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Nanomedicine – Wikipedia

§ October 21st, 2016 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Nanomedicine – Wikipedia

Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology.[1] Nanomedicine ranges from the medical applications of nanomaterials and biological devices, to nanoelectronic biosensors, and even possible future applications of molecular nanotechnology such as biological machines. Current problems for nanomedicine involve understanding the issues related to toxicity and environmental impact of nanoscale materials (materials whose structure is on the scale of nanometers, i.e. billionths of a meter).

Functionalities can be added to nanomaterials by interfacing them with biological molecules or structures. The size of nanomaterials is similar to that of most biological molecules and structures; therefore, nanomaterials can be useful for both in vivo and in vitro biomedical research and applications. Thus far, the integration of nanomaterials with biology has led to the development of diagnostic devices, contrast agents, analytical tools, physical therapy applications, and drug delivery vehicles.

Nanomedicine seeks to deliver a valuable set of research tools and clinically useful devices in the near future.[2][3] The National Nanotechnology Initiative expects new commercial applications in the pharmaceutical industry that may include advanced drug delivery systems, new therapies, and in vivo imaging.[4] Nanomedicine research is receiving funding from the US National Institutes of Health, including the funding in 2005 of a five-year plan to set up four nanomedicine centers.

Nanomedicine sales reached $16 billion in 2015, with a minimum of $3.8 billion in nanotechnology R&D being invested every year. Global funding for emerging nanotechnology increased by 45% per year in recent years, with product sales exceeding $1 trillion in 2013.[5] As the nanomedicine industry continues to grow, it is expected to have a significant impact on the economy.

Nanotechnology has provided the possibility of delivering drugs to specific cells using nanoparticles.

The overall drug consumption and side-effects may be lowered significantly by depositing the active agent in the morbid region only and in no higher dose than needed. Targeted drug delivery is intended to reduce the side effects of drugs with concomitant decreases in consumption and treatment expenses. Drug delivery focuses on maximizing bioavailability both at specific places in the body and over a period of time. This can potentially be achieved by molecular targeting by nanoengineered devices.[6][7] More than $65 billion are wasted each year due to poor bioavailability.[citation needed] A benefit of using nanoscale for medical technologies is that smaller devices are less invasive and can possibly be implanted inside the body, plus biochemical reaction times are much shorter. These devices are faster and more sensitive than typical drug delivery.[8] The efficacy of drug delivery through nanomedicine is largely based upon: a) efficient encapsulation of the drugs, b) successful delivery of drug to the targeted region of the body, and c) successful release of the drug.[citation needed]

Drug delivery systems, lipid- [9] or polymer-based nanoparticles,[10] can be designed to improve the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of the drug.[11][12][13] However, the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nanomedicine is highly variable among different patients.[14] When designed to avoid the body’s defence mechanisms,[15] nanoparticles have beneficial properties that can be used to improve drug delivery. Complex drug delivery mechanisms are being developed, including the ability to get drugs through cell membranes and into cell cytoplasm. Triggered response is one way for drug molecules to be used more efficiently. Drugs are placed in the body and only activate on encountering a particular signal. For example, a drug with poor solubility will be replaced by a drug delivery system where both hydrophilic and hydrophobic environments exist, improving the solubility.[16] Drug delivery systems may also be able to prevent tissue damage through regulated drug release; reduce drug clearance rates; or lower the volume of distribution and reduce the effect on non-target tissue. However, the biodistribution of these nanoparticles is still imperfect due to the complex host’s reactions to nano- and microsized materials[15] and the difficulty in targeting specific organs in the body. Nevertheless, a lot of work is still ongoing to optimize and better understand the potential and limitations of nanoparticulate systems. While advancement of research proves that targeting and distribution can be augmented by nanoparticles, the dangers of nanotoxicity become an important next step in further understanding of their medical uses.[17]

Nanoparticles can be used in combination therapy for decreasing antibiotic resistance or for their antimicrobial properties.[18][19][20] Nanoparticles might also used to circumvent multidrug resistance (MDR) mechanisms.[21]

Two forms of nanomedicine that have already been tested in mice and are awaiting human trials that will be using gold nanoshells to help diagnose and treat cancer,[22] and using liposomes as vaccine adjuvants and as vehicles for drug transport.[23][24] Similarly, drug detoxification is also another application for nanomedicine which has shown promising results in rats.[25] Advances in Lipid nanotechnology was also instrumental in engineering medical nanodevices and novel drug delivery systems as well as in developing sensing applications.[26] Another example can be found in dendrimers and nanoporous materials. Another example is to use block co-polymers, which form micelles for drug encapsulation.[10]

Polymeric nano-particles are a competing technology to lipidic (based mainly on Phospholipids) nano-particles. There is an additional risk of toxicity associated with polymers not widely studied or understood. The major advantages of polymers is stability, lower cost and predictable characterisation. However, in the patient’s body this very stability (slow degradation) is a negative factor. Phospholipids on the other hand are membrane lipids (already present in the body and surrounding each cell), have a GRAS (Generally Recognised As Safe) status from FDA and are derived from natural sources without any complex chemistry involved. They are not metabolised but rather absorbed by the body and the degradation products are themselves nutrients (fats or micronutrients).[citation needed]

Protein and peptides exert multiple biological actions in the human body and they have been identified as showing great promise for treatment of various diseases and disorders. These macromolecules are called biopharmaceuticals. Targeted and/or controlled delivery of these biopharmaceuticals using nanomaterials like nanoparticles and Dendrimers is an emerging field called nanobiopharmaceutics, and these products are called nanobiopharmaceuticals.[citation needed]

Another highly efficient system for microRNA delivery for example are nanoparticles formed by the self-assembly of two different microRNAs deregulated in cancer.[27]

Another vision is based on small electromechanical systems; nanoelectromechanical systems are being investigated for the active release of drugs. Some potentially important applications include cancer treatment with iron nanoparticles or gold shells.Nanotechnology is also opening up new opportunities in implantable delivery systems, which are often preferable to the use of injectable drugs, because the latter frequently display first-order kinetics (the blood concentration goes up rapidly, but drops exponentially over time). This rapid rise may cause difficulties with toxicity, and drug efficacy can diminish as the drug concentration falls below the targeted range.[citation needed]

Some nanotechnology-based drugs that are commercially available or in human clinical trials include:

Existing and potential drug nanocarriers have been reviewed.[38][39][40][41]

Nanoparticles have high surface area to volume ratio. This allows for many functional groups to be attached to a nanoparticle, which can seek out and bind to certain tumor cells. Additionally, the small size of nanoparticles (10 to 100 nanometers), allows them to preferentially accumulate at tumor sites (because tumors lack an effective lymphatic drainage system).[42] Limitations to conventional cancer chemotherapy include drug resistance, lack of selectivity, and lack of solubility. Nanoparticles have the potential to overcome these problems.[43]

In photodynamic therapy, a particle is placed within the body and is illuminated with light from the outside. The light gets absorbed by the particle and if the particle is metal, energy from the light will heat the particle and surrounding tissue. Light may also be used to produce high energy oxygen molecules which will chemically react with and destroy most organic molecules that are next to them (like tumors). This therapy is appealing for many reasons. It does not leave a “toxic trail” of reactive molecules throughout the body (chemotherapy) because it is directed where only the light is shined and the particles exist. Photodynamic therapy has potential for a noninvasive procedure for dealing with diseases, growth and tumors. Kanzius RF therapy is one example of such therapy (nanoparticle hyperthermia) .[citation needed] Also, gold nanoparticles have the potential to join numerous therapeutic functions into a single platform, by targeting specific tumor cells, tissues and organs.[44][45]

In vivo imaging is another area where tools and devices are being developed. Using nanoparticle contrast agents, images such as ultrasound and MRI have a favorable distribution and improved contrast. This might be accomplished by self assembled biocompatible nanodevices that will detect, evaluate, treat and report to the clinical doctor automatically.[citation needed]

The small size of nanoparticles endows them with properties that can be very useful in oncology, particularly in imaging. Quantum dots (nanoparticles with quantum confinement properties, such as size-tunable light emission), when used in conjunction with MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), can produce exceptional images of tumor sites. Nanoparticles of cadmium selenide (quantum dots) glow when exposed to ultraviolet light. When injected, they seep into cancer tumors. The surgeon can see the glowing tumor, and use it as a guide for more accurate tumor removal.These nanoparticles are much brighter than organic dyes and only need one light source for excitation. This means that the use of fluorescent quantum dots could produce a higher contrast image and at a lower cost than today’s organic dyes used as contrast media. The downside, however, is that quantum dots are usually made of quite toxic elements.[citation needed]

