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Investigating the Human Intestinal Mucus Barrier Up-close and Personal – Technology Networks

§ December 4th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Investigating the Human Intestinal Mucus Barrier Up-close and Personal – Technology Networks

We have a mutualistic but complicated relationship with the collection of microbes in our gut, known as the intestinal microbiome. This complex community of bacteria breaks down different food components, and releases nutrients such as vitamins and a plethora of other factors that control functions in tissues way beyond the intestinal tract. However, the sheer numbers of microbes also present a threat as they can trigger inflammation, which is thought to be at the root of many intestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, radiation-induced intestinal injury, and some cancers.

To allow the uptake of beneficial substances from the gut lumen, and at the same time prevent gut microbes from contacting the intestinal epithelial tissue surface, specialized cells called goblet cells continuously produce mucus, the slimy goo-like substance that coats the entire intestinal surface. Mucus thus far has been notoriously difficult to study: its structure quickly disintegrates in surgically removed sections of the gut, the system most often used to study mucus, and no in vitro culture system has been able to reconstitute an in vivo-like mucus layer with the natural structure seen in living intestine outside the human body. Adding to these difficulties, mucus also differs between humans and other species, different sections of the intestinal tract, and even different individuals.

Now, focusing on the large intestine or colon which houses the greatest number of commensal microbes and has the thickest mucus layer, a team of tissue engineers at Harvards Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering has developed a colon-on-a-chip (Colon Chip) microfluidic culture device lined by patient-derived colon cells that spontaneously accumulates a mucus layer with the thickness, bi-layered structure, and barrier functions typically found in normal human colon. The mucosal surface in their model also responds to the inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by mounting a rapid swelling response. Their findings are published in Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

Our approach provides researchers with the opportunity to find answers to questions about normal and disease-associated mucus biology, such as its contributions to intestinal inflammatory diseases and cancers, and complex host-microbiome interactions, said Founding Director Donald Ingber, M.D., Ph.D., who is the senior investigator on the study. Importantly, we use patient-derived cells to line these devices and so this represents an entirely new approach for personalized medicine where it can be possible to study how mucus functions or dysfunctions in a particular patient, and to tailor therapy accordingly.

Ingber is also the Judah Folkman Professor of Vascular Biology at Harvard Medical School and the Vascular Biology Program at Boston Childrens Hospital, as well as Professor of Bioengineering at Harvards John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences. His team is part of a multi-institutional collaboration supported by a Cancer Research UK Grand Challenge grant in which his Wyss team investigates how inflammation-related changes contribute to formation of cancers, including colon cancers. The Grand Challenge is an ambitious international cancer research initiative, supporting world-leading teams of scientists to take on some of the toughest challenges in cancer, and giving them the freedom to try novel approaches at scale.

The teams approach starts out with patient-derived colon cells from colon resections and endoscopic biopsies that are first grown as organoids, tiny organized balls of colon tissue that contain mainly epithelial stem cells. After fragmenting the organoids, their cells are used to populate the upper of a two parallel channels of a microfluidic chip that are separated by a porous membrane. Simply by perfusing the channels continuously with nutrient medium, the colon stem cells grow into a continuous sheet and form highly functional goblet cells that secrete mucus.

Growing the cells on-chip under flow results in about 15% of epithelial cells spontaneously differentiating into goblet cells. Distributed throughout the epithelium, these produce an in vivo-like mucus layer, said first-author Alexandra Sontheimer-Phelps, a graduate student from the University of Freiburg, Germany, working in Ingbers group. At the same time, other epithelial cells that keep dividing also replenish the goblet cell population just like in living colon, which means that the chip can be maintained in steady-state conditions for more than two weeks, which makes it highly useful for longer-term studies.

