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Microscopic colitis Disease Reference Guide –

§ November 10th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Microscopic colitis Disease Reference Guide –

Medically reviewed by Last updated on Oct 23, 2019.

Microscopic colitis is an inflammation of the large intestine (colon) that causes persistent watery diarrhea. The disorder gets its name from the fact that it's necessary to examine colon tissue under a microscope to identify it, since the tissue may appear normal with a colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy.

There are different subtypes of microscopic colitis:

Researchers believe collagenous (kuh-LAYJ-uh-nus) colitis and lymphocytic colitis may be different phases of the same condition. Symptoms, testing and treatment are the same for all subtypes.

The colon, also called the large intestine, is a long, tubelike organ in your abdomen. The colon carries waste to be expelled from the body.

Signs and symptoms of microscopic colitis include:

The symptoms of microscopic colitis can come and go frequently. Sometimes the symptoms resolve on their own.

If you have watery diarrhea that lasts more than a few days, contact your doctor so that your condition can be diagnosed and properly treated.

It's not clear what causes the inflammation of the colon found in microscopic colitis. Researchers believe that the causes may include:

Risk factors for microscopic colitis include:

Some research studies indicate that using certain medications may increase your risk of microscopic colitis. But not all studies agree.

Medications that may be linked to the condition include:

Most people are successfully treated for microscopic colitis. The condition does not increase your risk of colon cancer.

A complete medical history and physical examination can help determine whether other conditions, such as celiac disease, may be contributing to your diarrhea.

Your doctor will also ask about any medications you are taking particularly aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others), naproxen sodium (Aleve), proton pump inhibitors, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) which may increase your risk of microscopic colitis.

To help confirm a diagnosis of microscopic colitis, you may have one or more of the following tests and procedures:

Flexible sigmoidoscopy. This procedure is similar to a colonoscopy, but rather than viewing the entire colon, a flexible sigmoidoscopy allows your doctor to view the inside of the rectum and most of the sigmoid colon about the last 2 feet (61 centimeters) of the large intestine.

The doctor uses a slender, flexible, lighted tube (sigmoidoscope) to examine the intestinal lining. A tissue sample can be taken through the scope during the exam.

Because intestinal issues often appear normal in microscopic colitis, a definite diagnosis of microscopic colitis requires a colon tissue sample (biopsy) obtained during a colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy. In both subtypes of microscopic colitis, cells in colon tissue have a distinct appearance under the microscope, so the diagnosis is definite.

In addition to a colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy, you may have one or more of these tests to rule out other causes for your symptoms.

During a flexible sigmoidoscopy exam, the doctor inserts a sigmoidoscope into your rectum to check for abnormalities in your lower colon.

During a colonoscopy, the doctor inserts a colonoscope into your rectum to check for abnormalities in your entire colon.

Microscopic colitis may get better on its own. But when symptoms persist or are severe, you may need treatment to relieve them. Doctors usually try a stepwise approach, starting with the simplest, most easily tolerated treatments.

Treatment usually begins with changes to your diet and medications that may help relieve persistent diarrhea. Your doctor may recommend that you:

If signs and symptoms persist, your doctor may recommend:

When the symptoms of microscopic colitis are severe, and medications aren't effective, your doctor may recommend surgery to remove all or part of your colon. Surgery is rarely needed to treat microscopic colitis.

Changes to your diet may help relieve diarrhea that you experience with microscopic colitis. Try to:

The following information will help you prepare for your appointment, and understand what to expect from your doctor.

Examples of questions you may want to ask your doctor include:

If you do not understand something, dont hesitate to ask questions.

Be ready to answer questions your doctor is likely to ask you:

You may find some relief from persistent diarrhea by making changes to your diet:

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10 Natural Remedies For Microscopic Colitis

§ November 9th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on 10 Natural Remedies For Microscopic Colitis

Microscopic colitis is the inflammation of colon. Unlike Ulcerative colitis or Crohns disease, the disease requires microscopic evaluation of colon to confirm its presence. The symptoms consist of diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, nausea and fatigue.

10 Natural Remedies For Microscopic Colitis

Microscopic colitis is largely a gastrointestinal tract disease and the natural remedies used is either to treat the disease or to reduce the side effects of the disease and will have to act in the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, the natural remedies would be such that to reduce the inflammation or to reduce the deposition of collagen. Also, the food incorporated in the diet chart should be non-irritating to the gastrointestinal tract. Following are the 10 natural remedies which can be used in the management of microscopic colitis:

Boswellia Serrata: One of the major reasons for microscopic colitis is the autoimmune interaction. It leads to the inflammation in the colon area in both collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis. Boswellia serrata is used as a natural healer against the inflammation. The mechanism of Boswellia serrata is to inhibit the production of 5-lipooxygenase and the formation of leukotrienes. Boswellia serrata also inhibits the action of topoisomerase I and II.

Probiotics: Probiotics also plays a major role in the management of the colitis and its related symptoms such as diarrhea. The probiotics are known to modulate the immune system which reduces the inflammation and finally the reduction in the symptoms. Although, the physician will recommend the probiotics in the prescription, but the patient may also take the natural source of probiotics such as curd.

Kefir: Kefir is the fermented milk drink which is made by yeast or bacterial fermentation of kefir grains. If the probiotic pills prescribed by the doctor do not work, the patient may supplement himself with the kefir. Kefir is known to reduce the symptoms of colitis such as diarrhea.

Killing The Infection: Infection is also a probable cause of colitis which leads to inflammation of colon. There are various natural ingredients available that helps in reducing the infection of colon. These may include either the higher dose of probiotic or other ingredients that have antimicrobial action. Honey, ginger or pineapple can be considered.

Non-Irritant Diet: The predigested non-irritant diet is required so as to provide rest to the already stressed GIT. The diet should be low fiber and low fat, includes plenty of liquids to compensate for the loss due to diarrhea and easily digestible food.

Healing Inflammation: There are various natural ingredients that helps in reducing the inflammation of colitis. These may include Aloe Vera or L-glutamine. They also help in fast healing of the tissues.

Supplementation: Colitis may reduce the capacity of the GIT in absorbing the vitamins and minerals available in the food that further leads to the complexity of symptoms. Thus, to compensate for this loss, patient may take over-the-counter vitamin and mineral supplements.

Antioxidants: In the absence of antioxidants, the free radical aggregates in the body and starts damaging the tissues. Also, the absence of antioxidants reduces the rate of healing of tissues. Natural antioxidants such as Co-enzyme Q10 and pycnogenol can be recommended to the patients.

Lifestyle: There are various lifestyle disorders that have a negative impact on colitis. These disorders include eating spicy food, smoking and drinking. These things should be avoided for faster healing and reduction of symptoms.

Frequency of Meals: As the absorption mechanism of the GIT is already compromised in colitis, the heavy meals may lead to further aggravate the symptoms. Thus, it is advised to take smaller meals at regular intervals.


Microscopic colitis is caused due to the inflammation in the colon and deposition of collagen in the wall. This disease is not diagnosed through imaging techniques rather the tissue is withdrawn, and a biopsy is done. Apart form normal therapy, various natural remedies are available that helps in healing the disease or subsiding the symptoms.

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Natural Treatment for Microscopic Colitis: Kefir! Scary …

§ November 7th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Natural Treatment for Microscopic Colitis: Kefir! Scary …

Microscopic colitis has no known cure, and treatments include natural and pharmaceutical.

However, treatment for microscopic colitis is hit or miss, and often nothing works to alleviate symptoms.

If you want to go the natural route with microscopic colitis treatment, I urge you to try kefir.

This is a probiotic drink but wait perhaps youve already tried probiotics in pill form to naturally treat your microscopic colitis. And they probably had no effect whatsoever. Dont let this fool you!

I have microscopic colitis have had a few major bouts and they did not respond at all to probiotics in pill form.

Howeverevery time I drank Kefir for more than a few days, the symptoms just about cleared up. This beverage is yogurt in drinkable form.

Its thick like a milkshake and comes in different flavors. However, Ive been drinking only the plain.