Tracking movement can help determine how well drugs are being distributed or how substances are metabolized. It is difficult to track a small group of cells throughout the body, so scientists used to dye the cells. These dyes needed to be excited by light of a certain wavelength in order for them to light up. While different color dyes absorb different frequencies of light, there was a need for as many light sources as cells. A way around this problem is with luminescent tags. These tags are quantum dots attached to proteins that penetrate cell membranes. The dots can be random in size, can be made of bio-inert material, and they demonstrate the nanoscale property that color is size-dependent. As a result, sizes are selected so that the frequency of light used to make a group of quantum dots fluoresce is an even multiple of the frequency required to make another group incandesce. Then both groups can be lit with a single light source. They have also found a way to insert nanoparticles[46] into the affected parts of the body so that those parts of the body will glow showing the tumor growth or shrinkage or also organ trouble.[47]

Nanotechnology-on-a-chip is one more dimension of lab-on-a-chip technology. Magnetic nanoparticles, bound to a suitable antibody, are used to label specific molecules, structures or microorganisms. Gold nanoparticles tagged with short segments of DNA can be used for detection of genetic sequence in a sample. Multicolor optical coding for biological assays has been achieved by embedding different-sized quantum dots into polymeric microbeads. Nanopore technology for analysis of nucleic acids converts strings of nucleotides directly into electronic signatures.[citation needed]

Sensor test chips containing thousands of nanowires, able to detect proteins and other biomarkers left behind by cancer cells, could enable the detection and diagnosis of cancer in the early stages from a few drops of a patient’s blood.[48]Nanotechnology is helping to advance the use of arthroscopes, which are pencil-sized devices that are used in surgeries with lights and cameras so surgeons can do the surgeries with smaller incisions. The smaller the incisions the faster the healing time which is better for the patients. It is also helping to find a way to make an arthroscope smaller than a strand of hair.[49]

Research on nanoelectronics-based cancer diagnostics could lead to tests that can be done in pharmacies. The results promise to be highly accurate and the product promises to be inexpensive. They could take a very small amount of blood and detect cancer anywhere in the body in about five minutes, with a sensitivity that is a thousand times better than in a conventional laboratory test. These devices that are built with nanowires to detect cancer proteins; each nanowire detector is primed to be sensitive to a different cancer marker. The biggest advantage of the nanowire detectors is that they could test for anywhere from ten to one hundred similar medical conditions without adding cost to the testing device.[50] Nanotechnology has also helped to personalize oncology for the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. It is now able to be tailored to each individuals tumor for better performance. They have found ways that they will be able to target a specific part of the body that is being affected by cancer.[51]

Magnetic micro particles are proven research instruments for the separation of cells and proteins from complex media. The technology is available under the name Magnetic-activated cell sorting or Dynabeads among others. More recently it was shown in animal models that magnetic nanoparticles can be used for the removal of various noxious compounds including toxins, pathogens, and proteins from whole blood in an extracorporeal circuit similar to dialysis.[52][53] In contrast to dialysis, which works on the principle of the size related diffusion of solutes and ultrafiltration of fluid across a semi-permeable membrane, the purification with nanoparticles allows specific targeting of substances. Additionally larger compounds which are commonly not dialyzable can be removed.[citation needed]

The purification process is based on functionalized iron oxide or carbon coated metal nanoparticles with ferromagnetic or superparamagnetic properties.[54] Binding agents such as proteins,[53]antibodies,[52]antibiotics,[55] or synthetic ligands[56] are covalently linked to the particle surface. These binding agents are able to interact with target species forming an agglomerate. Applying an external magnetic field gradient allows exerting a force on the nanoparticles. Hence the particles can be separated from the bulk fluid, thereby cleaning it from the contaminants.[57][58]

The small size (

This approach offers new therapeutic possibilities for the treatment of systemic infections such as sepsis by directly removing the pathogen. It can also be used to selectively remove cytokines or endotoxins[55] or for the dialysis of compounds which are not accessible by traditional dialysis methods. However the technology is still in a preclinical phase and first clinical trials are not expected before 2017.[60]

Nanotechnology may be used as part of tissue engineering to help reproduce or repair or reshape damaged tissue using suitable nanomaterial-based scaffolds and growth factors. Tissue engineering if successful may replace conventional treatments like organ transplants or artificial implants. Nanoparticles such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, molybdenum disulfide and tungsten disulfide are being used as reinforcing agents to fabricate mechanically strong biodegradable polymeric nanocomposites for bone tissue engineering applications. The addition of these nanoparticles in the polymer matrix at low concentrations (~0.2 weight%) leads to significant improvements in the compressive and flexural mechanical properties of polymeric nanocomposites.[61][62] Potentially, these nanocomposites may be used as a novel, mechanically strong, light weight composite as bone implants.[citation needed]

For example, a flesh welder was demonstrated to fuse two pieces of chicken meat into a single piece using a suspension of gold-coated nanoshells activated by an infrared laser. This could be used to weld arteries during surgery.[63] Another example is nanonephrology, the use of nanomedicine on the kidney.

Neuro-electronic interfacing is a visionary goal dealing with the construction of nanodevices that will permit computers to be joined and linked to the nervous system. This idea requires the building of a molecular structure that will permit control and detection of nerve impulses by an external computer. A refuelable strategy implies energy is refilled continuously or periodically with external sonic, chemical, tethered, magnetic, or biological electrical sources, while a nonrefuelable strategy implies that all power is drawn from internal energy storage which would stop when all energy is drained. A nanoscale enzymatic biofuel cell for self-powered nanodevices have been developed that uses glucose from biofluids including human blood and watermelons.[64] One limitation to this innovation is the fact that electrical interference or leakage or overheating from power consumption is possible. The wiring of the structure is extremely difficult because they must be positioned precisely in the nervous system. The structures that will provide the interface must also be compatible with the body’s immune system.[65]

Molecular nanotechnology is a speculative subfield of nanotechnology regarding the possibility of engineering molecular assemblers, machines which could re-order matter at a molecular or atomic scale. Nanomedicine would make use of these nanorobots, introduced into the body, to repair or detect damages and infections. Molecular nanotechnology is highly theoretical, seeking to anticipate what inventions nanotechnology might yield and to propose an agenda for future inquiry. The proposed elements of molecular nanotechnology, such as molecular assemblers and nanorobots are far beyond current capabilities.[1][65][66][67] Future advances in nanomedicine could give rise to life extension through the repair of many processes thought to be responsible for aging. K. Eric Drexler, one of the founders of nanotechnology, postulated cell repair machines, including ones operating within cells and utilizing as yet hypothetical molecular machines, in his 1986 book Engines of Creation, with the first technical discussion of medical nanorobots by Robert Freitas appearing in 1999.[1]Raymond Kurzweil, a futurist and transhumanist, stated in his book The Singularity Is Near that he believes that advanced medical nanorobotics could completely remedy the effects of aging by 2030.[68] According to Richard Feynman, it was his former graduate student and collaborator Albert Hibbs who originally suggested to him (circa 1959) the idea of a medical use for Feynman’s theoretical micromachines (see nanotechnology). Hibbs suggested that certain repair machines might one day be reduced in size to the point that it would, in theory, be possible to (as Feynman put it) “swallow the doctor”. The idea was incorporated into Feynman’s 1959 essay There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom.[69]

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Nanomedicine Fact Sheet – National Human Genome Research …

§ September 24th, 2016 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanomedicine Fact Sheet – National Human Genome Research …

Nanomedicine Overview

What if doctors had tiny tools that could search out and destroy the very first cancer cells of a tumor developing in the body? What if a cell’s broken part could be removed and replaced with a functioning miniature biological machine? Or what if molecule-sized pumps could be implanted in sick people to deliver life-saving medicines precisely where they are needed? These scenarios may sound unbelievable, but they are the ultimate goals of nanomedicine, a cutting-edge area of biomedical research that seeks to use nanotechnology tools to improve human health.

