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Department of Nanomedicine | Houston Methodist

§ April 16th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Department of Nanomedicine | Houston Methodist

The Department of Nanomedicine focuses on interdisciplinary research by combining nanoengineering, mathematical modeling and biomedical sciences to develop nanotechnology-enabled therapeutic and diagnostic platforms for combating diseases including cancer, cardiovascular diseases and infectious diseases. Our research spans a wide range of areas including personalized nanochannel drug delivery systems, injectable nanovectors that achieve desired therapeutic concentrations in target tissue, discovery of new protein biomarkers through proteomics, developing biodegradable synthetic polymers with the biological functions of natural biomaterial scaffolds, and microfluidics for disease diagnostics.

Mauro Ferrari, PhD, president and CEO of the Houston Methodist Research Institute, and his team have developed the first drug delivery system to successfully eliminate lung metastases in mice models withtriple negativebreast cancer.Learn more.

Alessandro Grattoni, PhD Assistant Professor of Nanomedicine, Institute for Academic Medicine Chair, Department of Nanomedicine Houston Methodist

Houston Methodist received about $1.25 million from the Center for the Advancement of Science in Space (CASIS) to develop an implantable device that delivers therapeutic drugs at a rate guided by remote control.Learn more.

Department of Nanomedicine Houston Methodist Research Institute 6670 Bertner Ave. Houston, TX 77030 713.441.1261

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The Nanomedicine Market to Grow at a CAGR of 17.1% During the Forecast Period 2017-2023 to Aggregate $392.80 … – Digital Journal

§ April 10th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on The Nanomedicine Market to Grow at a CAGR of 17.1% During the Forecast Period 2017-2023 to Aggregate $392.80 … – Digital Journal

Nanomedicine has the potential to be the future in biotherapeutics replacing the older versions of drug delivery.

Bangalore, India – April 10, 2017 – (Newswire.com)

Infoholic Research LLP, a global market research and consulting organization, has published a study titled Global Nanomedicine Market Drivers, Opportunities, Trends, and Forecasts: 20172023.

According to Infoholic Research, nanomedicine is the future with new revenue stream in the healthcare industry. Nanomedicine could provide cost-effective novel therapies and diagnostics using the empowering capacity of nanotechnology applied in the healthcare industry. Nanomedicine could increase the efficiency and diminish the side effects unlike the other tender therapies for any particular condition. The elementary principles of this technique are based on the targeted drug delivery using nanoparticles (such as nanorobots), proper analysis using sensors and micro electro mechanical system (MEMS), and to diagnose in vivo biochemical activities. The result is an increasingly better understanding of the molecular biology of diseases leading to new targets for more specific and earlier diagnostic and therapeutic treatments. These new options will cause profound changes in future healthcare systems by enabling more personalized, regenerative, and remote medicinal activities. According to Infoholic Research, the Global Nanomedicine market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 17.1% during the forecast period 20172023 to touch an aggregate of $392.80 billion by 2023.

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The Global Nanomedicine market is analyzed based on two segments application areas and regions. The regions covered in the report are the Americas, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Rest of the World (ROW). In the Americas region, the US and Canada are set to be the leading countries. The Europe is set to be the second leading region and holds more than 23% of the market share in 2016. Germany is one of the leading countries in Europe in terms of revenue. In Asia Pacific, Japan is the most attractive country for the players and holds huge business opportunities. The ROW is set to be an emerging market in the next 56 years.

The application areas covered in the report are Oncology, Cardiovascular, Neurology, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-infective, and other therapeutics. The Cardiovascular, Anti-inflammatory, and Neurology application segments are expected to gain more market share by 2023. The market is expected to be on a positive year on year growth rate, as the Cardiovascular and the Neurology segments have just started to see wide-scale adoption in the field of nanomedicine. The Oncology segment is expected to generate revenue of $144.00 billion by 2023.

Although, the market is experiencing a lack of well-defined FDA directives, which can restore standardization in the field of nanomedicines and related subjects, nanotechnology funding is expected to increase significantly during the forecast period with the increasing investments from government and private sectors. Victor Mukherjee, Assistant Manager (Research Healthcare) at Infoholic Research

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Further, the report also aims to cover the below points:

Provides an in-depth analysis of the key business opportunities in countries and verticals

Provides the complete details about the various types of nanomedicine drugs overview

Provides the complete details about the analysis of top 16 players

Provides industry outlook including current and future market trends, drivers, restraints and emerging technologies

Market is analyzed by countries the US, Germany, Japan, and Others

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Original Source: The Nanomedicine Market to Grow at a CAGR of 17.1% During the Forecast Period 2017-2023 to Aggregate $392.80 Billion by 2023

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Researchers develop a lab-scale prototype for the treatment of skin … – Phys.Org

§ April 8th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Researchers develop a lab-scale prototype for the treatment of skin … – Phys.Org

April 7, 2017 Frontal and lateral views of the developed system. Credit: Universidad Politcnica de Madrid

Researchers from Universidad Politcnica de Madrid, in collaboration with Universitat Politcnica de Valencia and CIBER’s Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), have designed a laser device specifically designed for optical hyperthermia applications.

A joint research project of Universidad Politcnica de Madrid (UPM), Universitat Politcnica de Valencia (UPV) and CIBER’s Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN) has developed a low-cost, lab-scale device for treatments based on optical hyperthermia applications via laser. This technique is used in therapies against skin cancer, and it kills the tumor cells by overheating them. This research has been published in Sensors and Actuators A Physical.

According to the researchers, overheating is achieved by irradiating synthesized metallic nanoparticles. “When receiving radiation, the particles heat the tumor tissue, reaching a temperature between 42 C and 48 C, causing hypoxia that leads to cellular death,” explains Roberto Montes, a researcher from UPV.

The prototype developed by both UPM and UPV researchers consists of an infrared laser with a power up to 500mW able to provide a power density up to 4W/cm2, a sensor that records the temperature in real time during the irradiation, and a laser power regulator, among other components.

However, if the laser is focused on tissues impregnated with gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs), it causes local overheating. This presents a great advantage compared to other techniques that cannot distinguish between healthy tissues and damaged tissues,” says Roberto Montes.

According to the researchers, there are diverse laser applicators on the market used in dermatology and even surgery. At certain power and wavelengths, the laser energy is converted into heat and produces ablation (burning). The new system does not aim to “burn” the cells with the adjacent inflammation that this causes, but to introduce nanoheaters into such cells, which, when excited by the laser, increase in temperature between 42 C and 48 C, resulting in hypoxia and the cells’ “natural” death.