Flavored varieties contain more sugars, and for all we know, this can interfere with the treatment process.

First try the plain kefir. Drink two cups (about 16 ounces) a day. No more. No less, though I have not yet experimented with how effective less might be.

When on Kefir, I hardly had any diarrhea, and my stools looked closer to normal.

They were not as dispersable, and contained noticeably less undigested food matter. The stool color was often normal, and so was the caliber, shape and solidity.

Whats also important to me was that there was a reduction in undigested food in my stools.

Its good to know that when I eat almonds, which are very healthy, that most arent passing right through me.

When I stopped drinking kefir, the symptoms of microscopic colitis returned: in my case, diarrhea nearly daily, at times twice a day, and lots of undigested food in my stools.

Id go back on the probiotic drink, and these symptoms practically disappeared.

The reason Id been on and off kefir is because, among a few other reasons, I wanted to prepare for a food sensitivity test, and wanted the microscopic colitis to be more in progress so that the stool sample could reflect it for the analysis.

Thus, I went off it for a week. The first time I went off the kefir was because I thought the microscopic colitis has spontaneously resolved.

What I didnt realize was that the kefir had seemingly subdued it. Not long after quitting the beverage, the symptoms returned.

Within several days of resuming kefir, the symptoms again subsided. This cycle has happened several times now, and it cant be coincidence.

In conclusion, start drinking kefir today as part of your natural treatment for microscopic colitis, which, I might add, cannot be diagnosed with certainty unless youve had a colonoscopy and tissue samples from your large colon are taken for analysis via microscope.

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What Is The Role Of Microscope In Healthcare Field? – New …

§ October 29th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on What Is The Role Of Microscope In Healthcare Field? – New …

What is the relationship between microscopes and healthcare field? What is the importance of magnification in medical field? Why microscopy plays a very important role in the medical industry? These are the questions, many people may ask.Microscopes are the magnifying or observing instruments that can help in seeing those objects that are too small to see from naked eyes. However, answer to all above-mentioned questions is the use of this magnifying instrument in different areas of medical industry. It is used mainly in:

Surgery In surgical procedure, microscopes are used to get better magnification. In surgeries of orthopedic, gynecological, ophthalmology, oral, neurosurgery, plastic and pediatric etc., it becomes important to get better view of cells and tissues of operating area. Some types of this magnifying tool also come with features like illumination to increase the resolution of image.

Dental To get better knowledge of dental problems, proper magnification is needed. This is why, dentists use observation equipment to diagnose problems in teeth. Dentists can easily detect problems with the help of this observing equipment. The success level of treatment increases with magnification. It also helps patients in understanding the problems in their teeth. Without proper resolution, there are chances that dentist can miss cracks etc.

ENT Ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialists use magnifying tools to get better resolution in treatment. During surgeries, they increase the level of safety for patients, since surgeon can see well. Some of these magnifying tools are available with the features like illumination, enhances magnification etc. These features just increase the experience and resolution for healthcare professionals.

OBGN Observation equipment are also used in the field of OB-GYN. This observation equipment is used in surgeries, tests, and treatments.

Laboratories In healthcare field, microscopes are not only used in surgeries or treatments, but also in medical laboratories. In healthcare related labs, magnifying tools are used to observe cell, tissues, bacteria, viruses etc. Good magnification helps in researches done on microorganisms. It helps in seeing the behavior of viruses, so that their cures can be developed. It also helps in locating problems in cells.

In the labs of healthcare centers like hospitals, clinics or nursing homes, magnifying tools are used to observe specimen, which are taken from patients. Observation equipment like seiler microscopes are widely used in healthcare field.

The use of microscopes in healthcare industry not only increases the level of success of treatment, but also increases skills of medical professionals. With better resolution, surgeon or dentists etc., can perform better treatments. It also helps in finding cause and cures for diseases. Over years, various types of magnifying tools were developed, which effectively increased their importance in medical field.

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Welcome to the Pharmacology Graduate Group | Pharmacology …

§ October 20th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Welcome to the Pharmacology Graduate Group | Pharmacology …

Message from the Chair:

Our mission is to train Ph.D. scientists to be critical thinkers, embracing innovation and creativity to promote scholarship and scientific discovery.

Well-trained pharmacologists are critical in academia, pharmaceutical/biotechnology industries, and regulatory agencies.

Pharmacology is unique among biomedical disciplines in that it uses the knowledge and approaches of many different biomedical sciences for developing drugs and understanding mechanisms, as well as characterizing delivery and disposition of therapeutics. In essence, a well-trained pharmacologists should have working knowledge of most biomedical disciplines and the ability to apply that knowledge to developing and understanding drug/therapeutic function and dysfunction.

Our training program, in part supported by an NIGMS Predoctoral Training Grant in Pharmacology, is designed to provide students with knowledge in basic biomedical science as well as both depth and breadth of training in pharmacology. More recently, with the growing number of faculty involved in pharmacogenomics, proteomics and metabalomics, the ability to analyze and understand large data sets has become a necessity, and training is offered in bioinfomatics and genome science.

Our program creates depth of knowledge by requiring students to take 3 core courses in pharmacology while breadth of knowledge is achieved by incorporating any of 11 additional pharmacology courses in specialized areas of pharmacology.

PGG students attend a weekly seminar organized by the Department of Systems Pharmacology and Translational Therapeutics. Listening to talks given by invited speakers - prominent scientists from Penn and other research centers in the USA and abroad - and direct interaction with the speakers at the seminar and during post-seminar lunch keeps our students updated on cutting edge research and expands their horizons.

Students also attend talks given by invited speakers at specialized monthly seminars organized by the Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics (ITMAT), Center of Excellence in Environmental Toxicology (CEET) and Penn interdisciplinary seminar on Center for Targeted Therapeutics and Translational Nanomedicine (CTN).

The Biomedical Graduate Studies (BGS) career development features helpful sections on core competencies that are cultivated through PhD training in the biomedical sciences, career paths for which PhD biomedical training can be particularly useful, and BGS alumni career outcomes.

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What is microscopic colitis? | IBDrelief

§ October 17th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on What is microscopic colitis? | IBDrelief

Microscopic colitis is a chronic, lifelong condition which is part of a group of conditions known as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It causes inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract (gut). This inflammation occurs in the colon (large intestine) and rectum. There are two main types of microscopic colitis - lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis - however they are very similar.

To the eye the lining of the colon may appear normal, however under a microscope changes to the bowel lining can be seen. The main symptom of microscopic colitis is watery diarrhoea (without blood).

The other types of IBD include ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohns disease.

It is thought to be an autoimmune condition.

There is no known cure for microscopic colitis and is generally treated with medication and lifestyle changes - such as diet, exercise and reducing stress.

Some people with microscopic colitis do have surgery to remove parts of their colon and rectum which are affected, but this is rare.

Some of the common symptoms of microscopic colitis include:

There are two types of microscopic colitis - lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The symptoms and treatment are very similar, however they look very different under a microscope.

Lymphocytic colitis

In lymphocytic colitis there is an increased number of lymphocytes (white blood cells) within the lining of the colon. Lymphocytes are part of the bodys defence system to fight infection and disease.

Collagenous colitis

In collagenous colitis, the lining of the colon develops a thicker than normal layer of a protein called collagen. There may also be an increased number of lymphocytes in the lining of the colon.

It is usually diagnosed through biopsies taken during an colonoscopy examination - a camera which is inserted into your rectum and colon. These biopsies are then examined at under a microscope to look for any changes to the bowel lining.

Unfortunately there is no known cure for microscopic colitis.

However, some people find that they can manage through changes to their diet and lifestyle without taking any medication, while others take medication to control the condition. Rarely some people do end up having surgery which removes all or part of their colon and/or rectum.

No one really knows what the exact cause of microscopic colitis is. The cause is often put down to a number of factors including:

It is also believed that some medications - such as aspirin, heartburn drugs and certain antidepressants can increase your risk of getting microscopic colitis.

Scientists continue to carry out research into the causes.