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A lot of things are small in today’s high-tech world of biomedical tools and therapies. But when it comes to nanomedicine, researchers are talking very, very small. A nanometer is one-billionth of a meter, too small even to be seen with a conventional lab microscope.

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Nanotechnology is the broad scientific field that encompasses nanomedicine. It involves the creation and use of materials and devices at the level of molecules and atoms, which are the parts of matter that combine to make molecules. Non-medical applications of nanotechnology now under development include tiny semiconductor chips made out of strings of single molecules and miniature computers made out of DNA, the material of our genes. Federally supported research in this area, conducted under the rubric of the National Nanotechnology Initiative, is ongoing with coordinated support from several agencies.

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For hundreds of years, microscopes have offered scientists a window inside cells. Researchers have used ever more powerful visualization tools to extensively categorize the parts and sub-parts of cells in vivid detail. Yet, what scientists have not been able to do is to exhaustively inventory cells, cell parts, and molecules within cell parts to answer questions such as, “How many?” “How big?” and “How fast?” Obtaining thorough, reliable measures of quantity is the vital first step of nanomedicine.

As part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Common Fund [], the NIH [] has established a handful of nanomedicine centers. These centers are staffed by a highly interdisciplinary scientific crew, including biologists, physicians, mathematicians, engineers and computer scientists. Research conducted over the first few years was spent gathering extensive information about how molecular machines are built.

Once researchers had catalogued the interactions between and within molecules, they turned toward using that information to manipulate those molecular machines to treat specific diseases. For example, one center is trying to return at least limited vision to people who have lost their sight. Others are trying to develop treatments for severe neurological disorders, cancer, and a serious blood disorder.

The availability of innovative, body-friendly nanotools that depend on precise knowledge of how the body’s molecular machines work, will help scientists figure out how to build synthetic biological and biochemical devices that can help the cells in our bodies work the way they were meant to, returning the body to a healthier state.

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Nano Medicine – Treatments for Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria

§ May 16th, 2016 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nano Medicine – Treatments for Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria

Antibiotic resistance is now a bigger crisis than the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s, a landmark report recently warned. The spread of deadly superbugs that evade even the most powerful antibiotics is happening across the world, United Nations officials have confirmed. The effects will be devastating meaning a simple scratch or urinary tract infection could kill.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a scourge that is threatening to get ugly because TB is usually cured by taking antibiotics for six to nine months. However, if that treatment is interrupted or the dose is cut down, the stubborn bacteria battle back and mutate into a tougher strain that can no longer be killed by drugs. Such strains are scaring the heck out of the medical community for good reason. Tuberculosis is highly contagious, holding the potential to wipe out wide swaths of humanity in the case of an epidemic of these drug resistant strains.

Australias first victim of a killer strain of drug-resistant tuberculosis died amid warnings of a looming health epidemic on Queenslands doorstep. Medical experts are seriously concerned about the handling of the TB epidemic in Papua New Guinea after Catherina Abraham died of an incurable form of the illness, known as XDR-TB (extensively drug resistant TB) in Cairns Base Hospital. Of course we always get big scares from the mainstream medical press, who are big cheerleaders of big pharmaceutical companies as our governmental medical officials.

Now medical experts are warning that drug resistant tuberculosis is such a problem in the Asia Pacific region that it could overwhelm health systems.

A drug-resistant TB case did touch off a scare in U.S. We dont know too much about a Nepalese man whos in medical isolation in Texas while being treated for extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, or XDR-TB, the most difficult-to-treat kind.

XDR-TB is resistant not only to isoniazid and rifampin but also a class of drugs called fluoroquinolones and one or more potent injectable antibiotics. This is one of the nastiest of all antibiotics, which easily destroys peoples lives by itself.

TB germs become drug-resistant when patients fail to complete a course of treatment. When a partly-resistant strain is treated with the wrong drugs, it can become extensively resistant. There are about 60,000 people with XDR-TB strains like the Nepalese man whos in isolation. That means there are other people with XDR-TB traveling the world at any given time.

China and India Will Spread TB around the World

China and India combined account for more than half of the global MDR-TB burden.[1]

If you are not scared yet into taking defensive measures then look at what is happening in China where Internet cafes are becoming a major place for the spread of tuberculosis among minors due to poor ventilation and their decreased immunity after playing computer games all night.

Among infectious diseases, tuberculosis is the citys top killer, the Shanghai Health Bureau said. A total of 139 people were killed by serious infectious diseases in Shanghai in 2011, and 44 of them died from TB. Shanghai registered 3,760 residents with tuberculosis, including 1,988 infective cases in 2010.

Learn how to treat yourself and your loved ones safely at home with Dr Sircus Protocol

Nearly half of Chinas population carries the bacterium that causes tuberculosis and 5 million people there develop the disease every year, according to a 2011 study from the Chinese Ministry of Health. The study, reported in state-run media on World Tuberculosis Day, revealed some staggering statistics: an estimated 500 million Chinese citizens (45 percent of the population) are TB carriers, creating a TB epidemic second only to that of India and accounting for 14 percent of the worlds TB carriers.

Antibiotic Created Hell

Every single prescription antibiotic from the drug companies carries significant risks. To exemplify, just some of the direct risks to the consumer include:

Another marked risk to the consumer is being prescribed an antibiotic that conveys no benefit whatsoever (not including rare cases where prophylaxis can be justified). This includes:

Even popular antibiotics such as Zithromax come with warnings of potentially fatal heart arrhythmias, especially in magnesium and potassium deficient people.[2] The FDA has stated that patients at risk for arrhythmia include those who already have a prolonged QT interval, low blood levels of potassium or magnesium, and an abnormally slow heart rate, or who take drugs to treat arrhythmias. Antibiotics have also been linked with sudden cardiac death.

The risk of acute kidney disease is doubled for people taking oral fluoroquinolone antibiotics, according to a study of published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal). Fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin, are common broad-spectrum antibiotics most often used to treat respiratory and urogenital infections. Case reports have indicated acute kidney injury with use, and prescription labels carry a warning of kidney failure. However, when oral fluoroquinolones are prescribed in clinical practice, kidney injury is usually not considered. [3]

Lost War on TB

What do cancer cells, weeds, and pathogens have in common? They all evolve resistance to the treatments that are supposed to eliminate them.

It is obvious that it is a lost war on TB. Antibiotics are not appropriate drugs for TB or any other antibiotic resistant bacteria and certainly they are absolutely a hopeless waste of time and money when dealing with fungal infections, which TB often is or is complicated with.

Doctors will not get it because their medical boards could care less what happens to the public as long as they make their money and maintain their power. The federal Centers for Disease Control estimates that antibiotic drug resistance costs $20 billion a year in healthcare costs a year and leads to 8 million additional days spent in hospitals.

In my essay Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Fungus or Bacterial I wondered why they have not tried nebulized sodium bicarbonate, which, when combined with glutathione, offers one of the finest, safest and least expensive ways of treating the lungs.

We already know, for instance, that sodium bicarbonate can improve outcome in children with life-threatening asthma, and though it might not deliver the knockout blow to drug resistant bacteria it will certainly pull the rug out from under them by weakening them, because it will instantly change the terrain into something unfriendly. Bacteria that are thriving in an acid condition will flounder when faced with alkaline shocks.

An image of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria captured with an electron microscope.


Iodine, that allopathic nutritional mineral that medicine used for almost 200 years, also when nebulized, offers anti-pathogen firepower without equal because it has the ability to take down viruses, bacteria and stubborn fungi all in one stroke. Though it kills 90 percent of bacteria on the skin within 90 seconds, the use of iodine as an antibiotic has been ignored.

Iodine exhibits activity against bacteria, molds, yeasts, protozoa, and many viruses. Indeed, of all antiseptic preparations suitable for direct use on human and animal tissues, only iodine is capable of killing all classes of pathogens: gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, mycobacteria, yeasts, and protozoa. Most bacteria are killed within 15 to 30 seconds of contact.

Iodine is by far the best antibiotic, antiviral and antiseptic of all time. Dr. David Derry

Bacterial Annihilation

The above image is from researchers, who tested on live mice, a double-loaded particle, called a nanogel, which significantly delayed tumor growth and increased survival, the researchers report. They administered the nanogels intravenously and, in separate experiments, directly into the tumors.

In 2011, IBM researchers and a research group in Singapore showed off a new kind of synthetic, biodegradable nanoparticle that doctors could use to attack bacterial cells that are resistant to antibiotics. They are telling the world that Nano medicine can and will save millions of lives as antibiotic resistant bacteria gain further foothold.

