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Nanotechnology for disease diagnosis and treatment earns Florida Poly professor international award – Yahoo Finance

§ November 18th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanotechnology for disease diagnosis and treatment earns Florida Poly professor international award – Yahoo Finance

Florida Poly assistant professor Dr. Ajeet Kaushik has received the 2019 USERN Prize in biological sciences, an international award recognizing his work in the field of nanomaterials for the detection and treatment of diseases.

LAKELAND, Fla., Nov. 18, 2019 /PRNewswire-PRWeb/ -- Dr. Ajeet Kaushik is determined to make detecting and treating diseases easy, accessible, and precise through the use of nanomaterials for biosensing and medicine.

His extensive work and resolute desire to improve the delivery of healthcare has earned Kaushik the prestigious Universal Scientific Education Research Network (USERN) Prize. He was named a laureate in the field of biological sciences during the group's fourth annual congress on Nov. 8 in Budapest, Hungary.

USERN, a non-governmental, non-profit organization and network dedicated to non-military scientific advances, is committed to exploring science beyond international borders.

"I was speechless for a while," said Kaushik, who is an assistant professor of chemistry at Florida Polytechnic University.

Kaushik did not attend the awards ceremony in person but did submit a video to be played at the event. He was among hundreds vying for the prize and one of five people who were recognized in different areas of study.

His submitted project, Nano-Bio-Technology for Personalized Health Care, focuses on using nanomaterials to create biosensors that will detect the markers of a disease at very low levels.

"Biosensing is not a new concept, but now we are making devices that are smarter and more capable," Kaushik said.

He cited the recent zika virus epidemic that affected pregnant women and their fetuses, leading to significant health complications upon birth. "There was a demand to have a system that could detect the virus protein at a very low level, but there was no device. There was no diagnostic system," he said.

Kaushik worked on the development of a smart zika sensor that could detect the disease at these low levels. "The kind of systems I'm focusing on can be customized in a way that we carry like a cell phone and do the tests wherever we need to do them," he said.

In addition to using nanotechnology for the detection of diseases like zika, his research on nanoparticles is advancing efforts to precisely deliver medicine to a specific part of the body without affecting surrounding tissue or other parts of the body.

"The drugs we use now do not go only where they need to go, or sometimes they have side effects. We are treating one disease but creating other symptoms," Kaushik said. "I'm exploring nanotechnology that can carry a drug, selectively go to a place, and release the drug so we avoid using excessive drugs."

This nanomedicine could be used to precisely target brain tumors or other difficult-to-treat conditions. He has published papers in scientific journals about this work and also holds multiple patents.

"My whole approach is using smart material science for better health for everybody, which is accessible to everybody everywhere," Kaushik said.

In addition to his USERN prize, Kaushik was named a USERN junior ambassador for 2020 and will work to advance the organization's mission in the United States.

For the most recent university news, visit Florida Poly News.

About Florida Polytechnic University:

Florida Polytechnic University is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges and is a member of the State University System of Florida. It is the only state university dedicated exclusively to STEM and offers ABET accredited degrees. Florida Poly is a powerful economic engine within the state of Florida, blending applied research with industry partnerships to give students an academically rigorous education with real-world relevance. Connect with Florida Poly online at http://www.floridapoly.edu.

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Nanomedicines Market Research and Developments 2019 to 2025 – The Chicago Sentinel

§ November 18th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanomedicines Market Research and Developments 2019 to 2025 – The Chicago Sentinel

Nanomedicines

The report begins with the overview of the Nanomedicines Market and offers throughout development. It presents a comprehensive analysis of all the regional and major player segments that gives closer insights upon present market conditions and future market opportunities along with drivers, trending segments, consumer behaviour, pricing factors and market performance and estimation. The forecast market information, SWOT analysis, Nanomedicines market scenario, and feasibility study are the vital aspects analysed in this report.

The report presents the market competitive landscape and a corresponding detailed analysis of the major vendor/key players in the market.

Top Companies in the Global Nanomedicines Market:Abbott, GE Healthcare, Johnson & Johnson, Merck, Pfizer, CombiMatrix, Celgene, Mallinckrodt, Sigma-Tau Pharmaceuticals, Teva Pharmaceutical, Nanosphere, UCB SA

Click the link to get a free Sample Copy of the Report:

https://www.marketinsightsreports.com/reports/01081048764/global-nanomedicines-market-size-status-and-forecast-2019-2025/inquiry?Mode=Neha

This report segments the global Nanomedicines market on the basis of Types are:Nanoparticles

Nanoshells

Nanotubes

Nanodevices

Others

On the basis of Application, the Global Nanomedicines market is segmented into:Hospitals

Clinics

Research Institute

Regional Analysis For Nanomedicines Market:

North America (United States, Canada and Mexico)Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy)Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia)South America (Brazil, Argentina, Colombia etc.)Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa)

-Comprehensive assessment of all opportunities and risk in the Nanomedicines market.

-Nanomedicines market recent innovations and major events.

-Detailed study of business strategies for growth of the Nanomedicines market-leading players.

-Conclusive study about the growth plot of Nanomedicines market for forthcoming years.

-In-depth understanding of Nanomedicines market-particular drivers, constraints and major micro markets.

-Favourable impression inside vital technological and market latest trends striking the Nanomedicines market.

Browse the report description and TOC:

https://www.marketinsightsreports.com/reports/01081048764/global-nanomedicines-market-size-status-and-forecast-2019-2025?Mode=Neha

-Key Strategic Developments: The study also includes the key strategic developments of the market, comprising R&D, new product launch, M&A, agreements, collaborations, partnerships, joint ventures, and regional growth of the leading competitors operating in the market on a global and regional scale.

-Key Market Features: The report evaluated key market features, including revenue, price, capacity, capacity utilization rate, gross, production, production rate, consumption, import/export, supply/demand, cost, market share, CAGR, and gross margin. In addition, the study offers a comprehensive study of the key market dynamics and their latest trends, along with pertinent market segments and sub-segments.

-Analytical Tools: The Global Nanomedicines Market report includes the accurately studied and assessed data of the key industry players and their scope in the market by means of a number of analytical tools. The analytical tools such as Porters five forces analysis, SWOT analysis, feasibility study, and investment return analysis have been used to analyze the growth of the key players operating in the market.

Customization of the Report: This report can be customized as per your needs for additional data up to 3 companies or countries or 40 analyst hours.

Please connect with our sales team (sales@marketinsightsreports.com ).

MarketInsightsReports provides syndicated market research on industry verticals including Healthcare, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Technology and Media, Chemicals, Materials, Energy, Heavy Industry, etc. MarketInsightsReports provides global and regional market intelligence coverage, a 360-degree market view which includes statistical forecasts, competitive landscape, detailed segmentation, key trends, and strategic recommendations.

Irfan Tamboli (Head of Sales) Market Insights Reports

Phone: + 1704 266 3234 | +91-750-707-8687

sales@marketinsightsreports.com | irfan@marketinsightsreports.com

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Nanomedicines Market Research and Developments 2019 to 2025 - The Chicago Sentinel

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Superbugs Kill a Person Every 15 Minutes in the United States – Everyday Health

§ November 18th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Superbugs Kill a Person Every 15 Minutes in the United States – Everyday Health

Drug-resistant superbugs kill more than 35,000 Americans each year, averaging one death every 15 minutes, according to a new report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

On November 13, the CDC issued its 2019 Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States report, underscoring the major health threats posed by bacterial and fungal infections that are resistant to treatment with antibiotics. According to the report, these superbugs are responsible for more than 2.8 million infections in this country annually, or a new infection every 11 seconds.

To stop antibiotic resistance, our nation must stop referring to a coming post-antibiotic era its already here, writes the CDC's director,Robert Redfield, MD, in a letter accompanying the 148-page report. You and I are living in a time when some miracle drugs no longer perform miracles and families are being ripped apart by a microscopic enemy.

The report places 18 antibiotic-resistant bacteria and fungi into three categories based on the level of risk to human health: urgent, serious, and concerning.

The CDC also added two new germs to the urgent category: Drug-resistant Candida auris and carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter.

Candida auris is a new species that presented in the last couple of years, says M. Valeria Fabre, MD, an assistant professor of medicine and an infectious-disease expert at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore. Its a highly resistant yeast that causes invasive infections, such as a bloodstream infection. These are very serious infections, and theyre very resistant to the antifungal treatments that we have, she says.

This bug is typically associated with healthcare settings, such as long-term care facilities. Elderly people can be at high risk for getting this infection, Dr. Fabre says.

Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter is the kind of bacteria thats really driving antibiotic resistance around the world, according to Fabre.

The term carbapenem-resistant is a red flag, she says. Carbapenems are a class of very effective antibiotic agents. We usually reserve these medicines for the most resistant infections, so we are talking about an infection that is resistant to this big gun antibiotic, she says.

Its very commonly seen in patients who require respiratory support in the hospital, Fabre says. Patients who get this kind of infection have a very high risk of death.

The three other urgent threats on the CDC list are:

Fabre believes some of the findings in the report are encouraging. There has been good progress made since the previous report, including an 18 percent reduction in deaths associated with antibiotic-resistant infections, she says. Much of this overall improvement was driven by a 28 percent reduction in deaths from drug-resistant bugs in hospitals, according to the report.

The CDC works to coordinate with other federal agencies and state and local health departments to combat antibiotic resistance, says Lea-Anne Jackson, aCDC spokesperson. The Antibiotic Resistance (AR) Solutions Initiative has invested more than $300 million in state and local health departments since 2016.

The CDC has established the AR Lab Network, supporting nationwide AR lab capacity in every U.S. state and many large cities, including seven regional labs and the National Tuberculosis Molecular Surveillance Center, she says.

The CDC also supports more than 5,000 infection control assessments in nearly as many healthcare facilities to provide recommendations to address identified infection control gaps and stop the spread of resistant germs, according to Jackson.

All these investments are paying off, but they need to continue to be maintained in order to be able to keep up the fight successfully, says Fabre.

In addition to the 18 bugs listed in the report, the CDC placed three threats on its watch list. These are germs that have not spread resistance widely in this country or are extremely rare but that may pose a risk at some point.

We need to continue to be proactive, because you never know when a new resistant pathogen is going to occur, says Fabre. With todays globalization, humans move fast between countries, and therefore bacteria travel fast. Thats because we are what carry them from place to place.

There are some steps that people can take to reduce their health risk and to combat antibiotic resistance.

We can reduce our risk of a resistant infection by first reducing our risk of getting an infection, says Jackson. Protect yourself by using antibiotics as prescribed by your doctor, and dont pressure doctors for antibiotics, she says.

Jackson and Fabre suggest a few other common-sense ways to prevent infection:

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Chronic Inflammation Is a Huge Problem. But This Specialized CBD for Inflammation Can Help. – Futurism

§ November 18th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Chronic Inflammation Is a Huge Problem. But This Specialized CBD for Inflammation Can Help. – Futurism

Inflammation has become one of the biggest buzzwords in health and wellness circles in recent years. And while all the fuss over inflammation it may seem like yet another fad promulgated by television quacks and bloggers, its really not. Many health professionals now believe that understanding and controlling chronic inflammation is the future of preventative medicine. Thats why Mellowment CBD has specifically developed a specific type of CBD for inflammation. Its called Mellowment High Impact for Inflammation, and it combines CBD and curcumin for maximum inflammation relief, recovery, and comfort.

Inflammation is an essential survival mechanism of the human immune system. As such, its usually a good thing, a sign that the body is working to heal an injury or fight off some pathogen or disease. When cells are in distress, they release chemicals that alerts the immune system. The immune system in turn sends inflammatory cells to capture the pathogens or heal damaged tissues. Meanwhile, blood vessels in the area expand to accommodate the additional immune system traffic and bring fluid to the site of the injury or infection. This is called acute inflammation. And while it is painful and uncomfortable, its also necessary.

Unfortunately, for a variety of reasons, sometimes this natural immune system response does not get switched off. Sometimes its because the cause of the initial immune system response cannot be eliminated. Sometimes the immune system simply malfunctions. Either way, the immune system tells white blood cells to attack healthy tissues and organs, resulting in chronic inflammation.

While all adults experience some level of chronic inflammation that slowly wears down our organs and tissues, in some people this chronic inflammation is more extreme. And what scientists have finally realized is that this excessive chronic inflammation causes major damage that contributes to many of the most common degenerative diseases, including coronary artery disease, diabetes, cancer, and Alzheimers.

The good news? Numerous studies suggest that treating chronic inflammation can significantly reduce the risk for these diseases.

That brings us to Mellowment High Impact CBD for Inflammation.

Mellowment has become one of the leading names in CBD over the last few years thanks to their exacting scientific methods and rigorous quality control. With High Impact for Inflammation, theyve combined their proprietary CBD formula with and curcumin, a compound found in the spice turmeric that has been used as an herbal medicine in India for thousands of years.

CBD has long been observed to have anti-inflammatory effects. Now were finally starting to understand why. According to one study, for example, CBD reduces inflammation by modulating the endocannabinoid system and disrupting the production of cytokines, which are proteins secreted by immune cells that trigger inflammation. As for curcumin, modern science has proven it has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, and numerous studies have shown it to be effective in treating inflammation and pain associated with arthritis.

One of the problems in treating inflammation with CBD and curcumin is that both compounds typically have poor bioavailability. That means they are not easily absorbed into your system due to poor absorption, rapid metabolism, and rapid elimination. However, Mellowment has solved the bioavailability problem. By subjecting CBD and curcumin to an advanced nano-emulsification process that shrinks and suspends the active ingredients microscopic droplets of oil which can easily pass through cell walls, Mellowment more than doubles their bioavailability. That means more CBD and curcumin reach systemic circulation, ensuring maximum effectiveness.