Microscopic colitis is generally diagnosed in people aged between 50-60, however you can be any age. It is more common in women. It is estimated around 2-3 people in every 10,000 have microscopic colitis.

People with microscopic colitis often go through periods of flare-ups where they have severe symptoms and periods where their symptoms are more mild or non-existent. Someone with the disease who isnt displaying any symptoms is known to be in remission.

People who are diagnosed with microscopic colitis often wonder if there is a risk of it developing into the more severe forms of IBD - ulcerative colitis and Crohns disease - in the future. There appears to be a very small risk of this happening.

If you take steroid-based medication to help control your microscopic colitis then long term use could result in a weakening of your bones (osteoporosis).

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What is nanomedicine? | ETPN

§ October 17th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on What is nanomedicine? | ETPN

The potential of Nanomedicine: why is small different?

Nanomedicine is the application of nanotechnology to achieve innovation in healthcare. It uses the properties developed by a material at its nanometric scale 10-9 m which often differ in terms of physics, chemistry or biology from the same material at a bigger scale.

Moreover, the nanometric size is also the scale of many biological mechanisms in the human body allowing nanoparticles and nanomaterials to potentially cross natural barriers to access new sites of delivery and to interact with DNA or small proteins at different levels, in blood or within organs, tissues or cells.

At the nano-scale, the surface-to-volume ratio is such that the surface properties are becoming an intrinsic parameter of the potential actions of a particle or material. Coating of the particles and functionalization of their surfaces (even on multiple levels) are in this way extremely common to increase the biocompatibility of the particle and its circulation time in the blood, as well as to ensure a highly selective binding to the desired target.

Nanomedicine has the potential to enable early detection and prevention and to drastically improve diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of many diseases including cancer but not only. Overall, Nanomedicine has nowadays hundreds of products under clinical trials, covering all major diseases including cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, musculoskeletal and inflammatory. Enabling technologies in all healthcare areas, Nanomedicine is already accounting for approximatively 80 marketed products, ranging from nano-delivery and pharmaceutical to medical imaging, diagnostics and biomaterials.

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Theranostic Nanomedicine Section | National Institute of …

§ October 17th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Theranostic Nanomedicine Section | National Institute of …

The Theranostic Nanomedicine Section is located in Building 9, room 1W11 with experimental work also performed in Building 10.

The laboratory is equipped to perform chemical synthesis of nanoparticles as well as modification and characterization with zeta-potential and dynamic light scattering (DLS) size analyzer (Horiba SZ-100), UV-visual spectrometer (Thermo Genesys 10s), fluorescence spectrometer (Hitachi F-7000 and Horiba FluorMax-4), alternating magnetic field induction heater (6.6 kW, Across International), thermal imager (FLIR SC-300), custom photoacoustic microscope, custom near-infrared and white light microendoscope and Raman spectrometer (BWTEK).

The lab includes microbiological and cell/tissue culture equipment with lyophilizer (Labconco), peptide synthesizer (CS Bio 336X), cell cytometer (BD Accuri C6), and microplate reader (BioTeck Synergy 2). The lab has a microscopy setup (Zeiss Axio Imager A2 upright bright-field microscope, Olympus X-81 epifluorescence microscope, and an Olympus Fluoview F10i-LIV automated confocal laser-scanning microscope).

In vivo work is done in collaboration with Biological Molecular Imaging Section with access to the PET-CT scanner (Siemens) and fluorescence and luminescence imagers (CRI Maestro II and IVIS Lumina II) and access to MRI and photoacoustic facilities in the NIH Mouse Imaging Facility (MIF).

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Nanobots in medicine: the key to fighting chronic diseases …

§ October 17th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanobots in medicine: the key to fighting chronic diseases …

Nanomedicine is a domain of medicine that utilises the knowledge of nanotechnology to prevent and treat severe diseases such as cancer and heart diseases. Recent advances in nanotechnology have enabled doctors to use nanoscale materials, including biocompatible nanoparticles and nanobots in medicine, to sense the actuation purposes in a living organism. Moreover, further developments in the nanomedicine market can create opportunities such as the development of artificial antibodies and artificial RBCs and WBCs

Nanomedicine is a domain of medicine that utilises the knowledge of nanotechnology to prevent and treat severe diseases such as cancer and heart diseases. Recent advances in nanotechnology have enabled doctors to use nanoscale materials, including biocompatible nanoparticles and nanobots, to sense the actuation purposes in a living organism.

In addition, researchers now use nanomedicines to boost immunotherapy. In recent years, ample innovations have emerged from the field of nanomedicine, which has boosted the nanomedicine market. According to Allied Market Research, the nanomedicine market was valued at $111.91bn (~95.39bn) in 2016, and is expected to reach $261.06bn by the end of 2023, registering a CAGR of 12.6% in the period of 20172023.

From improving the quality of solar panels to treating cancer, quantum dots are widely used in various sectors. However, creating quantum dots is an extremely expensive process which generates a huge amount of waste. However, scientists have recently developed a low-cost method to synthesise quantum dots using some chemicals and green leaf extracts.

A team of scientists at Wales Swansea University developed an economical and environment-friendly way to produce quantum dots from Camellia sinensis leaf extract.

This innovative method makes the procedure economical and the byproducts are non-toxic. The research proved that the quantum dots created with tea leaves can penetrate the skin and reduce the growth of cancer cells by about 80%.

However, while this study does not provide the ultimate cure for cancer, the major issues with the production of quantum dots such as high cost and toxic byproducts are solved. In addition, in-depth research can present new possibilities in treating different diseases and developing more advanced technology.

Scientists have also created fucoidan-based magnetic nanomedicines that can offer effective treatment for cancer.

Taiwans National Chiao Tung University (NCTU) and the China Medical University have successfully developed an innovative way to cure cancer by combining nanomedicines with immunotherapy. The research, titled Combination of fucoidan-based magnetic nanoparticles and immunomodulators enhances tumor-localized immunotherapy is published in the renowned journal Nature Nanotechnology.

This study is seen as a significant breakthrough to boost tumour treatment.

Immunotherapy can cause severe side-effects including stomach sickness and skin blistering as sometimes healthy cells get attacked by the immune system. Therefore, researchers combined fucoidan-based magnetic nanomedicine with immunotherapy. The results proved that such combination successfully contains the cancer cells while boosting the growth of healthy cells, which in turn reduces the side-effects and increases the efficiency of treatment.

Nanomedicines most important breakthrough can be regarded as nanobots. Nanobots serve as miniature surgeons which can be used to repair damaged cells or entirely replace intracellular structures. Moreover, they can replicate themselves to correct a genetic deficiency or replace DNA molecule to eradicate disease. Scientists claim that a fleet of nanobots can serve as antibodies or antiviral agents to treat patients with an impaired immune system. Investigating nanobots in medicine can create lucrative opportunities in healthcare such as unblocking arteries or completely replacing an organ.

Conventional water-soluble drugs can create difficulties in treatment, such as failed absorption in the diseased areas. However, nanomedicine applications such as diagnostic nanomachines provide the ability to monitor the internal chemistry of the bodys organs, providing direct access to diseased areas. Moreover, technology such as nanobots can be equipped with wireless transmitters, and this offers doctors opportunities to change the treatment method if a patients medical condition gets worse. Nanobots in medicine could also be planted into a patients nervous system to monitor pulse and brainwave activities.

According to scientists, nanobots can completely replace pacemakers by treating the hearts cell directly. Research regarding nanobots in medicine offer several opportunities such as artificial antibodies, artificial white blood cells (WBCs) and red blood cells (RBCs), and antiviral nanobots. The major advantage that nanobots provide is that they are extremely durable. Theoretically, they can operate for years without any damage owing to their miniature size, which reduces mechanical damage.

The advantages of nanobots and nanomedicines are enormous. Therefore, several leading companies are investing in research and development in this area. Not long ago, Vancouver-based company Precision NanoSystems closed a $6m project to fund a nanomedicine manufacturing platform, NanoAssemblr. The company is recognised for its research into the genetic basis of diseases and the development of nanoparticles for drugs.