Nano soap identifies bacterial cells and destroys their membrane walls. IBM has confirmed that this type of medicine can completely eradicate drug-resistant bacteria on contact. One can find this type of soap being used in the agricultural area.

According to IBM researchers their nanoparticles can be injected into a colony of bacteria in the body and wipe it out. IBM researchers are saying that they could put some of their nano-gel on a tracheal tube (which is inserted down someones throat) or a catheter. That would vastly reduce the risk of infection related to the use of those medical devices. They are also saying that nano soap type particles would reduce health hazards for hospital workers, visitors, and patients. It could reduce the risks of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, known as MRSA, or staph. In 2005, staph was associated with 95,000 serious infections and 19,000 hospital-stay-related deaths in the U.S.

The nano particles are physically attracted to infected cells like a magnet, breaking their membrane walls without destroying healthy cells around them. These agents prevent the bacteria from developing drug resistance by breaking through the cell wall and membrane, a fundamentally different mode of attack compared to antibiotics. With the creation of the hydrogel, the nanomedicine could be put into antibacterial soap, deodorant, hand sanitizer, or lotion. It could help heal wounds, tuberculosis, and lung infections, James Hedrick, an advanced organic materials scientist at IBM said. The nanomedicine could also target smaller problems such as toenail infections.

The human bodys immune systems protect us from harmful substances. But the body often rejects conventional antibiotics. But the new materials can work because they change themselves once they come into contact with water in the body or on its surface. The material self-assembles into a new polymer structure that is electrostatically attracted to the bacteria membranes (its like putting oil and water together). The polymers then break through the cell membranes, destroying the cell. The bacteria, which have amazing adaptive capabilities, cant adapt to this kind of physical attack, reports Hedrick.

It works because cells have a natural electric charge. The polymers are drawn only to infected areas. Other antimicrobial materials arent biodegradable, but these new materials are made of simple organic molecules. That means they can naturally exit the body, in contrast to other medicines that gather in the body and cause side effects. That means it isnt likely to cause skin irritation or other problems, continues Hedrick.

The hydrogel has another interesting property. It can attack whole colonies of bacteria, particularly if it is injected directly into the region of an infection. These bacteria collections, known as biofilms, can be like the coatings of film on your teeth, germs on touchscreens, or growths on medical devices. The hydrogel penetrates the film and disrupts it. We can kill 100 percent of the bacteria and reduce the likelihood of a recurrence, Hedrick said.

Women someday could protect themselves against sexually transmitted infections by using a gel that uses nanoparticles to deliver drugs to the vaginal walls, a new study in mice suggests. Other researchers arent sure exactly how their nano liquid works, but “we have found a way to stop bleeding in less than 15 seconds that could revolutionize bleeding control,” Rutledge Ellis-Behnke, a research scientist in MITs department of brain and cognitive sciences, said in a release.

Jerry Carlson at age 75 came down with Pertussis or Whopping Cough and he inhaled/nebulized the Nano Gel I was experimenting with finding quick relief:

For five weeks Ive struggled with Bordetella pertussis or whooping cough. There was no immunization for it when I was a kid. It really should be called “choking cough” rather than whooping cough. A coughing spasm locks the throat for 10 to 50 seconds several times a day (and night). The victim cant breathe. As the constriction relaxes slightly, a long gasp or series of rasping gasps creates the “whoop” which gave this malady its name. I havent had even a cold for years, so I wasnt expecting something like this to literally take me to my knees.

I began nebulizing a 1:512 dilution of Nano Gel placing the vapor stream so it would curl over my recliner and allow me to inhale the mist constantly for an hour. Always, this loosened the mucous and left a clear breathing passage. The nose and bronchi actually felt clean. I did the “treatment” two or three times a day, usually during the night. I have no idea whether it also reduced the pertussis bacterium, but my “bout” with the cough is receding and Im able to function pretty normally.

The Nano Gel inhaled this way does its thing in the respiratory system as a cleanser, diluting sticky mucosa, and does not irritate sensitive lung or bronchial tissue. My reasoning was that if it can be safely applied on a wound, it shouldnt hurt a lung, which is subjected to all kinds of dust and fumes anyway. I wonder what it might do for other lung bacterial diseases such as pneumonia. Or even lung-related TB.

Dr. Robert Beam has also used this Nano Gel using it to treat second and third degree burns and has said he has seen in vitro tests on staph, pseudomonas, fungus and viruses to great effect. He was very impressed and recommends it be tried on a host of skin conditions including flesh eating staph infections. Also he recommends it for ache, chemical burns, poison Ivy, psoriasis, Herpes Zoster, tick bites etc.

The Nano Gel that I used got around the problem of many drugs today that kill off good cells at the same time that they eradicate bad cells. Nano Gel, made solely with FDA approved food additives, is organic and contains none of the synthetic polymers but it will, in the same light, seek out bacteria and fungi cells and destroy their membrane walls.

Built from organic biodegradable molecules Nano Gel could prevent bacteria from developing drug resistance by breaking through their cell walls and membranes. This is a fundamentally different mode of attack when compared to antibiotics, which are against all life, as their name suggests. Antibiotics are anti-life whereas Nano Gel will break the back of fungi and bacteria without destroying the healthy cells around them.

I am not going to make any recommendations for dosage or use except to say that the agricultural grade Nano Gel I have used is diluted from 200 to 500 ounces water to 1 ounce of Nano Gel so a few ounces goes a long way. One could call it Nano Soap as well for it does more than clean the smile off of bacteria face walls. One could clean a battleship with a gallon of the stuff!

[2] The popular antibiotic azithromycin (Zithromax and Zmax, Pfizer) poses the risk for a potentially fatal irregular heart rhythm, which therefore warrants careful screening of patients for this drug, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced today (March 12, 2013).

[3] Canadian Medical Association Journal. “Risk of kidney disease doubled with use of fluoroquinolone antibiotics.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 3 June 2013.

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Nanomedicine Fact Sheet – | National Human …

§ May 11th, 2016 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanomedicine Fact Sheet – | National Human …

Nanomedicine Overview

What if doctors had tiny tools that could search out and destroy the very first cancer cells of a tumor developing in the body? What if a cell’s broken part could be removed and replaced with a functioning miniature biological machine? Or what if molecule-sized pumps could be implanted in sick people to deliver life-saving medicines precisely where they are needed? These scenarios may sound unbelievable, but they are the ultimate goals of nanomedicine, a cutting-edge area of biomedical research that seeks to use nanotechnology tools to improve human health.

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A lot of things are small in today’s high-tech world of biomedical tools and therapies. But when it comes to nanomedicine, researchers are talking very, very small. A nanometer is one-billionth of a meter, too small even to be seen with a conventional lab microscope.

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Nanotechnology is the broad scientific field that encompasses nanomedicine. It involves the creation and use of materials and devices at the level of molecules and atoms, which are the parts of matter that combine to make molecules. Non-medical applications of nanotechnology now under development include tiny semiconductor chips made out of strings of single molecules and miniature computers made out of DNA, the material of our genes. Federally supported research in this area, conducted under the rubric of the National Nanotechnology Initiative, is ongoing with coordinated support from several agencies.

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For hundreds of years, microscopes have offered scientists a window inside cells. Researchers have used ever more powerful visualization tools to extensively categorize the parts and sub-parts of cells in vivid detail. Yet, what scientists have not been able to do is to exhaustively inventory cells, cell parts, and molecules within cell parts to answer questions such as, “How many?” “How big?” and “How fast?” Obtaining thorough, reliable measures of quantity is the vital first step of nanomedicine.

As part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Common Fund [], the NIH [] has established a handful of nanomedicine centers. These centers are staffed by a highly interdisciplinary scientific crew, including biologists, physicians, mathematicians, engineers and computer scientists. Research conducted over the first few years was spent gathering extensive information about how molecular machines are built.

Once researchers had catalogued the interactions between and within molecules, they turned toward using that information to manipulate those molecular machines to treat specific diseases. For example, one center is trying to return at least limited vision to people who have lost their sight. Others are trying to develop treatments for severe neurological disorders, cancer, and a serious blood disorder.