Each bottle of Mellowment High-Impact for Inflammation contains 30 softgels, with each softgel containing a 25mg dose of CBD and a 10mg dose of curcumin. Theyre formulated to be taken as needed, and most customers take one to four softgels per day. Mellowments CBD extracts are meticulously engineered from Colorado-grown hemp using an advanced chromatography process that removes all THC, eliminating the risk of failed drug tests and undesired psychoactive effects.

Whether youre looking for natural relief from discomfort caused by acute inflammation, or you want to combat chronic inflammation and reduce your risk for more serious degenerative conditions, Mellowment High Impact for Inflammation could be right for you

This supplement has not been evaluated by the FDA, and is not intended to cure or treat any ailments. Do not take CBD products if you are allergic to any of the ingredients in the product you are consuming. Tell your doctor about all medicines you may be on before consuming CBD to avoid negative reactions. Tell your doctor about all medical conditions. Tell your doctor about all the medicines you take, including prescription and nonprescription medicines, vitamins and herbal products. Other side effects of CBD include: dry mouth, cloudy thoughts, and wakefulness. You are encouraged to report negative side effects of any drugs to the FDA. Visit http://www.fda.gov/medwatch, or call 1-800-FDA-1088.

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Chronic Inflammation Is a Huge Problem. But This Specialized CBD for Inflammation Can Help. - Futurism

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The Most Popular Model of Reality Is Wrong – SFGate

§ November 18th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on The Most Popular Model of Reality Is Wrong – SFGate

Deepak Chopra, Special to SFGate

By Deepak Chopra, MD

It would be ideal if reality and our model of reality merged into the same thing. A model of reality explains how the universe was created and how it operates. You might think that this is a definition of reality itself, but it isnt, which can be illustrated by looking at the most popular model, known as nave realism.

In a nutshell, nave realism says that what you see is what you get. In other words, the reality presented by the five senses is reliable. Such a view appeals to common sense. It rests on experiences we take for granted. There is a physical world out there separate from our subjective experience in here. The physical world predates human beings by 13.8 billion years, going back to the Big Bang. If both of those things are true, then obviously what we think, feel, and desire in here has no effect on reality out there.

As unimaginably sophisticated as modern science has become, most scientists accept nave realism, usually without question, even though each of the common-sense facts just mentioned is known to be false.

Leave aside the obvious ways we cannot trust our five senses, which tell us mistakenly that the sun rises in the East, that a thunderclap happens after a flash of lightning, and that there could be no such things as small as bacteria and viruses, since they are invisible to our eyesight. Nave realism is wrong at a much deeper level, which has been grappled with by the most eminent physicists. It is wrong about mind; it cannot connect mind and brain; it has nothing to tell us about the origins of space, time, matter, and energy it is contradicted by the strange behavior of the quantum field; and it has no chance of linking the microscopic world with the macroscopic worldin other words, the so-called building blocks of reality live in a separate, totally closed-off domain from everyday reality.

These multiple failures are widely known among physicists but just as widely ignored. A great deal of science and most of technology can advance without a theoretical model of reality. Before he died Stephen Hawking published a book, The Grand Design, in which he conceded the high probability that scientific models will not succeed in matching the reality they are supposed to describe.

If science rolls along without a viable model of reality, that lack isnt incidental. We celebrate Galileo, Copernicus, Newton, and Einstein for getting something right, not simply for issuing metaphysical suppositions. So it is important to get things right now. If the present model of reality is, in fact, an abstruse collection of mathematical formulas suspended in a theoretical mathematical space, clearly something is amiss. In medieval times the world had to conform to divine law; now it must conform to mathematical law, yet the fallacy remains the same.

There is a way out. First, we acknowledge a simple truth: Models are right about what they include and wrong about what they exclude. Nave realism is dead wrong about consciousness because it excludes mind in favor of physical explanations. Secondly, we must accept that reality cannot be modeled. The whole enterprise of reducing the physical world into tinier and tinier building blocks has reached its useful limit. Leading theorists suggest that quarks and superstrings might not actually exist. More to the point, we live with space, time, matter, and energy and yet have no origins story for where any of them came from.

Without a model, whats left? Still standing is the one thing that permeates reality, brings the five senses to life, allows thoughts to arise in our heads, gives the world color and form, and tells us that we are alive: consciousness. The very thing that nave realism leaves out is the thing that holds all the answers.

There was a lamentable decline after the earliest decades of the quantum revolution, when all the greatest physicists tackled the problem of mind. In place of great thinkers physics turned to number crunching and atom smashing, which remains its chief occupation, now on a billion-dollar scale. There were exceptions like John von Neumann, John Archibald Wheeler, and David Bohm, who continued the search for a link between mind and matter.

Respected but sidelined in favor of bigger particle accelerators and telescopes, all of these thinkers now enjoy a latter-day revenge, so to speak. Having exhausted the models of reality that discounted and ignored consciousness, forward-looking physicists now realize that mind must be accounted for, which seems like a simple realization except that it was clouded behind a screen, the biggest factor being nave realism. Satisfied with the common-sense view of reality in their everyday life, physicists were happy to think of mind as not my job.

A huge hurdle remains, however, which is the enormous seduction of physical explanations. What is science without them? What is life if we get rid of relying on the five senses? These arent rhetorical questions. Life would be transformed if we abandoned the lure of the physical world and the mistaken data of the five senses. The human mind is uniquely able to go beyond appearances, and when we do, the destination is always consciousness. Theres no need to call it higher consciousness. A better term is total consciousness, the ground state of everything in existence.

Account for consciousness and you explain everything. No models are needed. The everyday mind is the arena of consciousness. Stick with it, experience it deeply, and be self-aware. Only then will reality be fully comprehended, absent any model at all.

DEEPAK CHOPRA MD, FACP, founder of The Chopra Foundation, a non-profit entity for research on well-being and humanitarianism, and Chopra Global, a modern-day health company at the intersection of science and spirituality, is a world-renowned pioneer in integrative medicine and personal transformation. He is a Clinical Professor of Family Medicine and Public Health at the University of California, San Diego. Chopra is the author of over 89 books translated into over forty-three languages, including numerous New York Times bestsellers. His 90th book and national bestseller, Metahuman: Unleashing Your Infinite Potential (Harmony Books), unlocks the secrets to moving beyond our present limitations to access a field of infinite possibilities. TIME magazine has described Dr. Chopra as one of the top 100 heroes and icons of the century.

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Candidiasis Drugs Market Development and New Market Opportunities and Forecasts 2028 – Downey Magazine

§ November 18th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Candidiasis Drugs Market Development and New Market Opportunities and Forecasts 2028 – Downey Magazine

Global Candidiasis Drugs Market: Overview

Candidiasis is a kind of a fungal infection cause by any kind of Candida (a kind of yeast). When it attacks the mouth, it is usually known as thrush.

On the basis of type, the global candidiasis drugs market is classified into Echinocandins, Azoles, and other drugs. Among these, the azoles drugs segment is anticipated to lead the entire market, with maximum share, owing to recent approvals regarding the usage of drugs in treating candidiasis. The report gives a detailed idea about the scope of growth for the segments in the forthcoming years, based on the demand and future opportunities.

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Global Candidiasis Drugs Market: Trends and Opportunities

Symptoms of candidiasis differs relying on the kind of infection and are like signs of different other illnesses caused by microscopic organisms. It is important to survey the underlying signs through corroborative diagnosis strategies for early identification and successful treatment of candidiasis. Subsequently, a few associations and organizations around the globe are giving nitty gritty idea and are bringing issues to light about candidiasis and its treatment to maintain a strategic distance from delay in detection in finding. This developing awareness about candidiasis is making the demand for candidiasis drugs for treatment of the ailment.

Growths, for example, Candida auris can create protection from a few accessible antifungal drugs utilized for treating Candida diseases. Trend setting innovations are being created to analyze contagious illness brought about by antifungal prone pathogens. These advances will help in the early finding of such diseases, which thus, will support candidiasis drugs market development in future.

Global Candidiasis Drugs Market: Market Potential

An investigation driven by the UPV/EHU has built up a creative, and simpler treatment based uterine stem cell to battle the Candida Albicans growth, in charge of vaginal candidiasis illness. Even though it is not fatal, , this infection, which is more common among ladies, lessens the life quality inferable from its side effects (stinging and itching). This study has been distributed in the worldwide Frontiers in Microbiology diary.

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The exploration is being driven by Guillermo Quinds, teacher of Microbiology at the UPV/EHUs Faculty of Medicine, and financed by the Foundation for Uterine Stem Cell Research (FICEMU).

Global Candidiasis Drugs Market: Regional Outlook

The report studies all the growth opportunities in the global candidiasis drugs market, and estimates that North America region would hold the maximum share in the entire market, within the forecast period. This is attributed to upgradation in drugs, various alliances by the players in the region, and increasing cases of candida since past few years.

Global Candidiasis Drugs Market: Competitive Landscape

The global candidiasis drugs market is expected to be highly fragmented, with the presence of several players in the market. The report provides a detailed competitive analysis of the market so as to help their clients with better revenue in candidiasis market. Moreover, the report also analyses the current strategies taken up by the key players, such as mergers and acquisitions, and research and development activities. It even focuses on the key sectors from where the clients could gain profit.

Some of the major players operating in global candidiasis drugs market are Astellas Pharma, Fresenius, Pfizer, Bayer, and Merck.

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Candidiasis Drugs Market Development and New Market Opportunities and Forecasts 2028 - Downey Magazine

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People helping people is core of Texas Tech Innovation Hub – LubbockOnline.com

§ November 18th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on People helping people is core of Texas Tech Innovation Hub – LubbockOnline.com

For A-J Media

As a child, Kimberly Gramm spent hours painting eyes on fishing lures in the garage of her familys Florida home. It wasnt just a hobby; she was an integral part of building her fathers dream.

Stephen Marusak, an engineer with a passion for fishing, had given up his $80,000-a-year position creating high-tech electronics in 1983 to design the best fishing lures on the market. His new company, Cotee Industries, was named for the Pithlachascotee River, where the family lived.

From such humble beginnings, Marusak built Cotee Industries into a large manufacturing business with locations in Florida and Kansas. He had more than 250 employees and dozens of patents filed while developing the best production methods for his lures. His products were sold at sporting goods stores and Walmart stores.

But his journey wasnt without obstacles. He learned firsthand about the ups and downs of the market and how Chinese manufacturers would copy American products and sell them at cheaper prices challenges many businesses deal with in almost every industry.

"Over a couple of decades, he built this business," Gramm recalled. "It was his passion and his love."

It wasnt until he passed away in 2006 that she realized her fathers reach went well beyond fishing lures.

"I learned about the impact he made on the more than 250 employees he had working in his business and how that built community," she said. "For some reason, you know it, but you dont realize the extent of the impact growing up. I think when I did realize it, he had already passed away. I understood the significance and the importance of how this great country is built, how thats tied to the individuals who dare to make their dreams a reality, how that affects the family unit, the community and our extended communities."

Following in his footsteps

Gramm, who at the time of her fathers death was a corporate strategist for UPS in Atlanta, moved back to Florida to be closer to her family. She accepted a position at Florida Atlantic University where she could apply her knowledge of corporate strategy to help fledgling entrepreneurs like her father had once been.

"Not enough was being done to help people, whether they were researchers or inventors or students," she said. "To take ideas and place enough nurturing support around them, its kind of like a garden a garden needs water, fertilizer, and it needs sunshine to grow.

"Not only is the startup journey really hard to do, but its also something that is very personal and meaningful. I think its important that people have opportunity and believe in their contributions of good ideas, and that one day that may become an early-stage company. Whether theyre part of a founding team or contribute in some way as an employee, it is the fabric of our country and how we get the opportunity to live a good life. Ideas and innovations need to be nurtured to flourish for us to be successful as a country."

Thats why Gramm, now associate vice president of innovation & entrepreneurship at Texas Tech, says her job is to help continue to build the American dream.

"We all want to be heard," she said. "We all have a creative side, were all here on this planet with special skillsets to develop and practice our best selves. Everyone should have the opportunity to create their own American dream, whatever that might be."

What is innovation?

Innovation, she states, can be a scary word to people who are afraid of change.

"If youre a person who isnt a lifelong learner someone who loves to read, explore, create and understand the very essence of things sometimes innovation looks a lot like change, and that can disrupt how you do what you do," Gramm said. "But innovation just means youre creating something that solves a problem. If the innovation is developed in a way that it helps the citizens of the world have a better life, sometimes that can involve disruptive new technologies, and sometimes that involves just a new way of doing something."

She uses the example of the Heinz ketchup bottle. Originally made of glass, with an opening on top, the bottles were often difficult to get the ketchup out of. Seeing this, Heinz redesigned the bottles, making them out of plastic, which could be squeezed, and turning them upside down so gravity helped get the ketchup out of the bottle quicker and easier. A new way of doing a task made life a bit more efficient.

While most people can easily understand why Heinz would have wanted to improve its ketchup bottle, it can be difficult to make the general public understand some of the more deep-science research going on.

One example Gramm gives is NemaLife, a company currently working out of the Innovation Hub at Research Park. As most people know, it takes a long time to make advances in medicine because new drugs must be tested thoroughly not only for their effectiveness in achieving their goal but also in minimizing side effects before theyre approved for usage. In response, NemaLife has developed a new way of testing drugs that can significantly shorten the testing period. It uses microscopic worms with short lifespans to determine, with incredible accuracy, how human bodies might react to the drug being tested.

"Developing new types of innovation creates new types of opportunities, new jobs and wealth for people," Gramm said. "It is how a capitalistic society works. Without a pipeline of new ideas and innovations there would be a negative impact on our economy. Higher education provides fertile soil for new talent and ideas critically important in the regions they serve."

