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Ardena invests $35m to expand three European sites – BioProcess Insider – BioProcess Insider

§ July 17th, 2021 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Ardena invests $35m to expand three European sites – BioProcess Insider – BioProcess Insider

Ardena says the investment is driven by business growth, capacity needs and its ambition to become a leading mid-sized CDMO.

In partnership with GHO Capital, contract development manufacturing organization (CDMO) Ardena has invested $35 million to expand its European operations in Belgium, Sweden, and the Netherlands to ensure the firm can offer end-to-end solutions.

All expansion work is expected to be complete by Q1 in 2023, Gerjan KempermanCOO at Ardena told BioProcess Insider.

Image: iStock/Ghing

The firm will expand its drug product services in Belgium, this includes aseptic fill-finish capabilities to develop and manufacture small molecules and injectable formulations.

Additional capacity for large molecule biologics will be increased to include proteins, peptides, oligonucleotides, DNA, recombinant RNA, synthetic RNA, and RNA vaccines.

Ardena will expand its Swedish facility to support the commercialization of COVID-19 vaccines and drive its API business.

In turn, the CDMO can offer more preparative chromatography, specialized filtration technology, and lyophilization capacity in large quantities.

Ardena has seen and is actively working on a growing number of COVID-19 related projects across the different business units, Kemperman told us.

He added: We are involved in early phase COVID-19 related drug substance and drug product development projects as well as in supporting the commercialization of a COVID-19 vaccine.

In the Netherlands the investment will be used to expand cleanroom space, chemical manufacturing capacity, warehouse space, additional laboratories, and technology to support the growth of API and nanomedicine activities.

Kemperman said the manufacturing facilities in the Netherlands and Sweden will see the bulk of this investment driven by substantial expansion of chemical production capabilities, larger clean rooms, and additional lab spaces.

Ardena will recruit additional employees across the business units to service the three expansions.

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Nanomedicine Market Overview, COVID-19 Impact Analysis, Industry Status and Forecast by Top Players GE Healthcare,Johnson & Johnson,Mallinckrodt…

§ July 17th, 2021 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanomedicine Market Overview, COVID-19 Impact Analysis, Industry Status and Forecast by Top Players GE Healthcare,Johnson & Johnson,Mallinckrodt…

A SWOT Analysis ofNanomedicine, Professional Survey Report Including Top Most Global Players Analysis with CAGR and this analysis dependent onProduct Type(Regenerative Medicine, In-vitro & In-vivo Diagnostics, Vaccines, Drug Delivery),Application Type(Clinical Cardiology, Urology, Genetics, Orthopedics, Ophthalmology) andRegion(North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa)

TheWorldwide Nanomedicine Marketis carefully investigated in the report while to a great extent focusing on top players and their business strategies, geographical extension, market segments, competitive landscape, assembling, and evaluating and cost structures. Each part of the analysis study is extraordinarily set up to investigate key aspects of the worldwide Nanomedicine Market. For instance, the market elements segment dives profound into the drivers, restraints, trends, and opportunities of the worldwide Nanomedicine Market. With qualitative and quantitative analysis, we assist you with careful and exhaustive exploration on the worldwide Nanomedicine Market. We have likewise centered around SWOT, PESTLE, and Porters Five Forces analysiss of the worldwide Nanomedicine Market.

Global Nanomedicine Market Competition by TOP MANUFACTURERS, with production, price, revenue (value), and each manufacturer including:

Leading players of the worldwide Nanomedicine Market are investigated considering their market share, late turns of events, new product dispatches, organizations, consolidations or acquisitions, and markets served. We likewise give a thorough analysis of their product portfolios to investigate the products and applications they focus on while working in the worldwide Nanomedicine Market. Besides, the report offers two separate market gauges one for the creation side and another for the utilization side of the worldwide Nanomedicine Market. It gives valuable suggestions to new just as set up players of the worldwide Nanomedicine Market.

Get Download Exclusive Sample Copy of the Report to comprehend the design of the total Report (Including Full TOC, Table and Figures): https://www.industryandresearch.com/report/GlobalChina-Nanomedicine-Market-By-Business-Opportunity-Innovations-Upcoming-Trends-Growth-Analysis-Demand-Insight-Top-ManufacturersForecast-to-20202026/213809#samplereport

Whats Included in Free Sample Report: 2020 Recently updated research report covering overview, toc, updated companies profiles, and market estimation values COVID-19 pre and post business impact analysis 100+ pages report with regional outlook, size & share estimated values, top trends and growth factors. List of Tables and Figures Updated research methodology: Using latest techniques to calculate exact data of the market

Key Details of The Existing Market Study:

The report contains consistent and different efforts lead by proficient forecasters, imaginative analysts, and splendid specialists who complete thorough and constant exploration on this market trends, and rising opportunities the in the consecutive way for the business needs. The report additionally centers around the worldwide significant driving industry players of the market giving data, for example, organization profiles, product picture, and determination, limit, creation, value, cost, revenue, and contact data. The report shows an accurate portrayal of the geographical extent of the worldwide Nanomedicine market. It likewise incorporates depictions of focal points of famous products and the presentation of different products and services.

This report contemplates the top makers and customers, centers around product capacity, creation, esteem, utilization, portion of the overall industry, and development opportunity in these key areas, covering:

-North America(U.S., Canada, Mexico) -Europe(Germany, U.K., France, Italy, Russia, Spain, etc.) -Asia-Pacific(China, India, Japan, Southeast Asia, etc.) -South America(Brazil, Argentina, etc.) -Middle East & Africa(Saudi Arabia, South Africa, etc.)

Crucial Aspects of Report:

Top variables like revenue, supply-request proportion, market status, and market value are reflected. All the top market players are investigated with their competitive structure, advancement plans, and territorial presence. The divided market see dependent on product type, application, and area will give a more straightforward worldwide Nanomedicine market outline. The market outlook, gross margin study, price, and type analysis are clarified.

Segmentation of Nanomedicine Market:

Key Questions Answered in The Report:

What will the Nanomedicine market development rate? What are the key factors driving the worldwide Nanomedicine market Size? What are the key components driving the worldwide Nanomedicine market Share? Who are the Top key makers in Nanomedicine market space? What are the market opportunities, market hazard and market outline of the Nanomedicine Industry? What are deals, revenue, and value investigation of top producers of Nanomedicine market? Who are the merchants, brokers and sellers of Nanomedicine market? What are the Nanomedicine market opportunities and threats looked by the merchants in the worldwide Nanomedicine Industry? What are deals, revenue, and value analysis by types and applications as indicated by Nanomedicine Market Size? What are deals, revenue, and value investigation by districts of Nanomedicine Market Share?

The next 12 chapters describe the global Nanomedicine market:

Chapter 1,Includes the destinations of the Nanomedicine market by referencing the essential outline of the market, the principle definition, the extent of improvement of Nanomedicine, market fixation, and market development study

Chapter 2,Investigations the kinds of Nanomedicine, applications, territorial presence, market elements, key driving elements of Nanomedicine development, market development cutoff points, opportunities, and industry plans and procedures for 2015-2020;

Chapter 3,The business chain structure records Nanomedicines significant players, creation measure examines, cost structure, crude material analysis, work costs, promoting channels, and Nanomedicines downstream investigations.

Chapter 4,presents Nanomedicine Market by Type and Application dependent on an investigation of significant worth, portion of the overall industry, development rate, and cost from 2015-2020

Chapters; 5 And 6,Presents the investigation of Nanomedicine is led dependent on key region esteem, value, gross margin, use proportion, import-trade conditions, and creation capacity;

Chapters 7 and 8,Describe the market dependent on the SWOT analysis of every locale dissected in this investigation. The serious circumstance among the main Nanomedicine players is shown dependent on their organization profile, product introduction, value, gross margin, and presence of Nanomedicine industry in various regions;

Chapters 9 and 10,Show forecast market data dependent on cost and volume forecasts from 2021-2028. Likewise, Estimates of market worth and cost by area are remembered for this report;

Chapters 11 and 12,Study the practicality of the Nanomedicine business to dissect industry obstructions, developing business sector fragments, SWOT analysis of new contestants, investigator ideas. At last, the exploration discoveries, ends, our information sources and analysis strategies intended to get the Nanomedicine market number are introduced.

TOC Continued!https://www.industryandresearch.com/report/GlobalChina-Nanomedicine-Market-By-Business-Opportunity-Innovations-Upcoming-Trends-Growth-Analysis-Demand-Insight-Top-ManufacturersForecast-to-20202026/213809#tableandfigure

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Using Biodegradable Nanoparticles to Shut Down the Power Stations of Cancer Cells – SciTechDaily

§ July 17th, 2021 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Using Biodegradable Nanoparticles to Shut Down the Power Stations of Cancer Cells – SciTechDaily

Credit: Eindhoven University of Technology

New biodegradable nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy that enter cancer cells and shut down their mitochondria power stations co-designed by TU/e researchers.

An emerging nanomedicine cancer treatment involving the injection of tiny nanoparticles carrying compounds that can poison cancerous cells has many benefits. This so-called photodynamic therapy (PDT) is non-toxic and it doesnt involve invasive surgery. A team led by Jan van Hest from Eindhoven University of Technology in collaboration with researchers from China and the UK have designed a new PDT nanoparticle that attack cancerous cells in a novel way: they enter cells and shut down their power stations their mitochondria making the therapy much more effective. This new research has been published in Angewandte Chemie.

Imagine a city powered by a group of power stations. If all stations simultaneously shut down for reason, there will be a city-wide blackout. The city will come to a standstill, chaos might ensue, but most importantly, the city wont function as a city should.

Each cell in our body can be seen as a small city. Instead of buildings, a cell contains organelles like the nucleus and ribosomes. The power stations of cells are the mitochondria, which generate the fuel in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). If the mitochondria suddenly shut down, then the cell faces certain death whether its a healthy cell or a cancerous cell.

Thats exactly what Jan van Hest, who is leading the Institute for Complex Molecular Systems (ICMS) at TU/e, and his research team in collaboration with researchers from China and UK aimed for in a new approach for an emerging cancer treatment, called photodynamic therapy (PDT).

PDT is a non-toxic and non-invasive alternative to current treatments to eliminate cancer cells such as chemotherapy, radiation treatment, and elective surgery. For the patient, these treatments can have numerous side-effects that affect their quality of life, but fortunately, less abrasive options are in development.

In PDT, the patient is injected with tiny nanoparticles carrying photosensitizers (a material that reacts to light). When the nanoparticles gather near cancerous cells, they are illuminated with laser light and produce a specific form of oxygen, which is toxic for cancer cells and eventually leads to their death.

At TU/e, Jan van Hest and his research group have been making steady progress on improving the PDT approach, asdemonstrated by a study published in ACS Nano last year.

However, by designing PDT nanoparticles to enter the cancerous cells and disrupt their power-supplying mitochondria, the cells can be rapidly powered down and the effectiveness of the PDT treatment would be drastically increased. In other words, the nanoparticles could kill the cancer cells in a more targeted and faster way.

The main challenge with this research was figuring out how to get a PDT nanoparticle inside the cancerous cell and, once inside the cell, direct the nanoparticle to the mitochondria, says van Hest. Once near the mitochondria, the photosensitizer cargo of the nanoparticles can be activated using light, which then poisons the microenvironment of the mitochondria and shuts down the cells all-important power supply.

The team developed a way to fabricate the nanoparticles as biodegradable polymersomes, empty spheres that can carry drugs, proteins, or a photosensitizer.

However, unlike previous nanoparticles, the new versions are designed to fluoresce when the building blocks they are composed of are assembled.

This fluorescent process is known as aggregation-induced emission and the emission response makes it easier to track the location of the nanoparticles in tissue.

To rapidly direct the nanoparticles to the mitochondria inside the cell, the team attached pyridinium molecules to the surface of the nanoparticles. Once the nanoparticles collect at the mitochondria, their photosensitizer cargo can be activated with a laser light and effectively poison the microenvironment in the cancer cell. The new research has successfully demonstrated this process for bothin vitroandin vivoexperiments.

Nonetheless, van Hest is quick to point out that while PDT is a revolutionary new non-invasive treatment, there is still the need for other treatments. This work is a next step in the development of effective PDT nanoparticles. As a treatment it would work best in combination with existing therapies. Importantly, it would decrease the reliance on radiation treatments and chemotherapy, which can only be good for patients.

We are still in need of more selective and effective therapies to treat cancer. PDT has the potential to be selective and accurate in terms of targeting and eliminating cancerous cells, adds van Hest. This research shows that we can effectively design the materials needed to build self-assembled nanoparticles with high efficacy when it comes to killing cancerous cells.

Of course, these findings motivate further research and development on the nanoparticles, their tracking, and efficacy.

But when it comes to the mitochondria or power stations of cancer cells, their future is not looking very bright. Their lights just might be about to go out.

