedicine. We started the series by reviewing the major research areas and entrepreneurial developments in nanomedicine and the relevant patent landscape (Part I and Part II). Following that, we discussed organs-on-a-chip (Part III and Part VIIII), nanotechnology in medical therapeutics: nanoparticles for drug delivery (Part IV), cancer therapeutics (Part V), and bio-imaging (Part VI), and nanoparticles with specific functions: quantum dots for bioimaging and therapy (Part VII) and magnetic nanoparticles for diagnosis (Part VIII). Here, we continue review of the theranostic applications and IP landscape of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). As in the past, those patent documents cited in the article are summarized in the table at the end.

MNPs as a dual modality for cancer imaging Magnetic nanoparticles are superior imaging contrast agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) due to the intrinsic magnetic properties of nanoparticles. As of 2012, the FDA has approved several MNPs as MRI contrast agents or therapeutic agents: ferumoxides (also known as Feridex in the USA) as an MRI contrast agent for imaging liver lesions; ferucarbotran (also known as Resovist) as MRI contrast agent for imaging liver lesions; ferumoxsil (also known as GastroMARK or Lumirem) as an orally administered MRI contrast agent; and ferumoxytol (also known as Feraheme) as an intravenously administered nanoparticle to treat iron deficiency in adults with chronic kidney disease.

With surface molecular modification, MNPs can be functionalized with suitable fluorescent dyes and radionuclides to enable multimodal imaging, for example, optical imaging, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging and Computed Tomography (CT) imaging. The advantage of multimodal imaging helps to ensure the conformance of cancer diagnosis through the combination of complementary strengths of different imaging techniques. Dr. Gang Bao at Rice University and Dr. Shuming Nie at Emory University developed fluorescent label conjugated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for deep-tissue imaging (US 7,459,145). Dr. Anna Moore at Harvard Medical School developed a gold coated iron oxide nanoparticle with a further dextran coating layer for dual modality magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) imaging (US 8,563,043). Dr. Rafael T.M. de Rosales at Kings College London conjugated a 64Cu radiolable with dithiocarbamate (DTC) and bisphosphonates (BP) to form a [64Cu(dtcbp)2] complex. This complex was further labeled with clinically available dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) for MRI/PET dual modality imaging (WO2011151631). In vivo studies with these particles in the lymphatic system successfully detected the early spread of cancer. Dr. Weibo Cai at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and Dr. Shaoqin Gong at the University of Wisconsin-Madison developed a water-soluble SPION with 64Cu chelators for MRI/PET dual modality imaging. These nanoparticles were conjugated with cRGD peptides (i.e. a tripeptide of arginine, glycine, and aspartic acid) to target tumors with integrin avb3 expression and to also carry an anticancer drug for targeted tumor treatment.

MNPs for targeted drug delivery MNPs can accumulate at a target tissue through an enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Beyond this passive targeting, the surface molecular modification of MNPs enables the active targeting at specific biomarkers of malignant tissues. The multifunctionality of MNPs allows the selective delivery of drugs to the desired location for therapy. Dr. J. Manuel Perez at the University of Central Florida used a co-encapsulation strategy to coat both a near infrared (NIR) dye and a chemotherapeutic agent, taxol, with polyacrylic acid (PAA) on SPIONs. These SPIONs were further conjugated with a folic acid ligand to target folate expressing cancer cells. This combination enabled a theranostic with MRI/optical dual modality imaging and cancer cell targeting (US 8,821,837 and US 8,372,944). Dr. Xiaoyuan Chen at the National Institutes of Health conjugated the anti-cancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX), with a human serum albumin (HAS) coated iron oxide nanoparticle. In a murine breast cancer model, the modified MNPs induced tumor reduction and demonstrated a better therapeutic effect than a DOX only treatment. Dr. Michael Welch and Dr. Wooley Karen at Washington University developed a shell-crosslinked knedel (SCK) nanoparticle with peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) to enhance cell uptake of the nanoparticles and facilitate drug delivery (US 8,354,093).

MNPs for localized hyperthermia treatments Another unique feature of MNPs is the hyperthermia effect that can be induced under an alternating magnetic field. When the external magnetic field is oscillating, the MNPs continuously rotate to align with the magnetic field. Under this circumstance, the MNPs absorb electromagnetic energy and transform it into heat energy, locally increasing the temperature of their surroundings. Therefore, the temperature of tumor cells targeted by such MNPs can be increased in the range of 43-47 oC and undergo intra- and extracellular degradation mechanisms causing cell death. The advantage of MNP induced hyperthermia is that it is highly localized and has minimal effect on nearby healthy tissues.

Dr. Jinwoo Cheon at Yonsei University synthesized CoFe2O4@MnFe2O4 core-shell nanoparticles and administered these nanoparticles to mice with xenografted human brain cancer cells. The magnetic hyperthermia treatment by these core-shell MNPs demonstrated better results on tumor elimination compared to Feridex. Dr. Cheons particle also provided effective hyperthermia treatment versus control groups, showing a similar effect to core-shell MNPs conjugated to doxorubicin (US 8,066,969). Dr. Matthew Basel synthesized paramagnetic iron/iron oxide nanoparticles and loaded these into mouse monocyte/macrophage-like cells to target tumor cells. These MNPs specifically targeted pancreatic tumors and induced localized hyperthermia for cancer treatment (US 20120157824). Dr. James Hainfeld applied MNPs through intravenous injection to target subcutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in mice. An alternating external magnetic field was used to induce hyperthermia to ablate the tumor cell while leaving the surrounding healthy tissue intact (US 7,906,147).

In 2013, MagForce, a German company, announced the approval by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) of a new product, NanoTherm, the treatment of primary or recurrent glioblastoma multiforme, which is a lethal brain tumor with limited treatment options. The new treatment depends on direct injection of the MNPs to tumors and localized hyperthermia for delivering the cancer treatment (US 9,345,768). Clinical trial in 66 patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme showed longer overall survival with MNP treatment. Currently NanoTherm has been released in 27 European countries.

Summary Besides the currently approved MNPs by FDA as MRI contrast agents or therapeutic agents, researchers and scientists are actively developing new MNPs with combined imaging and therapeutic functions to take advantage of the theranostic property of MNPs to enhance clinic outcomes. We are expecting more new products to be clinically approved in the coming years.

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Nanomedicine: A Vast Horizon on a Molecular Landscape – Part X, Magnetic Nanoparticles theranostics II – Lexology (registration)

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Holographic microscope provides a new tool for nanomedicine to rapidly measure degradation of drug loaded … – Phys.Org

§ May 18th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Holographic microscope provides a new tool for nanomedicine to rapidly measure degradation of drug loaded … – Phys.Org

May 18, 2017 An illustration of a cost-effective method to rapidly monitor the degradation of drug carrying nanoparticles using a chip-scale microscope. Credit: UCLA Ozcan Research Group

UCLA researchers have developed a cost-effective method to rapidly monitor the degradation of drug-carrying nanoparticles using a chip-scale microscope. This nanoparticle characterization platform is based on holography and can accurately monitor the size changes of nanocapsules undergoing degradation, while releasing the contents of their drug cargo. This research provides scientists with a powerful measurement tool that can be used to design better nanocapsules for drug delivery and other nanomedicine-related applications.

Nanotechnology has gained practical importance, including in drug delivery. The global market for nanomedicine is estimated to reach $350 billion USD by 2025. Design and synthesis of degradable nanoparticles are very important in drug delivery and nanomedicine fields. Although accurate assessment of nanoparticle degradation rates would improve the characterization and optimization of drug delivery vehicles, traditional approaches that are used to monitor drug release from nanoparticles and nanocapsules rely on using advanced technology such as electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, or other biochemical methods, all of which have drawbacks and practical limitations. Most of these instruments are expensive, and do not have the ability to monitor nanoparticle degradation in real time.

UCLA’s holographic imaging method, on the other hand, has an accuracy close to the higher-end measurement devices, but at a fraction of their cost and complexity. It was built using 3-D printed parts and comprises low-cost optical elements, forming a chip-scale optical microscope that weighs about a pound and can be operated using any desktop or laptop computer. This holographic nanoparticle characterization tool can be used to measure the size of individual nanoparticles over a wide range of particle densities, from a few tens to tens of thousands of nanoparticles per micro-liter, and can detect nanoparticles as small as ~40 nm.

“Through this collaboration between my lab and Professor Tatiana Segura’s lab at UCLA, we have created a powerful and cost-effective computational method that enables high-throughput monitoring of the degradation of any type of nanoparticle using an extremely small sample volume that is at least 1000-fold smaller than what is required by other optical techniques, providing additional cost savings per measurement,” said Aydogan Ozcan, who led the research team and is UCLA’s Chancellor’s Professor of Electrical Engineering and Bioengineering and associate director of the California NanoSystems Institute (CNSI).