At its core, Gramm emphasizes, innovation is about people both those with the ideas and the passion to improve life for others, and the people whose lives can be improved through the implementation of those ideas. Thats why she feels so fortunate to be able to help those entrepreneurs who, like her father, are striving to achieve their goals.

"When something is built from the passion and love of a person, its really special," she said. "It doesnt feel like work to them; it feels like a lifes work. I think thats part of why I love working in a university, because when you talk to faculty, students and those who champion the work, thats why they do it. Ideas and innovations truly serve our higher calling; we all want to leave the world a better place, and our products, technologies or services are all manifestations of how each person in the community contributes to the greater good."

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Nanomedicine Market 2019| In-depth Analysis by Regions, Production and Consumption by Market Size, and Forecast to 2026 | Research Industry US – News…

§ November 17th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanomedicine Market 2019| In-depth Analysis by Regions, Production and Consumption by Market Size, and Forecast to 2026 | Research Industry US – News…

The Global Nanomedicine Market (2019 2026) research offers a basic overview of the industry including definitions, applications, classifications, and market chain structure. Moreover, in the global Nanomedicine Market report, the key product categories of the market are included. The report comparably demonstrates supportive data related to the dominant players in the market, for instance, product offerings, segmentation, revenue, and business synopsis. The global Nanomedicine Market is as well analyzed on the basis of numerous regions. The firstly the report describes the market overview, cost structure, upstream, and technology. The second part describes the global Nanomedicine market by key players, by application and type.

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Competitive Analysis

The global Nanomedicine market report wraps scope and product overview to define the key terms and offers comprehensive information about market dynamics to the readers. This is trailed by the regional outlook and segmental analysis. The report also consists of the facts and key values of the global Nanomedicine market in terms of sales and volume, revenue and growth rate.

One of the important factors in the global Nanomedicine market report is competitive analysis. The report covers all the key factors, such as product innovation, market strategies of the key players, market share, revenue generation, latest research and development, and market expert views.

The followingTopmanufacturersare assessed in this report:

AffilogicLTFNBergmannstrostGrupo PraxisBiotechrabbitBraccoMaterials ResearchCentreCarlina technologiesChemConnectionCIC biomaGUNECIBER-BBNContiproCristal TherapeuticsDTIEndomagneticsFraunhofer ICT-IMMTecnaliaTeknikerGIMACIMDEAIstec CNRSwedNanoTechVicomtechVITO NV

Nanomedicine Market Segmentation

For the better grasp insight of the market, this report has provided a detailed analysis of drivers restraints, and trends that dominate the present market scenario and also the future status of the global Nanomedicine market during the projected period of 2018-2026.

Market Analysis by Product Type

Regenerative MedicineIn-vitro & In-vivo DiagnosticsVaccinesDrug Delivery

Market Analysis by End-User Application

Clinical CardiologyUrologyGeneticsOrthopedicsOphthalmology

While classifying these segments, the expert team of analysts has listed the relative contribution of each segment for the growth of the global Nanomedicine market. Detail information of segments is required to recognize the key trends influencing the global market for the Nanomedicine.

Each segment of the market provides a piece of in-depth information on the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the market. While giving a brief idea about the revenue opportunities for all the segments, this report has also provided the value of absolute dollar opportunity for all the segments over the predicted period of 2018 2026.

Regional Analysis

The significant regions covered in the reports of the global Nanomedicine market are North America, Europe, the Asia Pacific, South America, and the Middle East and Africa. The market information not only provides the market data of the five geographies as a whole, but it also provides you qualitative as well we qualitative information on country level bifurcation. Adding to that, economic, technological, cultural and social aspects along with the regulatory barriers are entirely analyzed to understand the thorough market scenario across different geographies.

The key highlight of the Research:

Key Questions Answered:

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Nanomedicine Market Segmented by Applications and Geography Trends, Growth and Forecasts 2026 – The Bay State Herald

§ November 17th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanomedicine Market Segmented by Applications and Geography Trends, Growth and Forecasts 2026 – The Bay State Herald

A new market assessment report on the Nanomedicine market provides a comprehensive overview of the Nanomedicine industry for the forecast period 2019 2026. The analytical study is proposed to provide immense clarity on the market size, share and growth rate across different regions. The profound knowledge and extensive examination of the trends from the yesteryear and future aims at offering the stakeholders, product owners, and marketing personnel a competitive edge over others operating in the Agricultural Tires market for the forecast period, 2019 2026.

The study will also feature the key companies operating in the industry, their product/business portfolio, market share, financial status, regional share, segment revenue, SWOT analysis, key strategies including mergers & acquisitions, product developments, joint ventures & partnerships an expansions among others, and their latest news as well. The study will also provide a list of emerging players in the Nanomedicine market.

In this report, theglobal Nanomedicine marketis valued atUSD xx million in 2019and is expected to reachUSD xx millionby the end of2026, growing at aCAGR of xx.x%between 2019 and 2026.

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The major manufacturers covered in this report:Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals Inc. AMAG Pharmaceuticals, Bio-Gate AG, Celgene Corporation and Johnson & Johnson. Johnson & Johnson

The study is a professional probe into the revenue generated and capacity estimates for the Nanomedicine market for the forecast period 2019 2026 empower the business owners to maintain a competitive edge over their rivals.

The research further examines and provides data on the market by type, application and geography interspersed with illustrations and other graphical representations. The market analysis not only determines the attractiveness of the industry but also the evolving challenges and opportunities and their association with the weaknesses and strengths of prominent market leaders.

Other factors taken into consideration when studying the industry include profitability, manufacturing capability, distribution channels and industry cost structure and major success factors.

The industry experts have left no stone unturned to identify the major factors influencing the development rate of the Nanomedicine industry including various opportunities and gaps. A thorough analysis of the micro markets with regards to the growth trends in each category makes the overall study interesting. When studying the micro markets the researchers also dig deep into their future prospect and contribution to the Nanomedicine industry.

Product Outlook (Revenue, USD Billion, 2018-2026)

Therapeutics

Regenerative Medicine

In-vitro diagnostics

In-vivo diagnostic

Vaccines

Drug Delivery System Outlook (Revenue, USD Billion, 2018-2026)

Nanobots

Nanoghosts

Nanoclusters

Nanobubbles

Exosomes

Injectable Nanoparticle Generator

Dendrimers

Liposomes

Carbon nanotube

Graphene

Others

Application Outlook (Revenue, USD Million, 2015-2026)

Oncology

Infectious diseases

Cardiology

Orthopedics

Others

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Key Research:

The main sources are industry experts from the global Nanomedicine industry, including management organizations, processing organizations, and analytical services providers that address the value chain of industry organizations. We interviewed all major sources to collect and certify qualitative and quantitative information and to determine future prospects. Through interviews in the industry experts industry, such as CEO, vice president, marketing director, technology and innovation director, founder and key executives of key core companies.

Secondary Research:

Secondary research studies critical information about the industrial value chain, core pool of people, and applications. We also helped market segmentation based on the industrys lowest level of industry, geographical markets and key developments in market and technology-driven core development.

Geographically, this report studies the key regions, focuses on product sales, value, market share and growth opportunity in these regions, covering:

United States

Europe

China

Japan

Southeast Asia

India

Incorporated with Info-graphics, charts, 75 tables and 105 figures, this 243-page research report NanomedicineMarket Size, Type Analysis, Application Analysis, End-Use Industry Analysis, Regional Outlook, Competitive Strategies And Forecasts, 2019 2026 is based on a complete research of the entire Global market and covering all its sub-segments through comprehensively thorough classifications. Insightful analysis and assessment are created from superior primary and secondary information sources with data and information derived from industry specialists across the value chain. The report provides historical market data for 2014-2018, base year estimates for 2018, and forecasts from 2019 to 2026.

Table of Contents:

Report Overview:It includes the objectives and scope of the study and gives highlights of key market segments and players covered. It also includes years considered for the research study.

Executive Summary:It covers industry trends with high focus on market use cases and top market trends, market size by regions, and global market size. It also covers market share and growth rate by regions.

Key Players:Here, the report concentrates on mergers and acquisitions, expansions, analysis of key players, establishment date of companies, and areas served, manufacturing base, and revenue of key players.

Breakdown by Product and Application:This section provides details about market size by product and application.

Regional Analysis:All of the regions and countries analyzed in the report are studied on the basis of market size by product and application, key players, and market forecast.

Profiles of International Players:Here, players are evaluated on the basis of their gross margin, price, sales, revenue, business, products, and other company details.

Market Dynamics:It includes supply chain analysis, analysis of regional marketing, challenges, opportunities, and drivers analyzed in the report.

Appendix:It includes details about research and methodology approach, research methodology, data sources, authors of the study, and a disclaimer.

For further information on this analysis, please visit @https://www.reportsanddata.com/report-detail/nanomedicine-market

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We are grateful to you for reading our report. If you wish to find more details of the report or want a customization, contact us. You can get a detailed information of the entire research here. If you have any special requirements, please let us know and we will offer you the report as you want.

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Nanotherapies for Rheumatoid Arthritis: Advantages, Challenges, and Future Direction – Rheumatology Advisor

§ November 17th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanotherapies for Rheumatoid Arthritis: Advantages, Challenges, and Future Direction – Rheumatology Advisor

Despite recent advances in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis(RA) attributed to biologic medications, only a minority of patients achieve andmaintain disease remission without the need for continuous immunosuppressive therapy.1Complicating the treatment of RA further is the development of tolerance over timeor failure of patients to respond to currently available therapies.1Thus, the development of new treatment strategies for RA remains a priority.

Nanotherapies for RA have received increasing attention in the past decade because they offer several potential advantages compared with conventional systemic therapies.2 Nanocarriers are submicron transport particles designed to deliver the drug at the site of inflammation the synovium thereby maximizing its therapeutic effect and avoiding unwanted systemic adverse effects.1 This targeted drug delivery approach also has the potential to minimize the amount of drug required to control joint inflammation3 and increase local bioavailability by protecting it from degradation in the circulation.1

In essence, nanotechnology enables the redesign of alreadyeffective rheumatologic medications into nanoformulations that may confer greaterspecificity, longer therapeutic effect, and more amenable safety profile.4Nanoencapsulated nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs),5 liposomaland polymeric preparations of glucocorticoids,6 and nanosystems thatdirectly inhibit angiogenesis are just several examples of nanotherapies that havebeen tested in experimental models of inflammatory arthritis.7

Despite the promising findings observed in studies to date, further development and subsequent integration of nanotherapies in the management of RA remains hampered by the lack of efficacy and toxicity studies in humans. In an interview with Rheumatology Advisor, Christine Pham, MD, chief of the Division of Rheumatology at the Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis, discussed the advantages and challenges of applying nanotherapies in RA.

RheumatologyAdvisor: How can nanotechnology be applied in the treatment of RA?

ChristinePham, MD: Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary approach aimed at the deliveryof therapeutic agents using submicron nanocarriers. In RA, the vessels at the siteof inflammation are leaky, allowing passage of these nanocarriers from the circulationto specific target sites in the joint environment.

RheumatologyAdvisor: Which RA drugs are suitable forthis approach?

DrPham: Many conventionalantirheumatic drugs such as methotrexate, glucocorticoids, and NSAIDs have beensuccessfully delivered by nanocarriers to mitigate inflammatory arthritis in experimentalmodels.

RheumatologyAdvisor: Whatare the main advantages of using nanotherapy/nanocarriers, as opposed to systemictherapy, in the treatment of RA?

DrPham: The mainadvantages are selective drug delivery to desired sites of action through passiveor active targeting, which can lead to increased local bioavailability and potentiallycan reduce unwanted off-target side effects. In addition, nanocarriers may increasethe solubility of certain drugs and protect therapeutics against degradation inthe circulation.

RheumatologyAdvisor: Howfar has the medical community gotten in developing (and testing) nanotherapies forRA? Which nanotherapies have shown the most promise?

DrPham: A numberof nanotherapeutics have been developed and tested in animal models of RA. Mosthave shown disease mitigation, however, none has so far made it to the clinic.

RheumatologyAdvisor: Whatneeds to happen before nanotherapies can get fully integrated into clinical practiceand treatment of patients with RA?

DrPham: Insufficientdata regarding long-term toxicity and optimal therapeutic efficacy have hamperedtheir integration into clinical practice. Anticytokine biologics have been verysuccessful, so nanotherapeutics need to show clearly that they have higher efficacyand lower toxicity for pharmaceutical companies to invest in their development forthe clinic.

Rheumatology Advisor: Are any other promising treatment strategies for RA currently under investigation?

DrPham: RNA interference(RNAi) has recently emerged as a specific way to silence gene expression. The invivo delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA), however, remains a significant hurdle,given the short half-life of the molecule in the circulation. We have used a self-assemblingpeptide-based nanosystem that protects the siRNA from degradation when injectedintravenously and which has shown to mitigate experimental RA.8,9 siRNAworks by knocking down NFkappaB p65, asubunit of NF-kappa-B transcription complex which plays acentral role in inflammation in general and in RA in particular. This platform promisesto have real translational potential.

References

1. Pham CTN. Nanotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol. 2011;3(6):607-619.

2. Dolati S, Sadreddini S, Rostamzadek D, Ahmadi M, Jadidi-Niaragh F, Yousefi M. Utilization of nanoparticle technology in rheumatoid arthritis treatment. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016;80:30-41.

3. Rubinstein I, Weinberg GL. Nanomedicine for chronic non-infectious arthritis: the clinicians perspective. Nanomedicine. 2012;8(Suppl 1):S77-S82.

4. Henderson CS, Madison AC, Shah A. Size matters nanotechnology and therapeutics in rheumatology and immunology. Curr Rheumatol Rev. 2014;10(1):11-21.

5. Srinath P, Chary MG, Vyas SP, Diwan PV. Long-circulating liposomes of indomethacin in arthritic ratsa biodisposition study. Pharm Acta Helv. 2000;74:399-404.