The CEO and co-founder of Precision NanoSystems said: NanoAssemblr technology will offer a solution for the discovery, development, and manufacture of nanomedicine. This additional funding will enable us to develop new products at lower costs and grow customer base.

Such strategic collaboration on the part of leading companies has boosted the growth of the nanomedicine market.

Swamini KulkarniAllied Market ResearchTweet @marketresearcht

This article will appear in issue 7 of Health Europa Quarterly, which will be published in November 2018.

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Top Nanomedicine Conferences|DrugDelivery meetings …

§ October 17th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Top Nanomedicine Conferences|DrugDelivery meetings …

2nd,International Conference and Exhibition on Nanomedicine and Drug Delivery May 21-23, 2018 Tokyo, Japan

ConferenceSeries Ltdis a renowned organization that organizes highly notablePharmaceutical Conferencesthroughout the globe. Currently we are bringing forth2ndInternational Conference on Nanomedicine and Drug Delivery(NanoDelivery 2018) scheduled to be held duringMay 21-23, 2018 at Tokyo, Japan. The conferenceinvites all the participants across the globe to attend and share their insights and convey recent developments in the field of Nanomedicine and Drug Delivery.

ConferenceSeries Ltdorganizes aconference seriesof 1000+ Global Events inclusive of 1000+ Conferences, 500+ Upcoming and Previous Symposiums and Workshops in USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientificsocietiesand publishes 700+Open access Journalswhich contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

2018 Highlights:

Nanomedicine and drugdelivery will account for 40% of a $136 billion nanotechnology-enabled drug delivery market by 2021. We forecast the total market size in 2021 to be US$136 billion, with a 60/40 split between nano medicine and drug delivery respectively, although developing new targeted delivery mechanisms may allow more value to be created for companies and entrepreneurs.

However, the Asia-Pacific region is expected to grow at a faster CAGR owing to presence of high unmet healthcare needs, research collaborations and increase in nanomedicine research funding in emerging economies such as Japan, China, India and other economies in the region. Japan is expected to surpass the United States in terms of nanotechnology funding in the near future, which indicates the growth offered by this region.This conference seeks to showcase work in the area of Nanomedicine, Drug Delivery Systems, and nanotechnology, Nanobiothechnology, particularly related to drug delivery.

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Nanomedicine and drugdelivery can address one of the greatest challenges in the post-genomic era of the 21st century making the essential connections between Academics and industry professionals.

To meet these challenges, the field of Nanomedicine and drugdelivery has undergone exponential growth during the last 5 years. Technologies such as Personalized Nanomedicine, Design of Nanodrugs, Synthesis of Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery, Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering, Nanomedicines and Biomedical applications, Nanomaterials for drug delivery, Regulatory Aspects Towards Approval of Nanomedicine, NanoPharmaceutical, Industry and Market processing and drug delivery promise to transform the world of Advanced nanomedicines and drug delivery much in the same way that integrated and transformed the world of pharmaceutical sciences.

Nanodelivery 2018 has everything you need:

Open panel discussions: Providing an open forum with experts from academia and business to discuss on current challenges in nanomedicine and drug delivery, where all attendees can interact with the panel followed by a Q&A session.

Speaker and poster presentations: Providing a platform to all academicians and industry professionals to share their research thoughts and findings through a speech or a poster presentation.

Editorial board meeting: Discussing on growth and development of open access Nanomedicine and drugdelivery International Journals and recruiting board members and reviewers who can support the journal.

Round table meetings: Providing a platform where industry professionals meet academic experts.

Over 50+ organizations and international pavilions will be exhibiting at the Nanodelivery 2018 conference and Exhibition. Exhibitors will include equipment manufacturers and suppliers, systems providers, finance and investment firms, R&D companies, project developers, trade associations, and government agencies.

In addition to the products and services you will see at the Nanodelivery Exhibition, you will have access to valuable content, including Keynote Presentations, Product Demonstrations and Educational Sessions from todays industry leaders.

The Nanodelivery 2018 has everything you need, all under one roof, saving you both time and money. It is the event you cannot afford to miss!

Who's Coming to Nanodelivery 2018?


Nanomedicineis the medical application ofnanotechnology, nanomedicineranges from the medical applicationsofnanomaterialsandbiological devices, to nanoelectronicbiosensors, and even possible future applications of molecular nanotechnology such asbiological machines.

Nanomedicine : Future Nanomedicine:

We can say that nanomedicine is ourfuture medicine.The usage ofNanomedicine in drug deliverycan unlock the way to cure many life threatening diseases. For examplesnanomedicine in cancer treatment,Nanomedicine for blood disorders,Nanomedicine for Lung Diseases, Nanomedicine for Cardiovascular Diseases. This includesFuture aspects of Nanomedicine,nanobots,nanodrugs.

Nanomedicine research group:

This is only possible by the grace and smart work of thenanomedicine research groupfrom all over the world.Nanomedicine coursesare taught in theuniversities all over the world.They also providepostdoctoral fellowship opportunity in nanomedicine.So we can say thatfuture of nanomedicineshines brightly .

Nanomedicine Market:

Nanomedicinecan be explained as theapplication ofnanotechnologytoachieveinnovation in healthcare.Theglobal nanomedicine marketis anticipatedto reach USD 350.8 billion by2025.This includes:Scope of Nanomedicine,Novel Drugs to NanoDrugs,Nanodrugs for Herbal medicinesand Cosmetics

Nanomedicine in Cancer:

A wide range of new tools and possibilities is already achieved incancer treatments using Nanotechnology, fromdiagnosingit earlier to improvedimagingfortargeted therapies.This includes Nanomedicine for other disease,Nanomedicine for Cardiovascular Diseases,Nanodrugs for Cancer Therapy

New formulations:

Nanomedicines are three-dimensional constructs of multiple components with preferred spatial arrangements for their functions.This includesNano Sized Drugs,Nanodrugs for Veterinary Therapeutics,Nanodrugs for Medical applications,Formulation and Development.

Emergence of Nanomedicines:

Extensive multidisciplinary investigation in the field ofnanomedicine nanotechnology biology and medicinehas caused the emergence of Nanomedicine as promising carriers fordeliveryof diversetherapeutic moleculesto the targeted sites. This includesNanodrugs for Cancer Therapy,Nanodrugs for Veterinary Therapeutics,Nanodrugs for Medical applications.


VLPsare a viruses devoid ofgenetic materialand thus they cannotreplicate.This includesNanoMedicine in HIV,Drug targeting,Nanomedicine for Cancer.

Nanocarrier :

A nanocarriers are used as atransport modulefor adrug. Commonly usednanocarriersincludemicelles,polymers,carbon-based materials,liposomesandmany more.This includesnanoparticles,nanobots,nanodrugs.


It was the extensive multidisciplinary investigation in the field ofnanomedicine nanotechnologybiology and medicinethat gave rise to thefuture medicinei.e.Nanomedicine. We know that nanotechnology is a recent development inscientific research,though the development of its central concepts happened over a longer period of time.This includesNanomedicine for other disease,Nanodrugs for Herbal medicines and Cosmetics

Biomedical nanotechnology:

Biomedical nanotechnologyincludes a diverse collection of disciplines.This includesCarbon Nanotubes,BiosensorsandNanobioelectronics,Nanobiomechanics and Nanomedicine.

Drug delivery systems:

Drug deliveryis theformulations,technologies, and systems for transporting apharmaceutical compoundinside the body safely to achieve itsdesired therapeutic effect.This includesLiposomes,Versatile Polymers In Drug Deivery,Drug Development


Toxicityis the measure to which a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.This includeGold Nanoparticles,Silver Nanoparticles,Magnetic Nanoparticles.


