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Colon Anatomy: Gross Anatomy, Microscopic Anatomy, Natural …

§ October 13th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Colon Anatomy: Gross Anatomy, Microscopic Anatomy, Natural …

The colon is a 5-6ft long, inverted, U-shaped part of the large intestine (lower gastrointestinal tract). By definition, the cecum (and appendix) and ano-rectum, which are parts of the large intestine, are not included in the colon.

Embryologically, the colon develops partly from the midgut (ascending colon to proximal transverse colon) and partly from the hind gut (distal transverse colon to sigmoid colon).

On plain abdominal radiographs, the colon is seen to be filled with air and some fecal material. The colon is identified with haustra (irregular incomplete sacculations confer regular complete valvulae conniventes in jejunum).

The colon anatomy is displayed in the image below.

The ascending (right) colon lies vertically in the most lateral right part of the abdominal cavity, occupying the right iliac fossa, right lumbar region and right hypochondrium. The proximal blind end (pouch) of the ascending colon is called the cecum. The ascending colon takes a right-angled turn just below the liver (right colic or hepatic flexure) and becomes the transverse colon, which has a horizontal course from right to left, occupying the right hypochondrium, epigastrium, and left hypochondrium.

The transverse colon again takes a right-angled turn just below the spleen (left colic or splenic flexure, which is attached to the diaphragm by the phrenocolic ligament) and becomes the descending (left) colon, which lies vertically in the most lateral left part of the abdominal cavity, occupying the left hypochondrium, left lumbar region, and left iliac fossa. Splenic flexure is higher (cranial) to hepatic flexure. The descending colon leads to the inverted V-shaped sigmoid colon, which then becomes the rectum at the S3 level; the sigmoid colon is so called because of its S-shape. [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

Lateral to ascending and descending colon are the right and left paracolic gutters of the peritoneal cavity, through which fluid/pus in the upper abdomen can trickle down into the pelvic cavity. The ascending and descending colon are related to the kidney, ureter, and gonadal vessels of the corresponding side that lie behind them in the retroperitoneum; the ascending colon is also related to the C loop (second part) of theduodenum.

The transverse colon and the sigmoid colon have a mesentery (ie, transverse mesocolon and sigmoid mesocolon, respectively), but the ascending colon and descending colon are retroperitoneal, while the cecum is intraperitoneal but uses the mesentery of the ileum. The base of the transverse mesocolon lies horizontally across the duodenum and pancreas. The greater omentum has several parts, including the 4-layered omental apron hanging down off of the transverse colon and the 2-layered gastrocolic ligament connecting the greater curvature of the stomach and the transverse colon.

Three longitudinal teniae coli are present in the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon; they are not present in the rectum. In the ascending and descending colon, they are present anteriorly and on the posterolateral and posteromedial aspects. Appendages of fat, containing small blood vessels, called omental appendages (appendices epiploicae) are attached to colon.

The colon is supplied by the superior mesenteric artery through its right colic and middle colic branches and by the inferior mesenteric artery through its left colic and multiple sigmoid branches. The terminal branches of these arteries entering the colonic wall are called vasa recta.

A continuing series of anastomoses between the distal branch of the proximal artery and the proximal branch of the distal artery runs along the mesenteric (inner) border of the colon and is called the marginal artery of Drummond. The marginal artery allows a long length of colon to be mobilized (eg, to be taken up into the chest to replace the esophagus after esophagectomy).

The arc of Riolan or the meandering mesenteric artery is a communication between the middle colic artery (or its left branch) and the left colic artery (or its ascending branch).

The junction of the proximal two thirds and distal one third of the transverse colon, where the terminal branches of the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries meet, is the watershed area, which is prone to ischemia.

The superior mesenteric vein accompanies the superior mesenteric artery, but the inferior mesenteric vein drains higher than the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery; it runs vertically upward to the left of the duodenojejunal junction (flexure) and enters the splenic vein or its junction with the superior mesenteric vein to form the portal vein.

Lymphatics of the colon drain into the epicolic (on the surface of colon), paricolic (next to colon), intermediate (along branches of named vessels), and main or mesocolic (along the named colic vessels) lymph nodes.

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Ovary Anatomy: Gross Anatomy, Microscopic Anatomy, Natural …

§ October 12th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Ovary Anatomy: Gross Anatomy, Microscopic Anatomy, Natural …

The ovaries are the female pelvic reproductive organs that house the ova and are also responsible for the production of sex hormones. They are paired organs located on either side of the uterus within the broad ligament below the uterine (fallopian) tubes. The ovary is within the ovarian fossa, a space that is bound by the external iliac vessels, obliterated umbilical artery, and the ureter. The ovaries are responsible for housing and releasing ova, or eggs, necessary for reproduction. At birth, a female has approximately 1-2 million eggs, but only 300 of these eggs will ever become mature and be released for the purpose of fertilization.

Anatomy of the ovaries is displayed in the images below.

The ovaries are small, oval-shaped, and grayish in color, with an uneven surface. The actual size of an ovary depends on a womans age and hormonal status; the ovaries, covered by a modified peritoneum, are approximately 3-5 cm in length during childbearing years and become much smaller and then atrophic once menopause occurs. A cross-section of the ovary reveals many cystic structures that vary in size. These structures represent ovarian follicles at different stages of development and degeneration. [1, 2, 3]

Each month, the ovaries go through a series of stages, depending on stimulation by the anterior pituitary hormones the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and the luteinizing hormone (LH). A typical female cycle lasts 28 days; however, this can range from 21-35 days.

The ovarian cycle has 2 distinct phases: the follicular phase (days 1-14) and the luteal phase (days 14-28). The follicular phase is characterized by follicle development and growth, the goal being that one follicle matures and releases an egg at the time of ovulation, around day 14 of the female cycle. The remaining immature follicles go through stages of degeneration up until day 28, when the cycle repeats itself. The egg that is released is picked up by the fimbriae of the uterine tube, and the egg is transported toward the uterus. If fertilization does not occur, the egg degenerates, and menstruation occurs.

Several paired ligaments support the ovaries. The ovarian ligament connects the uterus and ovary. The posterior portion of the broad ligament forms the mesovarium, which supports the ovary and houses its arterial and venous supply. The suspensory ligament of the ovary (infundibular pelvic ligament) attaches the ovary to the pelvic sidewall. This larger structure also contains the ovarian artery and vein, as well as nerve supply to the ovary.

Blood supply to the ovary is via the ovarian artery; both the right and left arteries originate directly from the descending aorta. The ovarian artery and vein enter and exit the ovary at the hilum. The left ovarian vein drains into the left renal vein, and the right ovarian vein empties directly into the inferior vena cava.

Nerve supply to the ovaries runs with the vasculature via the suspensory ligament of the ovary, entering the ovary at the hilum. Supply is through the ovarian, hypogastric, and aortic plexuses.

Lymph drainage of the ovary is primarily to the lateral aortic nodes; however, the iliac nodes are also involved.

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Heliotropium foertherianum – Wikipedia

§ October 10th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Heliotropium foertherianum – Wikipedia

Heliotropium foertherianum is a species of flowering plant in the borage family, Boraginaceae. It is native to tropical Asia including southern China, Madagascar, northern Australia, and most of the atolls and high islands of Micronesia and Polynesia. Common names include velvetleaf soldierbush,[2] tree heliotrope, veloutier, and octopus bush. It is a shrub or small tree typical of littoral zones reaching a height of 3.6m (12ft), with a spread of about 5m (16ft).[citation needed]

Originally published as Tournefortia argentea, it was transferred to Argusia argentea, and remained under that name until recently. It was subsequently restored to Tournefortia before being transferred into Heliotropium under a new name in 2003.[3][4]

Historically in the Maldives the leaves were often used as famine food.[5]

The wood of H. foertherianum is commonly used to make handicrafts, tools, and, in Polynesia, frames for swim goggles. Due to its availability, H. foertherianum is used as firewood, and has become rare in some areas as a result.[6]

Octopus bush is used in many Pacific islands as a traditional medicine to treat ciguatera fish poisoning, which is caused by powerful ciguatoxins produced by microscopic Gambierdiscus algae. Scientists from the Institute of Research for Development (IRD) and the Louis Malarde Institute in French Polynesia and Pasteur Institute in New Caledonia are researching the plant chemistry and believe that senescent leaves contain rosmarinic acid and derivatives, which are known for its antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties.[7] The researchers think rosmarinic acid may remove the ciguatoxins from their sites of action, as well as being an anti-inflammatory.

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Canine Performance Sciences – College of Veterinary Medicine

§ October 10th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Canine Performance Sciences – College of Veterinary Medicine

The mission of the CPS breeding program is to scientifically breed and develop superior quality canines that can be utilized for a variety of purposes. Our network of scientists are advancing adogs olfactory and performance capabilities, making them some of the most advanced detection dogs in the world.

Superior detection dogs are hard to find. CPS breeds and develops canines to possess specific traits. These dogs must have a high reward value, willing to search for long periods of time for multiple rewards. They must have high hunt instincts, their nose is always stimulating them to investigate. They need high trainability characteristics, which give them the ability to learn any new tasks quickly. They must be highly motivated and not easily discouraged. They must be attentive and be able to work in any environment and, most importantly, CPS dogs must be medically sound. We are producing scientifically bred and trained canines to become the best detection dogs possible.

CPS follows state-of-the-art theriogenology practices, incorporating genetic and genomic concepts to influence breeding selection and enhance puppy development. These practices ensure CPS is making genetic progress. CPS puppies attend the programs 11-month puppy school, where they are socialized and learn to investigate for reward before being sold to detection dog vendors. Dogs undergo constant evaluations to tailor their development and training program for their future work placement, giving them the greatest advantage to succeed.