6. Metselaar JM, Wauben MH, Wagenaar-Hilbers JP, Boerman OC, Storm G. Complete remission of experimental arthritis by joint targeting of glucocorticoids with long-circulating liposomes. Arthritis Rheum. 2003;48:2059-2066.

7. Koo OM, Rubinstein I, nyuksel H. Actively targeted low-dose camptothecin as a safe, long-acting, disease-modifying nanomedicine for rheumatoid arthritis. Pharm Res. 2011;28:776-787.

8. Zhou H-F, Yan H, Pan H, et al. Peptide-siRNA nanocomplexes targeting the NF-kB subunit p65 suppress nascent experimental arthritis. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:4363-4374.

9. Rai MF, Pan H, Yan H, Sandell L, Pham C, Wickline SA. Applications of RNA interference in the treatment of arthritis. Transl Res. 2019;214:1-16.

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Nanoform Wins Award for Drug Development and Delivery – AZoNano

§ November 17th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanoform Wins Award for Drug Development and Delivery – AZoNano

Image Credit: phive/Shutterstock.com

Nanoform, a Finnish nanotechnology and drug particle engineering company, has won the prestigious Excellence in Pharma Award for Formulation at the 16th CPhI Pharma Awards which took place in Germany this November.

The prize sees world-renowned innovative companies competing against one another. This year Nanoforms ingenious medicine enabling nanotechnology, in the form of its CESS nanonization technology, won the highly contested award.

Who are Nanoform?

International pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies are well aware of the work that Nanoform dedicates itself to. Nanoform partners with businesses with the aim to boost their molecules formulation performance as well as to reduce clinical attrition. Nanoform is committed to working with international companies to provide them with cutting-edge, innovative solutions for the development and delivery of drugs.

The technology that won it the esteemed prize at the CPhI Pharma Awards was its multi-patented nanonization process which was designed with the capability of substantially improving dissolution rates and bioavailability, having the impact of doubling the number of drug compounds reaching clinical trials. In addition, the innovation has been shown to add value to the drug delivery spaces of pulmonary, transdermal, ocular and blood-brain barrier.

For this innovative new process, Nanoform surpassed the efforts of other respected companies such as Cambrex, Lonza Capsugel, and Glatt Pharmaceutical Services, who had also entered in the same category.

The Innovation

The new CESS, short for Controlled Expansion of Supercritical Solutions, nanonization technology has multiple patents for its unique design. It creates designed-for-purpose, nano-sized active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) particles, using a process that can control the particles shape, increasing uniformity. The system also has the ability to produce nanoparticles as small as 10 nm.

The method works by controlling the solubility of an API in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) through a bottom-up method of recrystallization. Previous alternatives had been limited, and the CESS system surpasses those due to its utilization of controlled mass transfer, pressure reduction and flow. Another benefit of the system is that it is green, its process is free from using excipients and organic solvents.

Through Nanoforms innovation, novel opportunities are opening up to the field of drug research and development.

The Significance of the CESS System

Nanomaterials have unique properties that differ from their bulk material counterparts. These different properties have made them of special interest to a number of scientific fields, which has boosted exploration into nanoparticles over recent years. It has been found that these unique properties have potential applications in the areas of nanomedicine, therapeutics, medical devices and more. They have been identified as vectors for medical imaging, biological diagnostics and therapeutics.

What has been achieved by Nanoform is that another avenue of potential use has been opened up for nanoparticles. Nanoform has developed a reliable system that allows the benefits of nanoparticles to be harnessed in drug research and development. The unique properties of nanoparticles will be able to be put to use in developing new therapeutic treatments, which could induce a significant shift in the pharmaceutical sector.

It is generally accepted that advancements in the use of nanoparticles in this area would significantly influence the advancement of human therapeutics. Now pharmaceutical companies have access to a system that allows them to tailor-make nanoparticles, the innovation of new therapies that previously would not have been possible could be on the horizon.

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Drug resistance: CDC report says weve entered a post-antibiotic era – Vox.com

§ November 17th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Drug resistance: CDC report says weve entered a post-antibiotic era – Vox.com

Every 15 minutes, one person in the US dies because of an infection that antibiotics can no longer treat effectively.

Thats 35,000 deaths a year.

This striking estimate comes from a major new report, released Wednesday by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), on the urgent problem of antibiotic resistance.

Although the report focuses on the US, this is a global crisis: 700,000 people around the world die of drug-resistant diseases each year. And if we dont make a radical change now, that could rise to 10 million by 2050.

Drug resistance is what happens when we overuse antibiotics in the treatment of humans, animals, and crops. When a new antibiotic is introduced, it can have great, even life-saving results for a while. But then the bacteria adapt. Gradually, the antibiotic becomes less effective and were left with a disease that we dont know how to treat.

And its not just diseases like tuberculosis. Common problems like STDs and urinary tract infections are also becoming more resistant to treatment. Routine hospital procedures like C-sections and joint replacements could become more dangerous, too, as the risk associated with infection increases. Two of the most urgent current threats are C. difficile (an infection sometimes brought on by antibiotic use) and drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae (sometimes dubbed super gonorrhea).

Experts have been warning for years that were approaching a post-antibiotic era a time when our antibiotics are pretty much useless and drug-resistant superbugs can all too easily decimate our health. Yet we continue to dole out too many antibiotics, driving the resistance. Doctors prescribe antibiotics for conditions that dont require them and dont even benefit from them, like colds and flus. And animal farmers use them copiously on livestock and poultry, sometimes to compensate for poor industrial farming conditions.

Its not all bad news. Theres hope from emerging treatments like phage therapy. And some professionals, especially in hospitals, have heeded experts warnings with encouraging results. Take staph infections, for example. The report notes that rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have dropped. Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) is no longer considered a threat. Overall, deaths caused by drug resistance decreased by 18 percent since the CDCs landmark 2013 report on this issue.

But even if deaths are down, this is still very much an emergency.

Stop referring to a coming post-antibiotic era its already here, the CDC report says. You and I are living in a time when some miracle drugs no longer perform miracles and families are being ripped apart by a microscopic enemy.

Doctors like Amy Mathers, who directs the University of Virginias Sink Lab, have seen this firsthand. She told me that over the past decade theres been a surge of US patients infected with bacteria for which theres no effective antibiotic. Ten years ago, that was a rarity, she said. And now? I see that once a month.

The report emphasizes three main ways to curb the problem. They apply to professionals like health care providers and veterinarians, and they also apply to you, even if you dont work with sick people or animals.

Prevention is the best medicine its a clich for a reason. Doctors should ask patients if they recently received care in another hospital or traveled to another country (germs can be spread easily across borders) and make sure patients receive recommended vaccines.

You, as an individual, can help prevent infections by cleaning your hands, practicing safe sex, and, if youre going to be traveling, getting the appropriate vaccines and sticking to food and drinks that are unlikely to be contaminated.

The CDC estimates that US doctors offices and emergency departments prescribe 47 million antibiotic courses each year for infections that dont need antibiotics. Thats 30 percent of all antibiotics prescribed at these sites. Health care providers, as well as people in the agriculture industry, can slow resistance by using antibiotics only when necessary.

The same goes for you, too. If youve got a nasty cold, flu, travelers diarrhea, or something thats likely to go away on its own in a few days, ask your doctor whether your symptoms merit taking antibiotics or whether youll be fine if you go without.

Health care providers should learn when to report cases to the health department to identify unusual resistance and deploy a containment strategy if needed.

For example, earlier this year, a patient in Orange County, California, tested positive for C. auris, a multidrug-resistant yeast that can cause invasive infection and death. An extensive, aggressive containment response followed that involved screening hundreds of patients, according to the CDC report. When a new patient was identified as carrying or infected with C. auris, they were immediately put under special precautions. That helped prevent spread to hundreds of vulnerable patients.

At this point, you may be wondering why we dont just develop new antibiotics if our old ones stop working. The CDC experts say we cant count on that. As a result of scientific obstacles and limited business incentives, between 1962 and 2000, no new major classes of antibiotics were approved to treat common and lethal infections. And since 1990, 78 percent of major drug companies have scaled back antibiotic research or cut it altogether. To understand why thats the case, we need to dig into the companies financial incentives.

The problem of drug resistance could be addressed really cheaply. If each person in high- and middle-income countries invested $2 a year in this cause, we could research new drugs and implement effective measures to reduce the threat of resistance, according to an important UN report released in May.

For the US, the total cost to fix the broken antibiotics model is $1.5-2 billion per year, Kevin Outterson, a Boston University professor who specializes in antibiotic resistance, told me. Its the equivalent of what we spend on toilet paper every few months.

Whats more, unlike climate change, this is an issue on which theres both scientific and political consensus its not as though the right and the left disagree as to whether the problem is real.

Which raises the question: If theres a cost-effective way to solve such a high-impact problem and its ideologically uncontroversial, why arent we all over it?

Unfortunately, it takes many years and lots of funding to do the research and development needed to bring a new antibiotic to market. Most new compounds fail. Even when they succeed, the payoff is small: An antibiotic which is, at least in theory, a drug of last resort doesnt sell as well as a drug that needs to be taken daily. So for biotech companies, the financial incentive just isnt there.

Although drug resistance affects high-income and low-income countries alike, wealthy Western countries may be better equipped to respond to a health crisis and thus feel less urgency about tackling the problem proactively.

The UN report and a number of outside experts have argued that to solve this issue, we need to stop treating antibiotics as though theyre any other product on the free market. Instead, we should think of antibiotics as public goods that are crucial to a functioning society like infrastructure or national security. And the government should fund their research and development.

This is a product where we want to sell as little as possible, Outterson explained. The ideal would be an amazing antibiotic that just sits on a shelf for decades, waiting for when we need it. Thats great for public health, but its a freaking disaster for a company.

This mismatch with the pharmaceutical industrys profit-making imperative is why the government (and ideally also the private sector and civil society) needs to step in, according to the UN report. That could include incentives like grant funding and tax credits to support early-stage research. The report also urged wealthy countries to help poorer nations improve their health systems, and recommended the creation of a major new intergovernmental panel like the one on climate change, but for drug resistance.

Yet for governments to mobilize around this issue, the public may first have to push it as a priority and its not clear that enough Americans see it as such.

I do not think the political will or even the knowledge base is present in the US to make this a high-enough priority to solve the problem today, Mathers told me. She believes the first thing we need is more public education to bring this threat into focus for the average American.

Outterson, for his part, told me he fears the death toll may have to climb very high before a critical mass of people start noticing, caring, and mobilizing. We will eventually respond, he said. The question is how many people will have to die before we start that response.

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Tiny Particles Found In Air Pollution Linked To Brain Cancer For First Time – IFLScience

§ November 17th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Tiny Particles Found In Air Pollution Linked To Brain Cancer For First Time – IFLScience

From London to Delhi to Beijing, millions of us live and work in big cities where toxic fumes and dust are quite literally inescapable, invisibly surrounding us in the air we breathe. In recent years, a mounting pile of research has found this dirty air has consequences for our health, from exacerbating respiratory conditions like asthma to lowering our IQ.Now, the teeny nanoparticles in polluted air have been linked to a higher risk of brain cancer.

Publishing their findings in the journal Epidemiology, researchers led by McGill University in Canada focused on ambient ultrafine particles (UFPs). These are minuscule particles found in the air that are smaller than 100 nanometers across. Unlike larger particles, UFPs are tiny enough to be absorbed by our lungs, travel around our bodies via the blood, and enter our organs. Were still finding out what these microscopic body invaders do to our health, but they are thought to promote heart and lung diseases and have been linked to high blood pressure.

Previous research has already discovered that UFPs can find their way into the brain, but the new study is the first to examine how they influence risk of developing malignant brain tumors. The team examined the health records of 1.9 million people in Canada between 1991 and 2016, noting the level of pollution each person was exposed to. When the researchers followed up with their cohort, a total of 1,400 people had developed brain tumors.

The researchers found that per 100,000 people, one extra person is likely to develop a brain tumor when pollution levels rise by 10,000 nanoparticles per cubic centimeter, assuming the baseline rate is 8 cases per 100,000 people. An increase of 10,000 nanoparticles per cubic centimeter is roughly equivalent to the difference between a quiet road and a busy one.

Before you commence a panicky Google search of jobs based in the countryside, there are a few things to take note of. First, this is the only study of its kind so far so more research is needed to confirm the findings and determine whether there truly is a strong connection between air pollution and brain tumors.

Second, brain cancer is an incredibly rare disease. This means that even with an increased risk, only a tiny minority of people will develop it. The study authors estimate high levels of UFPs will lead to an extra brain tumor diagnosis per 100,000 people. Thats 0.001 percent of the population. The team also found no link between PM2.5 and nitrogen oxide, two key aspects of air pollution, and brain tumors.

Nevertheless, the new findings should spur governments to swiftly tackle air pollution in their cities, something many are falling short of despite the surging tide of worrying research. Often air pollution policy is not drastic enough to make a real difference, and with reports of schools in Delhi closing due to high air pollution levels this week, and4.2 million premature deaths globally being linked to air pollution each year, its clear drastic change must come.

Environmental risks like air pollution are not large in magnitude their importance comes because everyone in the population is exposed, study leader Scott Weichenthal of McGill University told The Guardian.

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A history of science in 20 objects – E&T Magazine

§ November 17th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on A history of science in 20 objects – E&T Magazine

For as long as humans have walked the Earth, we have been exploring, experimenting and seeking out knowledge. That long chronicle of scientific endeavour is written in objects, from ancient tools to the revolutionary inventions of recent times. A new book selects twenty that help tell that story.