Dr. Ozcan and his collaborator, Dr. Segura from the Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department at UCLA, along with postdoctoral scholars, Drs. Aniruddha Ray and Shuoran Li, utilized this holographic imaging method to characterize a polymer-based nanocapsule system used to deliver vascular endothelial growth factor, a protein that can help in stroke recovery and wound healing. Growth factors are especially critical for regular cell function and their incorporation within therapeutic nanomaterials has been a major focus of recent research, making this new holographic nanoparticle characterization tool very timely.

Explore further: Mobile device can accurately and inexpensively monitor air quality using machine learning

More information: Aniruddha Ray et al. High-Throughput Quantification of Nanoparticle Degradation Using Computational Microscopy and Its Application to Drug Delivery Nanocapsules, ACS Photonics (2017). DOI: 10.1021/acsphotonics.7b00122

UCLA researchers have developed a cost-effective mobile device to measure air quality. It works by detecting pollutants and determining their concentration and size using a mobile microscope connected to a smartphone and …

A nanoparticle-based drug delivery system that can sense and respond to different conditions in the body, as well as to an externally applied magnetic field, could enhance doctors’ ability to target drugs to specific sites …

Delivering life-saving drugs directly to the brain in a safe and effective way is a challenge for medical providers. One key reason: the blood-brain barrier, which protects the brain from tissue-specific drug delivery. Methods …

Holograms offer a means of increasing data storage density that may help to meet the demands of ever decreasing device sizes and increasing memory requirements. Kohta Nagaya, Eiji Hata and Yasuo Tomita at the University of …

Engineers at the University of California, San Diego developed a new technology that uses an oscillating electric field to easily and quickly isolate drug-delivery nanoparticles from blood. The technology could serve as a …

UCLA researchers working with a team at Verily Life Sciences have designed a mobile microscope that can detect and monitor fluorescent biomarkers inside the skin with a high level of sensitivity, an important tool in tracking …

Rice University scientists have created a rechargeable lithium metal battery with three times the capacity of commercial lithium-ion batteries by resolving something that has long stumped researchers: the dendrite problem.

Nanocrystals have diverse applications spanning biomedical imaging, light-emitting devices, and consumer electronics. Their unique optical properties result from the type of crystal from which they are composed. However, …

Today’s computers are faster and smaller than ever before. The latest generation of transistors will have structural features with dimensions of only 10 nanometers. If computers are to become even faster and at the same time …

In the race to produce a quantum computer, a number of projects are seeking a way to create quantum bitsor qubitsthat are stable, meaning they are not much affected by changes in their environment. This normally needs …

Possibly the strongest hybrid silk fibers to date have been created by scientists in Sweden using all-renewable resources. Combining spider silk proteins with nanocellulose from wood, the process offers a low-cost and scalable …

Chemists, materials scientists and nanoengineers at UC San Diego have created what may be the ultimate natural sunscreen.

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Holographic microscope provides a new tool for nanomedicine to rapidly measure degradation of drug loaded … – Phys.Org

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How can we exploit the protein corona?, Nanomedicine, Future …

§ May 16th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on How can we exploit the protein corona?, Nanomedicine, Future …

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Global $350.8 Billion Nanomedicine Market Analysis & Forecasts Report 2013-2025 – Research and Markets – Business Wire (press release)

§ May 16th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Global $350.8 Billion Nanomedicine Market Analysis & Forecasts Report 2013-2025 – Research and Markets – Business Wire (press release)

DUBLIN–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Research and Markets has announced the addition of the “Nanomedicine Market Analysis By Products, (Therapeutics, Regenerative Medicine, Diagnostics), By Application, (Clinical Oncology, Infectious diseases), By Nanomolecule (Gold, Silver, Iron Oxide, Alumina), & Segment Forecasts, 2013 – 2025” report to their offering.

The global nanomedicine market is anticipated to reach USD 350.8 billion by 2025

Development of novel nanotechnology-based drugs and therapies is driven by the need to develop therapies that have fewer side effects and that are more cost-effective than traditional therapies, in particular for cancer.

Application of nanotechnology-based contrast reagents for diagnosis and monitoring of the effects of drugs on an unprecedented short timescale is also attributive drive growth in the coming years. Additionally, demand for biodegradable implants with longer lifetimes that enable tissue restoration is anticipated to influence demand.

As per the WHO factsheet, cancer is found to be one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with approximately 14 million new cases in 2012 and 8.2 million cancer-related deaths. Thus, demand for nanomedicine in order to curb such high incidence rate is expected to boost market progress during the forecast period.

Solutions such as nanoformulations with triggered release for tailor-made pharmacokinetics, nanoparticles for local control of tumor in combination with radiotherapy, and functionalized nanoparticles for targeted in-vivo activation of stem cell production are anticipated to drive R&D, consequently resulting in revenue generation in the coming years.

Biopharmaceutical and medical devices companies are actively engaged in development of novel products as demonstrated by the increasingly growing partnerships between leading enterprises and nanomedicine startups. For instance, in November 2015, Ablynx and Novo Nordisk signed a global collaboration and a licensing agreement for development and discovery of innovative drugs with multi-specific nanobodies. This strategic partnership is anticipated to rise the net annual sales of the products uplifting the market growth.

However, in contrary with the applications of nanotechnology, the entire process of lab to market approval is a tedious and expensive one with stringent regulatory evaluation involved thereby leading investors to remain hesitant for investments.

Key Topics Covered:

1 Research Methodology

2 Executive Summary

3 Nanomedicine Market Variables, Trends & Scope

4 Nanomedicine Market: Product Estimates & Trend Analysis

5 Nanomedicine Market: Application Estimates & Trend Analysis

6 Nanomedicine Market: Nanomolecule Type Estimates & Trend Analysis

7 Nanomedicine Market: Regional Estimates & Trend Analysis, by Product, Application, & Nanomolecule Type

8 Competitive Landscape

For more information about this report visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/6fcvtv/nanomedicine

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Global $350.8 Billion Nanomedicine Market Analysis & Forecasts Report 2013-2025 – Research and Markets – Business Wire (press release)

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Nanomedicine Industry to 2023 : Market Capacity, Generation, Investment Trends, Regulations and Opportunities – MENAFN.COM

§ May 14th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Nanomedicine Industry to 2023 : Market Capacity, Generation, Investment Trends, Regulations and Opportunities – MENAFN.COM

(MENAFN Editorial) WiseGuyReports.Com Publish a New Market Research Report On – ‘Nanomedicine Industry to 2023 : Market Capacity, Generation, Investment Trends, Regulations and Opportunities’.

Overview: Nanomedicine is an offshoot of nanotechnology, and refers to highly-specific medical intervention at the molecular scale for curing diseases or repairing damaged tissues. Nanomedicine uses nano-sized tools for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of disease, and to gain increased understanding of the complex underlying pathophysiology of the disease. It involves three nanotechnology areas of diagnosis, imaging agents, and drug delivery with nanoparticles in the 11,000 nm range, biochips, and polymer therapeutics.

The majority of nanomedicines used now allow oral drug delivery and its demand is increasing significantly. Although these nanovectors are designed to translocate across the gastrointestinal tract, lung, and bloodbrain barrier, the amount of drug transferred to the organ is lower than 1%; therefore improvements are challenging. Nanomedicines are designed to maximize the benefit/risk ratio, and their toxicity must be evaluated not only by sufficiently long term in vitro and in vivo studies, but also pass multiple clinical studies.

The major drivers of the nanomedicine market include its application in various therapeutic areas, increasing R & D studies about nanorobots in this segment, and significant investments in clinical trials by the government as well as private sector. The Oncology segment is the major therapeutic area for nanomedicine application, which comprised more than 35% of the total market share in 2016. A major focus in this segment is expected to drive the growth of the nanomedicine market in the future.

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Market Analysis: The ‘Global Nanomedicine Market is estimated to witness a CAGR of 17.1% during the forecast period 20172023. The nanomedicine market is analyzed based on two segments therapeutic applications and regions.

Regional Analysis: The regions covered in the report are the Americas, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Rest of the World (ROW). The Americas is set to be the leading region for the nanomedicine market growth followed by Europe. The Asia Pacific and ROW are set to be the emerging regions. #Japan is set to be the most attractive destination and in Africa, the popularity and the usage of various nano-drugs are expected to increase in the coming years. The major countries covered in this report are the US, Germany, Japan, and Others.

Therapeutic Application Analysis: Nanomedicines are used as fluorescent markers for diagnostic and screening purposes. Moreover, nanomedicines are introducing new therapeutic opportunities for a large number of agents that cannot be used effectively as conventional oral formulations due to poor bioavailability. The therapeutic areas for nanomedicine application are Oncology, Cardiovascular, Neurology, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-infectives, and various other areas. Globally, the industry players are focusing significantly on R & D to gain approval for various clinical trials for future nano-drugs to be commercially available in the market. The FDA should be relatively prepared for some of the earliest and most basic applications of nanomedicine in areas such as gene therapy and tissue engineering. The more advanced applications of nanomedicine will pose unique challenges in terms of classification and maintenance of scientific expertise.

Key Players: Merck & Co. Inc., Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Gilead Sciences Inc., Novartis AG, Amgen Inc., Pfizer Inc., Eli Lilly and Company, Sanofi, Nanobiotix SA, UCB SA and other predominate & niche players.