Reference: Biodegradable Polymersomes with Structure Inherent Fluorescence and Targeting Capacity for Enhanced Photo-Dynamic Therapy by Dr. Shoupeng Cao, Yifeng Xia, Dr. Jingxin Shao, Beibei Guo, Yangyang Dong, Dr. Imke A. B. Pijpers, Prof.Dr. Zhiyuan Zhong, Prof.Dr. Fenghua Meng, Dr. Loai K. E. A. Abdelmohsen, Dr. David S. Williams and Prof.Dr. Jan C. M. van Hest, 25 May 2021, Angewandte Chemie. DOI: 10.1002/anie.202105103

The paper was published in Angewandte Chemie on May 25th. TU/e researchers involved were Shoupeng Cao, Jingxin Shao, Imke Pijpers, Loai Abdelmohsen, and Jan van Hest, who are based in the departments of Biomedical Engineering and Chemical Engineering and Chemistry.

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A noninvasive test to detect cancer cells and pinpoint their location – MIT News

§ July 17th, 2021 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on A noninvasive test to detect cancer cells and pinpoint their location – MIT News

Most of the tests that doctors use to diagnose cancer such as mammography, colonoscopy, and CT scans are based on imaging. More recently, researchers have also developed molecular diagnostics that can detect specific cancer-associated molecules that circulate in bodily fluids like blood or urine.

MIT engineers have now created a new diagnostic nanoparticle that combines both of these features: It can reveal the presence of cancerous proteins through a urine test, and it functions as an imaging agent, pinpointing the tumor location. In principle, this diagnostic could be used to detect cancer anywhere in the body, including tumors that have metastasized from their original locations.

This is a really broad sensor intended to respond to both primary tumors and their metastases. It can trigger a urinary signal and also allow us to visualize where the tumors are, says Sangeeta Bhatia, the John and Dorothy Wilson Professor of Health Sciences and Technology and Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT and a member of MITs Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research and Institute for Medical Engineering and Science.

In a new study, Bhatia and her colleagues showed that the diagnostic could be used to monitor the progression of colon cancer, including the spread of metastatic tumors to the lung and the liver. Eventually, they hope it could be developed into a routine cancer test that could be performed annually.

Bhatia is the senior author of the study, which appears today in Nature Materials. The papers lead author is MIT research scientist Liangliang Hao.

Locating tumors

Over the past several years, Bhatia has been developing cancer diagnostics that work by generating synthetic biomarkers that can be easily detected in the urine. Most cancer cells express enzymes called proteases, which help them escape their original locations by cutting through proteins of the extracellular matrix. Bhatias cancer-detecting nanoparticles are coated with peptides that are cleaved by these proteases. When these particles encounter a tumor, the peptides are cleaved and excreted in the urine, where they can be easily detected. In animal models of lung cancer, these biomarkers can detect the presence of tumors early on; however, they dont reveal the exact location of the tumor or whether the tumor has spread beyond its organ of origin.

Building on their previous efforts, the MIT researchers wanted to develop what they call a multimodal diagnostic, which can perform both molecular screening (detecting the urinary signal) and imaging, to tell them exactly where the original tumor and any metastases are located.

To modify the particles so they could also be used for PET imaging, the researchers added a radioactive tracer called copper-64. They also coated them with a peptide that is attracted to acidic environments, such as the microenvironment in tumors, to induce the particles to accumulate at tumor sites. Once they reach a tumor, these peptides insert themselves into cell membranes, creating a strong imaging signal above background noise.

The researchers tested the diagnostic particles in two mouse models of metastatic colon cancer, in which tumor cells travel to and grow in the liver or the lungs. After treatment with a chemotherapy drug commonly used to treat colon cancer, the researchers were able to use both the urine signal and the imaging agent to track how the tumors responded to treatment.

The researchers also found that delivering copper-64 with their nanoparticles offers an advantage over the strategy that is typically used for PET imaging. The PET tracer, known as FDG, is a radioactive form of glucose that is taken up by metabolically active cells, including cancer cells. However, the heart generates a bright PET signal when exposed to FDG, and that signal can obscure weaker signals from nearby lung tumors. Using acid-sensitive nanoparticles to accumulate Copper-64 in the tumor environment provides a much clearer image of lung tumors, the researchers found.

Toward cancer screening

If approved for use in human patients, Bhatia envisions that this kind of diagnostic could be useful for evaluating how well patients respond to treatment, and for long-term monitoring of tumor recurrence or metastasis, especially for colon cancer.

Those patients could be monitored with the urinary version of the test every six months, for instance. If the urine test is positive, they could follow up with a radioactive version of the same agent for an imaging study that could indicate where the disease had spread. We also believe the regulatory path may be accelerated with both modes of testing leveraging a single formulation, Bhatia says.

In the longer term, she hopes that this technology could be used as part of a diagnostic workflow that could be given periodically to detect any kind of cancer.

The vision is that you could use this in a screening paradigm alone or in conjunction with other tests and we could collectively reach patients that do not have access to costly screening infrastructure today, she says. Every year you could get a urine test as part of a general check-up. You would do an imaging study only if the urine test turns positive to then find out where the signal is coming from. We have a lot more work to do on the science to get there, but that's where we would like to go in the long run.

Glympse Bio, a company co-founded by Bhatia, has performed phase 1 clinical trials of an earlier version of the urinary diagnostic particles and found them to be safe in patients.

The research was funded by the Koch Institute Support (core) Grant from the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the Koch Institutes Marble Center for Cancer Nanomedicine, and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

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COVID-19 Variants: What the Future Could Look Like After the Pandemic – Yahoo Finance

§ July 17th, 2021 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on COVID-19 Variants: What the Future Could Look Like After the Pandemic – Yahoo Finance

Photo by Martin Sanchez on Unsplash

Since the coronavirus pandemic shut down the world, scientists have clamored to develop vaccines to prevent the spread and medicines that will cure the sick. But a virus main goal is to replicate and infect, so the virus can mutate to survive and continue on its journey. Looking at the coronavirus, youll see it has several mutations, including the most recently talked about delta variant sweeping over India and invading the rest of the globe.

This delta variant is about 4 times more transmissible and also more severe than the original Wuhan strain or the A-lineage. And Pfizer (NYSE: PFE), Moderna (NASDAQ: MRNA) and Johnson & Johnson (NYSE: JNJ) have come out to proclaim their respective vaccines effectiveness against this and other variants that cause COVID-19. In fact, real world scenarios in India show the effectiveness of the vaccines around 65% effective as opposed to the presumed 95%. Thats a significant decrease. But no matter the percentage rate effectiveness of the vaccines, the only way to win the battles to come is to develop effective therapeutics to complement the them.

Variants Now and to Come

The first strain of the coronavirus coming out of Wuhan is known as the A-lineage. Since the beginning, this highly variable RNA virus mutated to enhance its effectiveness at infecting the population, thereby creating the B-lineage, which includes everything from D614G to the current delta version.

Now, in Peru, medical professionals identified the start of a new lineage C. That lineage includes the Lambda variant, which could be more deadly than the previous variants of SARS-CoV-2, although the evidence to support that is insufficient at this time. That said, there is no way to stop the virus from mutating again and again into more deadly strains.

So, NanoViricides (NYSE: NNVC), a global leader in nanomedicine, decided to work on medicines to treat and heal the disease no matter the mutation. And the drug already showed its oral effectiveness in animal models. It is moving as fast as possible to keep up with the prolific virus to get society to a point where it can live with something that looks like its here to stay. In addition to NanoViricides, other drugs are in the works to continue the fight against the coronavirus and its variants. These include Merck's molnupiravir, which received several billion dollars in government funding and failed Phase 2 of clinical studies, and Pfizer's oral antiviral protease inhibitor PF-07321332/ritonavir combination soon expected to enter Phase 2 clinical trials.

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After the Pandemics end

The truth is, people are waiting for the pandemic to end, but SARS-CoV-2 and its variants will more than likely become endemic as it keeps coming back in more mutated versions for the foreseeable future. As UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson points out, the population will have to learn to live with it.

Because of the social and economic impact the virus has had, its unreasonable to think the entire world will continue to shut down indefinitely. As a global society, thats not a sustainable existence. The better idea is to use vaccinations to limit the spread while developing therapeutics to treat the COVID-19 disease caused by the virus. That way, people can coexist with the coronavirus and get back to the kind of life society so desperately craves.

See more from Benzinga

2021 Benzinga.com. Benzinga does not provide investment advice. All rights reserved.

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Mcr-1: the potentially untreatable superbug being transmitted by dogs – The Week UK

§ July 17th, 2021 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Mcr-1: the potentially untreatable superbug being transmitted by dogs – The Week UK

Dogs are infecting their owners with a superbug that could becomeresistance to last-resort antibiotic colistin, new research suggests.

The Telegraphreports that scientists are warning of a potentialnightmare scenario after discovering thatthe mcr-1 gene can be passed on to humans by sharing beds with dogs. The gene is harboured in the gut and transported via microscopic fecal particles, also making dog baskets an area of increased risk, says the newspaper.

Reseachers at the University of Lisbon took faecal samples from 126 healthy people from a total of 80 households who between them lived with 102 cats and dogs. Over a period of two years up to February 2020, eight dogs and four people were found to be carrying mcr-1.

And intwo households, the mcr-1 gene was found in both the dog and the owner, according to the scientists, who presented their findingsat the European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases online conference this weekend.

First reported in China in 2015, the gene confers resistance to colistin, an antibiotic of last resort used to treat infections from some bacteria resistant to all other antibiotics, saysMedical Xpress. The nightmare scenario that could emerge is mcr-1 combining with alreadydrug-resistant bacteriato create a truly untreatable infection, the health news site continues.

Experts have been warning for years that the overuse of colistin,especially on meat-farmed animals, risks the rise of mutant genes that could make the drug useless in humans, The Telegraph reports.

Colistin is used when all other antibiotics have failed, it is a crucial treatment of last resort, said Dr Juliana Menezes, who led the research.If bacteria resistant to all drugs acquire this resistance gene, they would become untreatable, and thats a scenario we must avoid at all costs.

We know that the overuse of antibiotics drives resistance and it is vital that they are used responsibly, not just in medicine but also in veterinary medicine and in farming.

The use of antibiotics in farming is believed to be fuellinga growing crisis ofantimicrobial resistance that is estimated tokill 700,000 people a year globally - and that is forecast to kill tenmillion a year by 2050 if left unchecked, says The Telegraph.

The World Health Organizationhas describedantibiotic resistance as one of the biggest threats to global health, food security, and development today.

In a bid to tackle the growing problem, the EU isbanning the routine preventive use of antibiotics in farm animals from next year, astheFinancial Timesreported earlier this year.China has prohibited the use of Colistin in animal feed since 2017, and the US has also introduced regulations aimed at cuttingantibiotic use.

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Dog owners warned not to share a bed with their pets due to deadly superbug – The Mirror

§ July 17th, 2021 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Dog owners warned not to share a bed with their pets due to deadly superbug – The Mirror

Dogs owners are being urged to stop sharing a bed with their furry friends to try and stop an untreatable superbug.

The mcr-1 gene is believed to transfer from animals to humans and it can build resistance to life-saving drugs.

Drug-resistant infections kill an estimated 700,000 people a year worldwide, and the UN warns that could rise to 10million by 2050 if nothing is done.

Boffins are now warning of an instance where humans can pick up the bug.

It was first identified in China in 2015.

Dog lovers have been urged to not regularly share beds with their pooches because they harbour mcr-1 in the gut before its transported via microscopic fecal particles.

Do you share your bed with your dog? Let us know in the comments below

Dog beds can also be a risk because of frequent contact with humans.

A study at the University of Lisbon found that in two of the households where dogs had tissue infections, the gene was present in the dog and the owner.

Fecal samples were taken from 126 healthy people that were living with 102 cats and dogs in 80 households over a period of two years up to February 2020.

It was found that eight of the dogs and four humans were hosting bacteria including mcr-1.

The results also showed that three of the dogs appeared to be healthy and the others had tissue or urinary tract infections.

The findings were presented at the European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Conference over the weekend.

Experts told attendees that agricultural regions particularly in southern European countries that use colistin will be less likely to contract the mcr-1 gene.

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Dr Juliana Menezes, who led the research, said: Colistin is used when all other antibiotics have failed, it is a crucial treatment of last resort.

If bacteria resistant to all drugs acquire this resistance gene, they would become untreatable, and thats a scenario we must avoid at all costs.

We know that the overuse of antibiotics drives resistance and it is vital that they are used responsibly, not just in medicine but also in veterinary medicine and in farming.

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Dog owners warned not to share a bed with their pets due to deadly superbug - The Mirror

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The Health Benefits and Risks of Coconut Oil – Livestrong

§ July 17th, 2021 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on The Health Benefits and Risks of Coconut Oil – Livestrong

In This Article

Although coconut oil has some benefits, most of its purported uses are not backed by science.

Image Credit: klenova/iStock/GettyImages

Coconut oil exploded in popularity over the past decade, but some of its claims to fame have since been questioned or entirely debunked.

That said, coconut oil does provide some health benefits if you use it in moderation or under your doctor's guidance. Here's everything you need to know about coconut oil's benefits, unsupported claims and potential dangers.