Beginning in Mesopotamia around 10,000BC, previously nomadic tribes of hunter-gatherers began to settle and form agricultural communities. The age of agriculture spurred the development of new and increasingly specialised tools, like this Sumerian sickle, which dates back to 3,000BC. One of many such tools recovered from the region, this instrument was probably used for agricultural and manufacturing tasks, such as gathering resources for food and construction.

Agricultural inventions such as the sickle transformed the nature of early societies. Without the constant pressure of having to hunt for food, humankind found themselves with more time to think and explore.

Dating back to 1,600 BC Egypt, the Edwin Smith papyrus is a medical textbook focused on diagnosis and surgery. Believed to be a copy of a document made in c. 3,000 BC, the papyrus reveals the extraordinary extent of Ancient Egyptian medical knowledge.

Image credit: .

The document contains descriptions of 48 different types of trauma, including dislocations, fractures and wounds, as well as analysis of various physical functions, including those of the bowels and blood vessels.

But perhaps the most notable aspect of the Edwin Smith papyrus is what it is not. In contrast to the majority of medical scholarship in this era, the papyrus does not look to superstition and magic as primary causes of and cures for disease. Instead, it constitutes an early example of an evidence-based, scientific approach to medicine.

Ancient Greece was home to a great many advances in thought and knowledge, not least in the field of mathematics. Compiled by the great scholar Euclid, the Elements consists of 13 books exploring the intricacies of geometry and various mathematical theories.

The texts scale and depth has earned Elements the accolade of being the most influential textbook ever written, and until recently, Euclids seminal work was considered required reading for any educated person.

More than anything, Elements demonstrates the Ancient Greek commitment to logic and rational thinking an approach that helped to lay the foundations for both mathematics and the sciences more broadly.

Johannes Gutenbergs printing press is considered amongst the most significant inventions in all of human history. Developed in 1439, at the height of the Renaissance, Gutenbergs press helped to transform the science community in Europe.

Gutenberg was neither the first to create a printing press nor to use moveable type; the technique had been in use in East Asia for many years beforehand. However, Gutenberg refined the movable type method and introduced the technology to Europe, where it rapidly spread. By the turn of the 16th century, millions of texts were being printed and shared all over the continent.

This effect was transformative for science. Scholars could easily distribute their findings and access the work of their peers. The notion of an international science community began to take shape, and the seeds of a scientific revolution were sown.

By the medieval period, the Islamic world had become a centre for science and discovery. Between the 7th and 10th centuries, scholars made great advances in astronomy, mathematics and medicine.

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It was during this historical moment that the spherical astrolabe was invented somewhere in the Middle East most likely Syria or Egypt. Sometimes referred to as an astronomical computer, astrolabes are a type of inclinometer, used to measure the altitude of objects. This makes them powerful tools for surveyors, geographers and astronomers alike. The spherical astrolabe demonstrates the skill of medieval Middle Eastern scholars and remains symbolic of the enduring scientific legacy left by a period dubbed the Islamic Golden Age.

The polymath Galileo Galilei has been dubbed the father of astronomy, physics and even modern science itself. He discovered the moons of Jupiter, the phases of Venus, and popularised the Copernican theory that Earth and other planets revolve around the sun.

None of this would have been possible were it not for Galileos superior telescope, which he designed himself by refining existing models to dramatically improve magnification. Eventually, Galileos telescope was able to achieve 30x magnification, compared to the original telescopes 3x magnification.

This allowed the scholar to observe the night sky in unprecedented detail, uncovering a level of complexity invisible to the naked eye. Galileos telescope is emblematic of the ways in which technology has shaped the course of scientific history and advanced our collective knowledge.

From the very big to the very small, English polymath Robert Hooke used microscopy to reveal a world hiding right before our eyes.

In the early 17th century a new invention began to spread across Europe: the compound microscope. By the end of the century, scholars had discovered blood cells, microorganisms, bacteria and much more, uncovering an entirely new realm of biological life.

Many of the most iconic images from this period originate in Hookes seminal 1665 text Micrographia. The intricate engravings in Micrographia revealed microscopic marvels, like the delicate structure of a flys wings, the cell walls in cork, and the minute hairs on the body of an ant.

Perhaps the most recognisable image of all is that of the flea. Crafted by Hooke in painstaking detail, the engraving unravels the intricate anatomy of the humble insect. Even now, the image cant help but conjure up a sense of wonder at the complexity of the natural world.

There are many objects that emblematise the ingenuity and optimism of the Industrial Revolution, but perhaps none more so than James Watts steam engine.

Patented in 1769, Watts engine was a dramatic improvement on the previous model popularised by Thomas Newcomen around 50 years prior. The efficiency of this new and improved engine meant that it could be used in a greater variety of locations and geographies, allowing factories to be built all over Britain. Sectors like mining, cotton and brewing expanded rapidly, creating booming centres of industry and transforming the cultural and physical landscape.

Of course, this progress did notcome without a cost; today scientists are working to tackleanother legacy of industrialisation: climate change and environmental degradation.

In 18th-century Europe, around 400,000 people died every year from smallpox. The virus devastated victims, causing painful pustules, fever and vomiting. Survivors were left heavily scarred and often blind.

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However, there was one particular group who seemed never to contract smallpox: milkmaids. A physician named Edward Jenner deduced that milkmaids exposure to cowpox, via their cattle, had somehow conferred them with immunity to smallpox. To test his theory, Jenner used his lancet to transfer a small amount of liquid from cowpox pustules to a healthy eight-year-old boy. The child was then exposed to smallpox, but he remained unaffected Jenner had developed the first scientific approach to vaccination.

The story behind the discovery of evolution is among the best-known tales in the history of science. In 1831, Charles Darwin set off for South America on a five-year voyage.

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During a stopover in the Galapagos Islands an isolated cluster of islands off the coast of Ecuador he observed that the size and shape of finches bills varied from island to island. Darwin concluded that all of the finches had originated from the same ancestor, and had then gone on to adapt new characteristics to suit their different environments.

In 1859, Darwin published his book On The Origin of Species and the theory of evolution was born.

In 1831, physicist Michael Faraday constructed the worlds first electric generator, with which he was able to prove the principle of electromagnet induction. Although Faradays disk was too inefficient to be of practical use, it allowed future researchers from James Clerk Maxwell to Nikola Tesla to produce, control and study electricity. Indeed, Faradays device set the stage for the great war of the currents pitting Thomas Edison and George Westinghouse against one another.

Faradays principles have gone on to form the basis of modern electric power, making his disk generator one of the most transformative inventions ever created.

Scientific proof of the greenhouse effect dates farther back than you might think. In 1859, physicist John Tyndall demonstrated the ways in which different gases vary in their ability to absorb radiant heat.

Tyndall constructed an apparatus consisting of an infrared source, a tube of gas and an absorption detector. He filtered infrared heat through a series of different gases and discovered stark differences in heat absorption. Ozone and ethene, he found, absorbed much more radiant heat than water vapour, meaning that even small atmospheric traces of these gases could cause excess heat to be retained. We now know that greenhouse gases emitted by humans are a key cause of catastrophic global warming.

The discovery of X-rays highlights how fundamental physics can be a gateway for practical developments in engineering and technology.

In 1895, the physicist William Rntgen was experimenting with passing electrical rays through an induction coil inside a glass tube. During the research, Rntgen noticed that photographic plates near his equipment were glowing. He deduced that a physical reaction taking place inside the glass was emitting some sort of ray.

Rntgen set about studying these X-rays, and discovered that they could be used to generate images on photographic plates that captured the density of the objects exposed. To demonstrate this, he made an X-ray of his wifes hand to which she famously responded: I have seen my death! Despite their disquieting appearance, X-rays are now used for medical diagnosis and treatment.

Many great minds of science and technology were ahead of their time, and Guglielmo Marconi was no different. In the 1890s, he developed a communication system capable of transmitting messages over great distances. Using radio waves, in 1897 Marconi successfully transmitted a radio signal across open sea. Eventually, the first message reached its target location in Morse code: Can you hear me?; the response: Yes, loud and clear.

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By the dawn of the 20th century, radio communications systems could send messages across the Atlantic and beyond. Soon, Marconis technology was being used in everything from naval communications to entertainment broadcasting.

This marked one of the early steps towards a fundamental revolution in how we communicate. Everything that followed, from Skype to social media, can be traced back to Marconis vision of a more connected world.

The history of science is filled with any number of serendipitous discoveries, but few so impactful as the discovery of penicillin.

In 1928, Scottish bacteriology professor Alexander Fleming returned to his lab after several weeks away, only to discover that his petri dishes had become contaminated. Entire colonies of bacteria had been eaten away by a mould: penicillin.

Recognising the potential for the mould as an antibacterial agent, Fleming attempted to purify the substance. However, it was not until 1940 that scientists Howard Florey and Ernst Chain successfully refined penicillin into drug form. Their antibiotic became the first in a class of drugs that has since saved an estimated 200 million lives.

Hedy Lamarr the iconic Hollywood starlet of the 1940s was also an inventor, responsible for developing pioneering military technology.

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In the midst of the Second World War, Lamarr teamed up with composer George Antheil to develop an ingenious system that would prevent German forces from jamming torpedo signals and sending weapons off-course. Their frequency- hopping technique allowed missiles to switch between different radio frequencies, and so avoid detection.

While not initially accepted, the invention was exploited during the Cuban Missile Crisis, and later informed the development of GPS.

Perhaps the most important photo ever taken, Photo 51 was the missing link that allowed scientists to unpick the structure of DNA.

Created in 1952 under the supervision of British crystallographer Rosalind Franklin, Photo 51 is a diffraction image, made by firing X-rays at a sample. The resulting pattern can be used to work out the atomic structure of the sample.

In 1953, researchers James Watson and Francis Crick solved the structure of DNA, in part thanks to Franklins ground-breaking image. However, her contributions were downplayed by the pair, and she died before the Nobel prize was awarded.

Franklins work on DNA is now recognised as a vital contribution to this historical achievement.

A staple of the US space programme in the 1960s and 70s, the Saturn V successfully launched 13 separate missions, carrying hardware, crew and even Nasas first space station into the cosmos.

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The Saturn V rocket was a feat of engineering. Design began in 1961, and six years later the first launch took place, just 64 years after the Wright brothers first flight.

On 16 July 1969, SaturnV launched the Apollo 11 mission; four days later, human beings took their first steps on the Moon.

The SaturnV remains one of the most powerful machines ever built.

The story of the 4004 begins with a Japanese company looking to create a more powerful calculator. Intels engineers were commissioned to simplify the existing technology, but the project was low priority for the company; a distraction from their main area of focus, which was memory chips.

However, the engineers devised a revolutionary solution: four chips, including a central processing unit, which could be programmed to perform different functions. This was the worlds first commercially available microprocessor: a general-purpose computer chip that comprises multiple functions in a single, tiny unit. The device was rudimentary by todays standards. It contained 2,300 transistors and a 10,000 nm-wide circuit line; modern microprocessors contain hundreds of millions of transistors, and circuit lines just a few dozen nm wide. The 4004 was a key milestone of the digital age.

Many of the most perplexing mysteries awaiting scientific explanation sit within the realm of fundamental physics.

Image credit: Diomedia, Topfoto, Landmark Media, Alamy, Science Photo Library, Getty Images

A collaborative project involving 20 countries, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is the worlds most powerful particle accelerator. The machine collides proton beams, causing the particles to smash into smaller atomic particles that scientists can study, revealing the workings of nature at its most basic level.

In 2010, the facility famously discovered the Higgs boson: an elusive particle that gives matter its mass; but the LHCs work is far from done. Its researchers continue to investigate fundamental phenomena like anti-matter, gravity and dark matter.

Like all objects on this list, the LHC demonstrates humanitys innate curiosity. From star-gazing to particle collisions, the motivation is still to seek, to discover, to know.

Mary Cruses book An Illustrated History of Science: From Agriculture to Artificial Intelligence is published this month by Arcturus

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Micromotors move single cells using magnets and ultrasound – CMU The Tartan Online

§ November 17th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Micromotors move single cells using magnets and ultrasound – CMU The Tartan Online

A new type of micromotor has been developed. Directed by magnets and powered by ultrasound, these micromotors are capable of traveling across microscopic particles and cells in very crowded areas without causing any damage.

These microswimmers provide a new way to manipulate single particles with precise control and in three dimensions, without having to do special sample preparation, labeling, surface modification, said Joseph Wang, a professor of nanoengineering at University of California San Diego (USCD), in a UCSD press release.

Wang, Thomas Mallouk, a professor of chemistry at the University of Pennsylvania, and Wei Wang, professor of materials science and engineering at Harbin Institute of Technology, are credited as senior authors of a paper detailing the development of these micromotors. The study was published on Oct. 25 in Science Advances.

Researchers tested the technology by moving HeLa cells the oldest and most commonly used cell line for scientific research and silica particles in aqueous media with micromotors. They accomplished this task without damaging nearby particles and cells. In one test, the researchers were able to create letters by pushing particles with the micromotors. In another, they exerted control over the micromotors, making them climb up microscopic blocks and stairs. This test demonstrated that they were capable of navigating over three-dimensional objects.

The micromotors are essentially gold-coated hollow polymer structures that are shaped like a half capsule. Within the body of the micromotor is a tiny magnetic nickel nanoparticle, allowing them to be steered with magnets. The inside surface is treated so it can repel water, so when the micromotor is submerged in water, an air bubble is trapped inside the device. This trapped bubble is integral to the functioning of the micromotor, as it allows the micromotor to respond to ultrasound. Upon receiving ultrasound waves, the trapped bubble begins to oscillate, forming forces that give it an initial push to movement. By applying an external magnetic field, it can move continuously, while altering the direction of the field allows researchers to control the speed and trajectory of the micromotors.