Competitive Analysis: At present, the nanomedicine market is at a nascent stage but, a lot of new players are entering the market as it holds huge business opportunities. Especially, big players along with the collaboration with other SMBs for clinical trials of nanoparticles and compounds are coming with new commercial targeted drugs in the market and they are expecting a double-digit growth in the upcoming years. Significant investments in R & D in this market are expected to increase and collaborations, merger & acquisition activities are expected to continue.

Benefits: The report provides complete details about the usage and adoption rate of nanomedicines in various therapeutic verticals and regions. With that, key stakeholders can know about the major trends, drivers, investments, vertical player’s initiatives, government initiatives towards the nanomedicine adoption in the upcoming years along with the details of commercial drugs available in the market. Moreover, the report provides details about the major challenges that are going to impact on the market growth. Additionally, the report gives the complete details about the key business opportunities to key stakeholders to expand their business and capture the revenue in the specific verticals to analyze before investing or expanding the business in this market.

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Table Of Contents Major Key Points

1 Industry Outlook 10 1.1 Industry Overview 10 1.2 Industry Trends 11 1.3 PEST Analysis 12

2 Report Outline 12 2.1 Report Scope 12 2.2 Report Summary 13 2.3 Research Methodology 14 2.4 Report Assumptions 14

3 Market Snapshot 16 3.1 Total Addressable Market (TAM) 16 3.2 Segmented Addressable Market (SAM) 16 3.3 Related Markets 17 3.3.1 mHealth Market 17 3.3.2 Healthcare Analytics Market 18

4 Market Outlook 18 4.1 Overview 18 4.2 Regulatory Bodies and Standards 19 4.3 Government Spending and Initiatives 19 4.4 Porter 5 (Five) Forces 21

5 Market Characteristics 22 5.1 Evolution 22 5.2 Ecosystem 25 5.2.1 Regulatory Process 25 5.2.2 Clinical Trials 25 5.2.3 Pricing and Reimbursement 26 5.3 Market Segmentation 28 5.4 Market Dynamics 28 5.4.1 Drivers 29 5.4.1.1 Emergence of nanorobotics 29 5.4.1.2 Applications and advantages of nanomedicine in various healthcare segments 29 5.4.1.3 Reasonable investments in R & D 30 5.4.1.4 Increased support from governments 30 5.4.2 Restraints 31 5.4.2.1 Long approval process and stringent regulations 31 5.4.2.2 Problems regarding nanoscale manufacturing 31 5.4.2.3 Risks related to nanomedicines 31 5.4.2.4 Undefined regulatory standards 31 5.4.3 Opportunities 32 5.4.3.1 Aging population with chronic care needs 32 5.4.3.2 Population and income growth in emerging countries 32 5.4.4 DRO Impact Analysis 33

Continued.

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Global Nanomedical Devices Market Outlook by 2027 Market Productions, Statistics-Stryker Corporation, Medtronic … – Digital Journal

§ May 5th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Global Nanomedical Devices Market Outlook by 2027 Market Productions, Statistics-Stryker Corporation, Medtronic … – Digital Journal

Global Nanomedical devices Information, by types (Implantable Biosensors), by applications (Drug release regulation) by end users (Hospitals, Clinics) – Forecast to 2027

This press release was orginally distributed by SBWire

Pune, Maharashtra — (SBWIRE) — 05/04/2017 — Market Segments:

Global nanomedical devices Market has been segmented

-On the basis of Types which comprises of Implantable Biosensors, Implantable cardioverter-Defibrillators (ICD), Implantable drug delivery system

-On the basis of Applications, the market is segmented into Disease indication, Drug release regulation, controlling fast or irregular heartbeat, consistent drug delivery

-On the basis of End Users, market is segmented into Hospitals, clinics, research institutes

Market Highlight:

Till now, around 250 nanomedicine products are being tested or used in humans. According to experts, the long-term impact of nanomedicinal products on human health and the environment is still not certain. During the last 10 years, there has been steep growth in development of devices that integrate nanomaterials or other nanotechnology. Enhancement of in vivo imaging and testing has been a highly popular area of research, followed by bone substitutes and coatings for implanted devices. The market for nanomedical devices is booming. The global market for nanomedical devices is expected to reach US$ by the end of the forecasted period and is expected to grow at a CAGR.

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Key Players for Nanomedical devices Market:

Some of the key players in this market are:

-Stryker Corporation (U.S.) -Medtronic (Ire) -3M Company (U.S.) -St. Jude Medical, Inc. (U.S.) -PerkinElmer, Inc. (U.S.) -Starkey Hearing Technologies (U.S.) -Smith & Nephew plc. (U.K.)

Browse Report Details @ https://www.marketresearchfuture.com/reports/nanomedical-devices-market

Study Objectives of Nanomedical devices Market:

-To provide detailed analysis of the market structure along with forecast for the next 10 years of the various segments and sub-segments of the nanomedical devices Market

-To provide insights about factors affecting the market growth

-To analyze the nanomedical devices Market based on various factors- price analysis, supply chain analysis, porters five force analysis etc.

-To provide historical and forecast revenue of the market segments and sub-segments with respect to four main geographies and their countries- Americas, Europe, Asia, and Rest of World.

-To provide country level analysis of the market with respect to the current market size and future prospective

-To provide country level analysis of the market for segments by types, by applications, by end users and sub-segments.

-To provide overview of key players and their strategic profiling in the market, comprehensively analyzing their core competencies, and drawing a competitive landscape for the market

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The reports also covers brief analysis of Geographical Region includes:

Americas -North America US Canada -Latin America Europe -Western Europe Germany France Italy Spain U.K Rest of Western Europe -Eastern Europe Asia Pacific -Asia China India Japan South Korea Rest of Asia -Pacific The Middle East& Africa

About Market Research Future At Market Research Future (MRFR), we enable our customers to unravel the complexity of various industries through our Cooked Research Report (CRR), Half-Cooked Research Reports (HCRR), Raw Research Reports (3R), Continuous-Feed Research (CFR), and Market Research & Consulting Services.

MRFR team have supreme objective to provide the optimum quality market research and intelligence services to our clients. Our market research studies by products, services, technologies, applications, end users, and market players for global, regional, and country level market segments, enable our clients to see more, know more, and do more, which help to answer all their most important questions.

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/global-nanomedical-devices-market-outlook-by-2027-market-productions-statistics-stryker-corporation-medtronic-3m-company-802469.htm

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Nanomedicine enables all-in-one cancer treatment – Medical Physics Web (subscription)

§ May 3rd, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Nanomedicine enables all-in-one cancer treatment – Medical Physics Web (subscription)

Cancer is a complex disease to treat, and yet the operating principle of many current treatments is to simply kill healthy cells a little slower than cancerous ones. In response, scientists at the University of Electronic Science and Technology of China have developed a sophisticated nanoparticle-based treatment. Their theranostic nanoparticles carry an anti-cancer drug cargo, and showcase multiple cutting-edge nanomedicine technologies to enhance the drug’s efficacy, including selective drug delivery, photoactive agents, and even signal-jamming genetic material.

The researchers have designed each individual nanoparticle to be a toolbox for cancer therapy, able to passively and actively target tumours (Biomater. Sci. 5 1001). The nanoparticles can act as contrast agents for both magnetic resonance imaging and X-ray, they deliver a concentrated dose of anti-cancer drugs, and they also thwart the cancer’s attempts at developing immunity to the drug. They even deliver a photosensitizer that can be used to specifically weaken cancerous tissue by photodynamic treatment.

Yiyao Liu and colleagues demonstrated the efficacy of their nanodevices in vitro and in vivo on a range of cell lines and on tumours in living mice. They found that their nanoparticle drug-delivery technique effectively stopped tumour growth, whereas tumours in mice treated with the drug alone grew at a rate half that of a control group that had not been treated.

The nanoparticles are complex, many layered spheres. Protected by a jacket of natural polymer is a nugget of silica, holey like a sponge and soaked in doxorubicin, a common anti-cancer drug, along with the photosensitizer. The polymer jacket is pH sensitive so that it falls off in the acidic microenvironment of the tumour, only then releasing the active cargo.

Doxorubicin has two flaws. Firstly, it works by slotting in-between DNA base pairs to stop the replication process needed for cells to divide. This kills cells that need to duplicate quickly, such as cancerous cells, but harms many healthy cell types too. Secondly, it triggers the body’s natural defences, causing cells to over express p-glycoprotein, a microscale pump that removes toxic molecules like doxorubicin from cells, and making the drug less and less effective against cancer.

The scientists at The University of Electronic Science and Technology of China countered both of these flaws. Healthy cell exposure is reduced by the polymer jacket, which makes sure the drug is only released under the conditions expected in a tumour. The jacket itself is covered in signal-jamming RNA to inhibit the expression of the cellular pumps, keeping the doxorubicin trapped inside the cells to allow the drug to work for longer. This impressive display of multifunctional nanoparticle design and synthesis demonstrates the power of nanomedicine for producing synergistic effects, offering new solutions to previously unsurmountable problems.