It's not ideal for every type of topical use and should be eaten in moderation but coconut oil may have some benefits as a remedy for certain health issues. Of course, always consult your doctor before trying to treat a condition at home.

Itchy ears are quite common and often caused by infection, psoriasis or dermatitis, per The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. Some people make it worse by using things like bobby pins, coat hangers or toothpicks to scratch inside the ear. (Note: Never do this, as it can harm your ear canal and lead to infection.)

When there isn't evidence of trauma or infection, your itchy ear can be treated with a mild steroid ear drop. Your doctor may also recommend the use of 70 percent alcohol as an ear drop, per the University.

Coconut oil is also a common home remedy for itchy ears (and other causes of itching like boils, for that matter), but it's important to consult with your doctor first to determine the cause of the itching. Virgin coconut oil can reduce the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus that tends to colonize skin with atopic dermatitis (eczema), per a November 2008 study in Dermatitis. In other words, its antibacterial properties may be helpful in treating itchy skin caused by eczema.

Your doctor will determine if you should use coconut oil for ear itching and the cause of your itchiness, whether it's eczema, flaky skin in the ear canal, dry skin inside the ears or something else.

Itchy ears can also be caused by wax buildup. Coconut oil is often touted as a home remedy for ear wax, but the Mayo Clinic actually recommends something else:

You may need to repeat this procedure a few times to eliminate excess ear wax. Your doctor may need to remove larger amounts of wax buildup for you.

Can You Use Coconut Oil for an Ear Infection?

Some people recommend coconut oil as a natural treatment for an earache or fungal ear infection, especially when mixed with a few drops of essential oil. However, theres not enough research available to say with certainty that this remedy works. If you have recurrent ear infections, talk to your doctor before putting coconut oil in your ear.

Ear infections can be caused by a range of issues, including allergies, sinusitis, swimming, injuries, bacterial infections or following upper-respiratory illnesses, per Weill Cornell Medicine. Its important to get medical help quickly to avoid a ruptured eardrum, hearing loss, balance function or even facial inflammation and paralysis caused by ear infections, rather than relying on DIYs like coconut oil.

Coconut oil can last longer and create less of a mess than other types of cooking oils when used as a sexual lubricant, per UnityPoint Health. However, it can degrade latex and make it less protective, so you should select another lubricant if you are also using diaphragms or condoms.

Unfortunately, coconut oil isn't a cure for wrinkles.

Image Credit: privetik/iStock/GettyImages

The internet is teeming with claims about coconut oil that simply aren't backed by science. Here's what to know about uses for coconut oil that are not proven based on current research.

If you're having recurrent constipation, it's best to see your doctor to determine the underlying cause. Depending on what's causing your constipation, your doctor may recommend diet and lifestyle changes or natural laxatives including those made with mineral oil to help stool move through your colon more easily, per the Mayo Clinic.

But does coconut oil help with constipation? Some bloggers may recommend it, but there isn't enough evidence to show that this is an effective home remedy for constipation, and it's not widely recommended by health organizations. In other words, it's not yet certain if coconut oil can really help you poop, relieve constipation or increase bowel movements.

If you want to make dietary changes to help with your constipation, your best bet is to increase your fiber intake, which increases the weight of stool and makes it move through your intestines more quickly, per the Mayo Clinic.

Try to eat more fresh fruits and vegetables each day, and opt for whole-grain breads and cereals (just be careful to increase the amount of these foods in your diet slowly, because upping your fiber too quickly can actually cause constipation, too).

While coconut oil may help with general itching, it's certainly not enough to effectively treat scabies. Human scabies is caused when your skin is infested by the human itch mite (Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis), per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This microscopic mite burrows into the upper layer of the skin and lays its eggs, which can cause intense itching and a pimple-like skin rash.

Treatments called scabicides that kill scabies mites and sometimes mite eggs in humans are only available with a doctor's prescription, per the CDC. There are no over-the-counter products that have been tested and approved to treat scabies, and coconut oil for mites is not a recommended remedy.

Scabies infestations are very uncomfortable, due to the intense itching that results from the activation of the immune system in response to mites, mite eggs and mite waste. While coconut oil may help ease the itch in the short term while you wait to see your doctor or fill your prescription, it is not an effective treatment or cure for scabies.

What About Coconut Oil for Ringworm?

On the note of uncomfortable, itchy conditions: Talk to your doctor if youre curious about using coconut oil for ringworm and its symptoms, such as itchy and red skin. Although coconut oil is recommended by some people for ringworm, the treatment you use will depend on its location on your body and how serious it is, per the CDC. Some forms of ringworm need prescription antifungal medication.

There is no cure for herpes, per the CDC. Antiviral medications can prevent or shorten outbreaks, and daily suppressive therapy for herpes can reduce your likelihood of transmission to partners, but you certainly can't rely on coconut oil.

This purported use for coconut oil may stem from its potential antiviral properties, but there simply isn't enough evidence to back this up. Coconut oil is made up of about 50 percent 12-carbon lauric acid, and when that's digested, it produces monolaurin (both of which can kill bacteria, viruses and fungi), per SCL Health. However, scientists aren't sure the human body can produce monolaurin from coconut oil.

But what about coconut oil for cold sores, which are caused by the herpes simplex virus? Cold sores typically go away without treatment within two to four weeks, but there are several types of prescription antiviral medications to expedite the healing process, per the Mayo Clinic (which does not include coconut oil as a recommended home remedy for cold sores).

You can try over-the-counter cold sore remedies that contain a drying agent like alcohol or a cream combining rhubarb and sage. Propolis, or synthetic beeswax, is also available as a remedy and can shorten the duration of a breakout.

In short, there's no clear evidence that coconut oil helps herpes sores or blisters, even if it does have antiviral properties.

In 1996, Peter D'Adamo published Eat Right for Your Type, a book based on the idea that people with different blood types thrive on different kinds of diets. If you ask D'Adamo, coconut oil is good for blood group O. However, there's no real scientific evidence to support his claims.

Researchers have looked into the Blood Type Diet and found that while many people do report benefits when following the diet, it's unrelated to their blood type and, instead, is a result of incorporating new healthy dietary and lifestyle changes.

Researchers concluded that no evidence currently exists to validate the purported health benefits of blood type diets in a May 2013 systematic review in the The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

Following the Blood Type Diet could improve certain health markers like triglycerides, insulin levels and cholesterol, but it's unrelated to blood type, per a January 2014 review in PLOS One.

The effects of coconut oil on heart health are widely debated. A February 2015 study in Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism that was done on rodents found that coconut oil and exercise training combined helped improve blood pressure levels, but that's not enough to say that you should load up on the fatty stuff to improve your heart health.

Some people will tout how coconut oil is a miracle cure for heart health or weight loss because of its "special type" of saturated fat, but health organizations still don't recommend it.

Coconut oil is extremely high in saturated fat (50 percent higher than butter), per the Mayo Clinic. Even though saturated fat is known to raise cholesterol levels, which is linked to heart disease, champions of coconut oil believe that some of coconut's saturated fats called medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) are good for you and may raise levels of beneficial HDL cholesterol.

However, coconut oil has been found to increase both good and bad cholesterol levels more than other plant-based oils like olive or canola, per the Mayo Clinic. And those fancy MCTs you hear about are only a small part of the total fatty acids in coconut oil.

High blood pressure and high cholesterol are linked, because clogged-up arteries mean the heart has to work harder to pump blood (which may raise blood pressure), per the Cleveland Clinic. Because of this, coconut oil could raise your blood pressure in the long run.

Based on the current research, it's best to opt for heart-healthy fats like olive oil, canola oil or the healthy omega-3s found in nuts and seafood. There is not enough evidence to say that coconut oil is good for high blood pressure or can lower your blood pressure, and it may in fact do the opposite.

What About Coconut Oil for Energy?

The MCT fats in coconut oil may help to boost thermogenesis and/or fat burning in the body. Because they can enter your cells without breaking down, MCTs can be used as a source of energy right away, per a June 2016 study in the Journal of Lipid Research.

Thats why when you look up how to use coconut oil or more generally what to do with coconut oil, some athletes will recommend you use coconut oil on toast, put coconut oil in protein shakes or have MCT oil before a workout.

However, there are not enough long-term studies that show theres a need for most people to use MCT oil.

If youre interested in feeling more energized naturally, talk to your doctor. There are several ways to do so, including controlling your stress, exercising, eating a healthy diet, limiting alcohol and drinking water, per Harvard Health Publishing.

Coconut oil is often touted to help with wrinkles, smoker's lines and other signs of aging, but there isn't clear evidence to support that coconut oil is good for wrinkles on the face.

Instead, common ingredients that might result in some improvement in the appearance of your skin include retinoids, vitamin C, hydroxy acids, coenzyme Q10, peptides, tea extracts, grape seed extract and niacinamide but most over-the-counter wrinkle creams will only slightly improve the appearance of your skin, per the Mayo Clinic.

Some people say a coconut oil face massage can be beneficial. But while the oil may give the appearance of smoothing out lines, it doesn't penetrate the skin or produce collagen, per the skin care company Skin Resource.MD. It also has one of the highest comedogenic ratings, meaning it can clog your pores easily, which could be an issue for sensitive or blemish-prone skin. This is one of coconut oil's disadvantages for skin.

The best ways to reduce premature skin aging include protecting your skin with broad-spectrum, SPF 30 (or higher) sunscreen every day, refraining from smoking, eating a healthy and well-balanced diet, drinking less alcohol, exercising most days, cleansing your skin gently twice a day and applying moisturizer daily, per the American Academy of Dermatology Association.

Pink eye, or conjunctivitis, causes red and swollen eyes (sometimes with discharge). It occurs when your conjunctiva the clear tissue covering the white part of your eyes is irritated by allergies or an infection, per the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO). Naturally, you may want to know how to fix pink eye fast.

Most pink eye will resolve itself in a week or two, but you need to see a doctor right away if you're in pain, having trouble seeing or becoming sensitive to light. You should also see a doctor if your symptoms have continued for a week or more, your eye is producing a lot of pus or mucus or if you have other infection symptoms like fever or aches, per the AAO.

Although coconut oil is sometimes touted as one of the home remedies for a pink-eye infection, there's not enough research to prove its effectiveness, and it could potentially make the eye condition worse, according to the AAO. Instead, the organization recommends the following:

It probably doesn't hurt to try coconut oil on your armpits, but there isn't any clear evidence that coconut oil is effective against Staphylococcus hominis, the type of bacteria responsible for creating stinky underarm odor.

In other words, some people say coconut oil can be used as deodorant but just because it's been shown to be mildly antibacterial doesn't mean putting coconut oil on your underarms can protect against the specific type of bacteria that cause odors.

Coconut oil could actually be a hazard in the bathroom.

Image Credit: Photo by Joel Sharpe/Moment/GettyImages

Home remedies can be fun to try, but coconut oil can come with its own dangers. Here's what to keep in mind when you try using coconut oil at home.

One tablespoon of coconut oil contains 11.2 grams of saturated fat, per the USDA, which is the primary drawback of eating this oil.

The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends getting no more than 5 to 6 percent of your calories from saturated fat, which equates to about 120 calories (or 13 grams) of saturated fat per day for a 2,000-calorie diet. The AHA does not make exceptions for the MCT fats found in coconut oil.

Replacing foods that are high in saturated fat with healthier options can help lower blood cholesterol levels, per the AHA. That means replacing tropical oils like coconut oil or palm oil with healthier sources like olive oil.

Coconut oil is invisible on surfaces and very slippery. Because of this, it may be risky to use coconut oil in the shower. (What's more, coconut oil can harden in pipes when they cool and can cause blockages, per AMLI Residential.) Any spills should be cleaned promptly to prevent slips and falls.

Coconut oil may not be part of a healthy diet that prevents gallstones, which are hard pieces of material typically made of cholesterol or bilirubin that form in your gallbladder, per the National Institutes of Health (NIH). They can cause sudden pain and serious complications if left untreated.

Chronic alcohol abuse, viral C cirrhosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are the underlying liver diseases most commonly associated with gallstones, per a June 2014 study in the World Journal of Gastroenterology. Foods high in saturated fat like coconut may not be good for your liver, either: Saturated fat can harm the human liver more than unsaturated fats or simple sugars, per an August 2018 study in Diabetes Care.

Note that gallstones are different from gallbladder sludge, a thick material that can't be absorbed by bile and builds up in the gallbladder often in pregnant people or those who have lost weight very quickly, per Johns Hopkins Medicine.

To prevent gallstones, the NIH recommends eating healthy fats like fish oil and olive oil, which will help your gallbladder contract and empty on a regular basis. (A fatty diet can lead to gallstones, and remember, coconut oil is very high in saturated fat). It's also a good idea to eat more fiber-rich foods and fewer refined carbohydrates and sugar.

If coconut oil is a regular part of your diet, consider healthier cooking options to manage your fat intake and weight and to prevent gallstones.

You should see a doctor right away if you have symptoms during or after a gallbladder attack, which may include pain in your abdomen lasting several hours, nausea and vomiting, fever or chills, yellowish color of you skin or whites of your eyes, tea-colored urine or light-colored stools, per the NIH.