We have a lot of control over the motion, unlike a chemically fueled micromotor that relies on random motion to reach its target, said Fernando Soto, a nanoengineering Ph.D. student studying at UC San Diego. Also, ultrasound and magnets are biocompatible, making this micromotor system attractive for use in biological applications.

The authors plan on making improvements to the micromotors in the coming years. For example, they want to make them more biocompatible using biodegradable polymers and a magnetic material that is less toxic, such as iron oxide. Thanks to this technology, the researchers have opened new possibilities for nanomedicine, tissue engineering, targeted drug delivery, regenerative medicine, and other applications in the field of biochemistry.

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The Value and Versatility of Clinical Flow Cytometry – Technology Networks

§ November 17th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on The Value and Versatility of Clinical Flow Cytometry – Technology Networks

What is flow cytometry and how does it work?Flow cytometry(FCM) is a scientific technique used to measure the physical and biochemical characteristics of cells.1The sample is injected into the flow cytometer instrument, where it is typically focused to flow one cell at a time past light sources and detectors. Tens of thousands of cells can be examined in seconds to determine their morphology, granularity, scattering and transmission of light, or fluorescence of biomarkers, depending on the variation of FCM used.

The first conventional fluorescence-based flow cytometer was developed and commercialized in the late 60s/early 70s in Germany.2 Over the last five decades, FCM has developed rapidly in terms of the number of its applications and the quantity and dimensionality of the data it generates.1,3 Dr. Minh Doan, formerly of the Imaging Platform of the Broad Institute (USA) and now head of Bioimaging Analytics at GlaxoSmithKline in the USA, states, There have been significant advances in all three Vs of flow cytometry data: velocity (throughput/speed of data acquisition), volume (data content), and variety (sample types and signal acquisition technology).

Michael Parsons, manager of the Flow Cytometry Core of the Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute in Toronto, Canada, agrees. The two biggest trends in flow cytometry are high content data and the merging of technologies from separate disciplines. For example, the last five years or so have seen the emergence of mass cytometry, which merges the disciplines of flow cytometry and mass spectrometry. In its latest iteration, an image cytometry module has been incorporated to generate unprecedented amounts of content (number of measured parameters) from relatively small amounts of patient tissue. Spectral flow cytometry has also established itself as an important emerging technology. Indeed, mass cytometry can now measure up to 50 features on a single cell simultaneously using antibodies tagged with rare earth metals,4 and imaging flow cytometry allows for 1000s of morphological features and multiple fluorescence markers to be analyzed per cell.3Flow cytometry, therefore, has inarguable potential as a clinical tool for disease diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic monitoring. However, some challenges remain in translating the full promise of FCM into clinical practice. Here, some of the current clinical applications of FCM will be discussed, as well as some of the compelling new applications being researched.

Similarly, FCM of liquid biopsies could be used to detect circulating tumor cells in the bloodstream.3 These cells are extremely rare, and with its high sensitivity, FCM is perfectly poised to make a significant impact in this area. This approach has potential for the clinical detection of early-stage cancer as well as the detection of circulating metastatic or drug-resistant cancer cells. For example, a study published earlier this year described label-free liquid biopsy with very high throughput (> 1 million cells/second) for drug-susceptibility testing during leukemia treatment.8

Prior to an organ transplant, FCM can be used to crossmatch the patient's serum with donor lymphocytes to detect antibodies that could result in organ rejection.1 Postoperatively, the analysis of various cell markers on the peripheral blood lymphocytes can indicate early transplant rejection, detect bone marrow toxicity arising from immunosuppressive therapies, and help differentiate infections from organ rejection. For blood transfusions, FCM can be used to detect contamination of blood with residual white blood cells, which can have adverse effects such as pulmonary edema.9Groups such as Dr. Roshini Abrahams at Nationwide Childrens Hospital in Ohio, USA, are using FCM to diagnose primary immunodeficiency disorders with the use of immunophenotyping and functional assays.10 These disorders are caused by genetic mutations that result in defects in the immune system, such as X-linked (Brutons) agammaglobulinemia and X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome. Over 300 of these disorders have been identified thus far, and the causative mutations lower immune defense against the attack of infections.

HIV is, of course, an example of a secondary (acquired) immunodeficiency disorder. FCM analysis of CD4 and other markers on lymphocytes in the peripheral blood is used to monitor the treatment of HIV patients, and a CD4 count <200 cells/mL together with a positive antibody test for HIV is used as a diagnostic for AIDS.1 Secondary immunodeficiencies can also be caused by e.g., substance abuse, malnutrition, other medical conditions, and certain medical treatments. FCM of a panel of markers can be used to confirm suspected cases.1In pregnancy, when a Rhesus blood group D-negative mother carries a D-positive fetus, fetal-maternal bleeding can sensitize the mother to the D-positive blood cells from the fetus and this can be fatal to subsequent D-positive newborns.11 FCM is used to measure the degree of fetal-maternal hemorrhage to determine the correct dose of prophylactics to be administered shortly after delivery.

In addition to oncology and immunology applications, FCM is also used to diagnose a variety of rare hematologic disorders12 as well as autoimmune/autoinflammatory disorders such as spondylarthritis (arthritis of the spine).13 Another area of research that is likely to give rise to increasing clinical applications in the future is that of platelet activity, which is important in many clinical conditions.1,14

Experts suggest that it may be possible to overcome this data analysis hurdle by applying machine learning approaches coupled with further standardization of FCM workflows.3,15 The most exciting applications of high content data revolve around the use of machine learning, in particular, deep learning, to extract relevant meaning from large data sets. Machine learning, coupled with big data, has the potential for driving diagnosis and treatment options tailored to the patients disease in a timely manner, says Dr. Parsons. In addition, Prof. Sadao Ota of RCAST at the University of Tokyo, Japan, points out, We still need to figure out how to design a workflow that convincingly validates diagnostic results, especially if the diagnosis employs the power of machine learning. Such developments are necessary before the rich information content of advanced FCM technology can be fully applied in the clinic.

In terms of other future advances in the field, Prof. Ota specifically makes mention of the potential of cell sorters combined with FCM.16 There are exciting and unique applications of sorters in fields such as cell therapy and regenerative medicine. Also, creating key applications of imaging cell sorters in pharmaceutical fields may accelerate global drug discovery. Dr. Doan concurs, Disease heterogeneity makes it hard to validate findings. Perhaps the use of flow cytometry with sorting capability can help such validation, where events-of-interest collected by flow cytometry can be validated with other downstream assays. Finally, as Dr. Doan notes, With multiple layers of data(types) incorporated altogether, there are now possibilities to do more with less, i.e., label-free sample measurement, which could lead to more direct, faster, and smarter diagnoses. Rare events (e.g., metastatic cancer cells) may soon be detected better than before.References1.Bakke A.C. Clinical Applications of Flow Cytometry. Laboratory Medicine. 2000; 31(2): 97104. doi: 10.1309/FC96-DDY4-2CRA-71FK.2.Herzenberg L.A., Parks D., Sahaf B., Perez O., Roederer M., Herzenberg L.A. The history and future of the fluorescence activated cell sorter and flow cytometry: a view from Stanford. Clinical Chemistry. 2002;48(10):181918273.Doan M., Vorobjev I., Rees P., Filby A., Wolkenhauer O., Goldfeld A.E., Lieberman J., Barteneva N., Carpenter A.E., Hennig H. Diagnostic potential of imaging flow cytometry. Trends in Biotechnology. 2018;36(7):649652. doi: 10.1016/j.tibtech.2017.12.008.4.Olsen L.R, Leipold M.D., Pedersen C.B., Maecker H.T. The anatomy of single cell mass cytometry data. Cytometry Part A. 2019;95(2):156172. doi: 10.1002/cyto.a.23621.5.Laerum O.D., Farsund T. Clinical application of flow cytometry: a review. Cytometry. 1981;2(1):113. doi: 10.1002/cyto.990020102.6.Li J., Wertheim G., Paessler M., Pillai V. Flow cytometry in pediatric hematopoietic malignancies. Clinics in Laboratory Medicine. 2017;37(4):879893. doi: 10.1016/j.cll.2017.07.009.7.Gupta S., Devidas M., Loh M.L., Raetz E.A., Chen S., Wang C., Brown P., Carroll A.J., Heerema N.A., Gastier-Foster J.M., Dunsmore K.P., Larsen E.C., Maloney K.W., Mattano L.A. Jr., Winter S.S., Winick N.J., Carroll W.L., Hunger S.P., Borowitz M.J., Wood B.L. Flow-cytometric vs. -morphologic assessment of remission in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Childrens Oncology Group (COG). Leukemia. 2018;32(6):13701379. doi: 10.1038/s41375-018-0039-7.8.Kobayashi H., Lei C., Wu Y., Huang C-J., Yasumoto A., Jona M., Li W., Wu Y., Yalikun Y., Jiang Y., Guo B., Sun C-W., Tanaka Y., Yamada M., Yatomi Y., Goda K. Intelligent whole-blood imaging flow cytometry for simple, rapid, and cost-effective drug-susceptibility testing of leukemia. Lab on a Chip. 2019;19(16):26882698. doi: 10.1039/c8lc01370e.9.Castegnaro S., Dragone P., Chieregato K., Alghisi A., Rodeghiero F., Astori G. Enumeration of residual white blood cells in leukoreduced blood products: Comparing flow cytometry with a portable microscopic cell counter. Transfusion and Apheresis Science. 2016;54(2):266270. doi: 10.1016/j.transci.2015.10.001.10.Abraham R.S., Aubert G. Flow cytometry, a versatile tool for diagnosis and monitoring of primary immunodeficiencies. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 2016;23(4):254271. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00001-16.11.Kim Y.A., Makar R.S. Detection of fetomaternal hemorrhage. American Journal of Hematology. 2012;87(4):417423. doi: 10.1002/ajh.22255.12.Bn M.C., Le Bris Y., Robillard N., Wuillme S., Fouassier M., Eveillard M. Flow cytometry in hematological nonmalignant disorders. International Journal of Laboratory Hematology. 2016;38(1):516. doi: 10.1111/ijlh.12438.13.Duan Z., Gui Y., Li C., Lin J., Gober H.J., Qin J., Li D., Wang L. The immune dysfunction in ankylosing spondylitis patients. Bioscience Trends. 2017;11(1):6976. doi: 10.5582/bst.2016.01171.14.Pasalic L. Assessment of platelet function in whole blood by flow cytometry. Methods in Molecular Biology. 2017;1646:349367. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-7196-1_27.15.Doan M., Carpenter A.E. Leveraging machine vision in cell-based diagnostics to do more with less. Nature Materials. 2019;18(5):414418. doi: 10.1038/s41563-019-0339-y.16.Ota S., Horisaki R., Kawamura Y., Ugawa M., Sato I., Hashimoto K., Kamesawa R., Setoyama K., Yamaguchi S., Fujiu K., Waki K., Noji H. Ghost cytometry. Science. 2018;360(6394):12461251. doi: 10.1126/science.aan0096.

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The Science Behind What’s Actually In Your Water, Why We Treat it, and Different Treatment Options – The Trek

§ November 17th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on The Science Behind What’s Actually In Your Water, Why We Treat it, and Different Treatment Options – The Trek

You know you should treat your water. You know there are bugs potentially floating in that water, but what exactly could be in there? When should you use a certain treatment over others? When every group of hikers around a fire includes someone insisting water treatment is unnecessary and synonymous with extra ounces, do you even need to treat your water?

Photo courtesy of @jaysonthetrail

A whole host of different little microscopic buggersbacteria, viruses, and parasitescan lead to disease. The vast majority of these disease-causing microbes (i.e., pathogens) that are carried in untreated water cause gastrointestinal upset (especially diarrhea), which can range from severe to mild. The dangers of becoming sick increase significantly when youre far from help and could quickly become severely dehydrated and incapacitated, making it difficult or impossible to rescue yourself. There are many ways these pathogens are spread, but most of the bugs were worried about in water have a favorite: the fecal-oral route. Pathogens that infect animals via the fecal-oral route have to enter your mouth and gastrointestinal tract somehow in order to cause disease. Youre most likely to get sick from someone elses dirty hiker hands contaminating a surface you touched or food you ate, contaminating your own hands with feces either directly or indirectly, or through contaminated water. Yes, you read that right: the most common source of water contamination is poo somehow getting in the water somewhere upstream from you, be it from another unwary hiker or a cute little critter.

Viruses are clumps of DNA or RNA that hijack our own cells machinery in order to replicate themselves, and are not technically alive. The viruses you may be exposed to vary significantly across the globe, but adenoviruses, astroviruses, hepatitis A and E viruses, rotaviruses, caliciviruses (like norovirus), enteroviruses (like poliovirus), polyomaviruses, and cytomegalovirus are all possibly carried in water and shed by humans and other animals either in feces or urine. While almost all of these delightful little buggers cause diarrheal illnesses, some, like polio, can cause significantly worse illness.

In general, most of us are fortunate not to encounter backcountry situations where we are at a very high risk for viral contamination. Viruses are often species specific, which means the highest risk for viruses exists where human fecal contamination is more likely. Most of the popular long trails are fortunately relatively remote from concentrated human populations and agricultural operations, and within most developed countries the sewage systems are typically adequate to prevent widespread contamination. Unlike many bacteria and protozoa, viruses tend to be more fragile, which means that without continuous contamination from something like sewage runoff, those viruses are likely to die off quickly.

This isnt to say you are immune in the backcountry, though: norovirus, or Norwalk virus, is a thru-hiker curse. While youre far more likely to contract noro from another hikers unwashed fingers in your gorp, it is spread via the (lovely) fecal-oral route and can contaminate water sources.