This equipment is already being successfully used in vitro cellular crops and in therapies that combine hyperthermia with the controlled release of drugs. “Although the equipment has been designed to exclusively work in a lab environment, once the technique is refined, it could be easily applied to a hospital environment with small changes. Of course, we are in an initial phase, and there is much to do toward clinical usage: animal tissue testing, later testing on living animals, and finally to verify its application in patients”, add Javier Ibez.

Explore further: Magnetic hyperthermia, an auxiliary tool in cancer treatments

Hyperthermia (increase in body temperature) has been used for centuries to combat tumours and reduce their effects. The aim of research by the physicist Eneko Garaio is hyperthermia but using a different system (magnetic …

Cancer treatments based on laser irridation of tiny nanoparticles that are injected directly into the cancer tumor are working and can destroy the cancer from within. Researchers from the Niels Bohr Institute and the Faculty …

Precise targeting biological molecules, such as cancer cells, for treatment is a challenge, due to their sheer size. Now ,Taiwanese scientists have proposed an advanced solution, based on a novel combination of previously …

Laser ablation for varicose veins is an effective and minimally invasive technique for the treatment of varicose. However, this kind of therapy is associated with significant collateral damage because of the high output power …

A new imaging technique developed by scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) aims to illuminate cellular structures in deep tissue and other dense and opaque materials. Their method …

Researchers from Valencia and the Basque Country have developed a new method to detect cocaine and mycoplasma at very low concentrations. It has been designed as an alternative for use in laboratories and is potentially more …

A team of scientists from Australia, Belgium, Italy and the UK have demonstrated how ocean winds can generate spontaneous rogue waves, the first step to predicting the potentially dangerous phenomena.

When the molecules that carry the genetic code in our cells are exposed to harm, they have defenses against potential breakage and mutations.

The ephemeral electron movements in a transient state of a reaction important in biochemical and optoelectronic processes have been captured and, for the first time, directly characterized using ultrafast X-ray spectroscopy …

Why is there more matter than antimatter in the universe? The reason might be hidden in the neutrino nature: one of the preferred theoretical models assumes, that these elementary particles were identical with their own anti-particles. …

Research led by a Stanford scientist promises to increase the performance of high-power electrical storage devices, such as car batteries.

Everyone knows that the game of billiards involves balls careening off the sides of a pool tablebut few people may know that the same principle applies to fusion reactions. How charged particles like electrons and atomic …

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Research Offers Promising Outlook for Nanomedicine – Controlled Environments Magazine

§ April 7th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Research Offers Promising Outlook for Nanomedicine – Controlled Environments Magazine

In the past six years, the National Research Programme “Opportunities and Risks of Nanomaterials” (NRP 64) intensively studied the development, use, behavior, and degradation of engineered nanomaterials, including their impact on humans and on the environment.

Twenty-three research projects on biomedicine, the environment, energy, construction materials and food demonstrated the enormous potential of engineered nanoparticles for numerous applications in industry and medicine. Thanks to these projects we now know a great deal more about the risks associated with nanomaterials and are therefore able to more accurately determine where and how they can be safely used.

“One of the specified criteria in the program was that every project had to examine both the opportunities and the risks, and in some cases this was a major challenge for the researchers,” explains Peter Gehr, President of the NRP 64 Steering Committee.

One development that is nearing industrial application concerns a building material strengthened with nanocellulose that can be used to produce a strong but lightweight insulation material. Successful research was also carried out in the area of energy, where the aim was to find a way to make lithium-ion batteries safer and more efficient.

A great deal of potential is predicted for the field of nanomedicine. Nine of the 23 projects in NRP 64 focused on biomedical applications of nanoparticles. These include their use for drug delivery, for example in the fight against viruses, or as immune modulators in a vaccine against asthma. Another promising application concerns the use of nanomagnets for filtering out harmful metallic substances from the blood. One of the projects demonstrated that certain nanoparticles can penetrate the placenta barrier, which points to potential new therapy options. The potential of cartilage and bone substitute materials based on nanocellulose or nanofibres was also studied.

The examination of potential health risks was the focus of NRP 64. A number of projects examined what happens when nanoparticles are inhaled, while two focused on ingestion. One of these investigated whether the human gut is able to absorb iron more efficiently if it is administered in the form of iron nanoparticles in a food additive, while the other studied silicon nanoparticles as they occur in powdered condiments. It was ascertained that further studies will be required in order to determine the doses that can be used without risking an inflammatory reaction in the gut.

The aim of the seven projects focusing on environmental impact was to gain a better understanding of the toxicity of nanomaterials and their degradability, stability and accumulation in the environment and in biological systems. Here, the research teams monitored how engineered nanoparticles disseminate along their lifecycle, and where they end up or how they can be discarded.

One of the projects established that 95 percent of silver nanoparticles that are washed out of textiles are collected in sewage treatment plants, while the remaining particles end up in sewage sludge, which in Switzerland is incinerated. In another project a measurement device was developed to determine how aquatic microorganisms react when they come into contact with nanoparticles.

“The findings of the NRP 64 projects form the basis for a safe application of nanomaterials,” says Christoph Studer from the Federal Office of Public Health. “It has become apparent that regulatory instruments such as testing guidelines will have to be adapted at both national and international level.” Studer has been closely monitoring the research program in his capacity as the Swiss government’s representative in NRP 64. In this context, the precautionary matrix developed by the government is an important instrument by means of which companies can systematically assess the risks associated with the use of nanomaterials in their production processes.

The importance of standardized characterization and evaluation of engineered nanomaterials was highlighted by the close cooperation among researchers in the program. “The research network that was built up in the framework of NRP 64 is functioning smoothly and needs to be further nurtured,” says Professor Bernd Nowack from Empa, who headed one of the 23 projects.

The results of NRP 64 show that new key technologies such as the use of nanomaterials need to be closely monitored through basic research due to the lack of data on its long-term effects. As Gehr points out, “We now know a lot more about the risks of nanomaterials and how to keep them under control. However, we need to conduct additional research to learn what happens when humans and the environment are exposed to engineered nanoparticles over longer periods, or what happens a long time after a one-off exposure.”

Source: Swiss National Science Foundation

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Nano Medicine: Meaning, Advantages and Disadvantages

§ March 30th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nano Medicine: Meaning, Advantages and Disadvantages

In this article we will discuss about Nano Medicine:- 1. Meaning of Nano Medicine 2. Advantages of Nano Medicine 3. Disadvantages.