CPS is devoted to improving the way people and dogs interact through development programs and interaction within the community. CPS has a number of programs designed to enrich the interactions with dogs, both in work and play.

Dog Bite Prevention Program

Nearly 4.5 million Americans are bitten by dogs each year, half are children. One in five dog bites results in injuries serious enough to require medical attention. Among children, the rate of dog biterelated injuries is highest for those ages five to nine.

CPS is developing an eight-lesson dog bite prevention program. Schools will be able to download the program and use it in the classroom. This program meets State of Alabama Education requirements in the areas of reading comprehension, health, science, and language arts for first grade students, and, it can be incorporated into a teacher's lesson plans.

This program is currently being piloted and should be available this fall. It gives CPS dog's additional socialization and training opportunities andengages children, teaching them how to prevent and protect themselves from dog bites.

Community and campus volunteers are needed during the week. Volunteers are needed to care for dogs and puppies, as well as exercise, train, and socialize puppies or work with adult dogs.Volunteers are screened and placed to work in different areas of need.Volunteers must:

Contact CPS at cps@vetmed.auburn.edu to learn how to become a CPS volunteer.

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Fact Sheets about Genomics | NHGRI – genome.gov

§ October 10th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Fact Sheets about Genomics | NHGRI – genome.gov

Fact Sheets about Genomics | NHGRI Skip to main content

The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) has produced this series of fact sheets to explain complex concepts in genomics research to a non-scientific audience. Teachers, students and the general public alike will find the materials clearly written and easy to understand.

A biological pathway is a series of actions among molecules in a cell that leads to a certain product or a change in the cell.

Genomics is the study of all of a person's genes (the genome), including interactions of those genes with each other and with the person's environment.

Chromosomes are thread-like structures located inside the nucleus of animal and plant cells.

Cloning describes a number of different processes that can be used to produce genetically identical copies of a biological entity.

Comparative genomics is a field of biological research in which researchers compare the complete genome sequences of different species.

DNA sequencing determines the order of the four chemical building blocks - called "bases" - that make up the DNA molecule.

Epigenomics is a field in which researchers chart the locations and understand the functions of all the chemical tags that mark the genome.

Genetic mapping offers evidence that a disease transmitted from parent to child is linked to one or more genes and clues about where a gene lies on a chromosome.

A knockout mouse is a laboratory mouse in which researchers have inactivated an existing gene by replacing it or disrupting it with an artificial piece of DNA.

Newborn screening tests use a dried blood sample collected during the first week after birth to measure the presence of disease biomarkers.

Data used to estimate the cost of sequencing the human genome over time since the Human Genome Project.

The X chromosome determines your sex, gives some females super color vision and lends its magic to a certain breed of cat.

The Y chromosome of all living men is related through a single male ancestor who lived over 100,000 years ago.

Genetics refers to the study of genes and their roles in inheritance. Genomics refers to the study of all of a person's genes (the genome).

Last updated: November 9, 2015

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Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology Peer Reviewed Journals

§ October 10th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology Peer Reviewed Journals

Pubmed NLM ID: 101562615SJR H Index:19ICDS 2017: 3.8RG Journal Impact: 0.55

Journal of Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology is an open access bi-monthly journal publishing peer-reviewed articles in all major and minor specializations of Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology.

The Journal of Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology primarily focuses on synthesis and characterization of nanoparticles and nanomaterial for engineering, biological and biomedical applications as well as innovative theoretical concepts having substantial pharmacological, toxicological or clinical relevance. Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology includes the manuscript related to Nanomedicine, Nanotechnology, Material Science Research, Nanobiotechnology, Nanoengineering, Nanobiopharmaceutics, Nanoelectronics, Nanofluids, Nano delivery, etc.

The journal is an online international Journal publishing all aspects of Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology including research article, review article, case study, mini-review, opinion, editorial, prospective, etc. Journal is trying to create the basic platform to maintain the international community for upcoming researcher.

The journal encourages researchers, professors, academicians, doctors, faculties, and students from all over the world to submit their findings or new results related to the journal. All articles will be published and archived through single blind peer-review process. Readers can access or download the published articles free of cost. Journal is following peer-review and publication under open access creative commons attribution license.

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About Our Degree Programs – School of Medicine

§ October 6th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on About Our Degree Programs – School of Medicine

The Department of Family and Preventive Medicine (originally Family and Community Medicine) has offered a master's degree in public health education since 1974, a MStat-Biostatistics degree since 1976, and a PhD since 2004. Initially the public health degree offered was the Master of Science in Community Medicine (MSCM); in 1984 this degree was changed to the Master of Science in Public Health (MSPH). Since 1984 the Department of Family and Preventive Medicine Public Health Program has offered the MSPH degree, an academic degree with a research focus, and the MPH degree, a professional degree designed for individuals seeking a career in public health practice.

In 1978, the Department of Family and Preventive Medicine Public Health program became one of the first three community health/preventive medicine programs to be accredited by the Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH), the nationally recognized accrediting body for public health programs. Since 1978 the Department of Family and Preventive Medicine Public Health Program has undergone six accreditation reviews, the last concluded Summer 2014, for an additional seven years.

To date, the Public Health Program has a total of 1,386 graduates employed in a variety of public health, health care, research, and related settings. There are currently 176 active graduate students within the MPH, MSPH, MSTAT: Biostatistics Track and PhD degree programs.

Pay Seat Fee

The University of Utah is an Equal Opportunity and Affirmative Action institution. For detailed information or to request a reasonable accommodation, visit http://www.utah.edu/nondiscrimination/.

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About Our Degree Programs - School of Medicine

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News Bureau | ILLINOIS

§ October 6th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on News Bureau | ILLINOIS

CHAMPAIGN, Ill. Researchers have developed soft robotic devices driven by neuromuscular tissue that triggers when stimulated by light bringing mechanical engineering one step closer to developing autonomous biobots.

In 2014, research teams led by mechanical science and engineering professor Taher Saif and bioengineering professor Rashid Bashir at the University of Illinois worked together to developed the first self-propelled biohybrid swimming and walking biobots powered by beating cardiac muscle cells derived from rats.

Our first swimmer study successfully demonstrated that the bots, modeled after sperm cells, could in fact swim," Saif said. That generation of singled-tailed bots utilized cardiac tissue that beats on its own, but they could not sense the environment or make any decisions.

The research team includes, from left, professor Taher Saif, graduate student Onur Aydin, graduate student Xiaotian Zhang, professor Mattia Gazzola, graduate student Gelson J. Pagan-Diaz, seated, and professor and dean of the Grainger College of Engineering, Rashid Bashir.

Photo by L. Brian Stauffer

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In a new study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and led by Saif, the researchers demonstrate a new generation of two-tailed bots powered by skeletal muscle tissue stimulated by on-board motor neurons. The neurons have optogenetic properties: Upon exposure to light, the neurons will fire to actuate the muscles.

We applied an optogenetic neuron cell culture, derived from mouse stem cells, adjacent to the muscle tissue, Saif said. The neurons advanced towards the muscle and formed neuromuscular junctions, and the swimmer assembled on its own.

After confirming that the neuromuscular tissue was compatible with their synthetic biobot skeletons, the team worked to optimize the swimmers abilities.

We used computational models, led by mechanical science and engineering professor Mattia Gazzola, to determine which physical attributes would lead to the fastest and most efficient swimming, Saif said. For example, we looked at variations in the number of tails and tail lengths for most efficient design of the biohybrid swimmer.

Given the fact that biological actuators, or biobots, are not as mature as other technologies, they are unable to produce large forces. This makes their movement hard to control," Gazzola said. "It is very important to carefully design the scaffold the biobots grow around and interact with to make the most out of technology and achieve locomotive functions. The computer simulations we run play a critical role in this task as we can span a number of possible designs and select only the most promising ones for testing in real life.

The ability to drive muscle activity with neurons paves the way for further integration of neural units within biohybrid systems, Saif said. Given our understanding of neural control in animals, it may be possible to move forward with biohybrid neuromuscular design by using a hierarchical organization of neural networks.

Saif said he and his team envision this advance leading to the development of multicellular engineered living systems with the ability to respond intelligently to environmental cues for applications in bioengineering, medicine and self-healing materials technologies.

However, the team acknowledges that like living organisms no two biohybrid machines will develop to be exactly the same.

Just like twins are not truly identical, two machines designed to perform the same function will not be the same," Saif said. "One may move faster or heal from damage differently from the other a unique attribute of living machines.

The National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center Emergent Behavior for Integrated Cellular Systems and NSF's Emergent Frontiers in Research and Innovation grant supported this research.

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anatomy | Definition, History, & Biology | Britannica.com

§ October 5th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on anatomy | Definition, History, & Biology | Britannica.com

Anatomy, a field in the biological sciences concerned with the identification and description of the body structures of living things. Gross anatomy involves the study of major body structures by dissection and observation and in its narrowest sense is concerned only with the human body. Gross anatomy customarily refers to the study of those body structures large enough to be examined without the help of magnifying devices, while microscopic anatomy is concerned with the study of structural units small enough to be seen only with a light microscope. Dissection is basic to all anatomical research. The earliest record of its use was made by the Greeks, and Theophrastus called dissection anatomy, from ana temnein, meaning to cut up.

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morphology: Anatomy

The best known aspect of morphology, usually called anatomy, is the study of gross structure, or form, of organs and organisms. It should

Comparative anatomy, the other major subdivision of the field, compares similar body structures in different species of animals in order to understand the adaptive changes they have undergone in the course of evolution.