The availability of innovative, body-friendly nanotools that depend on precise knowledge of how the body’s molecular machines work, will help scientists figure out how to build synthetic biological and biochemical devices that can help the cells in our bodies work the way they were meant to, returning the body to a healthier state.

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Last Updated: January 22, 2014

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Nanomedicine in Cancer ETP Nanomedicine

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Cancer is one of the main causes of mortality worldwide and accounted for 7.6 million deaths (around 13 % of all deaths) in 2008. In the Western World and in the US, cancer represents the second leading cause of death after heart-attack. Emerging countries are facing more and more the increase of cancer incidence which represents 60% of the death in those countries.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there will be 15 million new cases of cancer worldwide in 2020. More than 90% of cancer-related deaths occur by the spread of malignant cells to vital organs, a process called metastasis. Academia, Pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies are making substantial research investments in order to develop specific treatments that can destroy primary and secondary tumors, i.e. those resulting from metastasis to other organs.

Nanotechnology in cancer treatments is already a reality providing a wide range of new tools and possibilities, from earlier diagnostics and improved imaging to better, more efficient, and more targeted therapies.

Cancer biomarkers are indicators produced by tumor cells spreading in the body and are commonly used in cancer detection. However they are present in too low concentrations to be efficiently detected in early phases. However the targeted delivery of specific nanoparticles into the tumor can induce a local interaction with cancer cells and forces them to significantly increase the production of these biomarkers.

Biomarkers detection becomes thus much easier and can provide an earlier diagnosis to doctors than biopsies. Early detections of cancers allow early and less burdensome treatments, increasing also the chances of recovery.

Iron oxide nanoparticles are one useful tool against cancer because, when nano-engineered with a specific coating, they bind particularly well to the tumors.Their magnetic properties make them suitable imaging agents with MRI-scans while their size and concentration in the tumor allow a very high resolution and an accurate mapping of lesions. Surgeons can thus rely on this to select properly patients and plan the surgical removal of the tumor.

In therapy, nanotechnology is at the forefront of both targeted drug delivery and intrinsic therapies. For instance, nanoparticles can already be injected into the tumor and then be activated to produce heat and destroy cancer cells locally either by magnetic fields, X-Rays or light. Meanwhile the encapsulation of existing chemotherapy drugs or genes allows much more localized delivery both reducing significantly the quantity of drugs absorbed by the patient for equal impact and the side effects on healthy tissues in the body.

Coupling both modes of action has also been achieved with gold nanorods carrying chemotherapy drugs and locally excited in the tumor by infrared light. The induced heat both releases the encapsulated drug and helps destroying the cancer cells, resulting in a combined effect of enhanced delivery and intrinsic therapy.

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Nanomedicine – Official Site

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Nanotechnology Cancer Treatments – HowStuffWorks

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Nanotechnology is one of the most popular areas of scientific research, especially with regard to medical applications. We’ve already discussed some of the new detection methods that should bring about cheaper, faster and less invasive cancer diagnoses. But once the diagnosis occurs, there’s still the prospect of surgery, chemotherapy or radiation treatment to destroy the cancer. Unfortunately, these treatments can carry serious side effects. Chemotherapy can cause a variety of ailments, including hair loss, digestive problems, nausea, lack of energy and mouth ulcers.

But nanotechnologists think they have an answer for treatment as well, and it comes in the form of targeted drug therapies. If scientists can load their cancer-detecting gold nanoparticles with anticancer drugs, they could attack the cancer exactly where it lives. Such a treatment means fewer side effects and less medication used. Nanoparticles also carry the potential for targeted and time-release drugs. A potent dose of drugs could be delivered to a specific area but engineered to release over a planned period to ensure maximum effectiveness and the patient’s safety.

These treatments aim to take advantage of the power of nanotechnology and the voracious tendencies of cancer cells, which feast on everything in sight, including drug-laden nanoparticles. One experiment of this type used modified bacteria cells that were 20 percent the size of normal cells. These cells were equipped with antibodies that latched onto cancer cells before releasing the anticancer drugs they contained.

Another used nanoparticles as a companion to other treatments. These particles were sucked up by cancer cells and the cells were then heated with a magnetic field to weaken them. The weakened cancer cells were then much more susceptible to chemotherapy.

It may sound odd, but the dye in your blue jeans or your ballpoint pen has also been paired with gold nanoparticles to fight cancer. This dye, known as phthalocyanine, reacts with light. The nanoparticles take the dye directly to cancer cells while normal cells reject the dye. Once the particles are inside, scientists “activate” them with light to destroy the cancer. Similar therapies have existed to treat skin cancers with light-activated dye, but scientists are now working to use nanoparticles and dye to treat tumors deep in the body.

From manufacturing to medicine to many types of scientific research, nanoparticles are now rather common, but some scientists have voiced concerns about their negative health effects. Nanoparticles’ small size allows them to infiltrate almost anywhere. That’s great for cancer treatment but potentially harmful to healthy cells and DNA. There are also questions about how to dispose of nanoparticles used in manufacturing or other processes. Special disposal techniques are needed to prevent harmful particles from ending up in the water supply or in the general environment, where they’d be impossible to track.

Gold nanoparticles are a popular choice for medical research, diagnostic testing and cancer treatment, but there are numerous types of nanoparticles in use and in development. Bill Hammack, a professor of chemical engineering at the University of Illinois, warned that nanoparticles are “technologically sweet” [Source: Marketplace]. In other words, scientists are so wrapped up in what they can do, they’re not asking if they should do it. The Food and Drug Administration has a task force on nanotechnology, but as of yet, the government has exerted little oversight or regulation.

For more information on nanoparticles, medical research and other related topics, please check out the links on the next page.

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What is nanotechnology? : Physics and Nanotechnology …

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Nano Basics

Nanotechnology harnesses the unusual behaviors of materials at a very small scale to achieve amazing scientific and practical results. A nanometer is one-billionth of a meter. A sheet of paper is about 100,000 nanometers thick. Dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nanometers are known as the nanoscale.

Materials behave in different and often useful ways at the nanoscale. Applications of these unusual properties are emerging in aerospace, agriculture, biotechnology, medicine, energy, environmental improvement, information technology, transportation, and impact homeland security and national defense. Nanotechnology is used in everything from electronic devices to sunscreensrapidsly expanding and predicted to grow jobs by leaps and bounds. (The U.S. Department of Labor predicts an increase up to 2 million jobs related to nanotech, from 200,000 in 2010.)

New commercial applications of nanotechnology expected in two to five years in these and other industries include:

Its difficult to predict what products will move from the laboratory to the marketplace over longer periods, but it is believed nanotechnology will facilitate the production of ever-smaller computers that store vastly greater amounts of information and process data much more quickly than those available today. Computing elements are expected to be so inexpensive that they can be in fabrics (for smoke detection, for instance) and other materials.

For more information on the basics of nanotechnology, visit the National Nanotechnology Initiative FAQ.

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Robotic Prostate Surgery FAQ by David Samadi, MD …

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Q. Do you do the entire surgery yourself, from beginning to end? A. Yes, I am present throughout and conduct every step of the surgery. The use of the word robotic is sometimes confusing to people. I am assisted by the robotic technology, but the machine, which is merely an advanced aid, could never function without me. I never leave the room and I perform every step of the operation myself. Q. How is the robotic program at Lenox Hill different from other hospitals? A. If you choose me as your surgeon, youre getting three doctors in one. Let me explain what I mean by that. Ive performed traditional (or open surgery), laparoscopic surgery, and robotic surgery. I bring all 3 methods to my practice and each builds on the next. Another hugely important difference is my staff. The team I work with has been with me for 7 years. They get to know our patients and work with them through every stage of the process. They attend to patients before, during and after surgery. It is uncommon to find this level of consistency and personal care and it’s exceptional to get this level of expertise from a surgical staff.