The Wyss team showed that the colon epithelium in the chip is fully polarized with distinct markers restricted to its lumen-exposed, mucus-secreting side and its opposite membrane-binding side. Its goblet cells secrete the major mucus protein mucin 2 (MUC2), which when linked to complex chains of sugar molecules, assembles into multi-molecular network or gel that takes up water. Our approach actually produces the bi-layered structure of normal colon mucus with an inner dense layer that we show is impenetrable to bacteria-mimicking particles flowed through the intestinal channel, and a more loose outer layer that allows particles to enter. This has never been accomplished before in vitro, said Sontheimer-Phelps.

To investigate the functionality of the mucus, she and her co-workers exposed the chip to the inflammatory mediator PGE2. The mucus underwent rapid swelling within minutes and independent of any new mucus secretion, and this process of mucus accumulation can be visualized in living cultures by viewing the chips from the side with dark field illumination. This dynamic response could be blocked by inhibiting one particular ion channel, which pumps ions into the colon epithelium and passively allow water molecules to follow and apparently, this drives mucus swelling when stimulated by signals such as PGE2.

Mucus has long been thought to be a passive, host barrier, but it is becoming increasingly clear that microbial species affect its structure and function in addition to feeding on its carbohydrates as an energy source. Our in vitro system brings us one step closer to figuring out how individual bacterial species and more complex microbial communities can affect mucus and vice versa, as well as how this complex interplay impacts development of intestinal diseases. We also now have a testbed to discover new therapeutic drug and probiotic strategies that might prevent or reverse these diseases said Ingber.

Reference:Sontheimer-Phelps, A., Chou, D. B., Tovaglieri, A., Ferrante, T. C., Duckworth, T., Fadel, C., Ingber, D. E. (2019). Human colon-on-a-chip enables continuous in vitro analysis of colon mucus layer accumulation and physiology. Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmgh.2019.11.008

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Increase in the Adoption of Air Filter to Propel the Growth of the Air Filter Market Between 2017 – 2025 – Hitz Dairies

§ December 4th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Increase in the Adoption of Air Filter to Propel the Growth of the Air Filter Market Between 2017 – 2025 – Hitz Dairies

Trade Intelligence Record on the International Air Filter Market

Transparency Market Analysis, in a lately printed marketplace find out about, gives treasured insights similar to the total dynamics of the Air Filter marketplace in the present situation. Additional, the file assesses the long run possibilities of the Air Filter by way of examining the more than a few marketplace parts together with the present developments, alternatives, restraints, and marketplace drivers.

As in line with the file, the Air Filter marketplace is ready to develop at a CAGR of ~XX% over the forecast duration (2019-2029) and exceed a worth of ~US$ XX by way of the finish of 2029. The file means that important growth in generation, rising investments in opposition to R&D initiatives, and onset of leading edge answers are some of the number one components which are anticipated to pressure the enlargement of the Air Filter marketplace right through the evaluate duration.

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Regional Panorama

The offered file gives a microscopic view of the marketplace situation in other areas. The political and financial atmosphere are totally assessed to supply readability on the enlargement possibilities of the Air Filter marketplace in each and every regional marketplace.

Aggressive Panorama

This bankruptcy of the file tracks the industry possibilities of distinguished marketplace gamers working in the Air Filter marketplace. The earnings enlargement, marketplace proportion, product portfolio, pricing, gross sales, and advertising methods of each and every corporate is mentioned in the file.

Automobile Sort Overview

The file supplies vital knowledge pertaining to the adoption of the Air Filter in other cars together with:

Segmentation

The equine healthcare marketplace has been widely analyzed on foundation of the product kind (medication, vaccines and supplemental feed components), illness kind and distribution channel, and geography. The marketplace by way of product kind is additional segmented as medication, vaccines and supplemental feed components. The medicine sub-section is assessed into anti-infectives, anti-inflmmatory, paracititidis and others while the vaccines sub-section is classified into inactivated, are living attenuated, recombinant and others. Moreover, the supplemental feed components kind sub-section is segmented into minerals, nutrients, proteins and amino acids, enzyme, others. The distribution channel section has been categorized into veterinary hospitals and clinics, retail pharmacies and drug retail outlets and others. Moreover, the marketplace by way of illness kind is assessed into west nile virus, equine rabies, potomac horse fever, tetanus, equine influenza, equine herpes virus, equine encephalomyelitis, others.