This ancient discipline reached its culmination between 1500 and 1850, by which time its subject matter was firmly established. None of the worlds oldest civilizations dissected a human body, which most people regarded with superstitious awe and associated with the spirit of the departed soul. Beliefs in life after death and a disquieting uncertainty concerning the possibility of bodily resurrection further inhibited systematic study. Nevertheless, knowledge of the body was acquired by treating wounds, aiding in childbirth, and setting broken limbs. The field remained speculative rather than descriptive, though, until the achievements of the Alexandrian medical school and its foremost figure, Herophilus (flourished 300 bce), who dissected human cadavers and thus gave anatomy a considerable factual basis for the first time. Herophilus made many important discoveries and was followed by his younger contemporary Erasistratus, who is sometimes regarded as the founder of physiology. In the 2nd century ce, Greek physician Galen assembled and arranged all the discoveries of the Greek anatomists, including with them his own concepts of physiology and his discoveries in experimental medicine. The many books Galen wrote became the unquestioned authority for anatomy and medicine in Europe because they were the only ancient Greek anatomical texts that survived the Dark Ages in the form of Arabic (and then Latin) translations.

Owing to church prohibitions against dissection, European medicine in the Middle Ages relied upon Galens mixture of fact and fancy rather than on direct observation for its anatomical knowledge, though some dissections were authorized for teaching purposes. In the early 16th century, the artist Leonardo da Vinci undertook his own dissections, and his beautiful and accurate anatomical drawings cleared the way for Flemish physician Andreas Vesalius to restore the science of anatomy with his monumental De humani corporis fabrica libri septem (1543; The Seven Books on the Structure of the Human Body), which was the first comprehensive and illustrated textbook of anatomy. As a professor at the University of Padua, Vesalius encouraged younger scientists to accept traditional anatomy only after verifying it themselves, and this more critical and questioning attitude broke Galens authority and placed anatomy on a firm foundation of observed fact and demonstration.

From Vesaliuss exact descriptions of the skeleton, muscles, blood vessels, nervous system, and digestive tract, his successors in Padua progressed to studies of the digestive glands and the urinary and reproductive systems. Hieronymus Fabricius, Gabriello Fallopius, and Bartolomeo Eustachio were among the most important Italian anatomists, and their detailed studies led to fundamental progress in the related field of physiology. William Harveys discovery of the circulation of the blood, for instance, was based partly on Fabriciuss detailed descriptions of the venous valves.

The new application of magnifying glasses and compound microscopes to biological studies in the second half of the 17th century was the most important factor in the subsequent development of anatomical research. Primitive early microscopes enabled Marcello Malpighi to discover the system of tiny capillaries connecting the arterial and venous networks, Robert Hooke to first observe the small compartments in plants that he called cells, and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek to observe muscle fibres and spermatozoa. Thenceforth attention gradually shifted from the identification and understanding of bodily structures visible to the naked eye to those of microscopic size.

The use of the microscope in discovering minute, previously unknown features was pursued on a more systematic basis in the 18th century, but progress tended to be slow until technical improvements in the compound microscope itself, beginning in the 1830s with the gradual development of achromatic lenses, greatly increased that instruments resolving power. These technical advances enabled Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann to recognize in 183839 that the cell is the fundamental unit of organization in all living things. The need for thinner, more transparent tissue specimens for study under the light microscope stimulated the development of improved methods of dissection, notably machines called microtomes that can slice specimens into extremely thin sections. In order to better distinguish the detail in these sections, synthetic dyes were used to stain tissues with different colours. Thin sections and staining had become standard tools for microscopic anatomists by the late 19th century. The field of cytology, which is the study of cells, and that of histology, which is the study of tissue organization from the cellular level up, both arose in the 19th century with the data and techniques of microscopic anatomy as their basis.

In the 20th century anatomists tended to scrutinize tinier and tinier units of structure as new technologies enabled them to discern details far beyond the limits of resolution of light microscopes. These advances were made possible by the electron microscope, which stimulated an enormous amount of research on subcellular structures beginning in the 1950s and became the prime tool of anatomical research. About the same time, the use of X-ray diffraction for studying the structures of many types of molecules present in living things gave rise to the new subspecialty of molecular anatomy.

Scientific names for the parts and structures of the human body are usually in Latin; for example, the name musculus biceps brachii denotes the biceps muscle of the upper arm. Some such names were bequeathed to Europe by ancient Greek and Roman writers, and many more were coined by European anatomists from the 16th century on. Expanding medical knowledge meant the discovery of many bodily structures and tissues, but there was no uniformity of nomenclature, and thousands of new names were added as medical writers followed their own fancies, usually expressing them in a Latin form.

By the end of the 19th century the confusion caused by the enormous number of names had become intolerable. Medical dictionaries sometimes listed as many as 20 synonyms for one name, and more than 50,000 names were in use throughout Europe. In 1887 the German Anatomical Society undertook the task of standardizing the nomenclature, and, with the help of other national anatomical societies, a complete list of anatomical terms and names was approved in 1895 that reduced the 50,000 names to 5,528. This list, the Basle Nomina Anatomica, had to be subsequently expanded, and in 1955 the Sixth International Anatomical Congress at Paris approved a major revision of it known as the Paris Nomina Anatomica (or simply Nomina Anatomica). In 1998 this work was supplanted by the Terminologia Anatomica, which recognizes about 7,500 terms describing macroscopic structures of human anatomy and is considered to be the international standard on human anatomical nomenclature. The Terminologia Anatomica, produced by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists and the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (later known as the Federative International Programme on Anatomical Terminologies), was made available online in 2011.

morphology: Anatomy

The best known aspect of morphology, usually called anatomy, is the study of gross structure, or form, of organs and organisms. It should not be inferred however, that even the human body, which has been extensively studied, has been so completely explored that nothing

childhood disease and disorder: Anatomical differences

Not only is the childs body smaller than that of the adult, but it has different proportions; for example, the sitting height of the newborn infant represents about 70 percent of total body length. With rapid growth of the extremities, sitting height decreases

zoology: Anatomy or morphology

Descriptions of external form and internal organization are among the earliest records available regarding the systematic study of animals. Aristotle was an indefatigable collector and dissector of animals. He found differing degrees of structural complexity, which he described with regard to ways

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Esophagus Anatomy: Gross Anatomy, Microscopic Anatomy …

§ October 1st, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Esophagus Anatomy: Gross Anatomy, Microscopic Anatomy …

The esophagus is a 25-cm long muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach. [1] The length of the esophagus at birth varies between 8 and 10 cm and measures about 19 cm at age 15 years. [2]

The esophagus extends from the lower border of the cricoid cartilage (at the level of the sixth cervical vertebra) to the cardiac orifice of the stomach at the side of the body of the 11th thoracic vertebra. The upper limit in the newborn infant is found at the level of the fourth or fifth cervical vertebra, and it ends higher, at the level of the ninth thoracic vertebra. [2, 3]

In its vertical course, the esophagus has 2 gentle curves in the coronal plane. The first curve begins a little below the commencement of the esophagus and inclines to the left as far as the root of the neck and returns to the midline at the level of fifth thoracic vertebra. The second curve to the left is formed as the esophagus bends to cross the descending thoracic aorta, before it pierces the diaphragm. The esophagus also has anteroposterior curvatures that correspond to the curvatures of the cervical and thoracic part of the vertebral column. [1, 2]

The video below depicts the esophagus as viewed through an esophagoscope in a 3-year-old child.

The videos below depict other views of normal esophageal anatomy via endoscopy.

The video below depicts normal esophageal anatomy via esophagogastroduodenoscopy.

The esophagus has 3 constrictions in its vertical course, as follows:

The first constriction is at 15 cm from the upper incisor teeth, where the esophagus commences at the cricopharyngeal sphincter; this is the narrowest portion of the esophagus and approximately corresponds to the sixth cervical vertebra

The second constriction is at 23 cm from the upper incisor teeth, where it is crossed by the aortic arch and left main bronchus

The third constriction is at 40 cm from the upper incisor teeth, where it pierces the diaphragm; the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) is situated at this level [1, 2, 3]

These measurements are clinically important for endoscopy and endoscopic surgeries of the esophagus.

The esophagus has been subdivided into 3 portions, as follows:

The cervical portion extends from the cricopharyngeus to the suprasternal notch

The thoracic portion extends from the suprasternal notch to the diaphragm

The abdominal portion extends from the diaphragm to the cardiac portion of the stomach. [3]

The relationships of the cervical esophagus, thoracic esophagus, and abdominal esophagus are described below. [1, 2]

The cervical part of the esophagus

The trachea lies anterior to the esophagus and is connected to it by a loose connective tissue. Posteriorly, it is related to prevertebral muscles and prevertebral fascia covering the bodies of sixth, seventh, and eighth cervical vertebra. The thoracic duct lies on the left side at the level of the sixth cervical vertebra. The carotid sheath with its contents and lower poles of the lateral lobes of thyroid gland are in lateral relation to the esophagus on both the sides.

The thoracic part of the esophagus

The esophagus lies between the trachea and vertebral column in the superior mediastinum. On its way down, the esophagus passes behind the aortic arch, and, at the level of T4/T5 intervertebral discs, it enters the posterior mediastinum. The thoracic duct lies on the left side, and the left recurrent laryngeal nerve lies in the left tracheoesophageal groove. Laterally, on the left side, it is related to the aorta and left subclavian artery; on the right side, it is related to the azygos vein.

Anteriorly, the esophagus is related to the trachea, right pulmonary artery, left bronchus, pericardium with left atrium, and diaphragm. Posteriorly, the esophagus is related to the vertebral column, right posterior intercostal arteries, thoracic duct, thoracic part of the aorta, and diaphragm. In the posterior mediastinum, the esophagus is related to the descending thoracic aorta, left mediastinal pleura, azygos vein, and cardiac and pulmonary plexus.