Giardia is often mistaken for a bacterium, but is actually a protozoan parasite. Our little single-celled friend and its common protozoan cousin, cryptosporidium (crypto), are the most common culprits of waterborne disease both in the backcountry and in general. These parasites have life cycles that require an animal host and can be carried by livestock, wild animals, and birds, as well as humans, making them far more common in the environment. Studies have indicated that 97% of surface waters were contaminated with Giardia or crypto, meaning its not just water sources around beaver habitats that require careful treatment. Both of these common protozoans are released into the environment as a dormant, immature cyst with a tough outer shell, making them very resistant to the environment and allowing them to survive for months, even in cold water. You may never know when you were infected or the water source to blame, because it can take multiple weeks for symptoms to appear and as few as ten cysts can lead to infection. Notably, it is possible to become infected from dirty water, have an active infection, and not show symptoms while still shedding infective cysts into the environment and possibly infecting others.

There are other protozoan parasites of concern beyond Giardia and crypto, most of which are more common outside of North America. Amoebic dysentery, caused by Entamoeba histololytica, is very common in South America, Africa, and Asia. Though it is a less common route of infection, people can be infected by parasitic worms, including the liver fluke Faciola hepatica, by ingesting contaminated water. Some protozoans, like those that cause schistosomiasis and the famous brain-eating amoeba Naegleria fowleri, may also be present in water sources, although they lead to infection through the skin or water entering the nose, and not by drinking dirty water.

If we consider the cells on and within our body, only about 10% of them are human cells and the rest are bacterial. Most of them are either harmless or actually provide benefits to us, like helping digest our food. Wild and domesticated animals that may live and potentially defecate upstream from water sources are often natural or asymptomatic carriers of certain bacteria, providing reservoirs for these pathogens, including well-known Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains. Unlike viruses, many bacteria have the ability to survive well in the environment.

The list of bacteria that can contaminate water sources is long, but there are some common names. Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a famous example; the identification of water contaminated with cholera bacteria causing disease was one of the earliest examples of public health and the birth of the field of epidemiology. Salmonella, an enteric bacterium youve probably heard of, lives in the intestines of most animals. Most Salmonella strains only cause mild gastrointestinal illness, but the family also includes Salmonella typhi, the causative agent of typhoid fever. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common food and waterborne pathogens, and youve probably heard of Escherichia coli before. Most strains of E. coli are completely harmless, with many strains even being beneficial to our health, living in our intestines and helping us process food, or producing insulin in laboratories for diabetic patients. Of those strains that are pathogenic, most produce only mild illness. Some bacteria, however, like the ever-famous E. coli O157:H7 and strains of Shigella, can cause severe illness and even death by producing harmful toxins, including Shiga toxin. These toxins attack cells in the intestine, leading to bloody or watery diarrhea and a fever, and resulting in bacterial dysentery, in case you were hoping to re-enact the Oregon Trail video game IRL.

There are, of course, other things beside pathogens in water that you might be concerned about. The risk of these contaminants is growing as agriculture and industry encroach on public lands and climate change alters habitats, but youre still pretty unlikely to encounter these pollutants in any concerning concentration or without sufficient warning. Cyanobacteria blooms (i.e., blue-green algae) have become more common, and there is concern for more frequent blooms due to climate change. Cyanobacteria release a toxin into the water it grows in (cyanotoxin), which is what makes you or your pets sick if it is accidentally consumed. Agricultural and industrial run-off may contain harmful chemicals like fertilizer, pesticides, and runoff from mining. Some water sources may leach metals and other minerals from underground; this concern exists primarily with hot springs. Most of these contaminants significantly alter water color, smell, or taste when they are in concentrations high enough to make you sick. It should be noted that the tea-like coloring common in backcountry water sources is likely due to tannins from decaying foliage, and is safe to consume.

Just like a coffee filter keeps those grounds in place while making your morning brew, a mesh of very tiny pores is inside your backcountry filter, preventing bacteria and protozoa from sneaking through into your bottle. Filters with pores small enough to remove microbes are measured in microns or micrometers (one millionth of a millimeter), sometimes written as m. For functional purposes, there are no differences between squeeze, pump, and gravity style filters, and choosing between these styles is simply personal preference.

To give you a better understanding of how these filters work, lets compare sizes (no, not like that). Protozoan parasites like Giardia are 2 6 microns, while most bacteria range from 0.2 2.0 microns (Campylobacter jejuni is only 0.2 microns wide). The best backcountry filters will have 0.1 micron pores (this information should be written on the packaging and in the online description), which will exclude all of those nasty bacteria and protozoa and provide impressive protection in locations where viruses are not a concern. 0.5 micron and 1.0 micron filters are still common. Theyll do the job against protozoa like Giardia and some concerning bacteria, but theyre not going to fully protect against the most common bacterial contaminants.

Your filter cannot do everything, however. It isnt entirely true to say that viruses cannot be filtered, but the most common viruses range from 0.02 0.3 microns in size, which means the vast majority of them slip right through the pores of standard filters. Filters with pores small enough to remove viruses are often impractical in the backcountry, as it is difficult to push water through the small pores, especially if the total filter size is small to reduce carried weight, and they become clogged very easily with tiny pieces of debris. There are special filtration systems that use something called electroabsorption to trap viruses as well as other harmful pollutants, but they are still a novel technology and pose similar issues with durability and ease of use at this time. Your basic backcountry filter will also not remove chemical pollutants, including chemical runoff from agricultural systems or those chemicals that cause poor water taste, or toxins like the Shiga toxin produced by EHEC or Shigella bacteria.

Who among us hasnt used a filter for over 2,000 miles, backflushed it maybe twice, and then proceeded to sling it into a dark box when the trip was over? Filters may seem nearly idiot proof, but they are subject to failure if they are treated poorly. There are two main things you should be concerned about with your filter. If you push debris through, especially if done forcefully, it can rip the many tiny fibers inside that compose the filter and cause the pores to enlarge. Remember, this applies both to debris in the water your filtering and debris that may have built up on the filter over time. It is also possible for trapped bacteria to grow inside the filter and inundate it, forcing pores open as they grow and compromising the filter. Pre-filtering, with a bandana for example, can reduce the risk that debris will damage your filter, and regular backflushing can remove built-up debris inside the filter. Especially before your filter is about to sit forlornly in your gear storage, it is a good idea to sanitize it to kill any bacteria that might be present, which will prevent bacterial overgrowth and help kill anything that may have contaminated the clean water side accidentally. It is always best to follow manufacturers instructions; Sawyer recommends sanitizing your filter with a bleach (sodium hypochlorite) solution. Bonus: All of these actions will also prolong the life of your filter. Dropping or otherwise subjecting your filter to blunt trauma and freezing it are also possible causes of damage, though obviously much harder to fix. If you suspect your filter has been damaged, replace it.

If youve spent any time at all in the backcountry, youre probably familiar with chemical treatment like Aquamira. There are a few different options available to hikers, with some important differences. Chemical treatments applied correctly will kill protozoa, bacteria, and viruses in a light, simple, cheap package, and are available commercially or can be made at home.

There are some downsides to chemical treatment, however. You are limited to the amount of product you have with youif it runs out, or you spill it, you may be SOL. Many of the chemicals will react with the air once opened and need to be thrown away after a period of time as they will become ineffectivealways label your chemical of choice clearly with the date of first use. Silt, leaves, and other detritus in water can be gross to drink, but even in small amounts it also provides a nice little hiding spot for microbes, which means dirty water may not be effectively purified by chemical treatments as they are typically applied, making pre-filtering very important. Chemical treatments also have a fairly long wait time, often 30 or more minutes before water can be safely used, which can be frustrating when youve been out of water for the past five miles in draining heat and humidity and you just want a fricking drink. These chemicals take longer to react in cold water, which can increase this wait time, even causing it to double. Contact time is an often overlooked but rather major component of chemical treatments. Most chemical treatments are oxidants, which work by eating away the cell wall of cells or disrupting their metabolism, like affecting their DNA or their ability to move nutrients across their membrane. These treatments work by breaking down the bodies of microbes, meaning they need enough time to do their job, especially on those tougher bugs with tougher shells.

IodineIodine is an effective chemical treatment, but is a less popular option, as many people dislike using it due to its taste. Unfortunately, cryptosporidium oocysts are highly resistant to iodine, even with prolonged contact time and you should not consider it an effective treatment against crypto. Iodine in liquid and tablet form is light sensitive and will degrade when exposed to light, so dont swap your tablets into a clear plastic baggie, and try to reduce how long the lid is open.

ChlorineWhile chlorine also adds a flavor to water, it is much more familiar with the ubiquity of chlorine and chloramine in the treatment of household water, and therefore less off-putting. Because elemental chlorine is highly reactive, it is far more stable when bundled in a compound, and there are actually a few different compounds that contain chlorine that are useful for water treatment. Halazone is an older treatment that has lost popularity, and sodium dichlorisocyanurate is a very popular disinfectant worldwide, though less common in backpacking setups. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a popular chemical treatment option and is readily available at outdoor retailers; it is one of the most effective forms of chlorine for disinfection. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) or calcium hypochlorite (CaOCl) are the chlorine compounds most commonly present in household bleach, which means this is the compound you will be using if you make a DIY water treatment from household bleach. Be careful to inspect the label on the bottle to confirm it contains one of the above compounds, and double check the concentration on the bottle as it varies. Unfortunately, Giardia can be and crypto is also resistant to chlorine, especially in colder water.

Silver ionsSilver ions are a newer tool in our backpackers chemical toolbelt, but have proven effective across the range of pathogens we have discussed, including both Giardia and crypto. Silver itself has a long history of antibacterial properties and uses across health and medicine (basically, pathogens are also werewolves). Some people may have concerns about the possible long term health effects of silver, but these risks are likely mitigated by the relatively infrequent use of silver ions by backpackers.

Boiling kills viruses, parasites, and bacteria, which is pretty great. It will even deactivate toxins produced by bacteria that escape other forms of treatment. Its basically a one-stop shop for water treatment. While most of us know that boiling our water is an effective way to treat it, many dont know that water needs to be kept at a roiling boil for at least 60 seconds before it is safe to consume. Those of you waiting for the first sign of bubbles to drop in your Idahoans could be putting yourself at risk. If youve ever boiled water to treat it before, youll know those are a long 60 seconds; I highly recommend setting a timer.

The biggest downsides to boiling is that it requires you to carry a stove. Some backpackers might be limited by the volume of their pot, which can become time-consuming, and of course the water has to be cooled before it is drinkable or can be transferred into a plastic water bottle. Boiling will also not remove any chemical contaminants, and can actually make them more concentrated in your water because some of the water evaporates, but the chemicals stay behind.

While some of the wavelengths given off by a UV bulb appear purple, ultraviolet light itself is a wavelength of light that is invisible to the human eye, and can be an effective microbe killer. It works by penetrating into cells and scrambling their DNA just like UV rays from the sun increase our risk of skin cancer because they damage our own cells DNA and, if the wrong sections of DNA are damaged, leads to abnormal cellular replication. UV can unfortunately be very finicky and inefficient in practice.

Just like chemical treatments, it is super important that you follow the directions with ultraviolet light. The tiny lamps used in backcountry apparatuses are small and sufficient UV light for microbe murder only extends so far from the lamp. UV lamp manufacturers provide specifications for the containers that you can treat in, and this should be followed nearly exactly. If, for example, you use a very tall bottle, it is possible that only the top of the bottle will be sufficiently treated and the water near the bottom will remain a happy little home for your waterborne germs. Further, particulates in the water, cloudiness, or color that even a pre-filter might not be able to remove such as tannins, will significantly affect the viability of the UV purifier. UV is much quicker than chemical treatments, but contact time is still very important. Most devices on the market have built in timers for their cycles, and many specify the need for multiple cycles for larger volumes of water.

Anecdotally, Ive encountered more than a few hikers who were pretty squicked out by the reality of UV treatments: the pathogens in your water might have had their DNA scrambled so that they cannot reproduce and cause infection, but many are still alive for all intents and purposes and their microscopic bodies are still floating around in your drinking water. If that idea bugs you (pun intended), this might not be the treatment option for you. UV systems also face issues with battery life (especially in cold weather), the need to carry around extra batteries in general, and durability, which should be considered when purchasing a system.

None of the above methods can remove chemical contaminants, however. Carbon works by a process known as adsorption, which is basically fancy speak for drawing in and trapping chemicals in large pores in its structure. Carbon filters are fairly uncommon in the backcountry, as chemical pollutants are still a low risk for backpackers and of minimal concern, and our bodies are pretty impressive at processing low concentrations of many, many harmful substances. The EPA, FDA, and other regulating organizations have certain thresholds for pollutants that they consider concerning and it is only above these levels that physical harm is likely to occur. An activated carbon filter is especially effective against things like chlorine, pesticides, and certain fertilizers, but it will not remove all chemicals (harmful minerals and salts, for example) and is not effective against pathogens. Again, it is important that you do your due diligence to determine if it will remove the pollutants of concern in the area you will be treating water from. It should also be noted that carbon filters have short lives as the carbon must be active in order to bind to the chemicals you may be concerned about; these filters should be replaced within six months of being activated by their first use.

The two biggest questions when picking a form of water treatment are what are the risks in the area Im going to and what is the level of risk Im personally comfortable with? The ideal water treatment is twofold, using filtration first to remove particulates and large pathogens from your water, and then either chemicals, UV, or boiling to treat anything left behind after filtration. Many people consider this overkill, however, including in the North American backcountry, where concern for viruses is very low and trumped quickly by convenience and weight savings.

In almost all instances, I would recommend a treatment that will handle protozoan parasites (Giardia, in particular) given just how ubiquitous they are in the backcountry. If you are traveling somewhere where human or animal waste runoff is more likely, a treatment that will be effective against viruses is definitely a good idea. This is especially true if youre traveling to countries that already have warnings about their water; if youre urged to drink bottled water only, for example, there is a strong concern for viral contamination. Additionally, some people are more at risk for waterborne illnesses than others and may warrant a more aggressive approach to water treatment. If you or someone in your group is immunocompromised in any way, a young child, or elderly, they may become sick easier, and may have more harmful complications from these aquatic germs than the average, healthy young adult.