Denser nanoparticles boost drug penetration Personalize nanoparticles to target tumours Inhaled nanoparticles target lung cancer Nanoneedles deliver therapeutics into cells

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Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market is Set to Garner … – MilTech

§ May 3rd, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market is Set to Garner … – MilTech

Nanotechnology is one of the most promising technologies in 21st century. Nanotechnology is a term used when technological developments occur at 0.1 to 100 nm scale. Nano medicine is a branch of nanotechnology which involves medicine development at molecular scale for diagnosis, prevention, treatment of diseases and even regeneration of tissues and organs. Thus it helps to preserve and improve human health. Nanomedicine offers an impressive solution for various life threatening diseases such as cancer, Parkinson, Alzheimer, diabetes, orthopedic problems, diseases related to blood, lungs, neurological, and cardiovascular system.

A sample of this report is available upon request @ http://www.persistencemarketresearch.com/samples/6370

Development of a new nenomedicine takes several years which are based on various technologies such as dendrimers, micelles, nanocrystals, fullerenes, virosome nanoparticles, nanopores, liposomes, nanorods, nanoemulsions, quantum dots, and nanorobots.

In the field of diagnosis, nanotechnology based methods are more precise, reliable and require minimum amount of biological sample which avoid considerable reduction in consumption of reagents and disposables. Apart from diagnosis, nanotechnology is more widely used in drug delivery purpose due to nanoscale particles with larger surface to volume ratio than micro and macro size particle responsible for higher drug loading. Nano size products allow to enter into body cavities for diagnosis or treatment with minimum invasiveness and increased bioavailability. This will not only improve the efficacy of treatment and diagnosis, but also reduces the side effects of drugs in case of targeted therapy.

Global nanomedicine market is majorly segmented on the basis of applications in medicines, targeted disease and geography. Applications segment includes drug delivery (carrier), drugs, biomaterials, active implant, in-vitro diagnostic, and in-vivo imaging. Global nanomedicine divided on the basis of targeted diseases or disorders in following segment: neurology, cardiovascular, oncology, anti-inflammatory, anti-infective and others. Geographically, nanomedicine market is classified into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and MEA. Considering nanomedicine market by application, drug delivery contribute higher followed by in-vitro diagnostics. Global nanomedicine market was dominated by oncology segment in 2012 due to ability of nanomedicine to cross body barriers and targeted to tumors specifically however cardiovascular nanomedicine market is fastest growing segment. Geographically, North America dominated the market in 2013 and is expected to maintain its position in the near future. Asia Pacific market is anticipated to grow at faster rate due to rapid increase in geriatric population and rising awareness regarding health care. Europe is expected to grow at faster rate than North America due to extensive product pipeline portfolio and constantly improving regulatory framework.

Major drivers for nanomedicine market include improved regulatory framework, increasing technological know-how and research funding, rising government support and continuous increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cancer, kidney disorder, and orthopedic diseases. Some other driving factors include rising number of geriatric population, awareness of nanomedicine application and presence of high unmet medical needs. Growing demand of nanomedicines from the end users is expected to drive the market in the forecast period. However, market entry of new companies is expected to bridge the gap between supply and demand of nanomedicines. Above mentioned drivers currently outweigh the risk associated with nanomedicines such as toxicity and high cost. At present, cancer is one of the major targeted areas in which nanomedicines have made contribution. Doxil, Depocyt, Abraxane, Oncospar, and Neulasta are some of the examples of pharmaceuticals formulated using nanotechnology.

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Key players in the global nanomedicine market include: Abbott Laboratories, CombiMatrix Corporation, GE Healthcare, Sigma-Tau Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Johnson & Johnson, Mallinckrodt plc, Merck & Company, Inc., Nanosphere, Inc., Pfizer, Inc., Celgene Corporation, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., and UCB (Union chimique belge) S.A.

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Tumor-Shrinking Nanoparticle Prevents Cancer Recurrence – Controlled Environments Magazine

§ May 3rd, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Tumor-Shrinking Nanoparticle Prevents Cancer Recurrence – Controlled Environments Magazine

A Mayo Clinic research team has developed a new type of cancer-fighting nanoparticle aimed at shrinking breast cancer tumors, while also preventing recurrence of the disease. In the study, published in Nature Nanotechnology, mice that received an injection with the nanoparticle showed a 70 to 80 percent reduction in tumor size. Most significantly, mice treated with these nanoparticles showed resistance to future tumor recurrence, even when exposed to cancer cells a month later.

The results show that the newly designed nanoparticle produced potent anti-tumor immune responses to HER2-positive breast cancers. Breast cancers with higher levels of HER2 protein are known to grow aggressively and spread more quickly than those without the mutation.

In this proof-of-concept study, we were astounded to find that the animals treated with these nanoparticles showed a lasting anti-cancer effect, says Betty Y.S. Kim, M.D., Ph.D., principal investigator, and a neurosurgeon and neuroscientist who specializes in brain tumors at Mayo Clinics Florida campus. Unlike existing cancer immunotherapies that target only a portion of the immune system, our custom-designed nanomaterials actively engage the entire immune system to kill cancer cells, prompting the body to create its own memory system to minimize tumor recurrence. These nanomedicines can be expanded to target different types of cancer and other human diseases, including neurovascular and neurodegenerative disorders.

Kims team developed the nanoparticle, which she has named Multivalent Bi-specific Nano-Bioconjugate Engager, a patented technology with Mayo Clinic Ventures, a commercialization arm of Mayo Clinic. Its coated with antibodies that target the HER2 receptor, a common molecule found on 40 percent of breast cancers. Its also coated with molecules that engage two distinct facets of the bodys immune system. The nanoparticle hones in on the tumor by recognizing HER2 and then helps the immune cells identify the tumor cells to attack them.

The molecules attached to the nanoparticle rev up the bodys nonspecific, clean-up cells (known as macrophages and phagocytes) in the immune system that engulf and destroy any foreign material. The design of the nanoparticle prompts these cells to appear in abundance and clear up abnormal cancer cells. These clean-up cells then relay information about the cancer cells to highly specialized T-cells in the immune system that help eradicate remaining cancer cells, while maintaining a memory of these cells to prevent cancer recurrence. Its the establishment of disease-fighting memory in the cells that makes the nanoparticle similar to a cancer vaccine. Ultimately, the bodys own cells become capable of recognizing and destroying recurrent tumors.

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Researchers develop new tumor-shrinking nanoparticle to fight cancer, prevent recurrence – Phys.Org

§ May 1st, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Researchers develop new tumor-shrinking nanoparticle to fight cancer, prevent recurrence – Phys.Org

May 1, 2017 Credit: CC0 Public Domain

A Mayo Clinic research team has developed a new type of cancer-fighting nanoparticle aimed at shrinking breast cancer tumors, while also preventing recurrence of the disease. In the study, published today in Nature Nanotechnology, mice that received an injection with the nanoparticle showed a 70 to 80 percent reduction in tumor size. Most significantly, mice treated with these nanoparticles showed resistance to future tumor recurrence, even when exposed to cancer cells a month later.

The results show that the newly designed nanoparticle produced potent anti-tumor immune responses to HER2-positive breast cancers. Breast cancers with higher levels of HER2 protein are known to grow aggressively and spread more quickly than those without the mutation.

“In this proof-of-concept study, we were astounded to find that the animals treated with these nanoparticles showed a lasting anti-cancer effect,” says Betty Y.S. Kim, M.D., Ph.D., principal investigator, and a neurosurgeon and neuroscientist who specializes in brain tumors at Mayo Clinic’s Florida campus. “Unlike existing cancer immunotherapies that target only a portion of the immune system, our custom-designed nanomaterials actively engage the entire immune system to kill cancer cells, prompting the body to create its own memory system to minimize tumor recurrence. These nanomedicines can be expanded to target different types of cancer and other human diseases, including neurovascular and neurodegenerative disorders.”

Dr. Kim’s team developed the nanoparticle, which she has named “Multivalent Bi-specific Nano-Bioconjugate Engager,” a patented technology with Mayo Clinic Ventures, a commercialization arm of Mayo Clinic. It’s coated with antibodies that target the HER2 receptor, a common molecule found on 40 percent of breast cancers. It’s also coated with molecules that engage two distinct facets of the body’s immune system. The nanoparticle hones in on the tumor by recognizing HER2 and then helps the immune cells identify the tumor cells to attack them.

The molecules attached to the nanoparticle rev up the body’s nonspecific, clean-up cells (known as macrophages and phagocytes) in the immune system that engulf and destroy any foreign material. The design of the nanoparticle prompts these cells to appear in abundance and clear up abnormal cancer cells. These clean-up cells then relay information about the cancer cells to highly specialized T-cells in the immune system that help eradicate remaining cancer cells, while maintaining a memory of these cells to prevent cancer recurrence. It’s the establishment of disease-fighting memory in the cells that makes the nanoparticle similar to a cancer vaccine. Ultimately, the body’s own cells become capable of recognizing and destroying recurrent tumors.