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Sports Medicine Research: In the Lab & In the Field: Which …

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Treatment for Acute Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear: Five Year Outcome of Randomised Trial

Frobell RB, Roos, HP, Roos EM, Roemer FW, Ranstam J, & Lohmander LS. BMJ. 2013, 346: f232. doi: 10.1136/bmj.f232

This is the first randomized clinical trial to explore this important question and it appears that ACL surgery timing does not really seem to affect any major outcome at a 5 year follow-up. It is interesting to see that early ACL surgery does not necessarily provide better outcomes. Furthermore, of those assigned to the optional delayed surgery group, about 50% never needed surgery. There were no differences between those surgically repaired early, late, or with rehabilitation alone. This may emphasize the importance of the rehabilitation process, since all patients underwent similar rehabilitation processes. The study controlled for meniscal status, but did not report any correlations between meniscal status and outcomes, which would be interesting to see. Based on this study it may be safe to delay the ACL reconstruction to determine if the patient can tolerate conservative management through rehabilitation and successfully return to play after an ACL injury. I am extremely interested in following these same patients out to a later time point. But ultimately, an ACL tear may not necessitate surgery, and rehabilitation should be considered as a possible option. Has anyone had any success with conservative management of ACL injuries?

Written by: Nicole Cattano

Reviewed by: Jeffrey Driban

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Research – Brady Urological Institute

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Partin Honored: Alan W. Partin, M.D., Ph.D., the Jakurski Family Director and the Chairman of the Brady Urological Institute, received a Distinguished Contribution Award at the American Urological Association’s 2015 annual meeting. Presented by the AUA’s president, William W. Bohnert, M.D., the award cites Partin’s “contributions to science, most importantly, the creation of the ‘Partin Tables,’ which are used by urologists throughout the world.”

Changing Prostate Cancer

“What does my diagnosis of prostate cancer mean?” For a century, our doctors and scientists here at the Brady have worked to answer that question on every level. Our discoveries have transformed the way organ-confined disease is treated and continue to bring new hope to men with metastatic disease. Our Active Surveillance program, pioneered by Bal Carter, has helped many men with slow-growing, small-volume disease avoid surgery safely; and now work by uropathologist Jonathan Epstein is actually changing the way the disease is diagnosed. For example, Gleason score 3 +3 is its own category, Grade Group 1; Gleason 3 + 4 is Grade Group 2, and Gleason 4 + 3 is Grade group 3. There are only five groups, and Gleason score 8 is a distinct group, because those men have different disease than men with Gleason scores 9 and 10. The World Health Organization has accepted this system, and it will soon be used at hospitals everywhere. In this exciting issue of Discovery, we’re proud to tell you about our latest work in immunotherapy, in dietary prevention, our work with robots, our advances in understanding genetic risk, our successes in molecular biology, and other breakthroughs including the successful imaging of individual cells of prostate cancer throughout the body which opens up new targets for treating metastatic disease.

We also bring to you our continuing advances in diagnosis, treatment and active surveillance of kidney cancer, in refining treatment for bladder cancer, and a new advance in the laparoscopic treatment of testicular cancer.

Your generosity makes us able to do more, so that we can continue to improve the lives of people with urological diseases. Thank you for being our partners in discovery.

Best wishes, Alan W. Partin, M.D., Ph.D. Jakurski Family Director and Chairman of The Brady Urological Institute

Founders Circle Anonymous (3) Mr. and Mrs. Robert B. Aikens Ambrose Monell Foundation Mr. and Mrs. Robert C. Baker Family Foundation Mary Ann and Bill Becker George and Mary Nell Berry Dr. and Mrs. Peter S. Bing Mr. Keith Bremer Elva E. and William W. Carty Jennifer A. Chalsty John S. Chalsty The Deeks Family Foundation R. Christian B. Evensen Phyllis and Brian L. Harvey Heather C. and Patrick Henry Charlton C. and F. Patrick Hughes Beverly A. and Gary L. McDonald Jean and Ian MacKechnie Beth W. and A. Ross Myers Nancy and Jim O’Neal Jack W. Shay and Thomas C. Quirt The Frank E. Rath Spang & Company Charitable Trust Mr. and Mrs. Paul W. Sandman The Peter Jay Sharp Foundation Irene and Bernard L. Schwartz Virginia and Warren Schwerin Donald and Susan Sturm Carolyn and Bill Stutt Mr. and Mrs. Charles B. Thornton, Jr. Luciana and Joe Vittoria For additional news and updates from the Brady Institute, please follow us on any of our social media sites:

Long days, short weekends, unparalleled research experience: Mentor Sarah Amend, a postdoctoral fellow in Kenneth Pienta’s lab, with student Sounak Roy. Click here for more info

It may not be a particularly restful summer vacation, but it “SURE” is a one-of-a-kind chance for students who are interested in urological and cancer research to learn from some of top scientists in the field, in the laboratory and at lectures and seminars. “It’s a wonderful opportunity for young investigators to see how research done at the bench can be translated into patient care,” says Ken Pienta, M.D., the Donald S. Coffey Professor of Urology and Director of Research. The 10-week program offers a stipend of $3,000. Housing is provided near the Johns Hopkins University, and shuttle transportation to the medical campus is free.

“This summer internship requires a full-time commitment,” says Pienta. “Interns should be prepared for long days and short weekends. But the experience is unparalleled.”

If you would like to support this wonderful program or even sponsor a student, please see the envelope in this issue of Discovery

A History of the James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute at Johns Hopkins By Patrick C. Walsh and Janet Farrar Worthington Featuring 380 Richly Illustrated Pages 2015 The James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute and Johns Hopkins Medicine

For a century, the Brady has been the world’s leading urological institute. Read about our past, meet our scientists and faculty members, and join us as we look ahead to the next 100 years! In this richly illustrated book, packed with stories that bring some of the greatest names in Urology to life, you’ll learn:

Discovery is published by THE JAMES BUCHANAN BRADY UROLOGICAL INSTITUTE Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions Baltimore, Maryland 21287-2101 410.955.8434 |

Patrick Walsh, M.D., University Distinguished Service Professor of Urology Janet Farrar Worthington Writer/Editor Hatcher Design Office Art Direction Kieth Weller Principal Photography

With this book, you will learn answers to these and other important questions:

Comprehensive, reassuring, and full of hope.

Available from Warner Wellness – or call 800-759-0190

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Research | UCSF Department of Urology

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UCSF urology faculty member Davide Ruggero, PhD, and colleagues recently reported on a mechanism that may help explain how prostate cancers develop resistance to drugs that block tumor growth. Their…

A UCSF database that has helped transform the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer marks its 20th anniversary this year. Since its inception, the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic…

Lead Author Stacey Kenfield, ScD, Assistant Professor, UCSF Urology publishes findings to further support a healthy lifestyle including vigorous exercise is a key factor in decreasing the risk of…

Anne M. Suskind, MD, MS, Assistant Professor, UCSF Department of Urology, has been awarded a $50,000 grant from the Society of Urodynamics Female Pelvic Medicine & Urogenital Reconstruction (…

June M. Chan, ScD, Professor Epidemiology & Biostatistics and Urology appeared today on KQED’s Forum with Michael Krasny to discuss the World Health Organization’s findings that consumption of…

Drs. Matthew Truesdale, Michael Leapman, and Sima Porten shined at this years AUA Western Section, held this year in Indian Wells, CA. Miley B. Wesson Resident Essay Winners 1ST PLACE: Matthew…

Medicine today generates vast amounts of patient information, but figuring out what it all means can be a dizzying task. A new member of the Department of Urology, Mark Bridge, is working in the…

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Robotic Surgery –

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About Robotic Surgery Robotic surgery, or robot-assisted surgery, allows our surgeons to perform many types of complex procedures with more precision, flexibility and control than is possible with conventional techniques. Robotic surgery is an advanced form of minimally invasive or laparoscopic (small incision) surgery where surgeons use a computer-controlled robot to assist them in certain surgical procedures.

Our specially trained surgeons can use the da Vinci System to perform complex surgeries with a minimally invasive approach that disturbs less tissue surrounding the area being worked on, minimizing and controlling bleeding. The robotic surgical system includes a camera arm and mechanical arms with surgical instruments attached to them. The surgeon controls the arms while seated at a computer console near the operating table. The console gives the surgeon a high-definition, magnified, 3-D view of the surgical site. The robot’s “hands” have a high degree of dexterity, allowing surgeons the ability to operate in very tight spaces in the body that would otherwise only be accessible through open (long incision) surgery. The surgical team supervises the robot at the patient’s bedside.

Surgeon seated at the computer console of the da Vinci Xi Surgical System

The da Vinci Xi Surgical System

Robotic surgery offers many benefits to patients compared to open surgery, including:

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Robotic Surgery – The Institute for Women’s Health

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What is da Vinci surgery?