The application of nanotechnology in medicine is often referred to as Nano medicine. Nano medicine is the preservation and improvement of human health using molecular tools and molecular knowledge of the human body. It covers areas such as nanoparticle drug delivery and possible future applications of molecular nanotechnology (MNT) and Nano-vaccinology.

The human body is comprised of molecules. Hence, the availability of molecular nanotechnology will permit dramatic progress in human medical services. More than just an extension of molecular medicine, Nano medicine will help us understand how the biological machinery inside living cells operates at the Nano scale so that it can be employed in molecular machine systems to address complicated medical conditions such as cancer, AIDS, ageing and thereby bring about significant improvement and extension of natural human biological structure and function at the molecular scale.

Nano medical approaches to drug delivery centre on developing Nano scale particles or molecules to improve drug bioavailability that refers to the presence of drug molecules in the body part where they are actually needed and will probably do the most good. It is all about targeting the molecules and delivering drugs with cell precision.

The use of Nano robots in medicine would totally change the world of medicine once it is realized. For instance, by introducing these Nano robots into the body damages and infections can be detected and repaired. In short it holds that capability to change the traditional approach of treating diseases and naturally occurring conditions in the human beings.

1. Advanced therapies with reduced degree of invasiveness.

2. Reduced negative effects of drugs and surgical procedures.

3. Faster, smaller and highly sensitive diagnostic tools.

4. Cost effectiveness of medicines and disease management procedures as a whole.

5. Unsolved medical problems such as cancer, benefiting from the Nano medical approach.

6. Reduced mortality and morbidity rates and increased longevity in return.

1. Lack of proper knowledge about the effect of nanoparticles on biochemical pathways and processes of human body.

2. Scientists are primarily concerned about the toxicity, characterization and exposure pathways associated with Nano medicine that might pose a serious threat to the human beings and environment.

3. The societys ethical use of Nano medicine beyond the concerned safety issues, poses a serious question to the researchers.

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NanomedTAB goes North – Meet the experts in Gothenburg on 31st May 2017 – Cordis News

§ March 28th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on NanomedTAB goes North – Meet the experts in Gothenburg on 31st May 2017 – Cordis News

The Nanomedicine Translation Advisory Board (NanomedTAB) offers since 2015 a free-of-charge mentoring program for European companies, public and private research entities, and other organisations active in Nanomedicine. The fifth edition is now open, selected projects will be invited to attend face-to-face meetings with the NanomedTAB experts on 31st May 2017 in Gothenburg (Sweden).

Through individal advise and mentoring, the NanomedTAB aims at assessing and accelerating promising nanomedicine projects to the market, based on the diverse experience of top skills industry experts. The objective? Help great projects and teams to get to commercial application faster and more reliably.

– 63 teams have already applied, – from 16 countries in EU and beyond, – half met the criteria for NanomedTAB advice and are currently benefiting from coaching over time.

The fifth edition is now open, submit your applications online before 15h April 2017: http://www.nanomedtab.eu/?apply

Selected projects will be invited to attend the next TAB-In Sessions, a series of face to face meetings with experts to be held on the 31st of May 2017, in Gothenburg (Sweden), in the framework of the NanoMed North Annual Meeting 2017.

Further information about the NanomedTAB as well as profiles of experts can be found at http://www.nanomedtab.eu.

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Global Nanomedicine Market Estimates and Forecasts from 2017 … – MilTech

§ March 28th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Global Nanomedicine Market Estimates and Forecasts from 2017 … – MilTech

OrbisResearch.com has published new research report on Global Nanomedicine Market Drivers, Opportunities, Trends, and Forecasts: 20172023 to its database.

Overview: Nanomedicine is an offshoot of nanotechnology, and refers to highly-specific medical intervention at the molecular scale for curing diseases or repairing damaged tissues. Nanomedicine uses nano-sized tools for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of disease, and to gain increased understanding of the complex underlying pathophysiology of the disease. It involves three nanotechnology areas of diagnosis, imaging agents, and drug delivery with nanoparticles in the 11,000 nm range, biochips, and polymer therapeutics.

The majority of nanomedicines used now allow oral drug delivery and its demand is increasing significantly. Although these nanovectors are designed to translocate across the gastrointestinal tract, lung, and bloodbrain barrier, the amount of drug transferred to the organ is lower than 1%; therefore improvements are challenging. Nanomedicines are designed to maximize the benefit/risk ratio, and their toxicity must be evaluated not only by sufficiently long term in vitro and in vivo studies, but also pass multiple clinical studies.

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The major drivers of the nanomedicine market include its application in various therapeutic areas, increasing R&D studies about nanorobots in this segment, and significant investments in clinical trials by the government as well as private sector. The Oncology segment is the major therapeutic area for nanomedicine application, which comprised more than 35% of the total market share in 2016. A major focus in this segment is expected to drive the growth of the nanomedicine market in the future.

Market Analysis: The Global Nanomedicine Market is estimated to witness a CAGR of 17.1% during the forecast period 20172023. The nanomedicine market is analyzed based on two segments therapeutic applications and regions.

Regional Analysis: The regions covered in the report are the Americas, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Rest of the World (ROW). The Americas is set to be the leading region for the nanomedicine market growth followed by Europe. The Asia Pacific and ROW are set to be the emerging regions. Japan is set to be the most attractive destination and in Africa, the popularity and the usage of various nano-drugs are expected to increase in the coming years. The major countries covered in this report are the US, Germany, Japan, and Others.

Therapeutic Application Analysis: Nanomedicines are used as fluorescent markers for diagnostic and screening purposes. Moreover, nanomedicines are introducing new therapeutic opportunities for a large number of agents that cannot be used effectively as conventional oral formulations due to poor bioavailability. The therapeutic areas for nanomedicine application are Oncology, Cardiovascular, Neurology, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-infectives, and various other areas. Globally, the industry players are focusing significantly on R&D to gain approval for various clinical trials for future nano-drugs to be commercially available in the market. The FDA should be relatively prepared for some of the earliest and most basic applications of nanomedicine in areas such as gene therapy and tissue engineering. The more advanced applications of nanomedicine will pose unique challenges in terms of classification and maintenance of scientific expertise.

Key Players: Merck & Co. Inc., Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Gilead Sciences Inc., Novartis AG, Amgen Inc., Pfizer Inc., Eli Lilly and Company, Sanofi, Nanobiotix SA, UCB SA and other predominate & niche players.