Since the late 1990s, the field of nanomedicine has focused on developing nanoparticles as simple drug delivery vehicles that can propel chemotherapy drugs to tumors. One pitfall is that the body tends to purge the particles before they reach their destination.

“Our study represents a novel concept of designing nanomedicine that can actively interact with the immune cells in our body and modulate their functions to treat human diseases,” says Dr. Kim. “It builds on recent developments in cancer immunotherapy, which have been successful in treating some types of tumors; however, most immunotherapy developed so far does not harness the power of the entire immune system. We’ve developed a new platform that reaches tumor cells and also recruits abundant clean-up cells for a fully potent immune response.”

Future studies in the lab will explore the ability of the nanoparticle to prevent long-term recurrence of tumors, including metastases at sites distant from the primary tumor. What’s more, the nanoparticle is designed to be modular, meaning it can carry molecules to fight other types of disease. “This approach hopefully will open new doors in the design of new nanomedicine-based immunotherapies,” she says.

Explore further: Nanoparticles target and kill cancer stem cells that drive tumor growth

More information: Multivalent Bi-Specific Nano-Bioconjugate Engager for Targeted Cancer Immunotherapy, Nature Nanotechnology (2017). nature.com/articles/doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.69

Journal reference: Nature Nanotechnology

Provided by: Mayo Clinic

Many cancer patients survive treatment only to have a recurrence within a few years. Recurrences and tumor spreading are likely due to cancer stem cells that can be tough to kill with conventional cancer drugs. But now researchers …

For all the success of a new generation of immunotherapies for cancer, they often leave an entire branch of the immune system’s disease-fighting forces untapped. Such therapies act on the adaptive immune system, the ranks …

Researchers from Mayo Clinic have quantified the numbers of various types of immune cells associated with the risk of developing breast cancer. The findings are published in a study in Clinical Cancer Research.

In several types of cancer, elevated expression of the chemokine receptor CCR4 in tumors is associated with poor patient outcomes. Communication through CCR4 may be one mechanism that cancer cells use to create a pro-tumor …

Researchers at the University of Michigan have had initial success in mice using nanodiscs to deliver a customized therapeutic vaccine for the treatment of colon and melanoma cancer tumors.

Researchers at the University of Cincinnati (UC) College of Medicine have been able to generate multifunctional RNA nanoparticles that could overcome treatment resistance in breast cancer, potentially making existing treatments …

In the world of semiconductor physics, the goal is to devise more efficient and microscopic ways to control and keep track of 0 and 1, the binary codes that all information storage and logic functions in computers are based …

The possibilities for the new field of two-dimensional, one-atomic-layer-thick materials, including but not limited to graphene, appear almost limitless. In new research, Penn State material scientists report two discoveries …

A Mayo Clinic research team has developed a new type of cancer-fighting nanoparticle aimed at shrinking breast cancer tumors, while also preventing recurrence of the disease. In the study, published today in Nature Nanotechnology, …

By now, it is well understood that thinning a material down to a single atom thickness can dramatically change that material’s physical properties. Graphene, the best known 2-D material, has unparalleled strength and electrical …

The ability to pattern materials at ever-smaller sizesusing electron-beam lithography (EBL), in which an electron-sensitive material is exposed to a focused beam of electrons, as a primary methodis driving advances …

Some of the most promising and puzzling phenomena in physics play out on the nanoscale, where a billionth-of-a-meter shift can make or break perfect electrical conductivity.

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Parvus Therapeutics, Novartis Partner on Novel Diabetes Nanomedicine – Drug Discovery & Development

§ April 30th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Parvus Therapeutics, Novartis Partner on Novel Diabetes Nanomedicine – Drug Discovery & Development

Parvus Therapeutics, a biopharmaceutical company developing disease-modifying nanomedicines to halt or reverse autoimmune disease without causing general immune suppression, has entered into a license and collaboration agreement with Novartis for its lead Navacim for treating type 1 diabetes. Navacims constitute a novel pharmacological class of therapeutic comprised of nanoparticles (NPs) coated with disease-relevant peptide-major histocompatibility complexes (pMHCs) that alter the behavior of disease-causing T lymphocytes. Navacims are the first biopharmaceuticals to demonstrate in preclinical models the ability to restore immune tolerance in a disease-specific manner throughin vivoformation and expansion of regulatory T-cells (T-regs) without causing general immune suppression.

Under the terms of the agreement, Novartis receives exclusive, worldwide rights to use Parvus Navacim technology to develop and commercialize products for the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and will be responsible for clinical-stage development and commercialization activities. Parvus will be primarily responsible for conducting the ongoing preclinical work for the T1D program and filing the IND in collaboration with Novartis through a joint steering committee. Parvus has received an upfront payment and will receive research funding to support preclinical activities. In addition, Parvus is eligible to receive downstream development, regulatory, and sales milestone payments, as well as product royalties. Novartis has also made an equity investment in Parvus.

T1D Navacims are composed of an iron oxide nanoparticle conjugated with multiple copies of a peptide derived from a pancreatic autoantigen, presented in the context of an MHC molecule. Preclinical studies have shown that Navacims achieve their therapeutic effect by reprogramming cognate pathogenic T cells into tissue-specific beneficial T-regs and thereafter inducing their systemic expansion. The expanded T-regs target and suppress the autoimmune disease-causing immune cells, sparing other immune cells and restoring the immune system to the normal steady state. Navacims have the potential, therefore, to specifically treat the autoimmune disease without increasing the risk of infection.

This is a transformative collaboration for Parvus. We are excited by this strong endorsement of the science behind our Navacim platform, as well as the opportunity to collaborate closely with a globally recognized leader in the field of immunology and autoimmune disease, stated Janice M. LeCocq, CEO of Parvus. “This will augment our resources across the Navacim platform and accelerate the development of our T1D program. We are also pursuing the development of multiple Navacims that target autoimmune diseases where there is high unmet need for disease-modifying drugs without causing systemic immunosuppression.

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Iran to hold intl. nanotech. conf. in May – Mehr News Agency – English Version

§ April 30th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Iran to hold intl. nanotech. conf. in May – Mehr News Agency – English Version

The INN Secretariat, based in Iran, is offering a two-day conference and workshop onNanotechnology and Nanomedicine, known as NTNM2017,scheduled to be held fromMay 2 to 3, 2017at Materials Energy Research Center (MERC), Alborz.

This is a scientific congregation, which brings together researchers, scientists, key decision makers, and industry professionals on the common platform for a brief yet intense period of discussion, collaboration, and addressing nanomedicine-related subjects.

The conference/workshop will be held on the following themes: Surface Modification Strategies; Nanomedicine, Diagnosis, and Therapy; Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery Systems; Toxicology and Risk; Assessment of Nanomaterials; Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine; Nanotechnology and Environmental Health; and Nanobiodevices and Biosensors.

NTNM2017 aims at strengthening the relations and technological collaborations inter/intra Islamic member states and improving transfer of experience among the academic researchers. It also seeks to promote joint cooperation between scientific, research, and technology centers of OIC member states with research and technology centers outside the OIC member states.

Over 20 professors and prominent researchers from 57 Muslim and non-Muslim countries will take part in the conference.

MS/3964205

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Iran to hold intl. nanotech. conf. in May – Mehr News Agency – English Version

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Nanomedicine Market Size Worth $350.8 Billion By 2025 | CAGR: 11.2%: Grand View Research, Inc. – Press Release Rocket

§ April 29th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Nanomedicine Market Size Worth $350.8 Billion By 2025 | CAGR: 11.2%: Grand View Research, Inc. – Press Release Rocket

Grand View Research, Inc. Market Research And Consulting.

According to new report published by Grand View Research,The global nanomedicine market size was estimated at USD 138.8 billion in 2016.Demand for biodegradable implants with longer lifetimes that enable tissue restoration is anticipated to influence demand.

The global nanomedicine market is anticipated to reach USD 350.8 billion by 2025, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. Development of novel nanotechnology-based drugs and therapies is driven by the need to develop therapies that have fewer side effects and that are more cost-effective than traditional therapies, in particular for cancer.

Application of nanotechnology-based contrast reagents for diagnosis and monitoring of the effects of drugs on an unprecedented short timescale is also attributive drive growth in the coming years. Additionally, demand for biodegradable implants with longer lifetimes that enable tissue restoration is anticipated to influence demand.

As per the WHO factsheet, cancer is found to be one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with approximately 14 million new cases in 2012 and 8.2 million cancer-related deaths. Thus, demand for nanomedicine in order to curb such high incidence rate is expected to boost market progress during the forecast period.

Solutions such as nanoformulations with triggered release for tailor-made pharmacokinetics, nanoparticles for local control of tumor in combination with radiotherapy, and functionalized nanoparticles for targeted in-vivo activation of stem cell production are anticipated to drive R&D, consequently resulting in revenue generation in the coming years.