The da Vinci Surgical System is one of the most effective, least invasive treatment options for a range of uterine conditions. The da Vinci Surgical System enables surgeons to perform with unmatched precision and control using only a few small incisions.

Although the general term robotic surgery is often used to refer to the technology, this term can give the impression that the robot is performing the surgery. In contrast, the da Vinci Surgical System cannot in any manner run on its own. It is actually robotically-assisted surgery. The System is designed to seamlessly replicate the movement of the surgeons hands with the tips of micro-instruments. The System cannot make decisions, nor can it perform any type of movement or maneuver without the surgeons direct input.

Devices for robotically-assisted surgery are designed to perform regulated and controlled movements after being programmed by a surgeon. The da Vinci Surgical System is a computer-enhanced system that interposes a computer between the surgeons hands and the tips of micro-instruments. The system replicates the surgeons movements in real time.

The da Vinci Surgical System was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in August of 2005. Since then, our surgeons at the Institute For Womens Health have successfully performed over 500 of these procedures.

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Robotic Surgery | Laparoscopic –

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IVF Tennessee > Fertility Info: Health Library > Infertility Treatments > Robotic Surgery

At Tennessee Reproductive Medicine, we help our patients understand all options and only resort to surgery when it provides the best potential for positive results. When surgery is necessary, we offer the most advanced option possible- advanced robotic laparoscopy.

Robotic surgery is an advanced form ofminimally invasivesurgery (also known as laparoscopic surgery). Laparoscopic surgery has changed the way TRM treats most complex gynecologic disorders.

Surgeries for endometriosis, fibroids, pelvic adhesions and tubal blockage previously required a large abdominal incision, inpatient hospital care, and a prolonged recovery. All of these conditions can now be treated with less invasive techniques including laparoscopy.

Minimally invasivesurgery reduces a patients pain and recovery time due to the use of small incisions, instead of the large incisions that are required with traditional abdominal surgery.

Miniaturized surgical instruments are inserted through openings as small as .5 cm, and a small camera is inserted through a separate incision.

The doctor manipulates these instruments while monitoring the process on video. By adding a robotic arm to the laparoscopic process, a surgeon gains precision and range of motion that would be impossible with manually controlled surgery.

Computer controlled scaling gives the doctor the ability to visually zoom in and out to identify areas of interest, and offers high definition and three dimensional visualization which enhance his/her ability to detect abnormalities.

Robotic arms also move the abdominal wall much less than traditional laparoscopic instruments, which reduces postoperative abdominal wall pain.

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Robotic surgery – UT Medical Center

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Robotic surgery is a method to perform surgery using very small tools attached to a robotic arm. The surgeon controls the robotic arm with a computer.

Robot-assisted surgery; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery; Laparoscopic surgery with robotic assistance

You will be given general anesthesia so that you are asleep and pain-free.

The surgeon sits at a computer station and directs the movements of a robot. Small surgical tools are attached to the robot’s arms.

Robotic surgery is similar to laparoscopic surgery. It can be performed through smaller cuts than open surgery. The small, precise movements that are possible with this type of surgery give it some advantages over standard endoscopic techniques.

The surgeon can make small, precise movements using this method. This can allow the surgeon to do a procedure through a small cut that once could be done only with open surgery.

Once the robotic arm is placed in the abdomen, it is easier for the surgeon to use the surgical tools than with laparoscopic surgery through an endoscope.

The surgeon can also see the area where the surgery is performed more easily. This method lets the surgeon move in a more comfortable way, as well.

Robotic surgery can take longer to perform. This is due to the amount of time needed to set up the robot. Also, many hospitals may not have access to this method.

Robotic surgery may be used for a number of different procedures, including:

Robotic surgery cannot be used for some complex procedures.

The risks for any anesthesia and surgery include:

Robotic surgery has as many risks as open and laparoscopic surgery. However, the risks are different.

You cannot have any food or fluid for 8 hours before the surgery.

You may need to cleanse your bowels with an enema or laxative the day before surgery for some types of procedures.

Stop taking aspirin, blood thinners such as warfarin (Coumadin) or Plavix, anti-inflammatory medicines, vitamins, or other supplements 10 days before the procedure.

You will be taken to a recovery room after the procedure. Depending on the type of surgery performed, you may have to stay in the hospital overnight or for a couple of days.

You should be able to walk within a day after the procedure. How soon you are active will depend on the surgery that was done.

Avoid heavy lifting or straining until your doctor gives you the OK. Your doctor may tell you not to drive for at least a week.

Surgical cuts are smaller than with traditional open surgery. Benefits include:

Eichel L, McDougall EM, Clayman RV. Fundamentals of laparoscopic and robotic urologic surgery. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 9.

Fried GM. Emerging technology in surgery: Informatics, electronics, robotics. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 17.

Hu JC, Gu X, Lipsitz SR, Barry MJ, D’Amico AV, Weinberg AC, et al. Comparative effectiveness of minimally invasive vs. open radical prostatectomy. JAMA. 2009;302(14):1557-64. PMID: 19826025

Oleynikov D. Robotic surgery. Surg Clin N Am. 2008;88:1121-30. PMID: 18790158

Review Date: 6/29/2015 Reviewed By: Jennifer Sobol, DO, Urologist with the Michigan Institute of Urology, West Bloomfield, MI. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only — they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

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Robotic Surgery | Trident Health System | Charleston, SC

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A Leader in Robotic Surgery

In 2012, the South Carolina Institute for Robotic Surgery performed more surgeries than any other health system or hospital in the state of South Carolina. The SC Institute for Robotic Surgery is equipped with three da Vinci Surgical Systems, two at Trident Medical Center and one at Summerville Medical Center.

By integrating computer-enhanced technology with the surgeons skill, the da Vinci Surgical System enables surgeons to perform precise, minimally invasive surgery in a manner never before experienced to enhance healing and promote well-being.

Our physicians and advanced surgical team are experienced to provide safe, efficient surgery, allowing you to resume normal activities faster. Using the da Vinci Surgical System, the surgeon operates while seated at a console viewing a 3D image of the surgical field.

The da Vinci Surgical System helps improve clinical outcomes and redefine standards of care. Patients may experience the following benefits:

The South Carolina Institute of Robotic Surgery is the only provider in the area equipped with the state-of the-art da Vinci Si HD Surgical System. This Advanced 3D HD visualization provides the surgeon with up to 10x magnification and an immersive view of the operative field.

The surgeons fingers grasp the master controls below the display, with hands and wrists naturally positioned. The system seamlessly translates the surgeons hand, wrist and finger movements into precise, real-time movements of surgical instruments.

Many surgical procedures performed today using standard laparoscopic techniques may be performed quicker and easier using the da Vinci Surgical System. The da Vinci delivers increased clinical capability while maintaining the same look and feel of open surgery.

The South Carolina Institute of Robotic Surgery offers da Vinci Robotic Surgery to patients for a wide range of procedures.

Robotic surgeons (left to right): Ward Katsanis, MD | Christine Case, MD | William Reeves, MD | Ronnie Givens, MD | Theodore Brisson, MD | James Martin, MD | James Benner, MD | Christine Hunter, MD | Marshall Wingo, MD | Christopher Accetta, MD (not pictured: Jennifer Heinemann, MD | Paula Orr, MD | Heather Schwartzberg, MD | Molly Senokozlieff, MD)

To schedule an appointment with one of our robotic surgeons, please call:

Our patients have access to an experienced team of physicians, nurses, clinicians and rehabilitation specialists.

Find a Doctor

Learn more about single site surgery.

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Robotic General Surgery – Albany Medical Center

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Surgery is generally the most effective treatment option fora wide range ofconditions. Yet, traditional open surgery usually requires a large incision and has many drawbacks. Fortunately, Albany Medical Center offers robotic assisted, minimally invasive general surgical procedures that eliminate the need for traditional open surgery and provide numerous benefits to patients with various types of conditions.

Robotic Procedures

Robotic Assisted Gastric Bypass Surgery Weight loss surgery (also known as bariatric surgery) is one of the most effective treatments for obesity through a procedure known as gastric bypass. Gastric bypass surgery resizes the stomach limiting the food intake and calorie absorption which results in weight loss. Gastric bypass surgery can be performed open or laparoscopically, however, some patients are candidates for robotic gastric bypass surgery using the da Vinci robot.