Competitive Analysis: At present, the nanomedicine market is at a nascent stage but, a lot of new players are entering the market as it holds huge business opportunities. Especially, big players along with the collaboration with other SMBs for clinical trials of nanoparticles and compounds are coming with new commercial targeted drugs in the market and they are expecting a double-digit growth in the upcoming years. Significant investments in R&D in this market are expected to increase and collaborations, merger & acquisition activities are expected to continue.

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Benefits: The report provides complete details about the usage and adoption rate of nanomedicines in various therapeutic verticals and regions. With that, key stakeholders can know about the major trends, drivers, investments, vertical players initiatives, government initiatives towards the nanomedicine adoption in the upcoming years along with the details of commercial drugs available in the market. Moreover, the report provides details about the major challenges that are going to impact on the market growth. Additionally, the report gives the complete details about the key business opportunities to key stakeholders to expand their business and capture the revenue in the specific verticals to analyze before investing or expanding the business in this market.

Countries Covered:Americas,Europe,APAC and Others. Germany and Japan

Companies Covered:

Merck & Co.Inc,

Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd,

Gilead Sciences,

Novartis AG,

Amgen Inc,

Pfizer Inc,

Eli Lilly and Company,

Sanofi,Nanobiotix SA,UCB SA.

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Therapeutic nanoparticles in clinics and under clinical …

§ March 26th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Therapeutic nanoparticles in clinics and under clinical …

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Global Nanomedicine Market: Increased Research Collaborations …

§ March 26th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Global Nanomedicine Market: Increased Research Collaborations …

According to a recent market research report released by Transparency Market Research, the global nanomedicine market is estimated to expand at a CAGR of 12.3% during the period between 2013 and 2019. The report, titled Nanomedicine Market – Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast, 2013 – 2019, projects the global nanomedicine market to be worth US$177.60 bn by 2019. The overall market was valued at US$78.54 bn in 2012.

Browse the fullNanomedicine Market (Neurology, Cardiovascular, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-infective, and Oncology Applications) – Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share,Growth, Trends and Forecast, 2013 – 2019report athttp://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/nanomedicine-market.html

The report points out that improvement in technology for nanomedicine has propelled the global nanomedicine market. Rising government support for research and development of nanomedicine, coupled with an increase in investment and healthcare collaborations, is expected to augment the growth of the market during the forecast horizon. High prevalence of chronic diseases and presence of high unmet medical needs will also push the market growth. However, the report notes that the lack of organized regulatory framework and high costs involved in the development of nanomedicine will hinder the growth of the global nanomedicine market during the forecast period. The market has a huge opportunity to grow in the emerging economies along with the identification of new medical applications.

On the basis of application, the report segments the global nanomedicine market into oncology, anti-inflammatory, neurology, cardiovascular, anti-infectives, and other applications. In 2012, the overall market was dominated by the oncology segment, which accounted for around 38.0% of the market. This can be attributed to the extensive usage of commercialized nanomedicine products in the field of oncology. However, during the next couple of years, the cardiovascular segment is expected to display the fastest growth owing to the growing geriatric population and increasing demand for nanomedicine-based devices and drugs for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

The report studies the global nanomedicine market according to its performance in four key regional segments: Asia Pacific, North America, Europe, and Rest of the World. In 2012, North America dominated the overall market and is expected to continue its dominance during the forecast horizon. Advanced healthcare infrastructure has attributed to the growth of the market in this region. However, during the period between 2013 and 2019, Asia Pacific is forecast to expand at a 14.6% CAGR and emerge as the fastest growing region in the market. Rising awareness about healthcare, coupled with growing prevalence of chronic diseases, has fuelled the nanomedicine market in the region. In countries such as India and China, increased research funding and numerous research collaborations in the field of nanomedicine will further push the market.

The report profiles some of the key players in the global nanomedicine market, such as CombiMatrix Corp, Abbott Laboratories, Celgene Corporation, Mallinckrodt plc, Johnson & Johnson, Merck & Co. Inc., GE Healthcare, Pfizer Inc., Nanosphere Inc., UCB SA, Sigma-Tau Pharmaceuticals Inc., and Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. The report provides insightful information about the key players, including their financial overview, business strategy, product portfolio, and recent developments.

The research study has been segmented as below:

Global Nanomedicine Market, by Application

Global Nanomedicine Market, by Geography

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TMRs data repository is continuously updated and revised by a team of research experts so that it always reflects the latest trends and information. With extensive research and analysis capabilities, Transparency Market Research employs rigorous primary and secondary research techniques to develop distinctive data sets and research material for business reports.

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Disadvantages of Nanomedicine – Nanomedicine

§ March 26th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Disadvantages of Nanomedicine – Nanomedicine

Of course, there are valid arguments against the use of nanomedicine, particularly around the issue of toxicity. As explained in the Scientific American article Nano-risks: A Big Need for a Little Testing, Elements at these microscopic levels can exhibit different properties than they do normally. Furthermore, every nanoparticle is unique, and sometimes the effects or two of the same nanoparticles are not consistent. Thus, some nanoparticles might become dangerous for humans. It has been shown [Young and Martel, 2009] that even nanoparticles that naturally occur in our body can have a serious effect on both our short term and long term health. If these naturally created nanoparticles can harm us, then it would not be wise to proceed with using ones that are artificially engineered with first considering the possible effects and consequences. If nanomedicine was expanded to nanorobotics, then we would need to consider the possible effects of a glitch in the programming, and how sever the effects must be. This reminds us that before nanomedicine can be used extensively, it will need to go through a rigorous process of testing to make sure itdoesn’tdo more harm than good.

Another disadvantage of nanotechnology is the enormous financial costs associated with it. As said in a report by the ETC group, Nanotech Rx, the global health crisisdoesn’tstem from a lack of science innovation or medical technologies; the root problem is poverty and inequality. New medical technologies are irrelevant for poor people if theyaren’taccessible or affordable. There is the problem that nanomedicine will definitely be too expensive for the average citizen, at least at first. It raises a question on whether we should focus instead on improving key aspects of the health system and providing better access to medicine and infrastructure I less developed countries. As the ETC says, access to clean water could make a greater contribution to global health than any single medical intervention. If we cant even maintain a working system using the current possibilities of medicine, should we start by fixing whats wrong before looking at something new, wasting billions of dollars in the process?

Finally, nanomedicine, like all technology, can also be used for malicious purposes. Much of the proposed technology and treatment that nanomedicine will bring can be used for purposes other than originally intended. This leads to problems of ethics and privacy. Nanorobots that could monitor the level of insulin in people in diabetes could also be misused by government and corporations trying to increase surveillance of citizens. Such technology can also be used for military purposes. And where should we draw the line in the practical use of nanomedicine? To illustrate, if such technology allows us to heal people who have lost their vision or damaged their brain, either by an accident or through natural causes, should this technology be released to the general public, allowing people to have biotech implants that give them superior vision or mental abilities? Should this be extended to military purposes? If so, then to what extent? There are many moral and ethical dilemmas regarding nanomedicine that must be answered before this technology is put to use.