If you see a jar of coconut oil labeled as "partially hydrogenated," it's best to avoid it. Although coconut oil mostly contains saturated fats, sometimes its small amount of unsaturated fats are hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated, per the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.

This is done to extend shelf life and maintain a solid texture even in warm temperatures, but the process creates trans fats, which should always be avoided.

Trans fat is the worst fat for your health, per the National Library of Medicine. Too much trans fat increases your risk of heart disease and other health issues by raising your LDL (bad) cholesterol, lowering HDL (good) cholesterol and causing weight gain. Your body doesn't need trans fat, so eat as little as possible.

Saturated fat has long been a coconut oil health controversy (with many people recommending it despite a lack of evidence), but one thing is clear: Hydrogenated coconut oil and its trans fat are a danger for your health.

If you want to use coconut oil in your everyday cooking, do so in moderation. The AHA recommends opting instead for unsaturated oils such as canola, corn, olive, soybean and safflower.

A serving size of coconut oil is 1 tablespoon, but keep in mind that this equates to 56 percent of your daily value for saturated fat and 121 calories.

Talk to your doctor about dosage if you're using coconut oil topically as a home remedy or treatment.

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Here Are Stretches and Yoga Moves That Can Help Scoliosis – msnNOW

§ July 17th, 2021 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Here Are Stretches and Yoga Moves That Can Help Scoliosis – msnNOW

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Scoliosis, a condition that involves a curvature of the spine, affects about six to nine million people in the United States.

The abnormal spinal curvature that defines scoliosis often occurs laterally (or to one side), in an S- or C-shape, according to the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS).

Depending on the degree of curvature, some people's daily lives may not be dramatically affected, while others may have aches, pain, or other problems.

That's why it's helpful to know about scoliosis stretches and yoga moves that might help scoliosis.

While anyone can get scoliosis, and experts aren't positive what causes the issue, it usually occurs in children 11 years old or older and happens in girls more often than boys.

Many people find out they have scoliosis in school when getting their spine alignment checked by a school nurse or doctor, says Loren Fishman, MD, director of Manhattan Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.

Other times, someone might experience pain, often in the lower ribs or the back, typically (but not always) on the side that's bulging.

A patient might also notice that their clothes don't fit quite right, Dr. Fishman says. Those who are older may also experience degenerative scoliosis, which might come with side effects like breathing issues or strains in heart function, Dr. Fishman adds.

An X-ray will confirm a scoliosis diagnosis.

While scoliosis doesn't typically limit someone's ability to live a normal life, it can affect a patient's range of motion in all directions, says physical therapist Peter Bowman, assistant professor in the department of physical therapy and rehabilitation science at the University of Maryland School of Medicine.

These limitations can show up due to a prominent shoulder blade, a rib hump, or shoulder and or pelvic asymmetries, causing one hip to be higher than the other.

"This may lead to discomfort or difficulty with movement that requires twisting and turning, reaching, and cardiovascular endurance," Bowman says. "Commonly, this causes difficulty walking, lifting, carrying objects, or participating in sports."

(Here are the signs you have a muscle imbalance.)

Sometimes scoliosis just requires monitoring the curve in the spine, so it doesn't get worse.

For other patients, it might require a brace, physical therapy, or in some cases, surgery. (Read more about the scoliosis treatments here.)

Bowman says strengthening the core and ensuring proper spine positioning can help those with scoliosis experience less pain and limitations.

"Generally, it is recommended to remain active and identify activities that do not aggravate an individual's symptoms," he says.

A physical therapist can help determine stretches and exercises that work best for each individual and how and when to do them.

"Physical therapy may also help to increase balance, spine mobility, and cardiovascular conditioning," he adds.

"Strengthening and stretching for the mid- and lower-back, hips and shoulders may help with an individual's symptoms as well."

To explain the benefits of these yoga stretches for scoliosis and strengthening the body to counteract the curve, Dr. Fishman says to think of the body as a tent pole, with many lines pulling down on all sides to keep the pole upright.

"We're vertical because muscles pull us symmetrically," he says. "But if the muscles on one side are stronger or the lines tighter, then the pole would curve to one side."

If they pull to the right, then the ribs on the left would splay out.

"So if you look at scoliosis as strength on one side, then we want to strengthen the convex side," or the outer angle, he explains.

Ingrid Yang, MD, a yoga instructor and physician, says since postural muscles are integral in causing scoliosis, strength, and endurance are the main goals in non-surgical treatment of scoliosis.

Dr. Fishman often incorporates yoga exercises into his work with patients and has studied the practice's effects on the spine's curve.

According to one of his studies published in Global Advances in Health and Medicine, the side plank pose, in particular (done on the side opposite the bulge), works to lower the degree of the curve.

Another one of Dr. Fishman's studies, also published in Global Advances in Health and Medicine, supports the idea of practicing side plank, along with half-moon pose.

Dr. Yang also mentions isometric yoga postures may help reduce the asymmetrical curvature that causes scoliosis and aches associated with the condition.

Dr. Fishman does suggest working with a professional to make sure you're performing the moves correctly and in a way that will help the curvature, even if you're familiar with these exercises.

The best way to determine what exercises to avoid is to work with a professional, according to all the experts we spoke to.

Someone who knows your body, and specific scoliosis symptoms and curvature, can better help you with the aches and pains you might be feeling, while protecting you from making the curvature, and any symptoms, worse.

Dr. Fishman also cautions against focusing on increasing flexibility or range of motion.

"Stretching to increase range of motion can also increase spinal curves," he says. "Don't try to become more flexible. Instead, concentrate on strengthening the convex side of the curve or curves."

Next, check out the best mattresses for people with scoliosis.

The post Here Are Stretches and Yoga Moves That Can Help Scoliosis appeared first on The Healthy.

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Quantware Launches the World’s First Commercially Available Superconducting Quantum Processors, Accelerating the Advent of the Quantum Computer. -…

§ July 17th, 2021 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Quantware Launches the World’s First Commercially Available Superconducting Quantum Processors, Accelerating the Advent of the Quantum Computer. -…

Delft, Netherlands -- July 15, 2021 -- Today Dutch startup QuantWare has launched the worlds first commercially available superconducting processor for quantum computers (QPU). This is the first time superconducting quantum processors have been available off the shelf, a development with the potential to significantly accelerate the quantum computing revolution.

Quantum technology promises to significantly expand the amount of data computers are able to process, which could have huge implications for fields such as A.I., medicine, business intelligence, and cybersecurity. But the quantum industry is still young and scaling is difficult. Companies building parts for quantum computers need qubits, the microscopic objects that make quantum computing possible, but it is often cost prohibitive for them to produce them themselves. QuantWares superconducting QPUs eliminate that barrier and may be instrumental in accelerating the development of the quantum computer market.

Superconducting is the leading and most mature approach to quantum processors - Google achieved quantum supremacy in 2019 using superconducting QPUs. While other QPUs are already available off the shelf, this is the first time a superconducting QPU has been easily available in productised form, leveling the playing field for quantum experimentation.

QuantWares proprietary product, Soprano, is a 5-qubit QPU. In an article published by Ars Technica, QuantWare shared that the fidelities of each qubit will be 99.9 percent, which should keep the error rate manageable. 5 qubits is sufficient for the immediate customer base QuantWare expects to attract, namely research institutions and university labs.

The race towards useful Quantum Computation is heating up, but still reserved to a small group of companies. By making QPUs more available, we will speed up the development of practical quantum-driven solutions to the worlds biggest problems. said QuantWare co-founder Dr. Alessandro Bruno.

Another way to achieve Quantum Advantage is by designing a chip specifically for a particular application. The startup wants to exploit this by making co-designed QPUs together with software companies to allow them to develop processors specialized in their algorithms.

QuantWare was founded in 2020 by quantum engineer Dr. Alessandro Bruno and Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) graduate MSc Matthijs Rijlaarsdam. They met while doing research at QuTech, a quantum technology research institute at TU Delft in the Netherlands. The company recently closed their pre-seed funding round, meaning the company has now raised 1.15M. They plan to quickly expand their team and upgrade their processors towards higher qubit numbers. One of their growth goals for the rest of the year is to expand fabrication capabilities and partnerships - QuantWare hopes to become a collaborative bridge between quantum companies worldwide. The company is already looking for new operational facilities, as they expect to outgrow their current building within months. QuantWares first two products, Crescendo and Soprano, are now available for pre-order.

Investors

About QuantWare

QuantWare builds super-conducting quantum processors and related hardware. The processors lie at the heart of quantum computers and are crucial for conducting research in this field. By providing processors, QuantWare is making quantum research accessible to researchers and startups. The company also develops technology that will increase the computational power of processors beyond current restrictions. QuantWares innovations are creating a new standard for quantum processors.

About UNIIQ

UNIIQ is a 22 million investment fund focused on the proof-of-concept phase, which helps entrepreneurs in West Holland bring their unique innovation to market faster. UNIIQ offers entrepreneurs the seed capital to achieve their plans and bridge the riskiest phase from concept to promising business. A consortium, including Erasmus MC, TU Delft, Leiden University and the regional development agency InnovationQuarter, created the fund. In 2021, Erasmus University Rotterdam also joined the fund. UNIIQ is made possible by the European Union, the Province of South Holland and the municipalities of Rotterdam, The Hague and Leiden. InnovationQuarter is responsible for the fund management.

About FORWARD.one

FORWARD.one is a VC fund focussed on investing in high-tech start-ups and scale-ups. With a team of financial professionals and technology entrepreneurs, FORWARD.one actively supports its portfolio companies to achieve their goals and ambitions. After successfully deploying the first fund in 11 promising start-ups, FORWARD.one has recently launched its second fund with a size of 100m. With this fund FORWARD.one will continue to invest in ambitious high-tech entrepreneurs and their companies. https://www.forward.one/

About Rabobank Startup & Scale-up Team

Start-ups and scale-ups are the innovators of the economy, contributing significantly to solving societal challenges, and are the main engine for economic growth and employment in the Netherlands. This target group therefore represents great commercial and strategic value for Rabobank. The Startup & Scale-up Team helps entrepreneurs who share this mission to grow sustainably by opening up their (international) network, by providing knowledge and funding.

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‘Soft’ Graphene-Containing Electrodes That Adapt to Living Tissue – Printed Electronics World

§ July 4th, 2021 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on ‘Soft’ Graphene-Containing Electrodes That Adapt to Living Tissue – Printed Electronics World

Researchers from The University of Manchester and Harvard University have collaborated on a pioneering project in bioengineering, producing metal-free, hydrogel electrodes that flex to fit the complex shapes inside the human body.

Replacing rigid metals

Tringides and Mooney, in collaboration with the Nanomedicine Lab in Manchester, identified a mixture of graphene flakes and carbon nanotubes as the best conductive filler, replacing the use of traditional rigid metals.

Cinzia Casiraghi, Professor of Nanoscience from the NGI and Department of Chemistry at Manchester, said: "This work demonstrates that high-quality graphene dispersions - made in water by a simple process based on a molecule that one can buy from any chemical supply - have strong potential in bioelectronics. We are very interested in exploiting our graphene (and other 2D materials) inks in this field."

Collaborative effort

Kostas Kostarelos, Professor of Nanomedicine and leader of the Nanomedicine Lab, added: "This truly collaborative effort between three institutions is a step forward in the development of softer, more adaptable and electroactive devices, where traditional technologies based on bulk and rigid materials cannot be applied to soft tissues such as the brain."

Source: University of Manchester

Top image source: Wyss Institute at Harvard University

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Global Nanomedicine Market Segmentation Along With (Covid 19 Impact Analysis) Regional Outlook, Competitive Strategies, Factors Contributing To Growth…

§ June 20th, 2021 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Global Nanomedicine Market Segmentation Along With (Covid 19 Impact Analysis) Regional Outlook, Competitive Strategies, Factors Contributing To Growth…

The NANOMEDICINE market research report includes a thorough analysis of the market drivers, restraints, threats, and opportunities while it also addresses the lucrative investment options for the market players in the coming years. This analysis gives an examination of various segments that are relied upon to witness the quickest development amid the estimate forecast frame. All the statistics are signified in graphical and tabular format for a clear understanding on facts and figures. By accomplishing an inspiration from the marketing strategies of rivals, businesses can set up inventive ideas and striking sales targets which in turn make them achieve competitive advantage over its competitors.

This market report includes a comprehensive evaluation of the markets growth prospects and restrictions. All this information is supplied in such a way that it properly gives explanation of various facts and figures to the business. A DBMR team uses simple language and easy to understand statistical images to provide thorough information and in-depth data on the ABC industry and NANOMEDICINE market. Market estimations along with the statistical nuances included in this market report give an insightful view of the market. This NANOMEDICINE market research report also gives widespread study about different market segments and regions.

Global nanomedicine market is registering a healthy CAGR of 15.50% in the forecast period of 2019-2026. This rise in the market value can be attributed to increasing number of applications and wide acceptance of the product globally. There is a significant rise in the number of researches done in this field which accelerate growth of nanomedicine market globally.