Robotic Asisted Cholecystectomy Robotic assisted cholecystectomy is the surgicalremoval of the gallbladder.For patients with a diseased gallbladder or whose symptoms cannot be controlled through medications, it may be recommended to have the gallbladder surgically removed. Through a single incision in the patient’s naval using the da Vinci robot, the single port robotic assisted cholecystectomy can be performed.

Robotic Assisted Hernia Repair A hernia occurs when part of the internal organ bulges through a weak area of muscle. Hernias are often found in the abdomen or groin. Hernias can be repaired by traditional open or laparoscopic surgery. For appropriate patients, the da Vinci robot may also be used to surgically repair the hernia.

Click here for a list of our robotic general surgeons.

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Robotic Surgery – Northwestern Medicine – Home

§ May 7th, 2016 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Robotic Surgery – Northwestern Medicine – Home

The Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Northwestern Medicine/Prentice Womens Hospital is dedicated to offering less invasive alternatives to traditional procedures for women diagnosed with gynecologic cancers.

Since the introduction of robotic surgery, the Gynecologic Oncology Robotic Surgery Program has evolved into one of the nations premier robotic surgery programs for gynecologic cancers. Since its inception in 2007, over 500 women have undergone robotic surgery for a variety of gynecologic cancers and premalignant conditions including uterine, ovarian, and cervical cancers.

Some of the procedures performed to date include robotic hysterectomy and staging for uterine cancer, radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer, and various procedures for ovarian cancer. The program is currently under the directorship of Nikki Neubauer, MD.

All four practitioners in the division perform robotic surgery and the expansion of robotics within the division has resulted in more rapid implementation of this technology to treat women with various gynecologic cancers.

As national leaders in the treatment of women with gynecologic cancers, the integration of robotic surgery provides women with cutting edge, state of the art treatment options. In addition to providing clinical expertise, the robotic surgery program at Northwestern Memorial/Prentice Womens Hospital is a national leader in research and education for robotic surgery.

Numerous peer-reviewed publications on robotic surgical outcomes and fellow/resident education have been published based upon data gathered from our program and we currently have several manuscripts being submitted for publication as well.

What is Robotic Surgery?

These technological advances lead to clinical benefits of robotics over conventional laparoscopic surgery such as less blood loss, shorter hospital stay, less pain and quicker recovery, and fewer operative complications. The da Vinci surgical system has applications in many surgical specialties (urology, general surgery, cardiovascular surgery and gynecologic surgery) and was FDA approved for gynecologic oncology in 2005.

Benefits of Robotic Surgery:

Phone: 312-695-0990 Fax: 312-472-4706

Office Hours

Monday:8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Tuesday:8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Wednesday:8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Thursday:8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Friday:8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Saturday: Closed Sunday:Closed

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Robotic Surgery – Greenville Health System

§ May 7th, 2016 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Robotic Surgery – Greenville Health System

Greenville Health System is at the forefront of robotic surgery. Robotic surgery is a ground breaking alternative to conventional open surgery and traditional laparoscopy.

Today, complex conditions ranging from prostate cancer to uterine prolapse, fibroids and even heart disease can be treated minimally invasively with da Vinci Surgery. This approach uses a robotic surgical system that provides the Greenville Health System Robotics Program surgeons better vision, more precision and control. It requires only a few small incisions, so you can get back to your life faster without the usual recovery following major surgery.

Thomas Wheeler, MD Hema D. Brazell, MD

For more information or to schedule a gynecology appointment, call 864-455-1600. Click here for more information about daVinci Surgery for women.

J. Erik Busby, MD Charles G. Marguet, MD Patrick Springhart, MD

For more information or to schedule an appointment, call 864-797-7450 Click for more information about daVinci Surgery for prostate cancer.

Arrhythmia Consultants offers patients the latest in robotic treatment of arrhythmia using theSensei Robotic Catheter System. A very specialized tool used for catheter based mapping within the chambers of a patients heart, the Sensei System allows for more precise and stable catheter manipulation during complex cardiac procedures. Arrhythmia Consultants and Greenville Hospital System were the first facility in South Carolina to offer this technology and have more experience than any other practice in the state.

This unique, state of the art technology is powered by a highly accurate, robotically controlled arm that allows for catheter navigation, stability and positioning within the chamber of the heart.

Donald S. Rubenstein, MD, PhD, FACC Lawrence T. Weston, MD, FACC

For more information or to schedule an appointment with Arrhythmia Consultants, call 864-672-2342 or visit

William D. Bolton, MD James E. Stephensen, MD

A robotic assisted lobectomy (removal of the section of the lung containing the tumor) allows for improved access inside the chest cavity and lungs. Because surgery is performed through a few tiny incisions, spreading your ribs to access the lung is avoided. Robotic assisted surgery is minimally invasive, unlike thoracotomy. Thoracotomy is the traditional way to access the chest cavity; it requires a long incision between the ribs, and often a long and painful recovery.

A robotic assisted lobectomy offers lung cancer patients the benefits of surgery, but with a minimally invasive approach.

For more information, call (864) 455-1200.

Zachary George, MD Jesse Jorgensen, MD Chethan Patel, MD

A vascular robotic assisted system that offers interventional cardiologists in the cath lab unparalleled control of guide wires and balloon and stent catheters while performing interventional procedures. This system is the only robotic-assisted PCI system cleared by the FDA. GHS interventional cardiologist, Dr. Zachary George performed the first robotic assisted PCI in the state of SC in December, 2013. The CorPath system offers many advantages for patients and physicians.

For more information, contact Carolina Cardiology Consultants at (864) 455-6900.

Lets face it, when it comes to your health or the health of a loved one, knowledge and information is power. Thats why its important to consult your physician if you notice a change in your health including an irregular heart beat that may be concerning you.

At Greenville Health System, we are committed to offering the latest in advanced cardiac technology. Recently, we added the Sensei X Robotic-Assisted Cardiac Navigation System that helps reduce your exposure to radiation along with the amount of time required for your procedure. The Sensei X System provides catheter accuracy and control during the procedure and can help give your physician access to your heart that may have been previously difficult-to-reach.

For you and your family, it can help add up to more peace of mind. If youd like to learn more about cardiac mapping and about how the Sensei X Robotic-Assisted Cardiac Navigation System may help you, please contact Dr. Donald Rubenstein with Arrhythmia Consultants at 864-672-2342.

When medication and non-invasive procedures are unable to relieve symptoms, surgery remains the accepted and most effective treatment for a range of gynecologic conditions. These include, but are not limited to, cervical and uterine cancer, uterine fibroids, endometriosis, uterine prolapse and menorrhagia or excessive bleeding.

Traditional open gynecologic surgery, using a large incision for access to the uterus and surrounding anatomy, has for many years been the standard approach to many gynecologic procedures. Yet with open surgery can come significant pain, trauma, a long recovery process and threat to surrounding organs and nerves. For women facing gynecologic surgery, the period of pain, discomfort and extended time away from normal daily activities that usually follows traditional surgery can understandably cause significant anxiety.

Fortunately, less invasive options are available. Some gynecologic procedures enable surgeons to access the target anatomy using a vaginal approach, which may not require an external incision. But for complex hysterectomies and other gynecologic procedures, robot-assisted surgery with the da Vinci Surgical System may be the most effective, least invasive treatment option. Through tiny, 1-2 cm incisions, surgeons using the da Vinci System can operate with greater precision and control, minimizing the pain and risk associated with large incisions while increasing the likelihood of a fast recovery and excellent clinical outcomes.

Greenville Health System is equipped and staffed to perform a wide variety of gynecological procedures including:

Using minimally invasive techniques with the assistance of the superior dexterity and viewing capabilities of the da Vinci surgical system, surgeons perform complex procedures through 1-2 cm incisions offering many advantages over traditional surgery. For the clinically appropriate patient, da Vinci gynecological procedures offer a number of potential benefits, including:

GHS Urology Surgeons are delivering the #1 choice for treatment of localized prostate cancer in the United States, the da Vinci Prostatectomy. GHSs da Vinci Prostatectomy, a minimally invasive, robotic-assisted surgical procedure removes the cancerous prostate gland and related structures.

Minimally Invasive Surgery: The da Vinci System enables GHS surgeons to perform even the most complex and delicate procedures through very small incisions with unmatched precision.

Additional patient benefits may include:

For more information on GHSs robotic prostate surgery, click here, or contact Dr. Patrick Springhart at 864-295-1369.

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