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Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market to Perceive Substantial Growth During 2015 to 2021 – MilTech

§ March 24th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market to Perceive Substantial Growth During 2015 to 2021 – MilTech

New York, NY (SBWIRE) 03/23/2017 Nanotechnology is one of the most promising technologies in 21st century. Nanotechnology is a term used when technological developments occur at 0.1 to 100 nm scale. Nano medicine is a branch of nanotechnology which involves medicine development at molecular scale for diagnosis, prevention, treatment of diseases and even regeneration of tissues and organs. Thus it helps to preserve and improve human health. Nanomedicine offers an impressive solution for various life threatening diseases such as cancer, Parkinson, Alzheimer, diabetes, orthopedic problems, diseases related to blood, lungs, neurological, and cardiovascular system.

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Development of a new nenomedicine takes several years which are based on various technologies such as dendrimers, micelles, nanocrystals, fullerenes, virosome nanoparticles, nanopores, liposomes, nanorods, nanoemulsions, quantum dots, and nanorobots.

In the field of diagnosis, nanotechnology based methods are more precise, reliable and require minimum amount of biological sample which avoid considerable reduction in consumption of reagents and disposables. Apart from diagnosis, nanotechnology is more widely used in drug delivery purpose due to nanoscale particles with larger surface to volume ratio than micro and macro size particle responsible for higher drug loading. Nano size products allow to enter into body cavities for diagnosis or treatment with minimum invasiveness and increased bioavailability. This will not only improve the efficacy of treatment and diagnosis, but also reduces the side effects of drugs in case of targeted therapy.

Global nanomedicine market is majorly segmented on the basis of applications in medicines, targeted disease and geography. Applications segment includes drug delivery (carrier), drugs, biomaterials, active implant, in-vitro diagnostic, and in-vivo imaging. Global nanomedicine divided on the basis of targeted diseases or disorders in following segment: neurology, cardiovascular, oncology, anti-inflammatory, anti-infective and others. Geographically, nanomedicine market is classified into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and MEA. Considering nanomedicine market by application, drug delivery contribute higher followed by in-vitro diagnostics. Global nanomedicine market was dominated by oncology segment in 2012 due to ability of nanomedicine to cross body barriers and targeted to tumors specifically however cardiovascular nanomedicine market is fastest growing segment. Geographically, North America dominated the market in 2013 and is expected to maintain its position in the near future. Asia Pacific market is anticipated to grow at faster rate due to rapid increase in geriatric population and rising awareness regarding health care. Europe is expected to grow at faster rate than North America due to extensive product pipeline portfolio and constantly improving regulatory framework.

Major drivers for nanomedicine market include improved regulatory framework, increasing technological know-how and research funding, rising government support and continuous increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cancer, kidney disorder, and orthopedic diseases. Some other driving factors include rising number of geriatric population, awareness of nanomedicine application and presence of high unmet medical needs. Growing demand of nanomedicines from the end users is expected to drive the market in the forecast period. However, market entry of new companies is expected to bridge the gap between supply and demand of nanomedicines. Above mentioned drivers currently outweigh the risk associated with nanomedicines such as toxicity and high cost. At present, cancer is one of the major targeted areas in which nanomedicines have made contribution. Doxil, Depocyt, Abraxane, Oncospar, and Neulasta are some of the examples of pharmaceuticals formulated using nanotechnology.

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Key players in the global nanomedicine market include: Abbott Laboratories, CombiMatrix Corporation, GE Healthcare, Sigma-Tau Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Johnson & Johnson, Mallinckrodt plc, Merck & Company, Inc., Nanosphere, Inc., Pfizer, Inc., Celgene Corporation, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., and UCB (Union chimique belge) S.A.

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Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market to Perceive Substantial Growth During 2015 to 2021 – MilTech

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Research spotlights early signs of disease using infrared light: New … – Science Daily

§ March 22nd, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Research spotlights early signs of disease using infrared light: New … – Science Daily

Research spotlights early signs of disease using infrared light: New …
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Researchers have used infrared spectroscopy to spotlight changes in tiny cell fragments called microvesicles to probe their role in a model of the body's …

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Global $392.80 Billion Nanomedicine Market Drivers, Opportunities, Trends, and Forecasts, 2023 – Research and … – Yahoo Finance

§ March 21st, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Global $392.80 Billion Nanomedicine Market Drivers, Opportunities, Trends, and Forecasts, 2023 – Research and … – Yahoo Finance

DUBLIN–(BUSINESS WIRE)–

Research and Markets has announced the addition of the “Global Nanomedicine Market – Drivers, Opportunities, Trends, and Forecasts: 2017-2023” report to their offering.

The Nanomedicine Market to Grow at a CAGR of 17.1% During the Forecast Period 2017-2023 to Aggregate $392.80 Billion By 2023.

The nanomedicine market is analyzed based on two segments – therapeutic applications and regions.

The major drivers of the nanomedicine market include its application in various therapeutic areas, increasing R&D studies about nanorobots in this segment, and significant investments in clinical trials by the government as well as private sector. The Oncology segment is the major therapeutic area for nanomedicine application, which comprised more than 35% of the total market share in 2016. A major focus in this segment is expected to drive the growth of the nanomedicine market in the future.

Moreover, nanomedicines are introducing new therapeutic opportunities for a large number of agents that cannot be used effectively as conventional oral formulations due to poor bioavailability. The therapeutic areas for nanomedicine application are Oncology, Cardiovascular, Neurology, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-infectives, and various other areas.

Globally, the industry players are focusing significantly on R&D to gain approval for various clinical trials for future nano-drugs to be commercially available in the market. The FDA should be relatively prepared for some of the earliest and most basic applications of nanomedicine in areas such as gene therapy and tissue engineering. The more advanced applications of nanomedicine will pose unique challenges in terms of classification and maintenance of scientific expertise.