Axenobioticis a chemical substances which is not produced naturally or expected to be found within an organism.This includesNano Micro Particles,BiosensorsandNanobioelectronics,Bio inspired materials and drug delivery

Pharmaceutical technology:

We can detect diseases at much earlier stages usingNano pharmaceuticals.Usingnanoparticles we can also design thediagnostic applicationsconventionally.This includesNanoliposome,Drug Targeting,Challenges and advances in NanoPharmaceuticals


Bioimagingare methods that non-invasively visualizebiological processesin real time.This includesImage-guided drug delivery,Imaging,Optical sensors

Imaging probe:

Molecular imaging probeis an agent used tovisualize, characterize and quantify biological processes in living systems .This includesOptical sensors,Smart Polymer Nanoparticles,NanomaterialsforImaging

Pharmaceutical compound:

The particular pharmaceutical product to fit the unique need of a patient can be made byPharmaceutical compounding.This includesChallenges and advances in Nano Pharmaceuticals,Nano Pharmaceuticalsfrom thebench to Scale up

Pulmonary delivery:

Pulmonary deliveryofdrughas become an attractive target and of tremendous scientific andbiomedical interestin thehealth care research.This includes Transmucosal Drug Delivery Systems, Sonophoresis Drug Delivery System, Hydrogel in Drug Delivery

Vascular disease:

Diseases of theblood Vessels can be related toVascular diseases.This includesovarian, breast cancer,kidney disease,fungal infections.

Tissue engineering:

The use of a tissue, engineering and materials methods, and suitablebiochemicalandphysicochemical factorsto improve or replacebiological tissues.This includesNeuro Regenerations,Organ fabrication,Cell-based therapies

Regenerative medicine:

Regenerative medicineis a broad field that includes tissue engineering but also incorporates onself-healing

Regenerative medicine- self healing:

Body uses its own systems, sometimes with help foreignbiological materialtorecreate cellsandrebuild tissuesand organs.This includeBiologic scaffolds,Bone Marrow Tissue Engineering,Mechanical properties of engineered tissues

Quantitative Imaging:

Quantitative imagingprovides clinicians with a more accurate picture of a disease state.This includesImage-guided drug delivery,Imaging,Optical sensors.

Tissue Sciences:

The internal organs and connective structures ofvertebrates, andcambium,xylem, andphloemin plants are made up of different types of tissue.This includesNeuro Regenerations,Bioreactor design,Bone Marrow Tissue Engineering.

Rational drug design:

Drug design, is simply the inventive process of findingnew medicationsbased on the knowledge of abiological targetThis includesNanodrugs for Cancer Therapy,Nanodrugs for Medical applications,Nano Sized Drugs

Drug target:

Biological targetcan be described as thenative proteinin the body , with modified activity by a drug resulting in a specific effect. The biological target is often referred to as a drug target.This includeDrug targeting,Image-guided drug delivery,target site

Drug resistance mechanism:

InDrug resistancethe effectiveness of amedicationis reduced such as anantimicrobialor anantineoplasticin curing a disease or condition.This includeschemotherapy,tumor-targeted drug delivery

Single molecule imaging:

Single-molecule studies may be contrasted with measurements on the bulk collection of molecules. In this individual behavior ofmoleculescannot be distinguished, and only average characteristics can be measured.This includeDrug targeting,Image-guided drug delivery,Imaging


Medicine can be explained as the science and practice of thediagnosis,treatment, andprevention of disease.This include Controledradical polymerization,Nanodrugs for Herbal medicinesandCosmetics,Nanomedicine for Gastrointestinal Tract (GI) Diseases.

Computer-Aided Diagnosis:

Computer-aided detection(CADe), are systems that help doctors in the interpretation ofmedical images.This includesImage-guided drug delivery,Optical sensors,BiosensorsandNanobioelectronics


Pharmacology is the study ofdrug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenousThis includesNanoliposome,Drug Targeting,Applied biopharmaceutics

Drug delivery industries:

Demand fordrug deliveryproducts in the US will rise 6.1 percent yearly to $251 billion in 2019. Parenteral products will grow the fastest, driven bymonoclonal antibodiesandpolymer-encapsulated medicines.Hormonesand central nervous system agents will lead gains by application.Pen injectorsand retractable prefillable syringes will pace devices.This includesBio Pharmaceutical Industry,Focus on Nanopharmaceuticals,Industrial Applications of Nano medicine.

Drug delivery market:

The drug delivery market is thelargest contributing applicationsegment, whereasbiomaterialsis the fastest growing application area in this market. Nanomedicine accounts for 77Marketed ProductsWorldwide, representing an Industry with an estimated market $130.9 Billion by 2016.This includesBio Pharmaceutical Industry,Focus on Nanopharmaceuticals,Industrial Applications of Nano medicine.

Nanomedicine Market Size:

Theglobal nanomedicine marketis anticipated to reach USD 350.8 billion by 2025, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. Development ofnovel nanotechnology-based drugsandtherapiesis driven by the need to develop therapies that have fewer side effects and that are morecost-effectivethantraditional therapies, in particular for cancer.This includespharmaceutical industry,Up Coming Market for Nanotechnology,Focus on Nanopharmaceuticals.

Biodegradable implants:

Biodegradable implants offer a number of financial,psychological, andclinical advantagesoverpermanent metal implants.They provide the appropriate amount of mechanical strength when necessary, and degrade at a rate similar tonew tissue formation, thereby transferring the load safely to thehealed boneand eliminating the need for an additional revision and removal operation.This includesBiologic scaffolds,Biomaterials,Bone Marrow Tissue Engineering.

Nanomedicine industry:

Expecteddevelopments in nanoroboticsowing to therise in fundingfrom thegovernment organizationsis expected to induce potential to the market.Nanorobotics engineering projectsthat are attempting totarget the cancer cellswithout affecting the surrounding tissues is anticipated to drive progress through to 2025.This includesIndustrial Applications of Nano medicine,Nanotechnology tools in Pharmaceutical R&D,Bio Pharmaceutical Industry,Focus on Nanopharmaceuticals

Nanomedicine Market Drivers:

The major drivers of the nanomedicine market include its application in varioustherapeutic areas, increasingR&D studiesabout nanorobots in this segment, andsignificant investmentsinclinical trialsby the government as well as private sector. TheOncology segmentis the majortherapeutic areafornanomedicine application, which comprised more than 35% of the total market share in 2016.This includesAn Up and Coming Market for Nanotechnology,Nanomedicine: Prospects, Risks and Regulatory Issues,Current , Future Applications and Regulatory challenges.

Nanomedicine Market trends:

Thetherapeutic areas for nanomedicineapplication areOncology,is includesCurrent , Future Applications and Regulatory challenges,Regulatory Policies.

Nanomedicine Market Forecast:

When the report provides complete details about the usage andadoption rate of nanomedicinesin varioustherapeutic verticalsand regions. With that,key stakeholderscan know about themajor trends,drivers,investments, vertical players initiatives, government initiatives towards thenanomedicine adoptionin the upcoming years along with the details ofcommercial drugsavailable in the market.This includesRegulation of Nanomedicines,Nanomedicine: Prospects,Risks and Regulatory Issues,Current , Future Applications and Regulatory challenges.

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How Do Microscopes Improve Our Lives Today? | Sciencing

§ October 16th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on How Do Microscopes Improve Our Lives Today? | Sciencing

A microscope lets the user see the tiniest parts of our world: microbes, small structures within larger objects and even the molecules that are the building blocks of all matter. The ability to see otherwise invisible things enriches our lives on many levels. Doctors can diagnose and treat diseases better, scientists are able to reveal links that help put criminals behind bars and make our world safer by examining the strength of bridges and other structures. Students also use microscopes to gain knowledge of the world around them.

Microscopes play a crucial role in medical research and testing, as well as helping forensic scientists investigate crimes. They're also used in education.

The use of microscopes in medicine began in the 1860s when Louis Pasteur reported that the microscopic organisms he saw in the microscope caused certain diseases. Until that time, people thought diseases came from evil spirits or God. Pasteurs germ theory revolutionized the process of identifying, treating and preventing infectious diseases. Today, hospital laboratories use microscopes to identify which microbe is causing an infection so physicians can prescribe the proper antibiotic. They are also used to diagnose cancer and other diseases.