The abdominal part of the esophagus

The esophagus passes through the right crus of the diaphragm. In its abdominal course, it is covered with the peritoneum of the greater sac anteriorly and on its left side, and it is covered with the lesser sac peritoneum on the right side. It comes to lie in the esophageal groove on the posterior surface of the left lobe of the liver and curves sharply to the left to join the stomach at the cardia. The right border continues evenly into the lesser curvature, whereas the left border is separated from the fundus of the stomach by the cardiac notch. [2]

See the list below:

The cervical portion is supplied by the inferior thyroid artery

The thoracic portion is supplied by bronchial and esophageal branches of the thoracic aorta

The abdominal portion is supplied by ascending branches of the left phrenic and left gastric arteries. [1]

Venous blood from the esophagus drains into a submucosal plexus. From this plexus, blood drains to the periesophageal venous plexus. Esophageal veins arise from this plexus and drain in a segmental way similar to the arterial supply, as follows:

From the cervical esophagus, veins drain into the inferior thyroid vein

From the thoracic esophagus, veins drain into the azygos veins, hemiazygos, intercostal, and bronchial veins

From the abdominal portion, esophagus veins drain into the left gastric vein; the left gastric vein is a tributary of the portal system. [1, 2]

The esophagus has an extensive, longitudinally continuous, submucosal lymphatic system. [2] The esophagus has 2 types of lymphatic vessels. A plexus of large vessels is present in the mucous membrane, and it is continuous above with the mucosal lymphatic vessels of pharynx and below with mucosal lymphatic vessels of gastric mucosa. The second plexus of finer vessels is situated in the muscular coat. Efferent vessels from the cervical part drain into the deep cervical nodes. Vessels from the thoracic part drain to the posterior mediastinal nodes and from the abdominal part drain to the left gastric nodes. Some vessels may pass directly to the thoracic duct. [1, 2]

Lymphatic drainage of the esophagus contains little barrier to spread, and esophageal lymphatics are densely interconnected. Hence, esophagus carcinoma can spread through the length of the esophagus via lymphatics and may have nodal involvement several centimeters away from the primary lesion. [3]

Recurrent laryngeal branches of the vagus nerve supply the striated muscle in the upper third of the esophagus, and cell bodies for these fibers are situated in the rostral part of the nucleus ambiguus. Motor supply to the nonstriated muscle is parasympathetic, and cell bodies for these fibers are situated in the dorsal nucleus of vagus. These fibers reach the esophagus through the vagus and its recurrent laryngeal branches. They synapse in the esophagus wall in the ganglia of submucosal plexus (Meissner) and myenteric plexus (Auerbach). The myenteric is situated between the outer longitudinal and inner circular muscle fibers. From these plexuses, short, postganglionic fibers emerge to innervate the mucous glands and smooth muscle fibers within the walls of the esophagus. [2]

Vasomotor sympathetic fibers that supply the esophagus arise from the upper 4-6 thoracic spinal cord segments. Fibers from the upper ganglia pass to the middle and inferior cervical ganglia and synapse on postganglionic neurons. The axons of these neurons innervate the vessels of the cervical and upper thoracic esophagus. Postsynaptic fibers from the lower ganglia pass to the esophageal plexus to innervate the distal esophagus. Afferent visceral pain fibers travel via the sympathetic fibers to the first 4 segments of the thoracic spinal cord. [1]

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About John Snow

§ October 1st, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on About John Snow

John Snow is an iconic figure in epidemiology and public health, best known for his work on cholera, for a famous map, and for organising the removal of a pump handle in Soho.

Less well known are his important contributions to anaesthesia and to epidemiological methods, and his engagement in public debates of the time. The breadth and depth of Snows activities provide a model for population researchers concerned not only with sound method but also with bringing their results to public benefit.

Indeed, though epidemiology is often described as the study of health-related aspects of populations, its methods are applicable to studies of virtually anything in populations, and disciplines which now acknowledge the methods and terminology of epidemiology range from education to crime science and economics.

Snow was born in York on 15 March 1813, one of eight children in a family of modest means. He apprenticed with a surgeon-apothecary in Newcastle from 1827 to 1833, and there witnessed the first epidemic of cholera in the UK.He then moved to London, qualified as physician in 1843 and set up general practice in Soho. Early in his career he became interested in the physiology of respiration in recognition of the major problem of asphyxia of the newborn.

These interests led him to be invited to witness one of the first applications of ether anaesthesia in the UK in December 1846. He immediately recognised the importance of ambient temperature and within one month published tables of the vapour pressure of ether.This initiated an important line of research on instruments for administering anaesthetics and led to his becoming the most prominent authority on anaesthesia in the UK. He administered chloroform to Queen Victoria at the birth of Prince Leopold in 1853.

The second great cholera epidemic arrived in London in 1848 and many attributed its cause to an atmospheric effluence or miasma. Snows firsthand experience of the disease in 1832, combined with studies of respiration, led him to question miasma theories and to publish the first edition of On the Mode of Communication of Cholera in 1849, in which he proposed that cholera was attributable to a self-replicating agent which was excreted in the cholera evacuations and inadvertently ingested, often, but not necessarily, through the medium of water.

When cholera returned in 1853, Snow recognised an ideal opportunity to test his hypothesis by comparing cholera mortality rates in populations of south London supplied by water drawn from sewage-contaminated versus uncontaminated regions of the Thames. He personally carried out a cohort study to make this comparison, recognising the need to confirm the water source of each case and to assure comparability of the populations concerned.

On 30 August 1854 while involved in these studies, a dramatic cholera epidemic began near his home in Soho leading to more than 550 deaths within two weeks. Analysis of the addresses of the cholera deaths and interviews of residents of the area led him to suspect that water from a pump on Broad Street was responsible and he prevailed upon the local council to remove the handle of the pump on 8 September 1854.

Though the epidemic was already in decline by that date, the rapidity of his action, the logic of the analysis, and the pragmatism of the response has made this a classic event in the history of public health, well known to students and practitioners the world over. The combination of these studies provided overwhelming evidence for an infectious agent, known now as Vibrio cholerae.

Snow described this work in the second edition of On the Mode of Communication of Cholera. He then expanded his public health interests by becoming involved in debates over legislation concerning nuisance industries in London, while maintaining his research and practice in anaesthesia until his death in 1858.

The 200th anniversary of Snows birth provides an occasion to celebrate his achievements, to consider their original context, to discuss their place in contemporary epidemiology, and consider their likely future, not only as the armamentarium of public health, but as a framework of method for science and society.

Image: John Snow. Credit: LSHTM Library & Archives.

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The First Use of the Microscope in Medicine

§ September 24th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on The First Use of the Microscope in Medicine

The microscope is undoubtedly one of the greatest inventions that men have ever made. The use of lenses for spectacles (eyeglasses), distant vision (telescopes), and high magnification (microscopes) required early lens makers accurately to grind lenses with different focal lengths. During the 16th and 17th centuries, Holland and Italy were the principal countries for the construction and use of telescopes and microscopes.

The compound microscope (with two convex lenses) was invented in Holland around 1590 by two spectacle makers, Hans Jannsen and his son, Zacharias. During the early 1600s, Galileo (15641642) made several telescopes and microscopes that he called occhialino. Also in Italy, James Faber, a physician, coined the word microscope in 1625; and the first association of microscopists was formed.

In 1653, Petrus Borellus [1] wrote the first publication on the use of microscope in medicine. He described 100 observations and applications, including how to remove ingrowing eyelashes that are invisible to the naked eye. In 1646, Athanasius Kircher [2] (or Kirchner, as it is often spelled), a Jesuit priest, wrote that a number of things might be discovered in the blood of fever patients. In 1658, in his Scrutinium Pestis, Kirchner [3] described microscopic worms in plague victims which he suspected caused the disease that killed millions of people in Europe during the 17th century. Most likely, he was viewing pus cells, or perhaps red blood cells, since he could not possibly see the Bacillus pestis with his 32-power microscope. Another early microscopist was Joseph Campini of Bologna. His microscope was the first that was depicted in clinical use in medicine (Fig. 1) [4].

While there were many botanists and zoologists who used microscope in the 17th century, there were few physicians. The observations of Leeuwenhoek (16321723), a Dutch drapery maker, excelled all other microscopists, because of his skill in making high quality lenses. The red blood cell was described in 1667 by Swammerdam (16371680) [5] and in 1673 by Malpighi (16281694), but it was Leeuwenhoek in 1695 who first illustrated red blood cells in his Arcana [6]. In the 190 letters that he wrote to the Royal Society in London over a period of 50 years, Leeuwenhoek gave descriptions and illustrations of bacteria from the human mouth, protozoa, spermatozoa, striations of skeletal muscles and epithelial cells from a wart on the trunk of an elephant in the Amsterdam Zoo [79].

Malpighi (16281694) a microscopist, histologist and embryologist, was the first person to see the anastomosis between arterial and venous capillaries [10]. His descriptions of the Malpighian bodies of the kidney, the Malpighian corpuscles of the spleen, and the Malpighian layer of the epidermis are known to every student of medicine [11].

Despite the countless people, including royalty, who paid tribute to early microscopists, the medical world, practicing clinicians, and academic physicians generally ignored or ridiculed them. The microscope was not appreciated as a useful scientific instrument by leaders in morbid anatomy such as Morgagni (16821771), John Hunter (17281793), and Mettew Baillie (17611823). The first atlas of pathology [12], written by Baillie and published in 1799, contains not even one microscopic illustration among more than 100 engravings.

Clinical microscopy had a slow beginning; more than two centuries passed before the value of microscopes began to be appreciated by clinical and laboratory scientists. In 1800, Bichat (17711802), a young pathologist, published a book in which, for the first time, morbid anatomic and histopathologic changes of various organs of the body were discussed and illustrated [13]. Soon thereafter the microscope became an indispensable laboratory tool at medical schools all around the world.