Market Dynamics

Drivers

Restraints

Opportunities

Key Players:

Key Topics Covered:

1 Industry Outlook

2 Report Outline

3 Market Snapshot

4 Market Outlook

5 Market Characteristics

6 Trends, Roadmap and Projects

7 Types: Market Size and Analysis

8 Trending Nanomedicines

9 Regions: Market Size and Analysis

10 Vendor Scenario

11 Vendor Profiles

12 Global Generalist

13 Companies to Watch for

14 Market Landscape

For more information about this report visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/2bv34j/global

View source version on businesswire.com: http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20170316005594/en/

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Global $392.80 Billion Nanomedicine Market Drivers, Opportunities, Trends, and Forecasts, 2023 – Research and … – Yahoo Finance

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Global Nanomedicine Market 2017-2023: Emergence of Nanorobotics to Drive the Growth of the $392 Billion Industry … – Yahoo Finance

§ March 20th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Global Nanomedicine Market 2017-2023: Emergence of Nanorobotics to Drive the Growth of the $392 Billion Industry … – Yahoo Finance

DUBLIN, Mar 17, 2017 /PRNewswire/ —

Research and Markets has announced the addition of the “Global Nanomedicine Market – Drivers, Opportunities, Trends, and Forecasts: 2017-2023” report to their offering.

Research and Markets Logo

The Nanomedicine Market to Grow at a CAGR of 17.1% During the Forecast Period 2017-2023 to Aggregate $392.80 Billion By 2023

The nanomedicine market is analyzed based on two segments – therapeutic applications and regions.

The major drivers of the nanomedicine market include its application in various therapeutic areas, increasing R&D studies about nanorobots in this segment, and significant investments in clinical trials by the government as well as private sector. The Oncology segment is the major therapeutic area for nanomedicine application, which comprised more than 35% of the total market share in 2016. A major focus in this segment is expected to drive the growth of the nanomedicine market in the future.

Moreover, nanomedicines are introducing new therapeutic opportunities for a large number of agents that cannot be used effectively as conventional oral formulations due to poor bioavailability. The therapeutic areas for nanomedicine application are Oncology, Cardiovascular, Neurology, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-infectives, and various other areas.

Globally, the industry players are focusing significantly on R&D to gain approval for various clinical trials for future nano-drugs to be commercially available in the market. The FDA should be relatively prepared for some of the earliest and most basic applications of nanomedicine in areas such as gene therapy and tissue engineering. The more advanced applications of nanomedicine will pose unique challenges in terms of classification and maintenance of scientific expertise.

Key Topics Covered:

1 Industry Outlook 1.1 Industry Overview 1.2 Industry Trends 1.3 PEST Analysis

2 Report Outline 2.1 Report Scope 2.2 Report Summary 2.3 Research Methodology 2.4 Report Assumptions

3 Market Snapshot 3.1 Total Addressable Market (TAM) 3.2 Segmented Addressable Market (SAM) 3.3 Related Markets 3.3.1 mHealth Market 3.3.2 Healthcare Analytics Market

4 Market Outlook 4.1 Overview 4.2 Regulatory Bodies and Standards 4.3 Government Spending and Initiatives 4.4 Porter 5 (Five) Forces

5 Market Characteristics 5.1 Evolution 5.2 Ecosystem 5.2.1 Regulatory Process 5.2.2 Clinical Trials 5.2.3 Pricing and Reimbursement 5.3 Market Segmentation 5.4 Market Dynamics 5.4.1 Drivers 5.4.1.1 Emergence of nanorobotics 5.4.1.2 Applications and advantages of nanomedicine in various healthcare segments 5.4.1.3 Reasonable investments in R&D 5.4.1.4 Increased support from governments 5.4.2 Restraints 5.4.2.1 Long approval process and stringent regulations 5.4.2.2 Problems regarding nanoscale manufacturing 5.4.2.3 Risks related to nanomedicines 5.4.2.4 Undefined regulatory standards 5.4.3 Opportunities 5.4.3.1 Aging population with chronic care needs 5.4.3.2 Population and income growth in emerging countries 5.4.4 DRO – Impact Analysis

6 Trends, Roadmap and Projects 6.1 Market Trends and Impact 6.2 Technology Roadmap

7 Types: Market Size and Analysis 7.1 Overview 7.2 Global Nanomedicine Market in Oncology Segment 7.3 Global Nanomedicine Market in Cardiovascular Segment 7.4 Global Nanomedicine Market in Neurology Segment 7.5 Global Nanomedicine Market in Anti-inflammatory Segment 7.6 Global Nanomedicine Market in Anti-infective Segment 7.7 Global Nanomedicine Market in Other Therapeutic Areas

8 Trending Nanomedicines 8.1 Overview 8.2 Abraxane 8.3 Alimta 8.4 Eligard 8.5 Copaxone 8.6 Rapamune 8.7 Neulasta 8.8 Cimzia 8.9 AmBisome 8.10 Mircera 8.11 Pegasys 8.12 Emend 8.13 Renagel 8.14 Ritalin

9 Regions: Market Size and Analysis 9.1 Overview 9.1.1 Global Nanomedicine Market by Geographical Segmentation 9.2 Key Leading Countries 9.2.1 US 9.2.2 Germany 9.2.3 Japan

10 Vendor Scenario

11 Vendor Profiles 11.1 Merck & Co. Inc. 11.2 Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd. 11.3 Gilead Sciences 11.4 Novartis AG 11.5 Amgen Inc.

12 Global Generalist 12.1 Pfizer Inc. 12.2 Eli Lilly and Company 12.3 Sanofi

13 Companies to Watch for 13.1 Nanobiotix SA 13.2 UCB SA

14 Market Landscape

For more information about this report visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/krjtrq/global

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Global Nanomedicine Market 2017-2023: Emergence of Nanorobotics to Drive the Growth of the $392 Billion Industry … – Yahoo Finance

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Block copolymer micellization as a protection strategy for DNA origami – Science Daily

§ March 18th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Block copolymer micellization as a protection strategy for DNA origami – Science Daily


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Block copolymer micellization as a protection strategy for DNA origami
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Due to this unique control over matter on the nanometer-scale, DNA nanostructures have also been considered for applications in molecular biology and nanomedicine. For example, they can be used as programmable drug carriers, diagnostic devices or to …

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3rd April London European Nanomedicine Meeting 2017 – Business News Wales

§ March 16th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on 3rd April London European Nanomedicine Meeting 2017 – Business News Wales

Life Sciences Hub Wales is the focal point for the Life Sciences sector in Wales stimulating innovation, collaboration and investment.

The Hub is the nerve centre for the eco-system in Wales, facilitating and encouraging innovation, aligning research with commercialisation, providing access to finance and expertise, and supporting business development in existing organisations.

Bringing together all facets of the network in Wales including academic, business, clinical, government, professional services and funding organisations, the Hub provides a commercially-driven resource for the sector.