Many types of scientists, seeking to understand the natural and physical world better, use microscope in their work. Forensic scientists examine blood, dust, fibers and other trace materials at a crime scene to help prosecute criminals. Environmental scientists examine soil and water samples, while geneticists observe chromosomes for defects. In engineering, material scientists use microscopes to inspect the components of structures such as buildings, bridges and dams to ensure that they are safe.

In the classroom, microscopes are used to teach students about the structure of things too small to be seen with the human eye alone. The individual cells of plants, animals, bacteria and yeast can all be seen using a compound microscope. Comparing these organisms helps students learn about the variety of life on Earth. Also, the way in which microscopes work can be used to teach students about the properties of light, the physics behind lenses and mirrors and staining techniques for various specimens. Additionally, individual parts of the cell can be seen as students learn about their specific functions.

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Anatomical pathology – Wikipedia

§ October 14th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Anatomical pathology – Wikipedia

Anatomical pathology (Commonwealth) or Anatomic pathology (U.S.) is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the macroscopic, microscopic, biochemical, immunologic and molecular examination of organs and tissues. Over the last century, surgical pathology has evolved tremendously: from historical examination of whole bodies (autopsy) to a more modernized practice, centered on the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer to guide treatment decision-making in oncology. Its modern founder was the Italian scientist Giovan Battista Morgagni from Forl.

Anatomical pathology is one of two branches of pathology, the other being clinical pathology, the diagnosis of disease through the laboratory analysis of bodily fluids and/or tissues. Often, pathologists practice both anatomical and clinical pathology, a combination known as general pathology. Similar specialties exist in veterinary pathology.

Anatomic pathology relates to the processing, examination, and diagnosis of surgical specimens by a physician trained in pathological diagnosis. Clinical pathology is the division that processes the test requests more familiar to the general public; such as blood cell counts, coagulation studies, urinalysis, blood glucose level determinations and throat cultures. Its subsections include chemistry, hematology, microbiology, immunology, urinalysis and blood bank.[1]

Anatomical pathology is itself divided in subspecialties, the main ones being surgical pathology (breast, gynecological, endocrine, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, soft tissue, head and neck, dermatopathology), neuropathology, hematopathology cytopathology, and forensic pathology. To be licensed to practice pathology, one has to complete medical school and secure a license to practice medicine. An approved residency program and certification (in the U.S., the American Board of Pathology or the American Osteopathic Board of Pathology) is usually required to obtain employment or hospital privileges.

The procedures used in anatomic pathology include:

Surgical pathology is the most significant and time-consuming area of practice for most anatomical pathologists. Surgical pathology involves the gross and microscopic examination of surgical specimens, as well as biopsies submitted by non-surgeons such as general internists, medical subspecialists, dermatologists, and interventional radiologists. Surgical pathology increasingly requires technologies and skills traditionally associated with clinical pathology such as molecular diagnostics.

In the United States, subspecialty-trained doctors of dentistry, rather than medical doctors, can be certified by a professional board to practice Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology.

Cytopathology is a sub-discipline of anatomical pathology concerned with the microscopic examination of whole, individual cells obtained from exfoliation or fine-needle aspirates. Cytopathologists are trained to perform fine-needle aspirates of superficially located organs, masses, or cysts and are often able to render an immediate diagnosis in the presence of the patient and consulting physician. In the case of screening tests such as the Papanicolaou smear, non-physician cytotechnologists are often employed to perform initial reviews, with only positive or uncertain cases examined by the pathologist. Cytopathology is a board-certifiable subspecialty in the U.S.

Molecular pathology is an emerging discipline within anatomical and clinical pathology that is focused on the use of nucleic acid-based techniques such as in-situ hybridization, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and nucleic acid microarrays for specialized studies of disease in tissues and cells. Molecular pathology shares some aspects of practice with both anatomic and clinical pathology, and is sometimes considered a "crossover" discipline.

Forensic pathologists receive specialized training in determining the cause of death and other legally relevant information from the bodies of persons who died suddenly with no known medical condition, those who die from non-natural causes, as well as those dying as a result of homicide, or other criminally suspicious deaths. A majority of the forensic pathologists cases are due to natural causes. Often, additional tests such as toxicology, histology, and genetic testing will be used to help the pathologist determine the cause of death. Forensic pathologists will often testify in courts regarding their findings in cases of homicide and suspicious death. They also play a large role in public health, such as investigating deaths in the workplace, deaths in custody, as well as sudden and unexpected deaths in children.Forensic pathologists often have special areas of interest within their practice, such as sudden death due to cardiac pathology, deaths due to drugs, or Sudden Infant Death (SIDS), and various others.

Anatomical Pathology is one of the specialty training programs offered by the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia (RCPA). The RCPA. To qualify as a Fellow of the RCPA in Anatomical Pathology, the candidate must complete a recognised undergraduate or postgraduate medical qualification and then complete a minimum of 2 years of clinical medical experience as a prerequisite to selection as a training registrar. The training program is a minimum of 5 years, served in at least two laboratories, and candidates must pass a Basic Pathological Sciences examination (usually in first year), the Part 1 examinations (not before 3rd year) and the Part 2 examinations (not before 5th year). Fellows may then continue into subspecialty training.

Anatomical Pathology (AP) is one of the specialist certificates granted by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. Other certificates related to pathology include general pathology (GP), hematopathology, and neuropathology. Candidates for any of these must have completed four years of medical school and five years of residency training.

Anatomic Pathology (AP) is one of the two primary certifications offered by the American Board of Pathology (the other is Clinical Pathology (CP))[2] and one of three primary certifications offered by the American Osteopathic Board of Pathology.[3] To be certified in anatomic pathology, the trainee must complete four years of medical school followed by three years of residency training. Many U.S. pathologists are certified in both AP and CP, which requires a total of four years of residency. After completing residency, many pathologists enroll in further years of fellowship training to gain expertise in a subspecialty of AP or CP. Pathologists' Assistants are highly trained medical professionals with specialized training in Anatomic and Forensic pathology. To become a Pathologists' Assistant one must enter and successfully complete a NAACLS accredited program and pass the ASCP Board of Certification Exam.

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Colon Anatomy: Gross Anatomy, Microscopic Anatomy, Natural …

§ October 13th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Colon Anatomy: Gross Anatomy, Microscopic Anatomy, Natural …

The colon is a 5-6ft long, inverted, U-shaped part of the large intestine (lower gastrointestinal tract). By definition, the cecum (and appendix) and ano-rectum, which are parts of the large intestine, are not included in the colon.

Embryologically, the colon develops partly from the midgut (ascending colon to proximal transverse colon) and partly from the hind gut (distal transverse colon to sigmoid colon).

On plain abdominal radiographs, the colon is seen to be filled with air and some fecal material. The colon is identified with haustra (irregular incomplete sacculations confer regular complete valvulae conniventes in jejunum).

The colon anatomy is displayed in the image below.

The ascending (right) colon lies vertically in the most lateral right part of the abdominal cavity, occupying the right iliac fossa, right lumbar region and right hypochondrium. The proximal blind end (pouch) of the ascending colon is called the cecum. The ascending colon takes a right-angled turn just below the liver (right colic or hepatic flexure) and becomes the transverse colon, which has a horizontal course from right to left, occupying the right hypochondrium, epigastrium, and left hypochondrium.

The transverse colon again takes a right-angled turn just below the spleen (left colic or splenic flexure, which is attached to the diaphragm by the phrenocolic ligament) and becomes the descending (left) colon, which lies vertically in the most lateral left part of the abdominal cavity, occupying the left hypochondrium, left lumbar region, and left iliac fossa. Splenic flexure is higher (cranial) to hepatic flexure. The descending colon leads to the inverted V-shaped sigmoid colon, which then becomes the rectum at the S3 level; the sigmoid colon is so called because of its S-shape. [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

Lateral to ascending and descending colon are the right and left paracolic gutters of the peritoneal cavity, through which fluid/pus in the upper abdomen can trickle down into the pelvic cavity. The ascending and descending colon are related to the kidney, ureter, and gonadal vessels of the corresponding side that lie behind them in the retroperitoneum; the ascending colon is also related to the C loop (second part) of theduodenum.