This is the first illustration of the microscope in use for clinical examinations in medicine. The microscope designed by Joseph Campani of Bologna is standing on a table (in an enlarged form, left of the picture); and a hand-held microscope is shown in actual use to examine a wound on the leg of the recumbent patient. Note the woman who holds a candle and a mirror for optimal illumination. A second observer with a microscope (standing on the left) seems confused about whether he is using a microscope or a telescope. (Figure from page 372 of Acta Eruditorum, 1686, ref. [4]).

Borellus P. Historiarum et observationum medico-physicarum centuria. A Colomerium, Castris, 1653.

Kircher A. Ars magna lucis et umbrae, 1646.

Kircher A. Scrutinium Pestis, 1658.

Schelftrateus. Description of a new microscope made by Joseph Campani. Acta Eruditorum. Leipzig, 1686 p.372.

Swammerdam J. Tractus physicoanatomico medicus de respiratione usuque pulmonum. Abraham et Adrian, Lugduni Batavorum,1667.

Leeuwenhoek A van. Arcana natura detecta, Batav, Delphis, 1695.

Leeuwenhoek A van. Some microscopical observations, about animals in the scurf of the teeth,Phil Trans 1684;14:568574.

Leeuwenhoek A van. Microscopical observations concerning blood, milk, bone, the brain, spittle, and cuticula, etc. Phil Trans 1674,9:121128.

Leeuwenhoek A van. Ontledingen en ontdekkingen. Leiden, Delft, 1693 to 1718.

Malpighi M. De viscerum structura exercitatio anatomica. J Montij, Bononiae, 1666.

Malpighi M. Opera omnia. R Scott, Londini, 1686.

Baillie M. A series of engravings with explanations, which are intended to illustrate the morbid anatomy of some of the most important parts of the human body. W Bulmer & Co, London, 1799.

Bichat MFX. Trait des membranes en gnral et diverses membranes en particulier. Richard, Caille & Ravier, Paris, 1800.

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Microscopic colitis – Symptoms and causes – Mayo Clinic

§ September 14th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Microscopic colitis – Symptoms and causes – Mayo Clinic

Overview

Microscopic colitis is an inflammation of the large intestine (colon) that causes persistent watery diarrhea. The disorder gets its name from the fact that it's necessary to examine colon tissue under a microscope to identify it, since the tissue may appear normal with a colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy.

There are different subtypes of microscopic colitis:

Researchers believe collagenous (kuh-LAYJ-uh-nus) colitis and lymphocytic colitis may be different phases of the same condition. Symptoms, testing and treatment are the same for all subtypes.

Signs and symptoms of microscopic colitis include:

The symptoms of microscopic colitis can come and go frequently. Sometimes the symptoms resolve on their own.

If you have watery diarrhea that lasts more than a few days, contact your doctor so that your condition can be diagnosed and properly treated.

It's not clear what causes the inflammation of the colon found in microscopic colitis. Researchers believe that the causes may include:

Risk factors for microscopic colitis include:

Some research studies indicate that using certain medications may increase your risk of microscopic colitis. But not all studies agree.

Medications that may be linked to the condition include:

Most people are successfully treated for microscopic colitis. The condition does not increase your risk of colon cancer.

Microscopic colitis care at Mayo Clinic

June 26, 2019

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Microscopic colitis – Diagnosis and treatment – Mayo Clinic

§ September 14th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Microscopic colitis – Diagnosis and treatment – Mayo Clinic

Diagnosis

A complete medical history and physical examination can help determine whether other conditions, such as celiac disease, may be contributing to your diarrhea.

Your doctor will also ask about any medications you are taking particularly aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others), naproxen sodium (Aleve), proton pump inhibitors, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) which may increase your risk of microscopic colitis.

To help confirm a diagnosis of microscopic colitis, you may have one or more of the following tests and procedures:

Flexible sigmoidoscopy. This procedure is similar to a colonoscopy, but rather than viewing the entire colon, a flexible sigmoidoscopy allows your doctor to view the inside of the rectum and most of the sigmoid colon about the last 2 feet (61 centimeters) of the large intestine.

The doctor uses a slender, flexible, lighted tube (sigmoidoscope) to examine the intestinal lining. A tissue sample can be taken through the scope during the exam.

Because intestinal issues often appear normal in microscopic colitis, a definite diagnosis of microscopic colitis requires a colon tissue sample (biopsy) obtained during a colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy. In both subtypes of microscopic colitis, cells in colon tissue have a distinct appearance under the microscope, so the diagnosis is definite.

In addition to a colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy, you may have one or more of these tests to rule out other causes for your symptoms.

Microscopic colitis may get better on its own. But when symptoms persist or are severe, you may need treatment to relieve them. Doctors usually try a stepwise approach, starting with the simplest, most easily tolerated treatments.

Treatment usually begins with changes to your diet and medications that may help relieve persistent diarrhea. Your doctor may recommend that you:

If signs and symptoms persist, your doctor may recommend:

When the symptoms of microscopic colitis are severe, and medications aren't effective, your doctor may recommend surgery to remove all or part of your colon. Surgery is rarely needed to treat microscopic colitis.

Explore Mayo Clinic studies testing new treatments, interventions and tests as a means to prevent, detect, treat or manage this disease.

Changes to your diet may help relieve diarrhea that you experience with microscopic colitis. Try to:

Here's some information to help you get ready for your appointment and know what to expect from your doctor.

Some basic questions to ask your doctor include:

Don't hesitate to ask questions anytime you don't understand something.

Be ready to answer questions your doctor is likely to ask you:

You may find some relief from persistent diarrhea by making changes to your diet:

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Challenges and strategies in anti-cancer nanomedicine …

§ June 2nd, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Challenges and strategies in anti-cancer nanomedicine …

JavaScript is disabled on your browser. Please enable JavaScript to use all the features on this page.Abstract

Successfully translating anti-cancer nanomedicines from pre-clinical proof of concept to demonstration of therapeutic value in the clinic is challenging. Having made significant advances with drug delivery technologies, we must learn from other areas of oncology drug development, where patient stratification and target-driven design have improved patient outcomes. We should evolve our nanomedicine development strategies to build the patient and disease into the line of sight from the outset. The success of small molecule targeted therapies has been significantly improved by employing a specific decision-making framework, such as AstraZeneca's 5R principle: right target/efficacy, right tissue/exposure, right safety, right patient, and right commercial potential. With appropriate investment and collaboration to generate a platform of evidence supporting the end clinical application, a similar framework can be established for enhancing nanomedicine translation and performance. Building informative data packages to answer these questions requires the following: (I) an improved understanding of the heterogeneity of clinical cancers and of the biological factors influencing the behaviour of nanomedicines in patient tumours; (II) a transition from formulation-driven research to disease-driven development; (III) the implementation of more relevant animal models and testing protocols; and (IV) the pre-selection of the patients most likely to respond to nanomedicine therapies. These challenges must be overcome to improve (the cost-effectiveness of) nanomedicine development and translation, and they are key to establishing superior therapies for patients.

Nanomedicine

EPR effect

Clinical translation

Pre-clinical models

Industry

Companion diagnostics

Patient pre-selection

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2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.

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Nanomedicine – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

§ May 21st, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanomedicine – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

12.1 Why Nanomaterials?

Nanomedicine is a hot field. Up to 2004, only 72 scientific articles on nanomedicine had been published according to Medline, but during 20052015 that number soared to 10.502 (data retrieved July 30, 2015 from http://www.pubmed.gov). It can be argued, however, that nanoparticles (NPs) have an old history in medicine. Nanosilver used against bacterial infections is a well-known example, but nanosized agents have also been applied for many years to modulate immune responses. Colloidal gold used to treat rheumatoid arthritis1 and alum used as adjuvant for various vaccines2 have contained nanomaterials long before that term became familiar, or before the presence of nanosized components has been considered to be relevant. It is thus not quite true that there is no experience on effects of artificial nanomaterials on the human body. Many practical uses of NPs go back a long time, but medical applications are of special relevance, since here the agents are applied to health-compromised persons, they are applied intentionally, often locally, and usually in doses that would never be reached, for example, during unintentional work place exposure.

The use of NPs for modulating immunity seems to be an obvious perspective. Engineered NPs are nonself and they overlap in size with viruses (mostly 10200nm size range3), so they fall well within the target size range to which immunity is capable to respond, and since at least some types of NPs are toxic, they can be expected to result in danger signals as well (Fig. 12.1).

Figure 12.1. Nanoscale sizes compared to other relevant objects. Nanomaterials are in the size range of biological molecules and entities. The biological and the physical world interact on the same scale, which is the basis for many nanospecific effects that can be exploited for medical purposes.