The Hub hosts and engages organisations large and small and not only those in Life Sciences but a fully engaged network of professional services providing expertise and support to the sector.

Member organisations and partners benefit from a dedicated venue and a single access point to bespoke facilities, co-ordinated support, networking opportunities, professional advice, exclusive events, and most importantly promotional and funding opportunities.

Business and organisations working at the Hub include those operating in Pharmaceutical, Medical Technology, Biotechnology, Research & Development, Diagnostics, Clinical, Funding, Service & Supply Chain, and Business Support.

Get in touch to find out how your business or organisation can benefit from working with the Hub and discover more about our network of entrepreneurs, academics, SMEs and multinational corporations, and find out more about Wales impact on the global Life Sciences eco-system.

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3rd April London European Nanomedicine Meeting 2017 – Business News Wales

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Dove Press Announces Sponsorship of Nanomedicine Academy of Minority Serving Institutions at Northeastern … – PR Web (press release)

§ March 15th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Dove Press Announces Sponsorship of Nanomedicine Academy of Minority Serving Institutions at Northeastern … – PR Web (press release)

(PRWEB) March 14, 2017

For those unfamiliar with this emerging specialty area of medicine, nanomedicine is the application of nanotechnology — science at the molecular level — to medicine. It seeks to develop new and improved techniques for the screening, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

Dove Press is the publisher of the International Journal of Nanomedicine, an international, Open Access, peer-reviewed journal focusing on the application of nanotechnology in diagnostics, therapeutics, and drug delivery systems throughout the biomedical field. Reflecting the growing activity in this emerging specialty, the aim of this journal is to highlight research and development leading to potential clinical applications in the prevention and treatment of disease.

In the nanotechnology/nanomedicine field, there are many, many exciting examples from really all over the world of whats going on… But theres also equally as exciting, I think, research going into fighting cancer, explains the Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Nanomedicine and Department Chair of Chemical Engineering at Northeastern University, Dr. Thomas Webster, [i]n our journal, for example, we recently published a paper from Jennifer Wests research group, formerly at Rice University, which is in Houston, Texas, and theyve pioneered the use of tiny nanoparticles that can be injected into tumors, can heat up and can kill, selectively, cancer cells. So they leave the healthy cells alone and they only kill cancer cells.

The Nanomedicine Academy (pioneered by Drs. Sri Sridhar and Thomas Webster of Northeastern University) is actively training scientists and engineers how to apply nanoscience and nanotechnology to problems in medicine, translate discoveries from the bench to bedside, negotiate ethical and socio-economic challenges of nanomedicine accessibility, and eliminate disparities in the healthcare workforce.

The Academy is dedicated to attracting students from racially and ethnically diverse populations, creating an interdisciplinary learning environment suitable for a diverse student body, and piloting new strategies for student learning and collaboration. The unique model of partnership allows the Academy to not only recruit and educate students from diverse backgrounds, but to bring geographically distant students together in new ways so that they can learn and benefit from each others diversity. Nanomedicine is an excellent subject, with real life consequences and examples, to get kids excited about science and engineering, explains Webster.

This pilot program builds upon education and training initiatives pioneered by Sridhar at Northeastern University, including the IGERT Nanomedicine Program and the CaNCURE Cancer Nanomedicine Co-op Program, with support from the National Science Foundation, DovePress, and Northeastern University. Assistance from DovePress has also allowed for Nanomedicine certificate and degree opportunities at Northeastern.

Our sponsorship of the Northeastern University Nanomedicine Academy reflects our ongoing commitment to diversity, as well as promoting the open access publishing model and the scholarly publishing landscape. explains Tim Hill, Publisher, Dove Medical Press.

About Dove Medical Press, Ltd.

Dove Medical Press Ltd is a privately held company specializing in the publication of Open Access peer-reviewed journals across the broad spectrum of science, technology and especially medicine.

Dove Press was founded in 2003 with the objective of combining the highest editorial standards with the ‘best of breed’ new publishing technologies. Dove Press has offices in Manchester and London in the United Kingdom, representatives in Princeton, New Jersey in the United States, and editorial offices in Auckland, New Zealand. For more information, visit: http://www.dovepress.com/

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Dove Press Announces Sponsorship of Nanomedicine Academy of Minority Serving Institutions at Northeastern … – PR Web (press release)

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Nanomedicine Academy – northeastern.edu

§ March 9th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanomedicine Academy – northeastern.edu

A one-of-a-kind academic partnership dedicated to providing interdisciplinary education in nanomedicine, with an emphasis on broadening diversity and participation

The Nanomedicine Academy of Minority Serving Institutions is a collaborative model of higher education that provides state-of-the-art knowledge to under-served minority populations.

This multi-institutional partnership is actively training scientists and engineers how to apply nanoscience and nanotechnology to problems in medicine, translate discoveries from the bench to bedside, negotiate ethical and socio-economic challenges of nanomedicine accessibility, and eliminate disparities in the healthcare workforce.

The Nanomedicine Academy is dedicated to attracting students from racially and ethnically diverse populations, creating a interdisciplinary learning environment suitable for a diverse student body, and piloting new strategies for student learning & collaboration. Our unique model of partnership allows us to not only recruit and educate students from diverse backgrounds, but to bring geographically distant students together in new ways so that they can learn and benefit from each others diversity.

We have created 4 graduate courses in nanomedicine that are taught simultaneously to students at 5 partner institutions and established a cross-institutional online network that enables students to learn from expert instructors as well as peers throughout the nation.

Graduate students at our partner institutions enroll in courses through their home registrar and receive course credit toward their graduate degree program. Participation in the Academy provides students with enhanced access to specialized knowledge, hands-on training in essential tools and techniques, and opportunities for collaboration with students across institutions.

This pilot program builds upon education and training initiatives pioneered at Northeastern University, including the IGERT Nanomedicine Program and the CaNCURE Cancer Nanomedicine Co-op Program, with support from the National Science Foundation, DovePress, and Northeastern University.

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Nanomedicine Academy – northeastern.edu

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Nanomedicine scientist to join USC faculty – Daily Trojan Online

§ March 9th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanomedicine scientist to join USC faculty – Daily Trojan Online

Mark Davis, a chemical engineering professor and nanomedicine researcher at the California Institute of Technology, will be joining the USC faculty in the fall, according to USC News.

Davis will serve as provost professor in the Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering in the Viterbi School of Engineering, and will also have joint appointments in the Department of Preventive Medicine and the Department of Chemistry.