Get Sample Report + All Related Graphs & Charts @ https://www.databridgemarketresearch.com/request-a-sample/?dbmr=global-nanomedicine-market

Key Market Competitors

Few of the major market competitors currently working in the global nanomedicine market are Abbott, Invitae Corporation, General Electric Company, Leadiant Biosciences, Inc., Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc., Mallinckrodt, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., NanoSphere Health Sciences, Inc., Pfizer Inc., CELGENE CORPORATION, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Gilead Sciences, Inc., Amgen Inc., Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, AbbVie Inc., Novartis AG, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Luminex Corporation, Eli Lilly and Company, Nanobiotix, Sanofi, UCB S.A., Ablynx among others.

Competitive Landscape

Global nanomedicine market is highly fragmented and the major players have used various strategies such as new product launches, expansions, agreements, joint ventures, partnerships, acquisitions, and others to increase their footprints in this market. The report includes market shares of nanomedicine market for global, Europe, North America, Asia-Pacific, South America and Middle East & Africa.

Key Insights in the report:

Complete and distinct analysis of the market drivers and restraints

Key Market players involved in this industry

Detailed analysis of the Market Segmentation

Competitive analysis of the key players involved

Market Drivers are Restraints

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Market Segmentation:-

By Product Type

By Application

By Indication

By Modality

To comprehend Global Nanomedicine market dynamics in the world mainly, the worldwide Nanomedicine market is analyzed across major global regions.

Actual Numbers & In-Depth Analysis, Business opportunities, Market Size Estimation Available in Full Report.

Some of the Major Highlights of TOC covers:

Chapter 1: Methodology & Scope

Definition and forecast parameters

Methodology and forecast parameters

Data Sources

Chapter 2: Executive Summary

Business trends

Regional trends

Product trends

End-use trends

Chapter 3: Industry Insights

Industry segmentation

Industry landscape

Vendor matrix

Technological and innovation landscape

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Nanomedicine Market report effectively provides required features of the global market for the population and for the business looking people for mergers & acquisitions, making investments, new vendors or concerned in searching for the appreciated global market research facilities. It offers sample on the size, offer, and development rate of the market. The Nanomedicine report provides the complete structure and fundamental overview of the industry market.

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Insights on the Nanomedicines Global Market to 2026 – – GlobeNewswire

§ June 20th, 2021 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Insights on the Nanomedicines Global Market to 2026 – – GlobeNewswire

Dublin, June 15, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- The "Global Nanomedicines Market 2020-2026" report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering.

Nanotechnology involves the miniaturization of larger structures and chemicals at a nanometric scale for drug administration. The global nanomedicines market is projected to grow at a modest CAGR of 11.1% during the forecast period (2021-2027). The major aspect that drives the growth of the market includes the various innovations in nanotechnology for medicines along with the rise in the prevalence of various diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, neurological diseases, infectious diseases, oncological diseases, orthopedic diseases, and others. Developments in nanorobotics along with government support are further expected to propel the growth of the market over the forecast period.

The global nanomedicines market is segmented on the basis of indication type and application. Based on the indication type, the market is segmented as cardiovascular diseases, neurological diseases, infectious diseases, oncological diseases, orthopedic diseases, and others. The other segment includes urological disease and ophthalmic diseases. The cardiovascular diseases segment is likely to hold a substantial share in the market over the forecast period. Based on the applications, the market is segmented as drug delivery, active implants, vaccines, diagnostic imaging, biomaterials, regenerative medicines, and other applications. The other segment includes tissue regeneration. The drug delivery segment is likely to hold a substantial share in the market over the forecast period.

Based on the demographic viewpoint, the market is segmented as North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and the Rest of the World. The North American region is projected to hold a significant market share over the forecast period owing to various R&D activities conducted by the key players. Further, 3M Co., Johnson & Johnson Services Inc., Merck & Co. Inc., Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., AstraZeneca Plc., Celgene Corp., Pfizer Inc., Sanofi SA, and Smith & Nephew Plc among others are some of the prominent players functioning in the global Nanomedicine market. New product launches & developments, partnerships, agreements, and acquisitions are some of the growth strategies adopted by the players in order to sustain in the highly competitive market.

Market Segmentation:

1. Global Nanomedicine Market Research and Analysis by Indication Type 2. Global Nanomedicine Market Research and Analysis by Applications

The Report covers:

Key Topics Covered:

1. Report Summary

2. Market Overview and Insights 2.1. Scope of the Report 2.2. Analyst Insight & Current Market Trends 2.2.1. Key Findings 2.2.2. Recommendations 2.2.3. Conclusion

3. Competitive Landscape 3.1. Competitive Dashboard 3.2. Key Strategy Analysis 3.3. Key Company Analysis 3.3.1. 3M Co. 3.3.1.1. Overview 3.3.1.2. Financial Analysis 3.3.1.3. SWOT Analysis 3.3.1.4. Recent Developments 3.3.2. Johnson & Johnson Services Inc. 3.3.2.1. Overview 3.3.2.2. Financial Analysis 3.3.2.3. SWOT Analysis 3.3.2.4. Recent Developments 3.3.3. Merck & Co. Inc. 3.3.3.1. Overview 3.3.3.2. Financial Analysis 3.3.3.3. SWOT Analysis 3.3.3.4. Recent Developments 3.3.4. Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. 3.3.4.1. Overview 3.3.4.2. Financial Analysis 3.3.4.3. SWOT Analysis 3.3.4.4. Recent Developments 3.3.5. Eli Lily & Co. 3.3.5.1. Overview 3.3.5.2. Financial Analysis 3.3.5.3. SWOT Analysis 3.3.5.4. Recent Developments

4. Market Determinants 4.1. Motivators 4.2. Restraints 4.3. Opportunities

5. Market Segmentation 5.1. Global Nanomedicine Market by Indication Type 5.1.1. Cardiovascular Diseases 5.1.2. Neurological Diseases 5.1.3. Infectious Diseases 5.1.4. Oncological Diseases 5.1.5. Orthopedic Diseases 5.1.6. Other Diseases (Urological Disease, Ophthalmic Diseases) 5.2. Global Nanomedicine Market by Application 5.2.1. Drug Delivery 5.2.2. Active Implants 5.2.3. Vaccines 5.2.4. Diagnostic Imaging 5.2.5. Biomaterials 5.2.6. Regenerative Medicines 5.2.7. Other Applications (Tissue Regeneration)

6. Regional Analysis 6.1. North America 6.1.1. United States 6.1.2. Canada 6.2. Europe 6.2.1. UK 6.2.2. Germany 6.2.3. Italy 6.2.4. Spain 6.2.5. France 6.2.6. Rest of Europe 6.3. Asia-Pacific 6.3.1. China 6.3.2. India 6.3.3. Japan 6.3.4. ASEAN 6.3.5. South Korea 6.3.6. Rest of Asia-Pacific 6.4. Rest of the World

7. Company Profiles 7.1. Affymetrix Inc. 7.2. AstraZeneca Plc. 7.3. Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. 7.4. Celgene Corp. 7.5. CytImmune Sciences Inc. 7.6. Ferro Corp. 7.7. GE Global Research 7.8. Gilead Sciences Inc. 7.9. Luminex Corp. 7.10. Nanobiotix SA 7.11. PerkinElmer Inc. 7.12. Pfizer Inc. 7.13. Sanofi SA 7.14. Shimadzu Co. Ltd 7.15. Smith & Nephew Plc 7.16. St. Jude Medical Inc. 7.17. Starpharma Holdings Ltd. 7.18. Stryker Corp. 7.19. Taiwan Liposome Co. Ltd. 7.20. UCB SA

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Global Nanomedicine Market 2021 to Perceive Biggest Trend and Opportunity by 2028 KSU | The Sentinel Newspaper – KSU | The Sentinel Newspaper

§ June 20th, 2021 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Global Nanomedicine Market 2021 to Perceive Biggest Trend and Opportunity by 2028 KSU | The Sentinel Newspaper – KSU | The Sentinel Newspaper

This market report includes a comprehensive evaluation of the markets growth prospects and restrictions. All this information is supplied in such a way that it properly gives explanation of various facts and figures to the business. A DBMR team uses simple language and easy to understand statistical images to provide thorough information and in-depth data on the ABC industry and NANOMEDICINE market. Market estimations along with the statistical nuances included in this market report give an insightful view of the market. This NANOMEDICINE market research report also gives widespread study about different market segments and regions.

The NANOMEDICINE report explains market analysis based on regional, local as well as global level. It analyses the key factors which leads to market growth as well as restraints of the market growth. Moreover, it analyses ABC industry by product type, by equipment type, by price category e.g. discount, mainstream, or premium etc., by distribution channel, by application and by geography. The report on the global NANOMEDICINE market is a valuable document for every market enthusiast, policymaker, investor, and market player. The report has explained in-depth market insights about market size, latest trends, market threats and key drivers driving the market.

Global nanomedicine market is registering a healthy CAGR of 15.50% in the forecast period of 2019-2026. This rise in the market value can be attributed to increasing number of applications and wide acceptance of the product globally. There is a significant rise in the number of researches done in this field which accelerate growth of nanomedicine market globally.

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Key Market Competitors

Few of the major market competitors currently working in the global nanomedicine market are Abbott, Invitae Corporation, General Electric Company, Leadiant Biosciences, Inc., Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc., Mallinckrodt, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., NanoSphere Health Sciences, Inc., Pfizer Inc., CELGENE CORPORATION, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Gilead Sciences, Inc., Amgen Inc., Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, AbbVie Inc., Novartis AG, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Luminex Corporation, Eli Lilly and Company, Nanobiotix, Sanofi, UCB S.A., Ablynx among others.

Competitive Landscape

Global nanomedicine market is highly fragmented and the major players have used various strategies such as new product launches, expansions, agreements, joint ventures, partnerships, acquisitions, and others to increase their footprints in this market. The report includes market shares of nanomedicine market for global, Europe, North America, Asia-Pacific, South America and Middle East & Africa.

Key Insights in the report:

Complete and distinct analysis of the market drivers and restraints

Key Market players involved in this industry

Detailed analysis of the Market Segmentation

Competitive analysis of the key players involved

Market Drivers are Restraints

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Market Segmentation:-

By Product Type

By Application

By Indication

By Modality

To comprehend Global Nanomedicine market dynamics in the world mainly, the worldwide Nanomedicine market is analyzed across major global regions.

Actual Numbers & In-Depth Analysis, Business opportunities, Market Size Estimation Available in Full Report.

Some of the Major Highlights of TOC covers:

Chapter 1: Methodology & Scope

Definition and forecast parameters

Methodology and forecast parameters

Data Sources

Chapter 2: Executive Summary

Business trends

Regional trends

Product trends

End-use trends

Chapter 3: Industry Insights

Industry segmentation

Industry landscape

Vendor matrix

Technological and innovation landscape

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Nanomedicine Market report effectively provides required features of the global market for the population and for the business looking people for mergers & acquisitions, making investments, new vendors or concerned in searching for the appreciated global market research facilities. It offers sample on the size, offer, and development rate of the market. The Nanomedicine report provides the complete structure and fundamental overview of the industry market.

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Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market Size, Industry Trends and Forecast to 2028 | Major Players Sanofi SA, Pfizer Inc., Celgene…

§ June 20th, 2021 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market Size, Industry Trends and Forecast to 2028 | Major Players Sanofi SA, Pfizer Inc., Celgene…

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Injectable Nanomedicine Market Analysis, Size, Regional Outlook, Competitive Strategies and Forecasts to 2028 The Manomet Current – The Manomet…

§ June 20th, 2021 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Injectable Nanomedicine Market Analysis, Size, Regional Outlook, Competitive Strategies and Forecasts to 2028 The Manomet Current – The Manomet…

The research report presents a comprehensive assessment of the Injectable Nanomedicine Market and contains thoughtful insights, facts, historical data, and statistically supported and industry-validated market data. Injectable Nanomedicine with 100+ market data Tables, Pie Chat, Graphs & Figures spread through Pages and easy to understand detailed analysis. Injectable Nanomedicine market future, competitive analysis by Injectable Nanomedicine Market Players, Deployment Models, Opportunities, Future Roadmap, Value Chain, Major Player Profiles.

Injectable Nanomedicine market report records and concentrates the main rivals likewise furnishes the bits of knowledge with vital industry Analysis of the key elements impacting the market. Injectable Nanomedicine Market Report contains revenue numbers, product details, and sales of the major firms. Additionally, it provides a breakdown of the revenue for the global Injectable Nanomedicine market. The report contains basic, secondary and advanced information pertaining to the Injectable Nanomedicine Market global status and Injectable Nanomedicine market size, share, growth, trends analysis, segment and forecast.

The injectable nanomedicine market is expected to gain market growth in the forecast period of 2021 to 2028. Data Bridge Market Research analyses the market to reach at an estimated value of USD $147,823.23 million by 2028 and grow at a CAGR of 12.99% in the above-mentioned forecast period. Rise in the incidence of chronic diseases like cancer drives the injectable nanomedicine market.