Biopharmaceutical and medical devices companies are actively engaged in development of novel products as demonstrated by the increasingly growing partnerships between leading enterprises and nanomedicine startups. For instance, in November 2015, Ablynx and Novo Nordisk signed a global collaboration and a licensing agreement for development and discovery of innovative drugs with multi-specific nanobodies. This strategic partnership is anticipated to rise the net annual sales of the products uplifting the market growth.

However, in contrary with the applications of nanotechnology, the entire process of lab to market approval is a tedious and expensive one with stringent regulatory evaluation involved thereby leading investors to remain hesitant for investments.

Full research report on nanomedicine market analysis:http://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/nanomedicine-market

U.S. nanomedicine market by products, 2013 2025 (USD Billion)

Further key findings from the report suggest:

Therapeutics accounted for the largest share of market revenue in 2016 owing to presence of nanoemulsions, nanoformulations, or nanodevices

These devices possess the ability to cross biological barriers. Moreover, presence of drugs such as Doxil, Abraxane, and Emend is attributive for higher revenue generation

Presence of substantial number of products manufactured through the use of microbial sources can be attributed for the largest share

In-vitrodiagnostics is expected to witness lucrative progress as a result of R&D carried out in this segment

Introduction of nano-enabled biomarkers, vectors and contrast agents with high-specificity and sensitivity are attributive for projected progress

Clinical cardiology is expected to witness the fastest growth through to 2025 owing to development in nano-functionalization and modification of surfaces for increased biocompatibility of implants in treatment of late thrombosis

Moreover, an abundance of research publications and patent filings from European region with a share of about 25% in nanomedicine-related publications is supportive for revenue generation from European economies

Asia Pacific is estimated to witness the fastest growth over the forecast period

Factors responsible include government and regulatory authorities that have implemented a framework to encourage R&D collaborations and framework extension.

Key players operating in this industry include Pfizer Inc., Ablynx NV, Nanotherapeutics Inc., Nanoviricides Inc., Abraxis Inc., Arrowhead Research Inc., Celgene Corporation, Bio-Gate AG, and Merck

Active expansion strategies are undertaken by a number of the major market entities in order to strengthen their position

North America dominated the industry in 2016, accounting for a 42% of total revenue

Presence of key participants operating in the region are involved in collaborative activities are attributive for the largest share of North America in sector revenue

View more reports of this category by Grand View Research at:http://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry/pharmaceuticals

Grand View Research has segmented the nanomedicine market on the basis of product, application, nanomolecule type, and region:

Nanomedicine Product Outlook (Revenue, USD Billion; 20132025)

Therapeutics

Regenerative medicine

In-vitro diagnostics

In-vivo diagnostics

Vaccines

Nanomedicine Application Outlook (Revenue, USD Billion; 2013 2025)

Clinical Oncology

Infectious diseases

Clinical Cardiology

Orthopedics

Others

Nanomedicine Nanomolecule Type Outlook (Revenue, USD Billion; 2013 2025)

Nanoparticles

Nanoshells

Nanotubes

Nanodevices

Nanomedicine Regional Outlook (Revenue, USD Billion; 2013 2025)

Read Our Blog:Nanomedicine: Nanoparticles-An innovative solution for targeted drug delivery

About Grand View Research

Grand View Research, Inc. is a U.S. based market research and consulting company, registered in the State of California and headquartered in San Francisco. The company provides syndicated research reports, customized research reports, and consulting services. To help clients make informed business decisions, we offer market intelligence studies ensuring relevant and fact-based research across a range of industries, from technology to chemicals, materials and healthcare.

For more information: http://www.grandviewresearch.com

Media Contact Company Name: Grand View Research, Inc. Contact Person: Sherry James, Corporate Sales Specialist U.S.A. Email: Send Email Phone: 1-415-349-0058, Toll Free: 1-888-202-9519 Address:28 2nd Street, Suite 3036 City: San Francisco State: California Country: United States Website: http://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/nanomedicine-market

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Nanomedicine | The Scientist Magazine

§ April 26th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Nanomedicine | The Scientist Magazine

From bioimaging to drug delivery and therapeutics, nanotechnology is poised to change the way doctors practice medicine.

By Weihong Tan,Lei Mei,Guizhi Zhu | August 1, 2014

LAGUNA DESIGN/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY/CORBIS

In a 1959 lecture at Caltech famously dubbed Theres Plenty of Room at the Bottom, American physicist and Nobel laureateto-be Richard Feynman discussed the idea of manipulating structures at the atomic level. Although the applications he discussed were theoretical at the time, his insights prophesied the discovery of many new properties at the nanometer scale that are not observed in materials at larger scales, paving the way for the ever-expanding field of nanomedicine. These days, the use of nanosize materials, comparable in dimension to some proteins, DNA, RNA, and oligosaccharides, is making waves in diverse biomedical fields, including biosensing, imaging, drug delivery, and even surgery.

Nanomaterials typically have high surface areato-volume ratios, generating a relatively large substrate for chemical attachment. Scientists have been able to create new surface characteristics for nanomaterials and have manipulated coating molecules to fine-tune the particles behaviors. Most nanomaterials can also penetrate living cells, providing the basis for nanocarrier delivery of biosensors or therapeutics. When systemically administered, nanomaterials are small enough that they dont clog blood vessels, but are larger than many small-molecule drugs, facilitating prolonged retention time in the circulatory system. With the ability to engineer synthetic DNA, scientists can now design and assemble nanostructures that take advantage of ?Watson-Crick base pairing to improve target detection and drug delivery.

Both the academic community and the pharmaceutical industry are making increasing investments of time and money in nanotherapeutics. Nearly 50 biomedical products incorporating nanoparticles are already on the market, and many more are moving through the pipeline, with dozens in Phase 2 or Phase 3 clinical trials. Drugmakers are well on their way to realizing the prediction of Christopher Guiffre, chief business officer at the Cambridge, Massachusettsbased nanotherapeutics company Cerulean Pharma, who last November forecast, Five years from now every pharma will have a nano program.

Technologies that enable improved cancer detection are constantly racing against the diseases they aim to diagnose, and when survival depends on early intervention, losing this race can be fatal. While detecting cancer biomarkers is the key to early diagnosis, the number of bona fide biomarkers that reliably reveal the presence of cancerous cells is low. To overcome this challenge, researchers are developing functional nanomaterials for more sensitive detection of intracellular metabolites, tumor cellmembrane proteins, and even cancer cells that are circulating in the bloodstream. (See Fighting Cancer with Nanomedicine, The Scientist, April 2014.)

The extreme brightness, excellent photostability, and ready modulation of silica nanoparticles, along with other advantages, make them particularly useful for molecular imaging and ultrasensitive detection.

Silica nanoparticles are one promising material for detecting specific molecular targets. Dye-doped silica nanoparticles contain a large quantity of dye molecules housed inside a silica matrix, giving an intense fluorescence signal that is up to 10,000 times greater than that of a single organic fluorophore. Taking advantage of Frster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET), in which a photon emitted by one fluorophore can excite another nearby fluorophore, researchers can synthesize fluorescent silica nanoparticles with emission wavelengths that span a wide spectrum by simply modulating the ratio of the different dyesthe donor chromophore and the acceptor chromophore. The extreme brightness, excellent photostability, and ready modulation of silica nanoparticles, along with other advantages, make them particularly useful for molecular imaging and ultrasensitive detection.

THE NANOMEDICINE CABINET: Scientists are engineering nanometer-size particles made of diverse materials to aid in patient care. The unique properties of these structures are making waves in biomedical analysis and targeted therapy. See full infographic: JPG | PDF TAMI TOLPAOther materials that are under investigation as nanodetectors include graphene oxide (GO), the monolayer of graphite oxide, which has unique electronic, thermal, and mechanical properties. Semiconductor-material quantum dots (QDs), now being developed by Shuming Nies group at Emory University, exhibit quantum mechanical properties when covalently coupled to biomolecules and could improve cancer imaging and molecular profiling.1 Spherical nucleic acids (SNAs), in which nucleic acids are oriented in a spherical geometry, scaffolded on a nanoparticle core (which may be retained or dissolved), are also gaining traction by the pioneering work of Chad Mirkins group at Northwestern University.2 (See illustration.)

Nanoparticles are also proving their worth as probes for various types of bioimaging, including fluorescence, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography (PET). For instance, Xiaoyuan Chen, now at the National Institutes of Healths National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, and Hongjie Dai of Stanford University have developed carbon nanotubes for performing PET scans in mice. When modified with the macromolecule polyethylene glycol to improve biocompatibility, the nanotubes were very stable and remained in circulation for days, far longer than the few hours typical of many molecular imaging agents.3 Further modification with a short-peptide targeting ligand called RGD caused the nanotubes to selectively accumulate in tumors that overexpressed integrin, the molecular target of RGD, enabling precise tumor imaging.