The transverse colon and the sigmoid colon have a mesentery (ie, transverse mesocolon and sigmoid mesocolon, respectively), but the ascending colon and descending colon are retroperitoneal, while the cecum is intraperitoneal but uses the mesentery of the ileum. The base of the transverse mesocolon lies horizontally across the duodenum and pancreas. The greater omentum has several parts, including the 4-layered omental apron hanging down off of the transverse colon and the 2-layered gastrocolic ligament connecting the greater curvature of the stomach and the transverse colon.

Three longitudinal teniae coli are present in the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon; they are not present in the rectum. In the ascending and descending colon, they are present anteriorly and on the posterolateral and posteromedial aspects. Appendages of fat, containing small blood vessels, called omental appendages (appendices epiploicae) are attached to colon.

The colon is supplied by the superior mesenteric artery through its right colic and middle colic branches and by the inferior mesenteric artery through its left colic and multiple sigmoid branches. The terminal branches of these arteries entering the colonic wall are called vasa recta.

A continuing series of anastomoses between the distal branch of the proximal artery and the proximal branch of the distal artery runs along the mesenteric (inner) border of the colon and is called the marginal artery of Drummond. The marginal artery allows a long length of colon to be mobilized (eg, to be taken up into the chest to replace the esophagus after esophagectomy).

The arc of Riolan or the meandering mesenteric artery is a communication between the middle colic artery (or its left branch) and the left colic artery (or its ascending branch).

The junction of the proximal two thirds and distal one third of the transverse colon, where the terminal branches of the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries meet, is the watershed area, which is prone to ischemia.

The superior mesenteric vein accompanies the superior mesenteric artery, but the inferior mesenteric vein drains higher than the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery; it runs vertically upward to the left of the duodenojejunal junction (flexure) and enters the splenic vein or its junction with the superior mesenteric vein to form the portal vein.

Lymphatics of the colon drain into the epicolic (on the surface of colon), paricolic (next to colon), intermediate (along branches of named vessels), and main or mesocolic (along the named colic vessels) lymph nodes.

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Ovary Anatomy: Gross Anatomy, Microscopic Anatomy, Natural …

§ October 12th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Ovary Anatomy: Gross Anatomy, Microscopic Anatomy, Natural …

The ovaries are the female pelvic reproductive organs that house the ova and are also responsible for the production of sex hormones. They are paired organs located on either side of the uterus within the broad ligament below the uterine (fallopian) tubes. The ovary is within the ovarian fossa, a space that is bound by the external iliac vessels, obliterated umbilical artery, and the ureter. The ovaries are responsible for housing and releasing ova, or eggs, necessary for reproduction. At birth, a female has approximately 1-2 million eggs, but only 300 of these eggs will ever become mature and be released for the purpose of fertilization.

Anatomy of the ovaries is displayed in the images below.

The ovaries are small, oval-shaped, and grayish in color, with an uneven surface. The actual size of an ovary depends on a womans age and hormonal status; the ovaries, covered by a modified peritoneum, are approximately 3-5 cm in length during childbearing years and become much smaller and then atrophic once menopause occurs. A cross-section of the ovary reveals many cystic structures that vary in size. These structures represent ovarian follicles at different stages of development and degeneration. [1, 2, 3]

Each month, the ovaries go through a series of stages, depending on stimulation by the anterior pituitary hormones the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and the luteinizing hormone (LH). A typical female cycle lasts 28 days; however, this can range from 21-35 days.

The ovarian cycle has 2 distinct phases: the follicular phase (days 1-14) and the luteal phase (days 14-28). The follicular phase is characterized by follicle development and growth, the goal being that one follicle matures and releases an egg at the time of ovulation, around day 14 of the female cycle. The remaining immature follicles go through stages of degeneration up until day 28, when the cycle repeats itself. The egg that is released is picked up by the fimbriae of the uterine tube, and the egg is transported toward the uterus. If fertilization does not occur, the egg degenerates, and menstruation occurs.

Several paired ligaments support the ovaries. The ovarian ligament connects the uterus and ovary. The posterior portion of the broad ligament forms the mesovarium, which supports the ovary and houses its arterial and venous supply. The suspensory ligament of the ovary (infundibular pelvic ligament) attaches the ovary to the pelvic sidewall. This larger structure also contains the ovarian artery and vein, as well as nerve supply to the ovary.

Blood supply to the ovary is via the ovarian artery; both the right and left arteries originate directly from the descending aorta. The ovarian artery and vein enter and exit the ovary at the hilum. The left ovarian vein drains into the left renal vein, and the right ovarian vein empties directly into the inferior vena cava.

Nerve supply to the ovaries runs with the vasculature via the suspensory ligament of the ovary, entering the ovary at the hilum. Supply is through the ovarian, hypogastric, and aortic plexuses.

Lymph drainage of the ovary is primarily to the lateral aortic nodes; however, the iliac nodes are also involved.

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Heliotropium foertherianum – Wikipedia

§ October 10th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Heliotropium foertherianum – Wikipedia

Heliotropium foertherianum is a species of flowering plant in the borage family, Boraginaceae. It is native to tropical Asia including southern China, Madagascar, northern Australia, and most of the atolls and high islands of Micronesia and Polynesia. Common names include velvetleaf soldierbush,[2] tree heliotrope, veloutier, and octopus bush. It is a shrub or small tree typical of littoral zones reaching a height of 3.6m (12ft), with a spread of about 5m (16ft).[citation needed]

Originally published as Tournefortia argentea, it was transferred to Argusia argentea, and remained under that name until recently. It was subsequently restored to Tournefortia before being transferred into Heliotropium under a new name in 2003.[3][4]

Historically in the Maldives the leaves were often used as famine food.[5]

The wood of H. foertherianum is commonly used to make handicrafts, tools, and, in Polynesia, frames for swim goggles. Due to its availability, H. foertherianum is used as firewood, and has become rare in some areas as a result.[6]

Octopus bush is used in many Pacific islands as a traditional medicine to treat ciguatera fish poisoning, which is caused by powerful ciguatoxins produced by microscopic Gambierdiscus algae. Scientists from the Institute of Research for Development (IRD) and the Louis Malarde Institute in French Polynesia and Pasteur Institute in New Caledonia are researching the plant chemistry and believe that senescent leaves contain rosmarinic acid and derivatives, which are known for its antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties.[7] The researchers think rosmarinic acid may remove the ciguatoxins from their sites of action, as well as being an anti-inflammatory.

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Canine Performance Sciences – College of Veterinary Medicine

§ October 10th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Canine Performance Sciences – College of Veterinary Medicine

The mission of the CPS breeding program is to scientifically breed and develop superior quality canines that can be utilized for a variety of purposes. Our network of scientists are advancing adogs olfactory and performance capabilities, making them some of the most advanced detection dogs in the world.

Superior detection dogs are hard to find. CPS breeds and develops canines to possess specific traits. These dogs must have a high reward value, willing to search for long periods of time for multiple rewards. They must have high hunt instincts, their nose is always stimulating them to investigate. They need high trainability characteristics, which give them the ability to learn any new tasks quickly. They must be highly motivated and not easily discouraged. They must be attentive and be able to work in any environment and, most importantly, CPS dogs must be medically sound. We are producing scientifically bred and trained canines to become the best detection dogs possible.

CPS follows state-of-the-art theriogenology practices, incorporating genetic and genomic concepts to influence breeding selection and enhance puppy development. These practices ensure CPS is making genetic progress. CPS puppies attend the programs 11-month puppy school, where they are socialized and learn to investigate for reward before being sold to detection dog vendors. Dogs undergo constant evaluations to tailor their development and training program for their future work placement, giving them the greatest advantage to succeed.

CPS is devoted to improving the way people and dogs interact through development programs and interaction within the community. CPS has a number of programs designed to enrich the interactions with dogs, both in work and play.

Dog Bite Prevention Program

Nearly 4.5 million Americans are bitten by dogs each year, half are children. One in five dog bites results in injuries serious enough to require medical attention. Among children, the rate of dog biterelated injuries is highest for those ages five to nine.