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Market Report Scope:

Countries and Geographies: The geographical regions data will help you in targeting all the best-performing regions. The section covers: (North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific) and the main countries (United States, Germany, united Kingdom, Japan, South Korea and China)

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The Objectives of the Injectable Nanomedicine Market Report:

Injectable Nanomedicine Market competition by top manufacturers/players, with sales volume, Price (USD/Unit), Revenue (Million USD) and market share for each manufacturer/player; the top players including:

Abbott, Invitae Corporation, General Electric Company, Leadiant Biosciences, Inc., Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc., Mallinckrodt, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., NanoSphere Health Sciences, Inc., Pfizer Inc., CELGENE CORPORATION, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Gilead Sciences, Inc., Amgen Inc., Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, AbbVie Inc., Novartis AG, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Luminex Corporation, Eli Lilly and Company, Nanobiotix, Sanofi, UCB S.A. and Ablynx among other domestic and global players. .

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Major Points Covered in Injectable Nanomedicine Market Report:-

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Cancer Nanomedicine Market by Product Type Software Service and By End Users Application and Market Share Forecast Data In Depth Analysis and Detailed…

§ June 20th, 2021 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Cancer Nanomedicine Market by Product Type Software Service and By End Users Application and Market Share Forecast Data In Depth Analysis and Detailed…

Data Bridge Market Research included report gives a comprehensive overview of the current and future phases of the examination for the assessed Forecast Period 2021-2027. Cancer Nanomedicine market research report contains complete background analysis of industry, many exploratory approaches such as qualitative and quantitative analysis have been applied. The base year for calculation in the report is considered as 2019 while the historic year is 2018 which suggests how the Cancer Nanomedicine market is going to perform in the forecast years by informing about the market definition, classifications, applications, and engagements. In the regional analysis section of the business report, it has been shown that how different regions and countries are growing in the worldwide market and have predicted their market sizes for the next few years. Cancer Nanomedicine market report provides research innovations, management strategies, market drivers, challenges and visions, and comprehensive industry subdivision and distribution. The report explains the current state of the market around the world. The study starts with the market outline and key components of the market. The study additionally offers the key focuses to upgrade the development in the Cancer Nanomedicine market.

Market Analysis and Insights: Global Cancer Nanomedicine Market:

Cancer nanomedicine market is expected to gain market growth in the forecast period of 2020 to 2027. Data Bridge Market Research analyses the market to grow at a CAGR of 12.50% in the above-mentioned forecast period.

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The major players who are leading the Cancer Nanomedicine market throughout the globe are:

Market Segmentation

By Type (Inorganic Nanoparticles, Organic Nanoparticles)

By Agent Type (Diagnostic Agents, Therapeutic Agents, Drug Delivery Agents)

Some Of The Major Highlights Of TOC Covers:-

1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Objectives Of The Study

1.2 Cancer Nanomedicine Market Definition

2 MARKET SEGMENTATION

2.1 Cancer Nanomedicine Markets Covered

2.2 Europe Weight Management Market: Geographical Scope

3 MARKET OVERVIEW

3.1 Drivers

4 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

4.1 Europe Weight Management Market: Segmentation

5 PREMIUM INSIGHTS

5.1 Increasing Government Initiatives Towards Management And Growing Consumption Of Healthy Diets Are Expected To Drive The Cancer Nanomedicine Market In The Forecast Period Of 2020 To 2027

Continued.

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Global Cancer Nanomedicine Market Scope and Market Size

Cancer nanomedicine market is segmented on the basis of type, agent type, mechanism, cancer type, imaging technique, and phase. The growth amongst these segments will help you analyse meagre growth segments in the industries, and provide the users with valuable market overview and market insights to help them in making strategic decisions for identification of core market applications.

Regional Analysis

This section covers regional segmentation which accentuates on current and future demand for Cancer Nanomedicine market across This section covers regional segmentation which accentuates on current and future demand for COVID-19 Cancer Nanomedicine market across North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. Further, the report focuses on demand for individual application segment across all the prominent regions. Further, the report focuses on demand for individual application segment across all the prominent regions.

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Key Pointers Covered In The Cancer Nanomedicine Market Industry Trends And Forecast To 2027

The study provides an in-depth analysis, current trends, and future estimations of theglobal Cancer Nanomedicine marketto elucidate the imminent investment pockets.

Comprehensive analysis of factors that drive and restrict the Cancer Nanomedicine market growth is provided.

The Cancer Nanomedicine Industry report provides a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the current External Storage market trends, forecasts, and market size from 2020 to 2027 to determine new opportunities.

Porters Five Forces analysis highlights the potency of buyers and suppliers to enable stakeholders to make strategic business decisions and determine the level of competition in the industry.

Extensive analyses of key segments of the industry help understand the types of products and technologies used across various geographical regions.

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Corrigendum for the article Antibacterial properties of PEKK for ortho | IJN – Dove Medical Press

§ June 20th, 2021 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Corrigendum for the article Antibacterial properties of PEKK for ortho | IJN – Dove Medical Press

Back to Journals International Journal of Nanomedicine Volume 16

Antibacterial Properties of PEKK for Orthopedic Applications [Corrigendum]

Wang M, Bhardwaj G, Webster TJ. Int J Nanomedicine. 2017;12:64716476.

The authors have advised Figure 7 on page 6475 is incorrect. The authors inadvertently included a duplicate image for the live/dead Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PEEK samples shown in Figures 6 and 7, respectively. The correct Figure 7 is shown below.

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Genetically engineered cell membranecoated nanoparticles for targeted delivery of dexamethasone to inflamed lungs – Science Advances

§ June 20th, 2021 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Genetically engineered cell membranecoated nanoparticles for targeted delivery of dexamethasone to inflamed lungs – Science Advances

INTRODUCTION

The chemical and physiological changes associated with inflammation are an important part of the innate immune system (1). Proinflammatory processes can lead to the release of cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor, which are capable of effecting vascular changes to improve immune responses at a site of stress or injury (2). These may include vasodilation and an increase in vascular permeability, which can promote more efficient immune cell recruitment (3, 4). On the cellular level, proinflammatory cytokines cause the up-regulation of specific surface markers, including vascular cell adhesion molecule1 (VCAM-1) or intercellular adhesion molecule1 (ICAM-1), which allow for immune cell adhesion at the site of inflammation (5, 6). Although inflammation is an integral process that is required for survival, a dysregulated immune system is implicated in a wide range of disease states (7, 8). The disease relevance of inflammation is further supported by the fact that inflammatory markers such as cellular adhesion molecules are often implicated in pathogenesis (9, 10), and these have been explored as therapeutic and diagnostic targets.

Nanoparticle-based platforms, especially those functionalized with active targeting ligands, have the potential to serve as powerful tools for managing a wide range of diseases associated with inflammation (11). Along these lines, the targeted delivery of anti-inflammatory agents to the vasculature of affected sites via cell adhesion molecules represents a promising strategy (1214). Using inflammation as the cue, a diverse range of nanodelivery systems have been designed to target up-regulated markers such as VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 (1520), and this approach has been leveraged to treat conditions such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases (2123). More recently, cell membrane coating technology has garnered considerable attention in the field of nanomedicine (24, 25). From erythrocytes to cancer cells, virtually any type of cell membrane can be coated onto the surface of nanoparticles, resulting in nanoformulations with enhanced functionality that can be custom-tailored to specific applications (26, 27). In particular, cell membranecoated nanoparticles have proven to be effective drug delivery systems owing to their extended circulation times and disease-homing capabilities (2628). The targeting ability of these biomimetic nanoparticles is often mediated by proteins that are expressed on the source cells, and this bestows the nanoparticles with the ability to specifically interact with various disease substrates. For example, nanoparticles coated with the membrane derived from platelets were shown to specifically target bacteria as well as the exposed subendothelium in damaged vasculature (29). A similar platform was shown to target the lungs in a murine model of cancer metastasis (30). On top of the natural biointerfacing capabilities of cell membranecoated nanoparticles, their traits can be further enhanced by introducing exogenous moieties onto the membrane surface. One way to achieve this is to tether targeting ligands via a lipid anchor, which can then be inserted into the cell membrane (31, 32). Red blood cell membranecoated nanoparticles, which exhibit prolonged blood circulation, have been functionalized in this manner to enhance their cancer targeting ability.

Instead of relying on post-fabrication methods to introduce additional functionality, cell membranecoated nanoparticles can be developed using the membrane from genetically engineered source cells (33). A wide range of tools are available to introduce or up-regulate the expression of specific surface markers (34, 35), and this approach enables researchers to augment the functionality of cell membranebased nanodelivery platforms based on application-specific needs (36, 37). In this study, we genetically engineered cell membranecoated nanoparticles to specifically target sites of inflammation (Fig. 1). Inflamed endothelial cells are known to up-regulate the expression of VCAM-1 to recruit immune cells such as leukocytes that express its cognate ligand, very late antigen4 (VLA-4) (38). To exploit this interaction, we genetically modified a source cell line to stably express VLA-4 and harvested the engineered membrane to coat polymeric nanoparticle cores. A potent anti-inflammatory drug, dexamethasone (DEX), was used as a model payload to be loaded for the treatment of inflammation. The ability of the final nanoformulation to target inflamed cells without compromising the activity of DEX was first tested in vitro. Then, therapeutic efficacy was evaluated in vivo using a murine model of endotoxin-induced lung inflammation.

Wild-type cells were genetically engineered to express VLA-4, which is composed of integrins 4 and 1. Then, the plasma membrane from the genetically engineered cells was collected and coated onto dexamethasone-loaded nanoparticle cores (DEX-NP). The resulting VLA-4expressing cell membranecoated DEX-NP (VLA-DEX-NP) can target VCAM-1 on inflamed lung endothelial cells for enhanced drug delivery.

VLA-4 is a heterodimer that is formed by the association of integrin 4 with integrin 1 (39). To generate a cell line constitutively displaying the full complex, we elected to modify wild-type C1498 cells (C1498-WT), which were confirmed to express high levels of integrin 1 but lack integrin 4 (Fig. 2A). Following viral transduction of C1498-WT to introduce the integrin 4 gene, a subpopulation of the resulting engineered cells (referred to as C1498-VLA) was found to express both VLA-4 components (Fig. 2B). After successfully establishing C1498-VLA, the cells were harvested and their membrane was derived by a process involving cell lysis and differential centrifugation. The cell membrane was then coated onto poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticle cores that were prepared by a single emulsion method. Membrane-coated nanoparticles prepared with the membrane from C1498-WT and C1498-VLA (referred to as WT-NP and VLA-NP, respectively) both had an average diameter of approximately 175 nm, which was slightly larger than the uncoated PLGA cores (Fig. 2C). In terms of zeta potential, the membrane-coated nanoparticles exhibited a surface charge of approximately 20 mV, which was less negative than the PLGA cores (Fig. 2D). Both the size and zeta potential data suggested proper membrane coating, which was further verified for VLA-NP by transmission electron microscopy, which clearly showed a membrane layer surrounding the core (Fig. 2E). Western blotting analysis was used to probe for the two components of VLA-4 on the nanoformulations (Fig. 2F). As expected, both integrins 4 and 1 were found on VLA-NP, whereas only integrin 1 was present on WT-NP. To evaluate long-term stability of the membrane-coated nanoparticles, they were suspended in 10% sucrose solution at 4C, and their size was monitored over the course of 8 weeks (Fig. 2G). Neither nanoparticle sample exhibited a significant increase in size during this period.

(A and B) Expression of integrins 4 and 1 on C1498-WT (A) and C1498-VLA (B) cells was confirmed by flow cytometry. (C and D) The average diameter (C) and surface zeta potential (D) of PLGA cores, WT-NP, and VLA-NP were confirmed by dynamic light scattering (n = 3, mean + SD). (E) Representative transmission electron microscopy image of VLA-NP (scale bar, 100 nm). (F) Western blots for integrins 4 and 1 on WT-NP and VLA-NP. (G) Size of WT-NP and VLA-NP when stored in solution over a period of 8 weeks (n = 3, mean SD).

The binding of VLA-NP was assessed in two different in vitro experiments. First, C1498-WT transduced to constitutively express high amounts of VCAM-1 (referred to as C1498-VCAM) was used as a model target cell. The expression of VCAM-1 on C1498-VCAM was confirmed via flow cytometry (Fig. 3A). Whereas the C1498-WT cells did not show any expression, the C1498-VCAM cells yielded a signal that was over an order of magnitude higher than the isotype control. To evaluate binding, fluorescent dyelabeled WT-NP or VLA-NP were incubated with either C1498-WT or C1498-VCAM (Fig. 3, B and C). For each pairing, the incubation was performed either with or without antiVCAM-1 to block the specific interaction between VLA-4 and VCAM-1. For the samples with blocking, cells were first incubated with the antibody for 30 min before nanoparticle treatment. After incubating with the nanoparticles for 30 min, the cells were washed twice and were analyzed by flow cytometry. The data revealed that there was significant nanoparticle binding only when VLA-NP were paired with C1498-VCAM. The level of binding was reduced back to baseline levels in the presence of antiVCAM-1, thus confirming the specificity of the interaction. In contrast, there was no evidence of specific binding when VLA-NP were paired with C1498-WT, which does not express the cognate receptor for VLA-4. The same held true for the WT-NP paired with either cell type, where antibody blocking had no impact on the relative nanoparticle binding.