By means of geography, the equine healthcare marketplace has been segmented into North The us, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin The us and Center East & Africa. Additionally, research for the primary international locations comprising U.S. Canada, Germany, U.Okay., France, Spain, Italy, Japan, China, India, Australia and New Zealand, Brazil, Mexico, GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) and South Africa have additionally been supplied in the file. An in depth qualitative research of the components answerable for riding and restraining the enlargement of the equine healthcare marketplace in more than a few areas were supplied in this segment. This file additionally contains more than a few united states of americaand downs about specific nation or geography that has impacted the total marketplace globally.

International Equine Healthcare Market: Aggressive Dynamics

The file supplies an in depth define/blueprint of the equine healthcare marketplace globally that may lend a hand new corporations in organising their presence and marketplace gamers in increasing their marketplace proportion in the marketplace. The file concludes with the corporate profile segment which contains corporate evaluate, monetary evaluate, SWOT research, product portfolio, industry methods and up to date trends for marketplace gamers. Outstanding key gamers are Bayer AG (Bayer Animal Well being), Boehringer Ingelheim, Ceva Sant Animale , Eli Lilly and Corporate (Elanco) , EQUINE PRODUCTS UK LTD , Merck & Co. (Merck Animal Well being), Sanofi (Merial), Purina Animal Vitamin LLC., Vetoquinol S.A. and Zoetis.

The world equine healthcare marketplace is segmented as given beneath:

International Equine Healthcare Market, by way of Product Sort

International Equine Healthcare Market, by way of Illness Sort

International Equine Healthcare Market, by way of Distribution Channel

International Equine Healthcare Market, by way of Area

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Key Data that may be drawn from the Air Filter Market Record:

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Taxifolin Market Size in terms of volume and value 2018 – 2028 – Weekly Spy

§ December 4th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Taxifolin Market Size in terms of volume and value 2018 – 2028 – Weekly Spy

Global Taxifolin Market Analysis

The recent report published by TMRR on the global Taxifolin market is an in-depth analysis of the overall prospects of the Taxifolin market in the upcoming years. The data collected from credible primary and secondary sources is accurately represented in the report backed up by relevant figures, graphs, and tables. The report includes a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the various aspects of the market by collecting data from the key participants in the Taxifolin market value chain.

The report reveals that the global Taxifolin market is set to grow at a CAGR of ~XX% over the forecast period (2019-2029) and surpass the value of ~US$XX by the end of 2029. The presented study also includes a thorough analysis of the micro and macroeconomic factors, regulatory framework, and current trends that are expected to influence the growth of the Taxifolin market during the assessment period.

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Taxifolin Market Segmentation

The market study put forward by TMRR segments the global Taxifolin market to offer a microscopic understanding of the various aspects of the Taxifolin market. The Taxifolin market is segmented on the basis of region, product type, end-user, and more.

The study offers a Y-o-Y growth projection of each market segment and sub-segment over the stipulated timeframe of the study.

competitive landscape, global taxifolin market is characterized by the severe demand-supply imbalance. This scenario is resulting in the high price point of taxifolin. Volatility of the raw material availability and prices is projected to play a crucial role in determining taxifolin prices. It is however expected that the demand-supply gap in taxifolin market would narrow down over the next few years, as a result of the entry of a growing number of producers in taxifolin market. To overcome the challenges posed by high demand-low supply scenario governing competitive landscape of the taxifolin market, a majority of manufacturers of taxifolin are focusing on expansion of production facilities to cater to higher demand. Moreover, key players in taxifolin market are concentrating on expansion of the customer base to achieve an edge over immediate competitors in taxifolin market.

Optimization of the operating costs through raw material procurement will reportedly remain another developmental strategy adopted by taxifolin market players, according to research. New entrants however continue to face the challenge imposed by stringent certification prerequisites and strict procurement process requirements set for manufacturing and processing of taxifolin.