Ultimately, water treatment is a very personal preference. Within the categories above, there are multiple products that function a bit differently, are more or less hardy, and may just be more attractive than another to carry for one reason or another. In the end, be safe, be smart, and spend some time doing your research.

Further Resources:

Marshall, M. M., Naumovitz, D., Ortega, Y. & Sterling, C. R. Waterborne protozoan pathogens. Clin Microbiol Rev 10, 6785 (1997).

Badar, M., Khokhar, I., Batool, F., Iqbal, R. & Ch, Y. Effect of boiling on removing of shiga toxins from drinking water samples. in (2017).

Giardia: Drinking Water Fact Sheet | EPA

Photoreactivation an overview | ScienceDirect Topics.

Jarroll, E. L., Bingham, A. K. & Meyer, E. A. Effect of chlorine on Giardia lamblia cyst viability. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 41, 483487 (1981).

Shin, G.-A. & Sobsey, M. D. Inactivation of norovirus by chlorine disinfection of water. Water Res. 42, 45624568 (2008).

Guide to Water Purification | Outdoor Action

Rasooly, R. & Do, P. M. Shiga toxin Stx2 is heat-stable and not inactivated by pasteurization. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 136, 290294 (2010).

CDC. E. coli and Food Safety. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2019).

Campylobacter (Campylobacteriosis) | Campylobacter | CDC (2019).

Boil Water Response Information for the Public Health Professional

Bad Backcountry Water: Giardia, Crypto, Bacteria, Viruses

Rusiol, G. Summary of Excreted and Waterborne Viruses. Global Water Pathogen Project (2015).

Giardia infection (giardiasis) Symptoms and causes. Mayo Clinic

Gall, A. M., Marias, B. J., Lu, Y. & Shisler, J. L. Waterborne Viruses: A Barrier to Safe Drinking Water. PLoS Pathog 11, (2015).

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Air pollution kills more than 20,500 people every year in the UK – Yahoo Style

§ November 17th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Air pollution kills more than 20,500 people every year in the UK – Yahoo Style

Microscopic particles released in vehicle emissions may get "lodged" in our lungs. [Photo: Getty]

Air pollution kills more than 20,500 people every year in the UK, research suggests.

Scientists behind a new Lancet report reveal microscopic particles released in vehicle emissions cause tens of thousands of Britons to die too soon.

Known as particulate matter (PM), the substances float unseen in the atmosphere.

Particles smaller than 2.5m (PM2.5) - 400th of a millimetre - are thought to be particularly damaging due to them getting lodged in the lungs.

Inhaling the microscopic particles has been linked to everything from allergies and lung dysfunction to heart disease and even death,according to a government report.

READ MORE:Protecting yourself against air pollution

PM2.5 comes about from the burning of coal and other fossil fuels for electricity, transport and household heating, the scientists wrote in the 2019 Lancet Countdown on health and climate change report.

Between 2016 and 2018, carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels rose by 2.6%.

On a global scale, exposure to PM2.5 is the largest environmental risk factor for premature mortality.

Inhaling these microscopic substances is said to have caused 2.9 million people worldwide to die too soon from cardiovascular or respiratory diseases in 2016 alone.

Of these, more than 440,000 deaths are thought to have been down to coal.

And children may be particularly vulnerable.

More than 90% of youngsters are said to be exposed to PM2.5 levels above the World Health Organizations safe limit.

This has been linked to lung damage, reduced organ growth and pneumonia.

In later life, exposed youngsters may be more at risk of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

READ MORE:Air pollution triggers over 100 cardiac arrests a year

Children are nearer to a vehicles exhaust, report author Dr Nicholas Watts, from University College London, said.

Their lungs are developing.

Air pollution affects surfactants in the alveoli, which could reduce their breathing capacity by 10-to-12%.

Alveoli are tiny sacs in the lungs where gas exchange takes place.

The damage done in childhood is persistent and pervasive, with health consequences lasting for a lifetime, Dr Watts added.

In terms of heart health, air pollution like PM2.5 can cause the blood vessel walls to narrow and harden,according to the British Heart Foundation.

It may also restrict blood vessel movement, leading to hypertension.

And evidence suggests inhaling PM2.5 could make blood more likely to clot and disrupt the hearts electrical rhythm.

We treat patients who have strokes, heart attacks and life-threatening asthma caused by the toxic air we breathe, Dr Sandy Robertson, from the Royal College of Emergency Medicine, said.

But it may not all be bad news.

Renewable energy made up 45% of the total growth in power generation last year.

Low-carbon electricity also accounted for a third of the total electricity generated worldwide in 2016.

And electricity as fuel for road transport grew by almost a third between 2015 and 2016 in the UK.

If the world meets the Paris Agreement targets, a child born in the UK today could see coal replaced with solar and wind energy by their sixth birthday.

And by their 31st birthday, they could be living in a net-zero emission world.

Chris Large, senior partner atGlobal Action Plan, recommends people protect themselves by checking the daily air pollution forecast in their area.

In the UK,the Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs(DEFRA) allows people to look up the level of nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and PM in their region.

DEFRA colour codes pollutant levels according to a low or high risk.

On days when its higher than average, pregnant women and those with heart or lung conditions are advised to reduce their outdoor exercise,Mr Large previously told Yahoo UK.

Story continues

Its quite rare its that bad; maybe five-to-10 days a year.

READ MORE:5 things you didnt realise air pollution could impact

Day-to-day, people can reduce their exposure by avoiding busy roads where possible.

Taking the back street can reduce the pollution someone is exposed to by 50%, Mr Large said.

Perhaps surprisingly, opting to walk rather than drive can also lower the amount of emissions a person inhales.

Air pollution in a car is often much higher than walking or cycling; sometimes its 10 times higher, Mr Large said.

You think if youre inside youre protected but the pollution comes in from the vehicle in fronts exhaust pipe and it builds up because there is no open air.

In our homes, Mr Large recommends we keep the air circulating as much as possible.

Use the extractor fan, even if cooking from a gas or electric hob, he said.

Pollutants come off the hob surface.

While we may not want to hear it, everyday items like candles, air fresheners and hairspray also pollute our homes.

I dont want to say never use a candle ever again, but it is a source of indoor air pollution, Mr Large said.

Use them sparingly and cautiously.

To prevent poor air building up, he also recommends we keep windows open during quieter times of the day.

If you are next to a busy road, its probably best not to open the window during rush hour, Mr Large said.

Wait until the traffic has died down and use windows that face away from busy roads.

Changing our diet may also enable us to better fight off air pollution exposure.

Fruits and vegetables contain antioxidants, which protect against air pollution, Dr Heather Walton, from Kings College London, previously told Yahoo UK.

Its not formally proven but its a good idea.

Youre also probably more susceptible if you already have a health problem, so avoid fat in your diet to protect against heart disease.

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NanoRobotics Market to Record Rise in Incremental Opportunity During the Forecast Period 2017 2026 – Crypto Journal

§ November 17th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on NanoRobotics Market to Record Rise in Incremental Opportunity During the Forecast Period 2017 2026 – Crypto Journal

According to Stratistics MRC, the Global Nanorobotics Market is accounted for $4.10 Billion in 2017 and is expected to reach $11.88 Billion by 2026 growing at a CAGR of 12.5% during the forecast period. Growing application of nanotechnology and regenerative medicine, rising acceptance and preferment of entrepreneurship and increasing investments by government and universities are the key factors fuelling the market growth. However, high manufacturing cost may hinder the growth of the market.

Nanorobotics is an evolving technology arena that creates robots or machines which have machinery near to the scale of a nanometre (109 meters). It denotes the nanotechnology engineering regulation of planning, designing, and building nanorobots, primarily from molecular components. Nanorobotics is an attractive new field, especially in medicine, which focus on directed drug delivery using nanoscale molecular machines.

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By Type, Nanomanipulator is expected to hold considerable market growth during the forecast period. Nanomanipulator is a specialized nanorobot and microscopic viewing system for working with objects on an extremely small scale. Nanomanipulators are mainly used to influence the atoms and molecules and were among the first nanorobotic systems to be commercially accessible. By geography, Europe dominated the highest market share due to rising aging population and rising governmental healthcare expenditure.

Some of the key players in Nanorobotics include Bruker, JEOL, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Ginkgo Bioworks, Oxford Instruments, EV Group, Imina Technologies, Toronto Nano Instrumentation, Klocke Nanotechnik, Kleindiek Nanotechnik, Xidex, Synthace, Park Systems, Smaract and Nanonics Imaging

Types Covered: Nanomanipulator Magnetically Guided Bacteria-Based Bio-Nanorobotics

Applications Covered: Biomedical Nanomedicine Mechanical Other Applications

Regions Covered: North Americao USo Canadao Mexico Europeo Germanyo UKo Italyo Franceo Spaino Rest of Europe Asia Pacifico Japano Chinao Indiao Australiao New Zealando South Koreao Rest of Asia Pacific South Americao Argentinao Brazilo Chileo Rest of South America Middle East & Africao Saudi Arabiao UAEo Qataro South Africao Rest of Middle East & Africa

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What our report offers: Market share assessments for the regional and country level segments Market share analysis of the top industry players Strategic recommendations for the new entrants Market forecasts for a minimum of 9 years of all the mentioned segments, sub segments and the regional markets Market Trends (Drivers, Constraints, Opportunities, Threats, Challenges, Investment Opportunities, and recommendations) Strategic recommendations in key business segments based on the market estimations Competitive landscaping mapping the key common trends Company profiling with detailed strategies, financials, and recent developments Supply chain trends mapping the latest technological advancements

Free Customization Offerings:All the customers of this report will be entitled to receive one of the following free customization options: Company Profilingo Comprehensive profiling of additional market players (up to 3)o SWOT Analysis of key players (up to 3) Regional Segmentationo Market estimations, Forecasts and CAGR of any prominent country as per the clients interest (Note: Depends of feasibility check) Competitive Benchmarkingo Benchmarking of key players based on product portfolio, geographical presence, and strategic alliances

Browse more detail information about this report visit at:https://www.trendsmarketresearch.com/report/analysis/SMRC/nanorobotics-market

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Triple Negative Breast Cancer Treatment Market Rapid Industrialization To Boost Growth By 2018 to 2026 – Zebvo

§ November 17th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Triple Negative Breast Cancer Treatment Market Rapid Industrialization To Boost Growth By 2018 to 2026 – Zebvo

Ongoing advancements in cancer research continue to lead to the introduction of newer and better treatment options including drug therapies. The provision of newer drugs and treatments is expected to improve the diagnostic and treatment rate for triple-negative breast cancer. Some of the recent clinical efforts are being targeted at the molecular level characterization of triple-negative breast cancer across emerging therapeutic targets such as epigenetic proteins, PARP1, androgen receptors, receptor and non-receptor tyrosine kinases, and immune checkpoints. These initiatives are anticipated to boost revenue growth of the triple-negative breast cancer treatment market. In a new research study, Persistence Market Research estimates the globaltriple-negative breast cancer treatment marketrevenue to cross US$ 720 Mn by 2026 from an estimated valuation of just under US$ 505 Mn in 2018. This is indicative of a CAGR of 4.7% during the period 2018 to 2026.

Development of generics is another key opportunity area in the triple-negative breast cancer treatment market. With the rapidly expanding number of cancer cases across the world, there is a need for effective cancer management, including the provision of better and more efficient drugs. Developing economies are faced with challenges on several fronts including paucity of funds and lack of proper treatment options, calling for more innovative approaches to affordable healthcare. The availability of biosimilars and affordable generic anti-cancer drugs in developing regions is expected to significantly reduce the burden of cancer care. A projected cost reduction to the tune of more than 30% 40% and extended use of generic drugs is expected to reduce overall cancer treatment costs, thereby increasing the treatment rate for triple-negative breast cancer. This is further anticipated to create lucrative growth opportunities in the global triple-negative breast cancer treatment market.

Advances in Cancer Treatment and Introduction of Innovative Cancer Treatment Drugs to Boost Revenue Growth of the Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Treatment Market

Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in women, and over the years, pharmaceutical and life sciences companies have been conducting advanced research and development activities to devise newer treatment options and drugs to treat breast cancer. Several new drug formulations are currently in the pipeline in different stages of clinical development and this is expected to bode well for the triple-negative breast cancer treatment market. Innovation in oncology therapeutics has shifted focus towards an outcome based approach to cancer care, with an increasing emphasis on combination drugs and newer therapeutic modalities. This is further likely to put the global triple-negative breast cancer treatment market on a positive growth trajectory in the coming years.

Combination Therapy and Advancements in Nano Medicine Research Trending the Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Treatment Market

One of the biggest trends being observed in the global market for triple-negative breast cancer treatment is the shift towards combination therapy. Companies in the global triple-negative breast cancer treatment market are conducting clinical trials for combination therapies by collaborating with other players in the market. Combination therapies are the latest innovation in the field of oncology and the combination of therapeutic drugs with chemotherapy is said to be an effective protocol for the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer.

Another huge trend in the triple-negative breast cancer treatment market is the emergence of nanotechnology as an efficient tool in the clinical management of critical diseases such as triple-negative breast cancer. It has been observed that the combination of gold nanoparticles and folic acid results in higher cell entry rate in both in-vitro and in-vivo models, indicative of the fact that folate receptors are effective targeted therapies for the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer. Nanoparticles facilitate systematic and efficient delivery of drugs and agents to the site of the tumor. Advanced R&D in nanotechnology and nano medicine is one of the top trends likely to impact the global triple-negative breast cancer treatment market in the years to come.

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