CPS is developing an eight-lesson dog bite prevention program. Schools will be able to download the program and use it in the classroom. This program meets State of Alabama Education requirements in the areas of reading comprehension, health, science, and language arts for first grade students, and, it can be incorporated into a teacher's lesson plans.

This program is currently being piloted and should be available this fall. It gives CPS dog's additional socialization and training opportunities andengages children, teaching them how to prevent and protect themselves from dog bites.

Community and campus volunteers are needed during the week. Volunteers are needed to care for dogs and puppies, as well as exercise, train, and socialize puppies or work with adult dogs.Volunteers are screened and placed to work in different areas of need.Volunteers must:

Contact CPS at to learn how to become a CPS volunteer.

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Fact Sheets about Genomics | NHGRI –

§ October 10th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Fact Sheets about Genomics | NHGRI –

Fact Sheets about Genomics | NHGRI Skip to main content

The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) has produced this series of fact sheets to explain complex concepts in genomics research to a non-scientific audience. Teachers, students and the general public alike will find the materials clearly written and easy to understand.

A biological pathway is a series of actions among molecules in a cell that leads to a certain product or a change in the cell.

Genomics is the study of all of a person's genes (the genome), including interactions of those genes with each other and with the person's environment.

Chromosomes are thread-like structures located inside the nucleus of animal and plant cells.

Cloning describes a number of different processes that can be used to produce genetically identical copies of a biological entity.

Comparative genomics is a field of biological research in which researchers compare the complete genome sequences of different species.

DNA sequencing determines the order of the four chemical building blocks - called "bases" - that make up the DNA molecule.

Epigenomics is a field in which researchers chart the locations and understand the functions of all the chemical tags that mark the genome.

Genetic mapping offers evidence that a disease transmitted from parent to child is linked to one or more genes and clues about where a gene lies on a chromosome.

A knockout mouse is a laboratory mouse in which researchers have inactivated an existing gene by replacing it or disrupting it with an artificial piece of DNA.

Newborn screening tests use a dried blood sample collected during the first week after birth to measure the presence of disease biomarkers.

Data used to estimate the cost of sequencing the human genome over time since the Human Genome Project.

The X chromosome determines your sex, gives some females super color vision and lends its magic to a certain breed of cat.

The Y chromosome of all living men is related through a single male ancestor who lived over 100,000 years ago.

Genetics refers to the study of genes and their roles in inheritance. Genomics refers to the study of all of a person's genes (the genome).

Last updated: November 9, 2015

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Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology Peer Reviewed Journals

§ October 10th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology Peer Reviewed Journals

Pubmed NLM ID: 101562615SJR H Index:19ICDS 2017: 3.8RG Journal Impact: 0.55

Journal of Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology is an open access bi-monthly journal publishing peer-reviewed articles in all major and minor specializations of Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology.

The Journal of Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology primarily focuses on synthesis and characterization of nanoparticles and nanomaterial for engineering, biological and biomedical applications as well as innovative theoretical concepts having substantial pharmacological, toxicological or clinical relevance. Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology includes the manuscript related to Nanomedicine, Nanotechnology, Material Science Research, Nanobiotechnology, Nanoengineering, Nanobiopharmaceutics, Nanoelectronics, Nanofluids, Nano delivery, etc.

The journal is an online international Journal publishing all aspects of Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology including research article, review article, case study, mini-review, opinion, editorial, prospective, etc. Journal is trying to create the basic platform to maintain the international community for upcoming researcher.

The journal encourages researchers, professors, academicians, doctors, faculties, and students from all over the world to submit their findings or new results related to the journal. All articles will be published and archived through single blind peer-review process. Readers can access or download the published articles free of cost. Journal is following peer-review and publication under open access creative commons attribution license.

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About Our Degree Programs – School of Medicine

§ October 6th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on About Our Degree Programs – School of Medicine

The Department of Family and Preventive Medicine (originally Family and Community Medicine) has offered a master's degree in public health education since 1974, a MStat-Biostatistics degree since 1976, and a PhD since 2004. Initially the public health degree offered was the Master of Science in Community Medicine (MSCM); in 1984 this degree was changed to the Master of Science in Public Health (MSPH). Since 1984 the Department of Family and Preventive Medicine Public Health Program has offered the MSPH degree, an academic degree with a research focus, and the MPH degree, a professional degree designed for individuals seeking a career in public health practice.

In 1978, the Department of Family and Preventive Medicine Public Health program became one of the first three community health/preventive medicine programs to be accredited by the Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH), the nationally recognized accrediting body for public health programs. Since 1978 the Department of Family and Preventive Medicine Public Health Program has undergone six accreditation reviews, the last concluded Summer 2014, for an additional seven years.

To date, the Public Health Program has a total of 1,386 graduates employed in a variety of public health, health care, research, and related settings. There are currently 176 active graduate students within the MPH, MSPH, MSTAT: Biostatistics Track and PhD degree programs.

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News Bureau | ILLINOIS

§ October 6th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on News Bureau | ILLINOIS

CHAMPAIGN, Ill. Researchers have developed soft robotic devices driven by neuromuscular tissue that triggers when stimulated by light bringing mechanical engineering one step closer to developing autonomous biobots.

In 2014, research teams led by mechanical science and engineering professor Taher Saif and bioengineering professor Rashid Bashir at the University of Illinois worked together to developed the first self-propelled biohybrid swimming and walking biobots powered by beating cardiac muscle cells derived from rats.

Our first swimmer study successfully demonstrated that the bots, modeled after sperm cells, could in fact swim," Saif said. That generation of singled-tailed bots utilized cardiac tissue that beats on its own, but they could not sense the environment or make any decisions.

The research team includes, from left, professor Taher Saif, graduate student Onur Aydin, graduate student Xiaotian Zhang, professor Mattia Gazzola, graduate student Gelson J. Pagan-Diaz, seated, and professor and dean of the Grainger College of Engineering, Rashid Bashir.

Photo by L. Brian Stauffer

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In a new study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and led by Saif, the researchers demonstrate a new generation of two-tailed bots powered by skeletal muscle tissue stimulated by on-board motor neurons. The neurons have optogenetic properties: Upon exposure to light, the neurons will fire to actuate the muscles.

We applied an optogenetic neuron cell culture, derived from mouse stem cells, adjacent to the muscle tissue, Saif said. The neurons advanced towards the muscle and formed neuromuscular junctions, and the swimmer assembled on its own.

After confirming that the neuromuscular tissue was compatible with their synthetic biobot skeletons, the team worked to optimize the swimmers abilities.

We used computational models, led by mechanical science and engineering professor Mattia Gazzola, to determine which physical attributes would lead to the fastest and most efficient swimming, Saif said. For example, we looked at variations in the number of tails and tail lengths for most efficient design of the biohybrid swimmer.

Given the fact that biological actuators, or biobots, are not as mature as other technologies, they are unable to produce large forces. This makes their movement hard to control," Gazzola said. "It is very important to carefully design the scaffold the biobots grow around and interact with to make the most out of technology and achieve locomotive functions. The computer simulations we run play a critical role in this task as we can span a number of possible designs and select only the most promising ones for testing in real life.

The ability to drive muscle activity with neurons paves the way for further integration of neural units within biohybrid systems, Saif said. Given our understanding of neural control in animals, it may be possible to move forward with biohybrid neuromuscular design by using a hierarchical organization of neural networks.

Saif said he and his team envision this advance leading to the development of multicellular engineered living systems with the ability to respond intelligently to environmental cues for applications in bioengineering, medicine and self-healing materials technologies.

However, the team acknowledges that like living organisms no two biohybrid machines will develop to be exactly the same.

Just like twins are not truly identical, two machines designed to perform the same function will not be the same," Saif said. "One may move faster or heal from damage differently from the other a unique attribute of living machines.

The National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center Emergent Behavior for Integrated Cellular Systems and NSF's Emergent Frontiers in Research and Innovation grant supported this research.

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