To further increase the specificity of nanodetectors, researchers can add recognition probes such as aptamersshort synthetic nucleic acid strands that bind target molecules. For example, we conjugated gold nanoparticles with aptamers that had been identified through iteratively screening DNA probes using living cancer cells.4 Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are shed into the bloodstream from primary tumors and provide a potential target for early cancer diagnosis. However, CTCs are rare, with blood concentrations of typically fewer than 10 cells per milliliter of blood. Collaborating with physicians to profile samples from leukemia patients, we demonstrated that aptamers are capable of differentiating among different subtypes of leukemia, as well as among patient samples before and after chemotherapy (unpublished data). In addition to leukemia, we have selected aptamers specific to cancers of the lung, liver, ovaries, colon, brain, breast, and pancreas, as well as to bacterial cells. Other researchers have developed nanoparticles with numerous and diverse surface aptamers, enabling them to bind their targets more efficiently and securely.

NANOCAPSULES: A false-color transmission electron micrograph of liposomes, spherical particles composed of a lipid bilayer around a central cavity that can be engineered to deliver both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs to specific cells in the body DAVID MCCARTHY/SCIENCE SOURCEThe prototype of targeted drug delivery can be traced back to the concept of a magic bullet, proposed by chemotherapy pioneer and 1908 Nobel laureate Paul Ehrlich. Ehrlich envisioned a drug that could selectively target a disease-causing organism or diseased cells, leaving healthy tissue unharmed. A century later, researchers are developing many types of nanoscale magic bullets that can specifically deliver drugs into target cells or tissues.

Doxil, the first nanotherapeutic approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, is a liposome (~100 nm in diameter) containing the widely used anticancer drug doxorubicin. The therapy takes advantage of the leaky blood vasculature and poor lymphatic drainage in tumor tissues that allow the nanoparticles to squeeze from blood vessels into a tumor and stay there for hours or days. Scientists have also been developing nanotherapeutics capable of targeting specific cell types by binding to surface biomarkers on diseased cells. Targeting ligands range from macromolecules, such as antibodies and aptamers, to small molecules, such as folate, that bind to receptors overexpressed in many types of cancers.

Aptamers in particular are a popular tool for targeting specific cells. Aptamer development is efficient and cost-effective, as automated nucleic acid synthesis allows easy, affordable chemical synthesis and modification of functional moieties. Other advantages include high stability and long shelf life, rapid tissue penetration based on the relatively small molecular weights, low immunogenicity, and ease of antidote development in the case of an adverse reaction to therapy by simply administering an aptamers complementary DNA. We have demonstrated the principle of modifying aptamers on the surfaces of doxorubicin-containing liposomes, which then selectively delivered the drug to cultured cancer cells.5

Recent advances in predicting the secondary structures of a DNA fragment or interactions between multiple DNA strands, as well as in technologies to automatically synthesize predesigned DNA sequences, has opened the door to more advanced applications of aptamers and other DNA structures in nanomedicine. For instance, we have developed aptamer-tethered DNA nanotrains, assembled from multiple copies of short DNA building blocks. On one end, an aptamer moiety allows specific target cell recognition during drug delivery, and a long double-stranded DNA section on the other end forms the boxcars for drug loading. The nanotrains, which can hold a high drug payload and specifically deliver anticancer drugs into target cancer cells in culture and animal models,6 could reduce drug side effects while inhibiting tumor growth. Alternatively, Daniel Anderson of MIT engineered a tetrahedral cage of DNA, often called DNA origami, for folate-mediated targeted delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to silence some tumor genes.7 And Mirkins SNAs can similarly transport siRNAs as guided missiles to knock out overexpressed genes in cancer cells. Mirkins group also recently demonstrated that the SNAs were able to penetrate the blood-brain barrier and specifically target genes in the brains of glioblastoma animal models.2 Peng Yin of Harvard Medical School and the Wyss Institute and others are now building even more complex DNA nanostructures with refined functions, such as smart biomedical analysis.8

Conventional assembly of such DNA nanostructures exploits the hybridization of a DNA strand to part of its complementary strand. In addition, we have discovered that DNA nanostructures called nanoflowers because they resemble a ring of nanosize petals, can be self-assembled through liquid crystallization of DNA, which typically occurs at high concentrations of the nucleic acid.9 Importantly, these DNA nanostructures can be readily incorporated with components possessing multiple functionalities, such as aptamers for specific recognition, fluorophores for molecular imaging, and DNA therapeutics for disease therapy.

Another example of novel nanoparticles is DNA micelles, three-dimensional nanostructures that can be readily modified to include aptamers for specific cell-type recognition, or DNA antisense for gene silencing. The lipid core and sphere of projecting nucleic acids can enter cells without any transfection agents and have high resistance to nuclease digestion, making them ideal candidates for drug delivery and cancer therapy.

Researchers are developing many types of nanoscale magic bullets that can specifically deliver drugs into target cells or tissues.

Such advances in targeting are now making it possible to deliver combinations of drugs and ensure that they reach target cells simultaneously. Paula Hammond and Michael Yaffe of MIT recently reported a liposome-based combination chemotherapy delivery system that can simultaneously deliver two synergistic chemotherapeutic drugs, erlotinib and doxorubicin, for enhanced tumor killing.10 Erlotinib, an inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), promotes the dynamic rewiring of apoptotic pathways, which then sensitizes cancer cells to subsequent exposure to the DNA-damaging agent doxorubicin. By incorporating erlotinib, a hydrophobic molecule, into the lipid bilayer shell while packaging the hydrophilic doxorubicin inside of the liposomes, the researchers achieved the desired time sequence of drug releasefirst erlotinib, then doxorubicinin a one-two punch against the cancer. They also demonstrated that the efficiency of drug delivery to cancer cells was enhanced by coating the liposomes with folate.

Scientists are also engineering smart nanoparticles, which activate only in the disease microenvironment. For example, George Church of Harvard Medical School and the Wyss Institute and colleagues invented a logic-gated DNA nanocapsule that they programmed to deliver drugs inside cells only when a specific panel of disease biomarkers is overexpressed on the cell surface.11 And Donald Ingbers group, also at Harvard Medical School and the Wyss Institute, developed microscale aggregates of thrombolytic-drug-coated nanoparticles that break apart under the abnormally high fluid shear stress of narrowed blood vessels and then bind and dissolve the problematic clot.12

With these and other nanoplatforms for targeted drug delivery being tested in animal models, medicine is now approaching the prototypic magic bullet, sparing healthy tissue while exterminating disease.

In addition to serving as mere drug carriers that deliver the toxic payload to target cells, nanomaterials can themselves function as therapeutics. For example, thermal energy is emerging as an important means of therapy, and many gold nanomaterials can convert photons into thermal energy for targeted photothermal therapy. Taking advantage of these properties, we conjugated aptamers onto the surfaces of gold-silver nanorods, which efficiently absorb near-infrared light and convert energy from photons to heat. These aptamer-conjugated nanorods were capable of selectively binding to target cells in culture and inducing dramatic cytotoxicity by converting laser light to heat.13

Magnetic nanoparticles are also attractive for their ability to mediate heat induction. Jinwoo Cheon of Yonsei University in Korea developed coreshell magnetic nanoparticles, which efficiently generated thermal energy by a magnetization-reversal process as these nanoparticles returned to their relaxed states under an external, alternating-current magnetic field.14 Using this technology, Cheon and his colleagues saw dramatic tumor regression in a mouse model. A third type of nanosize therapeutic involves cytotoxic polymers. For example, we synthesized a nucleotide-like molecule called an acrydite with an attached DNA aptamer that specifically binds to and enters target cancer cells.15 The acrydite molecules in the resultant acrydite-aptamer conjugates polymerized with each other to form an aptamer-decorated molecular string that led to cytotoxicity in target cancer cells, including those exhibiting multidrug resistance, a common challenge in cancer chemotherapy.

Many other subfields have been advanced by recent developments in nanomedicine, including tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, medical devices, and vaccines. We must proceed with caution until these different technologies prove safe in patients, but nanomedicine is now poised to make a tremendous impact on health care and the practice of clinical medicine.

Guizhi Zhu is a postdoctoral associate in the Department of Chemistry and at the Health Cancer Center of the University of Florida. Weihong Tan is a professor and associate director of the Center for Research at the Bio/Nano Interface at the University of Florida. He also serves as the director of the Molecular Science and Biomedicine Laboratory at Hunan University in China, where Lei Mei is a graduate student.

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Novartis signs collaboration deal with Parvus for diabetes nanomedicine – Pharmaceutical Business Review

§ April 21st, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Novartis signs collaboration deal with Parvus for diabetes nanomedicine – Pharmaceutical Business Review

PBR Staff Writer Published 20 April 2017

Pharma giant Novartis has acquired the exclusive, worldwide rights for Parvus Therapeutics Navacim technology for type 1 diabetes (T1D) treatment.

Novartishas also made an undisclosed equity investment inCanada-based Parvus.

Under the terms, Novartis will develop and market products made from the Navacim technology besides taking responsibility of its clinical-stage development and commercialization efforts.

Parvus CEO Janice M LeCocq said: This is a transformative collaboration for Parvus. We are excited by this strong endorsement of the science behind our Navacim platform, as well as the opportunity to collaborate closely with a globally recognized leader in the field of immunology and autoimmune disease.

“This will augment our resources across the Navacim platform and accelerate the development of our T1D program.