(A) Expression of VCAM-1 on C1498-WT and C1498-VCAM cells (gray, isotype antibody; green, antiVCAM-1). (B and C) Binding of WT-NP (B) or VLA-NP (C) to C1498-WT or C1498-VCAM cells; blocking was performed by preincubating cells with antiVCAM-1 (n = 3, mean + SD). ****P < 0.0001, Students t test. (D) Expression of VCAM-1 on untreated or LPS-treated bEnd.3 cells (gray, isotype antibody; green, antiVCAM-1). (E and F) Binding of WT-NP (E) or VLA-NP (F) to untreated or LPS-treated bEnd.3 cells; blocking was performed by preincubating cells with antiVCAM-1 (n = 3, mean + SD). **P < 0.01, Students t test.

Next, we elected to study the nanoparticle binding to endothelial cells, which represent a more biologically relevant target compared to the artificially engineered C1498-VCAM cells. For this purpose, we used a murine brain endothelial cell line, bEnd.3, whose VCAM-1 expression can be up-regulated in the presence of proinflammatory signals (40). To induce an inflamed state, bEnd.3 cells were treated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the level of VCAM-1 expression was evaluated using flow cytometry (Fig. 3D). Whereas expression of VCAM-1 was near baseline levels for the untreated bEnd.3 cells, those that were treated with LPS exhibited a distinct population with elevated VCAM-1. As we observed in the previous experiment with C1498-VCAM cells, enhanced nanoparticle binding was only observed when VLA-NP were paired with inflamed bEnd.3 cells, and antibody blocking reduced the levels back to baseline (Fig. 3, E and F). When incubating with noninflamed bEnd.3 cells, there was no evidence of specific binding interactions, and the same held true for the control WT-NP paired with bEnd.3 cells regardless of their inflammatory status. The data in these two studies confirmed the successful engineering of membrane-coated nanoparticles with the ability to target inflammation based on the interaction between VLA-4 and VCAM-1.

As a model anti-inflammatory payload, we selected DEX, which was loaded into the PLGA core by a single emulsion method before coating with either C1498-WT or C1498-VLA membrane to yield DEX-loaded WT-NP or VLA-NP (referred to as WT-DEX-NP or VLA-DEX-NP, respectively). When the drug content was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), it was determined that the encapsulation efficiency and drug loading yield were approximately 11 and 2 weight % (wt %), respectively (Fig. 4A). To evaluate drug release, VLA-DEX-NP was dialyzed against a large volume of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and the amount of drug retained within the nanoparticles was quantified over time (Fig. 4B). The results revealed an initial burst, where approximately 80% of the drug payload was released in the first hour, followed by a sustained release. The release profile was in agreement with previous reports on DEX-loaded PLGA formulations (41, 42), and the data showed a good fit with the Peppas-Sahlin model with a regression coefficient of 0.978 (43). To evaluate the biological activity of the DEX loaded within the nanoparticles, we used an in vitro assay based on the LPS treatment of DC2.4 dendritic cells, which causes an elevation in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 (Fig. 4C). DC2.4 cells were first treated with either free DEX or VLA-DEX-NP for 2 hours, followed by incubation with LPS overnight. The supernatant was then collected to measure the concentration of IL-6 by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). It was shown that both free DEX and VLA-DEX-NP were able to attenuate IL-6 secretion in a drug concentrationdependent manner (Fig. 4D). Although free DEX more efficiently lowered IL-6 levels at drug concentrations of 0.01 and 0.1 M, the level of inflammation was reduced to levels near baseline for both free DEX and VLA-DEX-NP at 1 M of drug. The data indicated that the activity of the drug payload was retained after being loaded inside of VLA-NP. It was confirmed that neither PLGA cores nor VLA-NP without DEX loading had an impact on the level of IL-6 production by the DC2.4 cells (Fig. 4E).

(A) Drug loading (DL) and encapsulation efficiency (EE) of dexamethasone (DEX) into VLA-NP (n = 3, mean + SD). (B) Drug release profile of VLA-DEX-NP (n = 3, mean SD). The data were fitted using the Peppas-Sahlin equation (dashed line). (C) Secretion of IL-6 by LPS-treated DC2.4 cells (n = 3, mean + SD). UD, undetectable. (D) Secretion of IL-6 by LPS-treated DC2.4 cells preincubated with DEX in free form or loaded into VLA-NP (n = 3, mean SD). (E) Relative inflammatory response, as measured by IL-6 secretion, of DC2.4 cells treated with LPS only, LPS and PLGA nanoparticles, LPS and VLA-NP, PLGA nanoparticles only, or VLA-NP only; all of the nanoparticles were empty without DEX loading (n = 3, mean + SD). NS, not significant (compared to the LPS-only group), one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).

After confirming the biological activity of the VLA-DEX-NP formulation in vitro, we next sought to evaluate the formulation in vivo using a murine model of lung inflammation. The model was established by intratracheal injection of LPS directly into the lungs of BALB/c mice. To evaluate targeting ability, fluorescently labeled WT-NP or VLA-NP were injected intravenously after the induction of lung inflammation. After 6 hours, major organs, including the heart, lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys, and blood, were collected to assess nanoparticle biodistribution (Fig. 5A). The majority of the nanoparticles accumulated in the liver and spleen. Notably, a significant increase in accumulation of VLA-NP was observed in the lungs compared to WT-NP. This in vivo targeting result was in agreement with the in vitro findings where VLA-NP were able to specifically bind to inflamed cells. The safety of the formulation was assessed by monitoring the plasma levels of creatinine, a marker of kidney toxicity that was previously studied in the context of DEX nanodelivery (44). After 9 days of repeated daily administrations of free DEX or VLA-DEX-NP into healthy mice, it was shown that the creatinine concentration in mice receiving VLA-DEX-NP remained consistent with baseline levels, whereas it was significantly elevated in mice administered with free DEX (Fig. 5B).

(A) Biodistribution of WT-NP or VLA-NP in a lung inflammation model 6 hours after intravenous administration (n = 3, mean + SD). *P < 0.05, Students t test. AU, arbitrary units. (B) Creatinine levels in the plasma of mice after repeated daily administrations for 9 days with free DEX or VLA-DEX-NP (n = 3, mean + SD). *P < 0.05, one-way ANOVA. (C) IL-6 levels in the lung tissue of mice intratracheally challenged with LPS and then treated intravenously with vehicle solution, free DEX, WT-DEX-NP, or VLA-DEX-NP (n = 3, mean SD). ***P < 0.001, ****P < 0.0001 (compared to VLA-DEX-NP), one-way ANOVA. (D) Representative hematoxylin and eosinstained lung histology sections of mice intratracheally challenged with LPS and then treated intravenously with vehicle solution, free DEX, WT-DEX-NP, or VLA-DEX-NP (scale bar, 100 m).

The therapeutic efficacy of VLA-DEX-NP was then evaluated following the same experimental design as the targeting study. After 6 hours, the lungs were collected and homogenized, and the homogenate was then clarified by centrifugation and filtered through a 0.22-m porous membrane before measuring the concentration of IL-6 by ELISA. As shown in Fig. 5C, the VLA-DEX-NP formulation was able to completely abrogate lung inflammation, while both free DEX and WT-DEX-NP did not have any discernable effect. The fact that WT-DEX-NP were not able to significantly reduce lung IL-6 levels suggested that systemic exposure to DEX was not a major contributor to the efficacy observed with VLA-DEX-NP. The efficacy of the formulation against lung inflammation was further confirmed by analyzing lung sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (Fig. 5D). Leukocyte recruitment and peribronchial thickening, which are hallmarks of lung inflammation (45, 46), were prominent in the lungs of mice receiving no treatment, free DEX, or WT-DEX-NP. In contrast, minimal leukocyte recruitment and no peribronchial thickening were observed for the group treated with VLA-DEX-NP, and there were no other signs of toxicity present in these lung sections. Overall, the results from the in vivo studies confirmed the benefit of targeted delivery to inflamed lungs using VLA-NP as a drug nanocarrier.

In conclusion, we have engineered cell membranecoated nanoparticles that can be used to specifically target and treat localized lung inflammation via systemic administration. A host cell positive for integrin 1 was modified to express integrin 4. Together, the two protein markers formed VLA-4, which specifically interacts with VCAM-1, a common marker for inflammation found on vascular endothelia. Nanoparticles fabricated using the membrane from these genetically engineered cells were able to leverage this natural affinity to target inflamed sites, including in a murine model of LPS-induced lung inflammation. When the nanoparticles were loaded with DEX, an anti-inflammatory drug, significant therapeutic efficacy was achieved in vivo. Future studies will comprehensively evaluate the safety profile of the VLA-DEX-NP formulation, obtain additional lung-specific efficacy readouts, elucidate the optimal time window for treatment, and assess clinical relevance using additional animal models of severe inflammatory disease. As pathological inflammation is heavily implicated in a number of important disease conditions (7, 47), the reported biomimetic platform could be leveraged to improve the in vivo activity of various therapeutic payloads through enhanced targeting. Notably, VCAM-1 up-regulation has been observed in renal pathologies as well as in inflamed cerebral vasculature (48, 49). In addition, DEX has been shown to be effective at managing the inflammation associated with COVID-19 (50), and a targeted formulation capable of localizing the drug to the lungs may help to further boost its therapeutic profile. In this work, we specifically engineered the nanoparticles to display VLA-4, which is a complex, multicomponent membranebound ligand that would otherwise be infeasible to incorporate using traditional synthetic strategies. This highlights the advantages of using genetic engineering techniques to expand the wide-ranging utility of cell membrane coating technology. In particular, the generalized application of this approach would enable researchers to streamline the development of new targeted nanoformulations by using target-ligand interactions that occur in nature. Combined with the biocompatibility and biointerfacing characteristics that are inherent to cell membrane coatings, the work presented here could initiate a new wave of biomimetic nanomedicine with finely crafted functionalities.

Wild-type C1498 mouse leukemia cells (TIB-49, American Type Culture Collection) were cultured at 37C in 5% CO2 with Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium [DMEM; with l-glutamine, glucose (4.5 g/liter), and sodium pyruvate; Corning] supplemented with 10% bovine growth serum (BGS; Hyclone) and 1% penicillin-streptomycin (Pen-Strep; Gibco). Engineered C1498-VCAM cells were cultured with DMEM supplemented with 10% U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) fetal bovine serum (FBS; Omega Scientific), 1% Pen-Strep, and hygromycin B (400 g/ml; InvivoGen). Engineered C1498-VLA cells were cultured with DMEM supplemented with 10% USDA FBS, 1% Pen-Strep, and puromycin (1 g/ml; InvivoGen). bEnd.3 mouse brain endothelial cells (CRL-2299, American Type Culture Collection) were cultured with DMEM supplemented with 10% BGS and 1% Pen-Strep. AmphoPhoenix cells (obtained from the National Gene Vector Biorepository) were cultured with DMEM supplemented with 10% BGS and 1% Pen-Strep. DC2.4 mouse dendritic cells (SCC142, Sigma-Aldrich) were cultured with DMEM supplemented with 10% BGS and 1% Pen-Strep.

Engineered C1498-VLA and C1498-VCAM cells were created by transducing C1498-WT. Briefly, the genes for integrin 4 (MG50049-M, Sino Biological) and VCAM-1 (MG50163-UT, Sino Biological) gene were cloned into pQCXIP and pQCXIH plasmids (Clontech), respectively, using an In-Fusion HD cloning kit (Clontech) following the manufacturers protocol, yielding pQCXIP-4 and pQCXIH-VCAM-1. AmphoPhoenix cells were plated onto 100-mm tissue culture dishes containing 10 ml of medium at 3 105 cells/ml and cultured overnight. The cells were transfected with pQCXIP-4 or pQCXIH-VCAM-1 using Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen) following the manufacturers instructions. The supernatant of the transfected AmphoPhoenix was collected and used to resuspend C1498-WT cells, which were then centrifuged at 800g for 90 min. After the spin, the transduced cells were incubated for 4 hours before the media were changed with fresh media. Fluorescently labeled antibodies, including FITC (fluorescein isothiocyanate) anti-mouse CD49d (R1-2, BioLegend), Alexa647 anti-mouse/rat CD29 (HM1-1, BioLegend), or PE (phycoerythrin) anti-mouse CD106 (STA, BioLegend), were used to assess the expression levels of VLA-4 or VCAM-1. Data were collected using a Becton Dickinson FACSCanto-II flow cytometer and analyzed using FlowJo software. All of the engineered cells were sorted using a Becton Dickinson FACSAria-II flow cytometer to select for cells expressing high levels of VLA-4 or VCAM-1.