In addition, some nanomaterials exhibit repetitive patterns originating from the process of synthesis, so even recognition by pattern recognition receptors may be envisioned. The present overview will highlight features of nanomedical agents without restricting itself to the ISO standard, which defines nanoparticles as objects that have in all three dimensions sizes between 1100nm (ISO/TS 27687:2008 Nanotechnologies Terminology and definitions for nano objects nanoparticle, nanofibre and nanoplate). Objects with sizes up to several hundred nm have been described and used as nanomedical agents, so in the present review, all materials that have been described as such will be considered as nanomedical agents. Strictly defined, nanopharmaceuticals should not only be in the nanosize range, but should also exploit the particular properties of the nanoscale for the therapeutic effect, so the nanoscale should add functionalities that cannot be obtained by using either the compound chemicals or bulk materials.4

Considering investigational and approved nanomedical products, the most prominent area of current use is in the treatment of cancers, where drug targeting is a major issue, but several approved drugs are also aiming at immunity.57 A general overview of interactions between nanomaterials and the immune system has been provided by several recent books.810 Here we will focus on medical applications that aim at modifying immune responses in a preventive or a therapeutic setting. In the context of nanosafety research, some types of NPs have been shown to stimulate the immune system, while others were reported to repress immunity. Confusingly, both claims have been made sometimes for very similar materials, reflecting the by now well recognized problem that many nanotoxicology studies have not provided enough data to rule out problems like contamination with endotoxin or with synthesis chemicals, insufficiently well described materials, particle aging effects, assay interference by particles, or batch-to-batch variation between nominally identical particle preparations.11 Quality issues in nanosafety testing have recently been extensively described by H. Krug.12

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Journal of Nanomedicine and Biotherapeutic Discovery- Open …

§ May 13th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Journal of Nanomedicine and Biotherapeutic Discovery- Open …

Nanomedicine is an application of nanotechnology which made its debut with greatly increased possibilities in the field of medicine. Nanomedicine desires to deliver research tools and clinically reformative devices in the near future.

Journal of Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery is a scholarly open access journal publishing articles amalgamating broad range of fields of novel nano-medicine field with life sciences. Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery is an international, peer-reviewed journal providing an opportunity to researchers and scientist to explore the advanced and latest research developments in the field of nanoscience & nanotechnology.

This is the best academic journal which focuses on the use nanotechnology in diagnostics and therapeutics; pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of nanomedicine, drug delivery systems throughout the biomedical field, biotherapies used in diseases treatment including immune system-targeted therapies, hormonal therapies to the most advanced gene therapy and DNA repair enzyme inhibitor therapy. The journal also includes the nanoparticles, bioavailability, biodistribution of nanomedicines; delivery; imaging; diagnostics; improved therapeutics; innovative biomaterials; regenerative medicine; public health; toxicology; point of care monitoring; nutrition; nanomedical devices; prosthetics; biomimetics and bioinformatics.

The journal includes a wide range of fields in its discipline to create a platform for the authors to make their contribution towards the journal and the editorial office promises a peer review process for the submitted manuscripts for the quality of publishing. Biotherapeutics journals impact factors is mainly calculated based on the number of articles that undergo single blind peer review process by competent Editorial Board so as to ensure excellence, essence of the work and number of citations received for the same published articles.

The journal is using Editorial Manager System for quality peer review process. Editorial Manager is an online manuscript submission, review and tracking systems. Review processing is performed by the editorial board members of Journal of Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery or outside experts; at least two independent reviewers approval followed by editor approval is required for acceptance of any citable manuscript. Authors may submit manuscripts and track their progress through the system, hopefully to publication. Reviewers can download manuscripts and submit their opinions to the editor. Editors can manage the whole submission/review/revise/publish process.

Submit manuscript at http://editorialmanager.com/chemistryjournals/ or send as an e-mail attachment to the Editorial Office at[emailprotected]

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Nanomedicine Market 2019 Global Share, Trends …

§ April 29th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanomedicine Market 2019 Global Share, Trends …

Apr 29, 2019 (Heraldkeeper via COMTEX) -- Nanomedicine Market 2019

This report focuses on the global Nanomedicinestatus, future forecast, growth opportunity, key market and key players. The study objectives are to present the Nanomedicine development in United States, Europe and China.

Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology.Nanomedicine ranges from the medical applications of nanomaterials and biological devices, to nanoelectronic biosensors, and even possible future applications of molecular nanotechnology such as biological machines. As per the WHO factsheet, cancer is found to be one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with approximately 14 million new cases in 2012 and 8.2 million cancer-related deaths. Thus, demand for nanomedicine in order to curb such high incidence rate is expected to boost market progress during the forecast period. Potential pipeline of products based on the nanomolecules and associated technologies are anticipated to drive market with potential avenues of growth. Presence of around 40% of products in phase II of clinical development, is anticipated to result in a number of key commercialization over the coming decade influencing revenue generation over the forecast period. The customized treatment options available for eradication of genetic abnormalities also makes this technology a substantial option for precision medicine. Asia Pacific is expected to witness lucrative growth through to 2025 as a result of rise in number of research grants and increase in demand for prophylaxis of life-threatening diseases. Moreover, rise in the number of venture capital investors from developing economies of this region and increasing international research collaborations are anticipated to propel growth in nanotechnology-based healthcare industry.

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The key players covered in this studyCombimatrix Ablynx Abraxis Bioscience Celgene Mallinckrodt Arrowhead Research GE Healthcare Merck Pfizer Nanosphere Epeius Biotechnologies Cytimmune Sciences Nanospectra Biosciences

Market segment by Type, the product can be split intoQuantum dots Nanoparticles Nanoshells Nanotubes Nanodevices

Market segment by Application, split intoSegmentation encompasses oncology Infectious diseases Cardiology Orthopedics Others

Market segment by Regions/Countries, this report coversUnited States Europe China Japan Southeast Asia India Central & South America

Complete Report Details @https://www.wiseguyreports.com/reports/3355542-global-nanomedicine-market-size-status-and-forecast-2018-2025

Table of Contents -Analysis of Key Points

1 Report Overview1.1 Study Scope 1.2 Key Market Segments 1.3 Players Covered 1.4 Market Analysis by Type 1.4.1 Global Nanomedicine Market Size Growth Rate by Type (2013-2025) 1.4.2 Quantum dots 1.4.3 Nanoparticles 1.4.4 Nanoshells 1.4.5 Nanotubes 1.4.6 Nanodevices 1.5 Market by Application 1.5.1 Global Nanomedicine Market Share by Application (2013-2025) 1.5.2 Segmentation encompasses oncology 1.5.3 Infectious diseases 1.5.4 Cardiology 1.5.5 Orthopedics 1.5.6 Others 1.6 Study Objectives 1.7 Years Considered

2 Global Growth Trends2.1 Nanomedicine Market Size 2.2 Nanomedicine Growth Trends by Regions 2.2.1 Nanomedicine Market Size by Regions (2013-2025) 2.2.2 Nanomedicine Market Share by Regions (2013-2018) 2.3 Industry Trends 2.3.1 Market Top Trends 2.3.2 Market Drivers 2.3.3 Market Opportunities

3 Market Share by Key Players3.1 Nanomedicine Market Size by Manufacturers 3.1.1 Global Nanomedicine Revenue by Manufacturers (2013-2018) 3.1.2 Global Nanomedicine Revenue Market Share by Manufacturers (2013-2018) 3.1.3 Global Nanomedicine Market Concentration Ratio (CR5 and HHI) 3.2 Nanomedicine Key Players Head office and Area Served 3.3 Key Players Nanomedicine Product/Solution/Service 3.4 Date of Enter into Nanomedicine Market 3.5 Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion Plans

.

12 International Players Profiles12.1 Combimatrix12.1.1 Combimatrix Company Details 12.1.2 Company Description and Business Overview 12.1.3 Nanomedicine Introduction 12.1.4 Combimatrix Revenue in Nanomedicine Business (2013-2018) 12.1.5 Combimatrix Recent Development 12.2 Ablynx12.2.1 Ablynx Company Details 12.2.2 Company Description and Business Overview 12.2.3 Nanomedicine Introduction 12.2.4 Ablynx Revenue in Nanomedicine Business (2013-2018) 12.2.5 Ablynx Recent Development 12.3 Abraxis Bioscience12.3.1 Abraxis Bioscience Company Details 12.3.2 Company Description and Business Overview 12.3.3 Nanomedicine Introduction 12.3.4 Abraxis Bioscience Revenue in Nanomedicine Business (2013-2018) 12.3.5 Abraxis Bioscience Recent Development 12.4 Celgene12.4.1 Celgene Company Details 12.4.2 Company Description and Business Overview 12.4.3 Nanomedicine Introduction 12.4.4 Celgene Revenue in Nanomedicine Business (2013-2018) 12.4.5 Celgene Recent Development 12.5 Mallinckrodt12.5.1 Mallinckrodt Company Details 12.5.2 Company Description and Business Overview 12.5.3 Nanomedicine Introduction 12.5.4 Mallinckrodt Revenue in Nanomedicine Business (2013-2018) 12.5.5 Mallinckrodt Recent Development 12.6 Arrowhead Research12.6.1 Arrowhead Research Company Details 12.6.2 Company Description and Business Overview 12.6.3 Nanomedicine Introduction 12.6.4 Arrowhead Research Revenue in Nanomedicine Business (2013-2018) 12.6.5 Arrowhead Research Recent Development 12.7 GE Healthcare12.7.1 GE Healthcare Company Details 12.7.2 Company Description and Business Overview 12.7.3 Nanomedicine Introduction 12.7.4 GE Healthcare Revenue in Nanomedicine Business (2013-2018) 12.7.5 GE Healthcare Recent Development 12.8 Merck12.8.1 Merck Company Details 12.8.2 Company Description and Business Overview 12.8.3 Nanomedicine Introduction 12.8.4 Merck Revenue in Nanomedicine Business (2013-2018) 12.8.5 Merck Recent Development 12.9 Pfizer12.9.1 Pfizer Company Details 12.9.2 Company Description and Business Overview 12.9.3 Nanomedicine Introduction 12.9.4 Pfizer Revenue in Nanomedicine Business (2013-2018) 12.9.5 Pfizer Recent Development 12.10 Nanosphere12.10.1 Nanosphere Company Details 12.10.2 Company Description and Business Overview 12.10.3 Nanomedicine Introduction 12.10.4 Nanosphere Revenue in Nanomedicine Business (2013-2018) 12.10.5 Nanosphere Recent Development

Continued.....