We are also pursuing the development of multiple Navacims that target autoimmune diseases where there is high unmet need for disease-modifying drugs without causing systemic immunosuppression.

Parvus, which has secured an upfront payment for the rights, will handle the existing preclinical activities for the T1D program. It will file the Investigational New Drug (IND) jointly with Novartis through a jointly formed steering committee.

The Canadian pharma will also get funding for its research that will back the preclinical activities of Navacim.

Further, it will be entitled to receivedevelopment, regulatory and sales milestone payments. Along with them, it will get product royalties from the Swiss pharma giant, Novartis.

According to Parvus, Navacims comprise nanoparticles (NPs) coated with disease-relevant peptide-major histocompatibility complexes (pMHCs) that modify the behavior of T lymphocytes which are known to cause the disease.

They are claimed by Parvus to have the ability to specifically treat the autoimmune disease without increasing the risk of infection.

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Novartis signs collaboration deal with tiny Parvus for diabetes … – FierceBiotech

§ April 19th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Novartis signs collaboration deal with tiny Parvus for diabetes … – FierceBiotech

Novartis, which has had a busy week for its CAR-T and NASH programs, today moved onto diabetes after penning a new pact with virtual Canadian biotech Parvus Therapeutics to use its leading tech.

Exact monetary terms werent given in the release, but Novartis gets exclusive, worldwide rights to use Parvus Navacims nanomedicine tech, specifically for diabetes patients with Type 1 (T1D), and will take on the clinical and sales work for this program.

On its side, privately owned Parvus will be primarily in charge of the ongoing preclinical work for the T1D program and filing an IND with Novartis.

Parvus has received an undisclosed upfront payment and will also gain a research funding boost to help out with its preclinical work. Biobucks have also been lined up, with Novartis in addition taking an equity investment in the biotech.

Navacims are made up of nanoparticles coated with disease-relevant peptide-major histocompatibility complexes. They are designed to change the behavior of disease-causing T lymphocytes.

Parvus says Navacims “are the first biopharmaceuticals to demonstrate in preclinical models the ability to restore immune tolerance in a disease-specific manner through in vivo formation and expansion of regulatory T-cells without causing general immune suppression, although they will need to go through many more years of clinical trials to assess efficacy and safety in humans.

But for Parvus, this is a major deal at an early stage from one of the biggest biomedical companies in the world, confirming its previously stated desire to team up with a Big Pharma.

This is a transformative collaboration for Parvus, said Janice LeCocq, CEO of Parvus. We are excited by this strong endorsement of the science behind our Navacim platform, as well as the opportunity to collaborate closely with a globally recognized leader in the field of immunology and autoimmune disease.

This will augment our resources across the Navacim platform and accelerate the development of our T1D program.”

The company will also continue work on using Navacims against autoimmune diseases, notably where there is high unmet need for disease-modifying drugs that do not cause systemic immunosuppression.

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Nanomedicine: A Vast Horizon on a Molecular Landscape – Part IX, Organs-on-a-chip II – Lexology (registration)

§ April 19th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanomedicine: A Vast Horizon on a Molecular Landscape – Part IX, Organs-on-a-chip II – Lexology (registration)

This is the ninth article in a review series on Nanomedicine. We reviewed the major research and entrepreneurial development of nanomedicine and the relevant patent landscape (Part I and Part II). The first topic we discussed was Organs-on-a-chip (Part III). Here, we continue our discussion in this field with focus on entrepreneurial developments. We also have other reviews about nanoparticles for drug delivery (Part IV), cancer therapeutics (Part V), and bio-imaging (Part VI). We also included a discussion about functional nanoparticles: quantum dots (Part VII) and magnetic nanoparticles (Part VIII). As in the past, those patent documents cited in the article are summarized in a table at the end.

Recently, Draper announced a three-year agreement with Pfizer. This collaboration focuses on developing effective disease models for testing potential drug candidates based on microphysiological systems, also known as organs-on-a-chip.

The organs-on-a-chip technology is a three-dimensional microfluidic based multi-cell co-culture system that models the physiological, mechanical, and molecular environment of the human body and mimics the physiological functions of human organs. This technology offers unique in vitro disease models for new drug screening and toxicology testing. This technology has attracted attentions not only from academic institutes but also from the pharmaceutical industry. One of the main reasons for this interest is the potential cost and time savings for drug research and the development process. As required by the FDA drug approval process, new drug chemical entities are tested in animals before going into human Phase I testing for the drug approval process. The preclinical animal testing process is tedious and extremely expensive. Additionally, animal models are not always predictive for characterizing drug safety in humans. About 40% of drug compounds fail in Phase I clinical trials (Clinical Development Success Rates 2006-2015, BIO Industry Analysis, June 2016). To address these challenges, organs-on-a-chip has been proposed as a novel method to develop human disease models and replace preclinical animal testing.

We have briefly reviewed the research development and IP landscape in organs-on-a-chip. Here we would like to focus on the entrepreneurial developments in this field. As in the past, those patent documents cited in the article are summarized in the table at the end.

AxoSim Technologies

AxoSim is a New Orleans based startup launched in 2014. Its main pipeline is a Nerve-On-A-Chip, which is a 3D cell-based model mimicking living nerve tissue. It aims at preclinical prediction of neurological safety and efficacy in the early stages of drug development. This technology was developed from Dr. Michael J. Moores group at Tulane University (US 20150112244).

Draper

The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory is an American not-for-profit research and development organization, having a long history from 1932. In 2009, Draper initiated a new area of medical systems. Draper closely collaborated with scientists at MIT to develop microphysiological systems to emulate human organs and create disease models. At the end of 2016, Draper announced a 3-year agreement with Pfizer, using the organs-on-a-chip technology to facilitate pre-clinical drug development with a focus on personalized medicine. Currently Draper has built three microphysiological systems for modeling liver, vasculature and gastrointestinal organs (US 7,670,797, US 8,951,302, US 9,067,179, US 9,528,082).

Emulate Bio

Emulate Bio is a Wyss Institute spin-off company launched in 2014. It focuses on developing multiple organ-on-a-chip systems to model human physiological systems. The technology is based on discoveries in Dr. Donald Ingbers lab, using models of the lung, liver, intestine, skin and brain (US 8,647,861). This lab is also interested in other organ systems such as the kidney and heart. In 2015, Emulate collaborated with Johnson & Johnson and Merck using organs-on-a-chip for drug discovery and development processes. In 2016, Emulate announced a collaboration with Seres Therapeutics to investigate Novel Microbiome Therapeutics for inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Hepregen

Hepregen is a MIT spin-off company founded in 2007, based on a technique developed in Dr. Sangeeta Bhatias lab (US 6,133,030). Its main product, HepetoPac Assay, utilizes a micropatterned hepatocyte co-culture system to model the metabolic activities of a liver system and was released in 2013. Their other pipeline product is HepetoMune, targeting an inflamed human liver model.

HREL

HREL is a Merck supported company, which was incubated in New Jersey from 2007-2011. Its technology originated from Dr. Michael Shulers group at Cornell University (US 7,288,405 and US 8,748,180). In 2013, HREL launched three liver-on-a-chip products for human, rat and dog. HREL has also established a collaboration with Sanofi for pre-clinic drug development.

InSphero

InSphero is a Swiss company founded in 2009. They use a scaffold-free 3D cell culture technique to generate self-assembled microtissues, emulating human organ systems (US 9,267,103 and WO/2017/001680). Their current pipelines include liver, pancreas, tumor, and skin microtissue systems and in vitro toxicology and drug discovery services.

Nortis

Nortis is a Seattle based company, spun out of the University of Washington in 2012. Nortis developed a microfluidic kidney-on-a-chip for drug testing and launched its commercial product on 2015 (US 7,622,298 and US 20150240194A1).

Tara Biosystems

Tara Biosystems is a New York-based Columbia University spin out company founded in 2014. Their focus is on developing a heart-on-a-chip system. The technology is based on research from Dr. Gordana Vunjak-Novakovics group at Columbia University and Dr. Milica Radisics group at Toronto University (US 20170002330A1 and US 20160282338). Tara Biosystems uses a Biowire platform, to introduce electrical stimulation on a microchip to stimulate stem cells to mature into heart tissue. This microtissue mimics adult heart muscles, offering a platform for drug discovery, cardiac toxicology, and personalized cardiology.

TissUse

TissUse is a Berlin, Germany-based company developing a Multi-Organ-Chip platform based on technology discovered in Dr. Roland Lausters lab at Technische Universitat Berlin (US 20130295598). This company uses a multi-organ-chip as a platform to emulate human metabolic activities and accelerate the development of pharmaceutical, chemical, cosmetic, and personalized medical products. Currently, TissUse has announced their 2-Organ-Chip and 4-Organ-Chip products, involving simultaneously culturing from 2 to 4 different organ equivalents on a single chip connected to each other by perfusion channels or vasculature. Their next goal is to develop a human-on-a-chip system, with a larger number of organs cocultured on a single chip.

The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory

The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Wolfgang MORITZ;

Jens KELM

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