However, it has been observed that new market entry aspirants generally prefer Chinese taxifolin market owing to the cost benefit associated with raw material and labor. China has been one of the top performing taxifolin markets, and the demand is likely to remain concentrated in multiple application areas including cosmetics. Moreover, improving scope of investment in less-toxic drug development is pushing the number of PPPs in the country, eventually boosting prospects of taxifolin market across China.

Some of the most prominent competitors operating in the competitive landscape of global taxifolin market include

Taxifolin Gathering Traction in Food Fortification & Drug Development Applications

Besides healthcare and F&B, taxifolin finds wide applicability across several other domains such as agriculture, and personal care and cosmetics. The ability of taxifolin to stabilize shelf life of food and beverage products fuels its adoption in F&B applications. Whereas antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial properties of taxifolin push consumption across healthcare industry. Being a natural antioxidant, taxifolin continues to witness extensive adoption by drug manufacturers as well. The most prominent application segments in F&B industry that are likely to contribute to the growth of taxifolin market include confectionary, alcoholic beverages, dairy, and meat processing.

Highest Adoption Potential Resides in Cancer Research

Increasing prevalence of cancers is one of the predominant factors boosting adoption of taxifolin in the medical industry. Apart from developed countries, developing economies have been witnessing rapid expansion of population with a type of cancer in recent years, which is a key factor accelerating the expansion of taxifolin market in emerging Asian and Middle Eastern countries.

As taxifolin is a proven potent inhibitor of the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells, taxifolin manufacturers are projected to discover lucrative consumption opportunities in the world of medicine, in coming years. Moreover, a few derivatives of taxifolin have been proven to hold an inhibitory effect on the growth of breast cancer cells. This is anticipated to be another strong factor pushing taxifolin consumption among cancer research institutes. With proven anti-proliferative effect on murine skin fibroblasts, taxifolin is expected to explore consumption opportunities across research centers in the near future.

Russia Remains the Production Hub for Taxifolin Market

In terms of production, Europe has been the top taxifolin producer, globally. Russian market especially holds a substantial share in the taxifolin landscape owing to widespread availability of a variety of conifers, which are the primary raw material for taxifolin production. Being a prominent cultivator of Siberian and Dahurian larch, Russia continues to remain at the forefront of taxifolin production, according to research.

Taxonomy: Global Taxifolin Market

By purity level, taxifolin market is divided into two key segments

Based on application, global taxifolin market is classified into

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Taxifolin Market Size in terms of volume and value 2018 - 2028 - Weekly Spy

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Robust Growth Of The Nanomedicine Market Predicted Over The Forecast Period 2013 – 2019 – Hitz Dairies

§ December 4th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Robust Growth Of The Nanomedicine Market Predicted Over The Forecast Period 2013 – 2019 – Hitz Dairies

Newest Learn about at the International Nanomedicine Market

The lately printed record via Transparency Market Analysis at the world Nanomedicine marketplace provides resourceful insights referring to the long run possibilities of the Nanomedicine marketplace. The underlying developments, enlargement alternatives, impeding elements, and evident marketplace drivers are totally studied within the introduced record.

As in keeping with the record, the worldwide Nanomedicine marketplace is projected to develop at a CAGR of ~XX% and exceed the worth of ~US$ against the tip of 2029. Additionally, an in-intensity research of the micro and macro-financial elements which are expected to steer the trajectory of the Nanomedicine marketplace all through the forecast length (2019-2029) is integrated within the record.

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Nanomedicine Market Segments

A radical analysis of the long run possibilities of the Nanomedicine marketplace throughout more than a few areas is tracked within the record.

segmentation, and demanding situations out there were mentioned at duration within the analysis record.

Review of the Cloud Computing Market in Healthcare Trade

As in keeping with the analysis record, the worldwide marketplace for cloud computing within the healthcare business used to be valued at US$1.82 bn in 2011 and is projected to succeed in a worth of US$6.79 bn via the tip of 2018. The marketplace is projected to sign up a exceptional 21.30% CAGR between 2012 and 2018.