The membranes from C1498-WT and engineered C1498-VLA cells were derived using a previously described method with some modifications (51). First, the cells were harvested and washed in a starting buffer containing 30 mM tris-HCl (pH 7.0) (Quality Biological) with 0.0759 M sucrose (Sigma-Aldrich) and 0.225 M d-mannitol (Sigma-Aldrich). The washed cells were resuspended in an isolation buffer containing 0.5 mM ethylene glycol-bis(-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid (Sigma-Aldrich), a phosphatase inhibitor cocktail (Sigma-Aldrich), and a protease inhibitor cocktail (Sigma-Aldrich). Then, the cells were homogenized using a Kinematica Polytron PT 10/35 probe homogenizer at 70% power for 15 passes. The homogenate was first centrifuged at 10,000g in a Beckman Coulter Optima XPN-80 ultracentrifuge for 25 min. The supernatant was then collected and centrifuged at 150,000g for 35 min. The resulting pellet of cell membrane was washed and stored in a solution containing 0.2 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (USB Corporation) in UltraPure DNase-free/RNase-free distilled water (Invitrogen). Total membrane protein content was quantified by a BCA protein assay kit (Pierce).

Polymeric cores were prepared by a single emulsion process using carboxyl-terminated 50:50 PLGA (0.66 dl/g; LACTEL absorbable polymers). For DEX-loaded PLGA cores, 500 l of PLGA (50 mg/ml) in dichloromethane (DCM; Sigma-Aldrich) was mixed with 500 l of DEX (10 mg/ml) in acetone. This mixture was added to 5 ml of 10 mM tris-HCl (pH 8) and sonicated using a Thermo Fisher Scientific 150E Sonic Dismembrator at 70% power for 2 min. The sonicated mixture was added to 10 ml of 10 mM tris-HCl (pH 8) and was magnetically stirred at 700 rpm overnight. For 1,1-dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3-tetramethylindodicarbocyanine (DiD, ex/em = 644/663 nm; Biotium) labeling, 500 l of PLGA (50 mg/ml) in DCM was mixed with 500 l of DiD (20 g/ml) in DCM. This mixture was added to 5 ml of 10 mM tris-HCl (pH 8) and sonicated using a Thermo Fisher Scientific 150E Sonic Dismembrator at 70% power for 2 min. The sonicated mixture was added to 10 ml of 10 mM tris-HCl (pH 8) and was magnetically stirred at 700g for 3 hours. Empty PLGA core preparation followed the same procedure, except substituting the DiD solution for 500 l of neat DCM. To coat the polymeric cores with cell membranes, the nanoparticle cores were first centrifuged at 21,100g for 8 min. The pellets were resuspended in solution containing membranes derived from C1498-WT or C1498-VLA. The mixture was sonicated in a 1.5-ml disposable sizing cuvette (BrandTech Scientific Inc.) using a Thermo Fisher Scientific FS30D bath sonicator at a frequency of 42 kHz and a power of 100 W for 3 min. For the in vitro studies, UltraPure water and sucrose were added to adjust the polymer concentration to 1 mg/ml and the sucrose concentration to 10%. For the in vivo studies, UltraPure water and sucrose were added to adjust the polymer concentration to 10 mg/ml and the sucrose concentration to 10%.

The size and surface zeta potential of WT-NP and VLA-NP were measured by dynamic light scattering using a Malvern ZEN 3600 Zetasizer. For electron microscopy visualization, a VLA-NP sample was negatively stained with 1 wt % uranyl acetate (Electron Microscopy Sciences) on a carbon-coated 400-mesh copper grid (Electron Microscopy Sciences) and visualized using a JEOL 1200 EX II transmission electron microscope. The presence of VLA-4 on WT-NP and VLA-NP was determined using western blotting. First, the samples were adjusted to 1 mg/ml protein content, followed by the addition of NuPAGE 4 lithium dodecyl sulfate sample loading buffer (Novex) and heating at 70C for 10 min. Then, 25 l was loaded into the wells of 12-well Bolt 4 to 12% Bis-Tris gels (Invitrogen) and ran at 165 V for 45 min in MOPS running buffer (Novex). The proteins were transferred for 60 min at a voltage of 10 V onto 0.45-m nitrocellulose membranes (Pierce) in Bolt transfer buffer (Novex). Nonspecific interactions were blocked using 5% milk (Genesee Scientific) in PBS (Thermo Fisher Scientific) with 0.05% Tween 20 (National Scientific). The blots were probed using anti-integrin 4 antibody (B-2, Santa Cruz Biotechnology) or anti-integrin 1 antibody (E-11, Santa Cruz Biotechnology). The secondary staining was done using the corresponding horseradish peroxidaseconjugated antibodies (BioLegend). Membranes with stained samples were developed in a dark room using ECL western blotting substrate (Pierce) and an ImageWorks Mini-Medical/90 Developer. Long-term stability of WT-NP and VLA-NP in 10% sucrose solution was tested by storing the particles at 4C for 2 months with weekly size measurements.

The expression level of VCAM-1 on C1498-WT, C1498-VCAM, untreated bEnd.3 cells, and bEnd.3 cells treated overnight with LPS (1 g/ml) from Escherichia coli K12 (LPS; InvivoGen) was evaluated as described above. For the first binding study, 5 104 cells, either C1498-WT or C1498-VCAM, were collected and resuspended in 160 l of DMEM containing 0.5% USDA FBS, 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA; Sigma-Aldrich), and 1 mM MnCl2 (Sigma-Aldrich). For blocking, anti-mouse CD106 antibody was added to the cells, followed by incubation at 4C for 30 min. Then, 40 l of DiD (1 mg/ml)labeled WT-NP or VLA-NP was added, and the mixture was incubated at 4C for another 30 min. After washing the cells twice with PBS, the fluorescent signals from the cells were detected using flow cytometry. For the second study, 5 104 bEnd.3 cells were plated and then either left untreated or pretreated with LPS overnight. The media were then removed and replaced with 160 l of DMEM containing 0.5% USDA FBS, 0.8% BSA, and 1 mM MnCl2. For blocking, anti-mouse CD106 antibody was added to the cells, followed by incubation at 4C for 30 min. Then, 40 l of DiD (1 mg/ml)labeled WT-NP or VLA-NP was added, and the mixture was incubated at 4C for another 30 min. After washing the cells twice with PBS, the cells were detached by scraping, and the fluorescent signals from the cells were detected using flow cytometry. All data were collected using a Becton Dickinson FACSCanto-II flow cytometer and analyzed using FlowJo software.

Drug loading and encapsulation efficiency were measured using HPLC on an Agilent 1220 Infinity II gradient liquid chromatography system equipped with a C18 analytical column (Brownlee). VLA-DEX-NP samples were dissolved overnight in 80% acetonitrile (ACN; EMD Millipore) and then centrifuged at 21,100g for 8 min to collect the supernatant for analysis. The solutions were run through the column at a flow rate of 0.3 ml/min and DEX was detected at a wavelength of 242 nm. The DEX release profile was obtained by loading 200 l of VLA-DEX-NP (1 mg/ml) into Slide-A-Lyzer MINI dialysis devices (10K molecular weight cutoff; Thermo Fisher Scientific) and floating them on 1 liter of PBS stirred at 150 rpm. At each time point, dialysis cups were retrieved, and their contents were centrifuged at 21,100g for 8 min. The pellets were dissolved in 80% ACN overnight and processed as described above for HPLC analysis.

The biological activity of DEX was evaluated in vitro using a test system involving the LPS treatment of DC2.4 dendritic cells. To validate the system, DC2.4 cells were first plated onto a 24-well tissue culture plate at 5 104 cells per well and cultured overnight with or without LPS at a concentration of 1 g/ml. Then, supernatant was collected, and the concentration of IL-6 was measured using a mouse IL-6 ELISA kit (BioLegend) according to the manufacturers protocol. To compare free DEX and VLA-DEX-NP, the two formulations were first added to the culture medium at final drug concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, and 1 M, followed by 2 hours of incubation. For free DEX, 1000 stock solutions were prepared at 0.01, 0.1, and 1 mM in dimethyl sulfoxide. Then, the cells were treated with LPS overnight before measuring the concentration of IL-6 in the supernatant. To test the effect of empty nanoparticles, either PLGA cores or VLA-NP at a final concentration of 1 g/ml were first incubated with the cells for 2 hours, followed by an overnight incubation either with or without LPS before measuring IL-6 levels.

All animal experiments were performed in accordance with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) guidelines and approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) of the University of California San Diego. To induce lung inflammation in mice, 30 l of LPS (400 g/ml) in PBS was injected intratracheally into male BALB/c mice (Charles River Laboratories). At 1 hour after LPS injection, 100 l of DiD (10 mg/ml)labeled WT-NP or VLA-NP was administered intravenously. After 6 hours, the heart, lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys, and blood were collected. All solid tissues were washed with PBS and suspended in 1 ml of PBS before being homogenized with a Biospec Mini-Beadbeater-16. The homogenates and blood were then diluted 4 with PBS and added to a 96-well plate, and fluorescence was measured using a BioTek Synergy Mx microplate reader. For each sample, the background signal measured from the corresponding organ or blood of control mice that did not receive any treatment was subtracted.

Male BALB/c mice were intravenously injected with 100 l of free DEX or VLA-DEX-NP, each at a drug concentration of 200 g/ml, daily for the first 7 days. Then, for the next 2 days, the dosage was doubled by injecting 200 l of each formulation at the same drug concentration. At 24 hours after the last injection, blood was collected by submandibular puncture and collected into tubes containing sodium heparin (Sigma-Aldrich). Plasma samples were obtained by taking the supernatant of the blood after centrifuging at 800g for 10 min. Creatinine levels were measured using a creatinine colorimetric assay kit (Cayman Chemical Company) according to the manufacturers protocol.

To treat lung inflammation, male BALB/c mice were first intratracheally challenged with 30 l of LPS (400 g/ml) in PBS. At 1 hour after the challenge, 100 l of free DEX, WT-DEX-NP, and VLA-DEX-NP, each at a drug concentration of 200 g/ml, was injected intravenously. After 6 hours, the lungs were collected and homogenized as described above. The homogenates were centrifuged at 10,000g, and the supernatants were filtered through 0.22-m polyvinylidene difluoride syringe filters (CELLTREAT). The concentration of IL-6 was measured using a mouse IL-6 ELISA kit according to the manufacturers protocol. For histology analysis, the lungs were collected after 6 hours and fixed in 10% phosphate-buffered formalin (Fisher Chemical) for 24 hours. The fixed lungs were sectioned, followed by hematoxylin and eosin (Sakura Finetek) staining. Histology slides were prepared by the Moores Cancer Center Tissue Technology Shared Resource (Cancer Center Support Grant P30CA23100). Images were obtained using a Hamamatsu NanoZoomer 2.0-HT slide scanner and analyzed using the NanoZoomer Digital Pathology software.

Acknowledgments: Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health under award no. R01CA200574 and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency Joint Science and Technology Office for Chemical and Biological Defense under grant no. HDTRA1-18-1-0014. J.H.P. was supported by a National Institutes of Health 5T32CA153915 training grant from the National Cancer Institute. Author contributions: J.H.P., Y.J., R.H.F., and L.Z. conceived and designed the experiments. J.H.P., Y.J., J.Z., H.G., A.M., and J.H. performed all experiments. All authors analyzed and discussed the data. J.H.P., A.M., R.H.F., and L.Z. wrote the paper. Competing interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Data and materials availability: All data needed to evaluate the conclusions in the paper are present in the paper.

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Genetically engineered cell membranecoated nanoparticles for targeted delivery of dexamethasone to inflamed lungs - Science Advances

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SARS-CoV-2 and its new variants: a comprehensive review on nanotechnological application insights into potential approaches – DocWire News

§ June 20th, 2021 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on SARS-CoV-2 and its new variants: a comprehensive review on nanotechnological application insights into potential approaches – DocWire News

This article was originally published here

Appl Nanosci. 2021 Jun 10:1-29. doi: 10.1007/s13204-021-01900-w. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) spreads and develops quickly worldwide as a new global crisis which has left deep socio-economic damage and massive human mortality. This virus accounts for the ongoing outbreak and forces an urgent need to improve antiviral therapeutics and targeted diagnosing tools. Researchers have been working to find a new drug to combat the virus since the outbreak started in late 2019, but there are currently no successful drugs to control the SARS-CoV-2, which makes the situation riskier. Very recently, new variant of SARS-CoV-2 is identified in many countries which make the situation very critical. No successful treatment has yet been shown although enormous international commitment to combat this pandemic and the start of different clinical trials. Nanomedicine has outstanding potential to solve several specific health issues, like viruses, which are regarded a significant medical issue. In this review, we presented an up-to-date drug design strategy against SARS-CoV-2, including the development of novel drugs and repurposed product potentials were useful, and successful drugs discovery is a constant requirement. The use of nanomaterials in treatment against SARS-CoV-2 and their use as carriers for the transport of the most frequently used antiviral therapeutics are discussed systematically here. We also addressed the possibilities of practical applications of nanoparticles to give the status of COVID-19 antiviral systems.

PMID:34131555 | PMC:PMC8190993 | DOI:10.1007/s13204-021-01900-w

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