Davis will also be a strategic advisor to the deans of both Viterbi and Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences, and will continue his research on nanomedicine, specifically on nanoparticles that would be able to deliver medicine to the brain.

Mark Davis is a stellar addition to our faculty, Provost Michael Quick said to USC News. His multidisciplinary scholarship and research is an asset to the USC Michelson Center for Convergent Bioscience, where we are building bridges across our campus to transform medicine and science.

Davis previously conducted his research at CalTech and at Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University. He has been recognized by the National Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Medicine. He is also the author of more than 425 scientific publications, and two textbooks and holds 75 U.S. patents.

Davis specializes in materials synthesis, such as zeolites that can be used for molecular recognition, and polymers that can be used for therapeutic delivery.

At USC, he will continue his nanomedicine research on treatment for cancer.

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Nanomedicine: A Vast Horizon on a Molecular Landscape – Part VIII, Magnetic Nanoparticles theranostics – Lexology (registration)

§ March 9th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanomedicine: A Vast Horizon on a Molecular Landscape – Part VIII, Magnetic Nanoparticles theranostics – Lexology (registration)

This is the eighth article in a review series on Nanomedicine. We started from reviewing the major research and entrepreneurial development of nanomedicine and the relevant patent landscape (Part I and Part II). The first topic we discussed was Organs-on-a-chip (Part III). Following that, we focused on nanotechnology in medical therapeutics. Nanoparticles have nanoscale dimensions and demonstrate unique chemical and physical properties from their bulk. This also gives them great advantages in drug delivery (Part IV), cancer therapeutics (Part V), and bio-imaging (Part VI). In the last installment, we reviewed one special type of nanoparticles: quantum dots, which are incredibly small semiconductor particles (Part VII). Here, we will review the theranostic applications and IP landscape of another special type of nanoparticles known as magnetic nanoparticles (MNP). As in the past, those patent documents cited in the article are summarized in the table at the end.

Magnetic Nanoparticles Magnetic nanoparticles, also known as superparamagnetic nanoparticles are small inorganic crystals about 5-20 nm in diameter. Two main classes of MNPs currently used for clinical imaging are ferromagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and ultrasmall superparameganetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPION). MNPs are usually multilayer materials, which give them their various properties and functionalities for diagnosis and disease treatment. The structure of iron oxide nanoparticles has three main components: an iron oxide core as a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) contrast agent, a biocompatible coating outside the core, and an outer therapeutic coating with specific ligands for biomarker targeting. See (US 8,945,628 by Dr. Ralph Weissleder at Massachusetts General Hospital and US 7,462,446 by Dr. Miqin Zhang at the University of Washington). This unique structure enables MNP accumulation in the sites of interest via biomarker targeting. It further allows the diagnosis of diseases, the evaluation of treatment efficacy, and the localized delivery of drugs and disease therapies. The integration of both diagnostic and therapeutic modalities into one single agent is called a theranostic agent. We will discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic properties of MNPs in cancer.

Magnetic Nanoparticles for Diagnosis In 2008, the International Agency for Research on Cancer reported that the total number of cancer case around the world doubled between 1975 and 2000, and that the number of cases are expected to triple by 2030. This means there will be 13-17 million cancer deaths annually by that time. The only chance for successful treatment of cancer is early cancer diagnosis, by identifying the cancer before the patient shows symptoms. Currently the standard cancer detection technology in the clinic is imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Dr. Ralph Weissleder at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) is a pioneer in the field of clinical imaging using advanced nanomaterials (US 6,615,063, US 8,569,078 and US 9,097,644). He predicted that high resolution molecular imaging technologies (including those utilizing nanoparticles) can screen tumor growth at very early stages.

Currently, there are two main nanoimaging technologies, fluorescence imaging and MRI. In fluorescence imaging, quantum dots can target malignant tissues and show strong localized signals (Part VI). Magnetic nanoparticles demonstrate advanced applications in MRI. MRI is a non-invasive medical imaging technology based on nuclear magnetic resonance. When the magnetic field around the nuclei varies, the nuclei relax their magnetic moment through spin-lattice relaxation and spin-spin relaxation. With the assistance of MRI contrast agents, the MRI captures the change of relaxation times of protons around tissues and forms the medical images. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles are one of the currently used contrast agents for MRI. These particles can shorten the spin-lattice relaxation time T1 (brighter signal) and the spin-spin relaxation time T2 (darker signal), forming a sharper and brighter image. These particles can also be actively targeted or passively targeted to malignant sites to differentiate between normal and diseased tissues.

MNPs are the most advanced contrast labels currently being used in research and development for medical imaging. Dr. Shan Wangs group at Stanford University has developed superparameganetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and fluorescent tag conjugated SPIONs for biological molecular imaging (US 7,682,838 and US 8,722,017 ). Dr. Miqin Zhangs group at the University of Washington has developed MNPs with a Fe3O4 core and a mesoporous silica shell embedded with carbon dots and paclitaxel (a common anti-cancer drug), and covered by another layer of silica. These MNPs enable confocal and twophoton fluorescence imaging via carbon dots and MRI via magnetic Fe3O4. They also deliver the paclitaxel to cancer cells to kill them through combined photothermal and chemotherapy. Dr. Zhang also developed major histocompatibility complex (MHC) conjugated MNPs for imaging T cells and also chitosan-polyethylene oxide oligomer copolymer coated MNPs for brain tumor imaging and drug delivery (US 20160193369, US 20150320890, and US 20140286872). Dr. Koichiro Hayashi demonstrated the advantages of using SPIONs for cancer theranostics by combining MRI and magnetic hyperthermia treatment (WO/2012/026194). His team modified the SPION clusters with folic acid and polyethylene glycol (PEG) to promote the accumulation of clusters in tumors. Dr. Qun Zhao at the University of Georgia developed hyperthermia treatment of head and neck cancers in a mouse model via intratumor injection of SPIONs. Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIONs) having smaller size in diameter, resulting in longer circulation time. These particles can accumulate in the microvascularture before being endocytosed (i.e. removed) by macrophages. Therefore, these particles can be used for tumor-associated microvessel imaging. Dr. Edward Neuwelt reported clinical data with enhanced brain tumor imaging by USPIONs. Other groups from France and Switzerland also reported similar results.

Summary Magnetic nanoparticles are not only used as MRI contrast labels for medical imaging, but also used as therapeutic drug delivery carriers, as hyperthermia tools, and even as combined drug delivery and imaging agents for cancer therapy. In the next installment, we will discuss further details on the application of these particles in cancer therapeutics.

The General Hospital Corporation

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