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Nanomedicine Market Is Estimated To Be Valued At $350.8 …

§ April 28th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanomedicine Market Is Estimated To Be Valued At $350.8 …

Apr 26, 2019 (AB Digital via COMTEX) -- According to a report,"Nanomedicine Market Analysis By Products, (Therapeutics, Regenerative Medicine, Diagnostics), By Application, (Clinical Oncology, Infectious diseases), By Nanomolecule (Gold, Silver, Iron Oxide, Alumina), & Segment Forecasts, 2018 - 2025" , published by Grand View Research, Inc.,   The global nanomedicine market is anticipated to reach USD 350.8 billion by 2025. Application of nanotechnology-based contrast reagents for diagnosis and monitoring of the effects of drugs on an unprecedented short timescale is also attributive drive growth in the coming years. Additionally, demand for biodegradable implants with longer lifetimes that enable tissue restoration is anticipated to influence demand. As per the WHO factsheet, cancer is found to be one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with approximately 14 million new cases in 2012 and 8.2 million cancer-related deaths.

Key Takeaways from the report:

U.S. nanomedicine market by products, 2013 - 2025 (USD Billion)

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Pruritus Therapeutics Market: Growing worldwide prevalence of atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis and urticaria is expected to drive market growth during the forecast period. Introduction of new products based on scientific mechanistic understanding such as the identification of new T-cell subsets, particularly Th17, and Th22 and the patent expiration of PROTOPIC (tacrolimus) is expected to open up new avenues for manufacturers to capitalize on over the forecast period. 

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Solutions such as nanoformulations with triggered release for tailor-made pharmacokinetics, nanoparticles for local control of tumor in combination with radiotherapy, and functionalized nanoparticles for targeted in-vivo activation of stem cell production are anticipated to drive R&D, consequently resulting in revenue generation in the coming years.

Nanomedicine market, by region, 2016 (%)

Biopharmaceutical and medical devices companies are actively engaged in development of novel products as demonstrated by the increasingly growing partnerships between leading enterprises and nanomedicine startups. For instance, in November 2015, Ablynx and Novo Nordisk signed a global collaboration and a licensing agreement for development and discovery of innovative drugs with multi-specific nanobodies. This strategic partnership is anticipated to rise the net annual sales of the products uplifting the market growth.

However, in contrary with the applications of nanotechnology, the entire process of lab to market approval is a tedious and expensive one with stringent regulatory evaluation involved thereby leading investors to remain hesitant for investments.

Grand View Research has segmented the nanomedicine market on the basis of product, application, nanomolecule type, and region:

Nanomedicine Product Outlook (Revenue, USD Billion; 2013 - 2025)

Nanomedicine Application Outlook (Revenue, USD Billion; 2013 - 2025)

Nanomedicine Nanomolecule Type Outlook (Revenue, USD Billion; 2013 - 2025)

Nanomedicine Regional Outlook (Revenue, USD Billion; 2013 - 2025)

Explore the BI enabled intuitive market research database, Navigate with Grand View Compass, by Grand View Research, Inc.

About Grand View Research

Grand View Research provides syndicated as well as customized research reports and consulting services on 46 industries across 25 major countries worldwide. This U.S.-based market research and consulting company is registered in California and headquartered in San Francisco. Comprising over 425 analysts and consultants, the company adds 1200+ market research reports to its extensive database each year. Supported by an interactive market intelligence platform, the team at Grand View Research guides Fortune 500 companies and prominent academic institutes in comprehending the global and regional business environment and carefully identifying future opportunities.

For more information: www.grandviewresearch.com

Media Contact Company Name: Grand View Research, Inc. Contact Person: Sherry James, Corporate Sales Specialist - U.S.A. Email: Send Email Phone: 1-415-349-0058, Toll Free: 1-888-202-9519 Address:201, Spear Street, 1100 City: San Francisco State: California Country: United States Website: http://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/nanomedicine-market

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Regulating Nanomedicine at the Food and Drug Administration …

§ April 26th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Regulating Nanomedicine at the Food and Drug Administration …

Abstract The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) oversees safety and efficacy of a broad spectrum of medical products (ie, drugs, biologics, and devices) under the auspices of federal legislation and agency regulations and policy. Complex and emerging nanoscale products challenge this regulatory framework and illuminate its shortcomings for combination products that integrate multiple mechanisms of therapeutic action. This article surveys current FDA regulatory structures and nanotechnology-specific guidance, discusses relevant nanomedicine products, and identifies regulatory challenges. Regulatory Demands of Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology is research and technology development on the nanoscale (traditionally 100 nanometers (nm) or less, or one billionth of a meter) at which particles have novel properties and functions because of their size.1 At this size, materials exhibit quantum effects, impacting fluorescence, conductivity, magnetic permeability, melting point, and reactivity.1 The ability to control atoms and molecules at the nanoscale has significantly advanced medical science and catalyzed the field of nanomedicine, defined by the National Institutes of Health as a highly specific medical intervention at the molecular scale for curing disease or repairing damaged tissues, such as bone, muscle, or nerve.2 Nanomedicine also includes nanotechnology applications for diagnosis, monitoring, and control of biological systems.3

Cutting-edge nanomedicine applications often integrate chemical, mechanical, and biological properties to enable and enhance detection, diagnostic capabilities, and therapeutic modes of action. In the near future, it will be possible for a single nanomedicine product, once deployed in a patients body, to be programmed to target specific organs and tissues, create images, measure vital signs, diagnose in real time, and subsequently provide tailored therapeutics.

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), as a gatekeeper of health care products, plays a vital role in assessing nanomedicine products. However, its decades-old classifications to distinguish product domains for purposes of review and approval prove challenging for nanomedicine products due to their novel characteristics and cross-category features. In addition, nanoscale particles and materials have different risk profiles given their decreased size, increased biological activity, and unique properties. These risk profiles, which are largely unknown, create novel legal and ethical challenges for clinical trials, patient use, and public health.

The FDA is tasked with protecting public health and promoting innovations and striking a balance between the two when evaluating products generated by science and emerging technologies. The FDA regulates products under 2 primary statutes: the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA), which addresses chemically synthesized drugs as well as devices; and the Public Health Service Act (PHSA), which addresses biologically derived therapeutic products.4 The FDA must characterize products under definitions provided by Congress in both the FDCA and the PHSA. Fundamentally, these definitions and supplemental FDA policies distinguish among 3 product areas based on whether the product has a chemical mode of action (drug), a mechanical mode of action (device), or a biological source. The Table provides statutory definitions for each of the 3 product domains. Nanotechnology products span all 3 regulated domains, and many products mechanisms of action span 2 or more of these domains.

The approval process for both new drugs and biological products is subject to 3 phases of clinical trials. Each phase includes laboratory and manufacturing controls; protections for human subjects; review and approval procedures; and requirements for labeling, adverse event disclosure, reporting and tracking, and postmarket surveillance, including ongoing assessment to ensure safety and efficacy using a risk-benefit approach tailored to a products intended use.4,9 Products developed to address an unmet health need or to treat a serious or life-threatening disease may qualify for abbreviated review and approval under breakthrough therapy status and other accelerated mechanisms.10 There are also abbreviated routes to market for drugs and biologics through the generic11 and biosimilar12 pathways based on comparisons to reference innovator products already approved by the FDA. These routes to market do not require full-scale clinical trials but only a showing of bioequivalence (for generics) and biosimilarity (for biosimilars).

Based on level of risk, devices enter the market in 1 of 2 ways: a premarket approval (PMA) process or a premarket notification (PMN) process. Like the new drug and biologic approval process, the PMA process for high-risk devices deemed potentially life saving and life supporting involves clinical trials tailored to a devices perceived risk classification and may involve specific safeguards to protect research subjects and demonstrate safety and efficacy.13 The PMN process, otherwise known as a clearance process for lower-risk devices, requires an applicant to demonstrate that a device is substantially equivalent to a device already on the market with the same or similar technological characteristics and intended use.14 Laboratory and manufacturing controls and requirements for labeling, tracking and adverse event reporting, and postmarket surveillance and ongoing assessment also apply to devices. The Government Accountability Office estimated that between 2003 and 2007, almost one-third of medical devices entered the market through the PMN clearance process, 67% were exempt from premarket review, and 1% were subject to the PMA process.14 Currently, the FDA requires first-in-kind devices, which hold promise to play a diagnostic or imaging role via a drug or biologic, to undergo market entry through the PMA process.15

The FDAs Office of Combination Products (OCP) assesses emerging technologies at the interface of the 3 product domains.16 A combination product is one containing a drug and a device; a drug and a biologic; a device and a biologic; or all 3 types of products. A combination product is categorized and reviewed according to its primary mode of action, which is the mode of action by which the product achieves its primary therapeutic effectwhether chemical, biological, or mechanical.17 Once the primary mode of action is determined, the FDA evaluates the product according to applicable statutory and regulatory requirements. For example, if the products primary mode of action is chemical, the FDA will apply drug requirements. The FDA can also adjust or combine regulatory requirements to address novel issues arising with combination products.

The combination product process has been subject to criticism for its shortcomings in classifying products that integrate chemical, biological, and mechanical elements; for a general lack of transparency; and for inconsistency in applying and making decisions about the requirements.18 Notably, the 21st Century Cures Act, enacted in December 2016, contains provisions for transparency and consistency in FDA procedures for classifying and evaluating combination products and for the conduct of collaborative product assessment.19 While not changing the FDCA in substance, the act served to nudge the agency on these issues. The FDA routinely classifies nanotechnology-derived products as combination products, assigning a primary regulatory route (ie, drug, device, or biologic) and supplementing with ad hoc requirements as necessary to assure safety and efficacy.