The safety of get entry to and knowledge integrity and several other different advantages presented via cloud computing are estimated to inspire the expansion of the marketplace in the following couple of years. Alternatively, information leakage considerations, information integration and consistency, and knowledge relocation are one of the key elements estimated to restrain the expansion of the worldwide cloud computing marketplace within the healthcare business in the following couple of years.

At the moment, the instrument-as-a-provider phase leads the worldwide cloud computing marketplace within the healthcare business. However, the platform-as-a-provider phase is estimated to witness considerable enlargement within the coming years. Moreover, at the foundation of finish use, the non-scientific knowledge techniques marketplace is projected to guide the worldwide marketplace within the close to long run.

A number of the key geographical segments, North The usa is estimated develop at a swift tempo and account for an enormous proportion within the world marketplace for cloud computing within the healthcare business in the following couple of years. The top enlargement of this area may also be attributed to the presence of numerous biopharmaceutical gamers. As well as, the emerging focal point on analysis and construction actions is anticipated to give a contribution widely against the expansion of the marketplace.

Firms Discussed within the Analysis Document

The world marketplace for cloud computing within the healthcare business is very fragmented in nature as no key gamers grasp greater than a proportion of 10% out there at this time. CareCloud, ClearDATA Networks, Oracle Company, Microsoft, Agfa Healthcare, IBM Company, and Merge Healthcare are one of the key gamers running within the world cloud computing marketplace within the healthcare business.

Key Segments of the International Cloud Computing marketplace in Healthcare Trade

International Cloud Computing marketplace in Healthcare Trade, via provider fashions

International Cloud Computing marketplace in Healthcare Trade, via pricing fashions

International Cloud Computing marketplace in Healthcare Trade, via finish customers

International Cloud Computing marketplace in Healthcare Trade, via Geography

This record provides you with get entry to to decisive information equivalent to:

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MRI Scans Pick Up Brain Abnormalities of Depression – Healthline

§ December 3rd, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on MRI Scans Pick Up Brain Abnormalities of Depression – Healthline

Share on PinterestExperts say MRI scans are helping medical professionals better understand changes in the brains of people with depression. Getty Images

MRI scans may be able to detect physical and functional changes in the brain that could be markers for major depression.

Two new studies presented at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) may also point to new pathways for future research and therapy.

Researchers, led by Kenneth Wengler, PhD, a postdoctoral researcher at Columbia University in New York, say they discovered that people with major depression have less water move across their blood-brain barrier, particularly in the amygdala and the hippocampus, than those who didnt have major depression.

The new biomarker for depression was discovered using an MRI technique, developed by Wengler and colleagues at the Renaissance School of Medicine at Stony Brook University in New York, called intrinsic diffusivity encoding of arterial labeled spins (IDEALS).

We observed disruption of the blood-brain barrier in gray matter regions known to be altered in major depressive disorder, Wengler said in a press statement.

In the second study, scientists used MRI techniques to look for depression-related abnormalities in the connectome the web of neural connections in the brain.

Researchers from the Image Display, Enhancement, and Analysis (IDEA) group at the University of North Carolina (UNC) say that people with major depression had abnormal patterns of excitation and inhibition at the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex of the brain.

This part of the brain helps govern cognitive control. This includes the regulation of the amygdala, which is involved in expression of emotion.

This suggests that control functions in [major depressive disorder] are impaired, which may lead to elevated responses in the amygdala, resulting in increased anxiety and other negative moods, Guoshi Li, PhD, a research associate at UNC and study co-author, said in a press statement.

The finding supports the longstanding theory that malfunctioning control over the amygdala could result in depressive symptoms.

The UNC study also found that recurrent excitation in the thalamus, an area of the central brain thats also responsible for emotional regulation, was abnormally elevated in people with major depression.