Nanoscale research reveals that, as particle size decreases, surface area increases along with the biological activity of particles.20 The unique physical properties of nanoparticles hold promise for surmounting some of the most difficult barriers to therapeutic and diagnostic efficacy. Nanoscale properties involving optical absorbance, fluorescence, and electrical and magnetic conductivity enable targeted localization, visualization, and treatment of cancerous tumors, for example.1 Nanoscale properties involving pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and cell permeability assist in precision drug formulation and in getting the correct drug load to an exact location faster.1,21 Nanoparticles ability to interact directly with biological systems within the body increases the efficacy of myriad health applications.18

Review and approval of drugs, biologics, and devices in the nanorealm is ongoing, with many nanoproducts designated as combination products. For example, the FDA has approved nanoformulations of paclitaxel and doxorubicin as new cancer drugs, a nanoformulation of sirolimus (an immunosuppressant), and a nanoformulation of estradiol topical emulsion.22 The first approved nanodrug, the liposomal formulation of doxorubicin, consists of a nanoscale closed vesicle for drug delivery.23 These vesicles can also be composed of polymers, creating polymersomes that create a steric barrier and confer stealth properties to the drug carrier.23 Device nanoproducts that have entered the market through the PMN clearance process include a tissue reinforcement and hernia repair device (constructed with a nanoscale covalent-bonded titanium coating, imparting increased flexibility), a bone graft substitute (using betatricalcium phosphate nanoparticles that aggregate into 3-dimensional scaffolds with increased surface area for enhanced resorption), and a tissue-sealing and hemostasis system for laparoscopic and open surgery (using enhanced fluorescence properties of nanoparticles).24 A nanoformulation of the hepatitis A vaccine was also approved as a biologic.22

The FDA has published several nanotechnology-specific guidance documents instructing industry on agency policy.25,26 Topics include whether an FDA-regulated product involves an application of nanotechnology, drug and biological products that contain nanomaterials, and safety of nanomaterials in cosmetics and food products.26 Acknowledging that nanotechnology poses questions regarding the adequacy and application of our regulatory authorities, the FDAs Nanotechnology Task Force, assembled in August 2006 at the direction of the FDA commissioner, was asked to determine appropriate regulatory approaches and to identify and recommend mechanisms to address knowledge gaps.27 In July 2007, the task force concluded that nanoscale products did not warrant novel regulatory frameworks and thus were subject to traditional legal frameworks, including the combination product mechanism.27 Nanotechnology combination products were named by the task force as necessitating further explorationspecifically, whether employing the combination product approach to determine the regulatory pathway to market as a drug, medical device, or biological product was appropriate. The report states:

The very nature of nanoscale materialstheir dynamic quality as the size of nanoscale features change, for example, and their potential for diverse applicationscould permit development of highly integrated combinations of drugs, biological products, and/or devices, having multiple types of uses, such as combined diagnostic and therapeutic intended uses. As a consequence, the adequacy of the current paradigm for selecting regulatory pathways for combination products should be assessed to ensure predictable determinations of the most appropriate pathway for such highly integrated combination products.27

Subsequently, the FDA published 2 guidance documents on nanotechnology in the context of medical products. One outlines considerations for industry when determining whether a product involves an application of nanotechnology, which indicates the need for sponsors to communicate nanotechnology status to the FDA as part of the product review process.28 The other discusses a nanotechnology risk-based framework, specific requirements for conduct of nonclinical and clinical trials, manufacturing quality and controls, and special environmental considerations for drug and biologic products containing nanomaterials.29

The FDA continues to use a case-by-case approach for evaluating nanotechnology products, applying the combination product framework to determine the type of product and resulting regulatory requirements. There are persistent pleas from medical, scientific, and legal experts such as the National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) to fix inconsistent and inadequate drug, biologic, and device classifications as well as the combination product framework itself.14 Concomitant with the debate about whether existing regulatory structures and processes are adequate, broader questions have emerged regarding inherent risks of nanotechnology and products containing nanoparticles. Areas of concern include nanoparticle toxicity and human health impacts of exposure, especially effects of various exposure routes and routes of administration,30 unintended effects of nanoparticles ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, and long-term effects of nanoparticles.31

The FDA faces numerous challenges as nanomedicine progresses, and 3 core challenges stand out. The first is the adequacy of the regulatory framework itself; nanomedicine highlights the rigidity of product domains that dictate product approval requirements. At the nanoscale, decades-old definitions of chemical and mechanical action may not be suitable to characterize products with novel mechanisms of action and properties. For the purpose of evaluating such products, traditional definitional distinctions and accompanying legal requirements for review, approval, and postmarket surveillance and assessment may not be ideal. Current regulatory structures and processes may work for existing products, but the increasing complexity of nanotechnology and its convergence with other fields (eg, neurotechnologies and genetics) will likely strain their limits. Ongoing deliberations, stakeholder input, and agency policy must assess whether and to what extent current regulations are adaptable to newly emerging nanomedicine products or whether implementation of new frameworks is necessary to ensure safety and efficacy.

A second challenge has to do with the potential for novel risks, which raise questions about traditional safety and efficacy requirements appropriateness. Questions persist about whether nanoscale properties alter established risk-benefit measures and assessments of clinical trials and research protocols; whether and when abbreviated review of nanomedicine products is appropriate; and whether and when postmarket assessments should be tailored to address nano-specific toxicology and exposure concerns. As nanotechnology advances, particularly in the realm of human health, ample attention to scientific developments should also be paid to characterizing, assessing, and reporting adverse events. As part of the National Nanotechnology Initiative and other federal agency collaborations, large-scale research efforts are underway to characterize nanoscale materials and quantify their impact for purposes of developing toxicological assessment and testing tools.32 Information obtained from this research should be integrated into FDA review and approval processes as appropriate.

A third challenge has to do with whether labeling of nanomedicine products for consumers is sufficient to inform them that products contain nanotechnology or nanomaterials. This is not to say that explicit labeling should be a requirement; however, the FDA must contemplate whether increased patient and consumer education and consumer engagement is warranted and whether FDA policy on labeling requirements for nanoproducts responds well to public sentiment and the publics health literacy needs. For these efforts to succeedsimilar to consumer awareness campaigns and advocacy efforts in the realm of genetically modified food and biotechnologypositive perceptions and understanding of applications is essential.

National Institutes of Health. Nanomedicine: overview. http://commonfund.nih.gov/nanomedicine/overview.aspx. Updated January 1, 2011. Accessed December 28, 2018.

Public Health Service Act 351, 42 USC 262 (2019).

21 USC 321(g)(1) (2019).

21 USC 321(p)(1) (2019).

42 USC 262(i) (2019).

21 USC 321(h) (2019).

Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act 505, 21 USC 355 (2019).

Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act 505(j), 21 USC 355(j) (2019).

42 USC 262 (2019).

Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act 513, 515, 21 USC 360 (2019).

Institute of Medicine. Medical Devices and the Publics Health: The FDA 501(K) Clearance Process at 35 Years. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2011.

Paradise J. Regulatory frameworks for precision medicine at the FDA. SciTech Lawyer. 2018;15(1):12-17.

21 USC 353(g)(4)(A) (2006).

21 CFR 3.2(e) (2019).

Paradise J. Reassessing safety for nanotechnology combination products: what do biosimilars add to regulatory challenges for the FDA? St Louis Univ Law J. 2012;56:465-520.

21st Century Cures Act of 2016, Pub L No. 114-255, 130 Stat 1033.

Duncan R. Nanomedicines in action. Pharm J. 2004;273:485-488. Cited by: Wagner V, Dullaant A, Bock AK, Zweck A. The emerging nanomedicine landscape. Nat Biotechnol. 2006;24(10):1211-1217.

US Food and Drug Administration. FDAs approach to regulation of nanotechnology products. https://www.fda.gov/ScienceResearch/SpecialTopics/Nanotechnology/ucm301114.htm. Updated March 23, 2018. Accessed October 1, 2018.

US Food and Drug Administration. Nanotechnology guidance documents. https://www.fda.gov/ScienceResearch/SpecialTopics/Nanotechnology/ucm602536.htm. Updated March 23, 2018. Accessed October 1, 2018.

Nanotechnology Task Force, US Food and Drug Administration. Nanotechnology: a report of the US Food and Drug Administration Nanotechnology Task Force. https://www.fda.gov/downloads/ScienceResearch/SpecialTopics/Nanotechnology/ucm110856.pdf. Published July 25, 2007. Accessed October 1, 2018.

US Food and Drug Administration. Guidance for industry: considering whether an FDA-regulated product involves the application of nanotechnology. https://www.fda.gov/downloads/RegulatoryInformation/Guidances/UCM401695.pdf. Published June 2014. Accessed October 1, 2018.

US Food and Drug Administration. Draft guidance for industry: drug products, including biological products that contain nanomaterials. https://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/UCM588857.pdf. Published December 2017. Accessed October 1, 2018.

Sargent JF Jr. The National Nanotechnology Initiative: overview, reauthorization, and appropriation issues. Congressional Research Service. https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL34401.pdf. Published December 16, 2014. Accessed February 13, 2019.

AMA J Ethics. 2019;21(4):E347-355.

The author(s) had no conflicts of interest to disclose.

The viewpoints expressed in this article are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the AMA.

Jordan Paradise, JD is Georgia Reithal Professor of Law at the Loyola University Chicago School of Law in Illinois, where she is also a faculty member in the Beazley Institute for Health Law and Policy. She previously served as a co-principal investigator on a National Science Foundation grant titled NIRT: Evaluating Oversight Models for Active Nanostructures and Nanosystems: Learning from Past Technologies in a Societal Context. Her scholarship explores legal and policy issues that arise with emerging medical products and technologies such as nanotechnology, synthetic biology, gene editing, and biosimilars.

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