The UNC researchers used functional MRI (fMRI) scans and a new multiscale neural model inversion framework that looked at the brains microscopic circuitry in context with its larger-scale interactions.

This method allows us to identify impaired connectivity within each brain region, making it a potentially more powerful tool to study the neuromechanism of brain disorders and develop more effective diagnosis and treatment, Li said.

Neither study has been published yet in a peer-reviewed journal, but experts say the results are promising.

Psychiatric disorders such as depression arent associated with radiologically visible lesions on structural MRI [such as those indicative of a stroke], but more advanced MRI methods capable of measuring brain physiology are starting to show promise, John A. Detre, MD, professor of neurology and radiology and founding director of the Center for Functional Neuroimaging at Penn Medicine, told Healthline.

If validated, these methods can be used to better understand and differentiate the mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders, evaluate treatment effects, and ultimately facilitate clinical diagnosis and management, he said.

Major depression is both common and can be severe.

About 7 percent of people in the United States, or about 17 million adults, have had at least one major depressive episode in their lifetime.

Symptoms include feelings of hopelessness, diminished interest in daily activities, and fatigue.

But understanding the brain changes associated with major depression is limited.

Unfortunately, with current treatments, there is a large chance of relapse or recurrence, Wengler said. To develop new, more effective treatments, we must improve our understanding of the disorder.

David Feifel, MD, director of the Kadima Neuropsychiatry Institute in La Jolla, California, told Healthline that MRI and other forms of brain imaging are widely viewed as playing a major role in the future of psychiatry in the diagnosing of major depression and picking out the right treatment for patients.

However, right now its biggest utility is to help us understand the parts of the brain that arent functioning the right way in people with depression, he said.

Some imaging studies have preliminarily associated certain patterns of change with more optimal forms of treatment, Feifel says.

But he cautioned: People get deceived by some psychiatrists who tell them that they can take an image of their brain and tell them what disease they have and what medications they need. I dont think anyone doubts that will be true in the not so distant future, but it isnt true now.

Imaging has driven major advances in the understanding of how depression affects the brain, Ben Spielberg, the founder and CEO of TMS and Brain Health, a treatment program in Santa Monica, California, told Healthline.

PET scans were the first to show metabolic changes in the prefrontal cortex among people with depression. Later, MRIs revealed that people with depression had a hippocampus volume 10 percent lower than people who didnt have depression.

Thats a pretty substantial impairment, Spielberg said.

Functional MRI scans have revealed overactivity in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, a part of the brain involved in feelings of sadness.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive form of depression treatment based on this research.

Approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2008, TMS creates a localized magnetic field that depolarizes neurons in the left prefrontal cortex.

This reactivates parts of the brain subdued by depression, allowing the prefrontal cortex to resume its role in regulating other parts of brain affected by the condition.

TMS is used for cases of depression that dont respond to treatment with SSRI antidepressant drugs or cognitive behavioral therapy.

Both of the new studies were relatively small in scale.

Wenglers research focused on a group of 14 people with major depression and a control group of 14, while the study from Li and colleagues involved 66 adults with major depression and 66 healthy controls.

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It is alive: Meagan Moore melds art and science by painting with live bacteria – The Advocate

§ December 3rd, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on It is alive: Meagan Moore melds art and science by painting with live bacteria – The Advocate

It. Is. Alive!

Literally.

Meagan Moore's art is filled with bacteria. Living, breathing bacteria.

"I draw it by hand or draw it on the computer, then paint it with bacteria in the petri dish," Moore said of her work in thegroup show "Metis-Muses: Women of Art Through Science, running through Jan. 21 at The Healthcare Gallery & Wellness Spa.

Sometimes she has to replace the microscopic organisms or they will fade, and Moore wants to show a clear representation of bees, marine life and a woman's internal organs.

Painting with bacteria sounds a little odd, but it isn't revolutionary.

Moore's research revealed that Alexander Fleming, who discovered penicillin, also dabbled in bacteria art.

"He would actually do some art on petri dishes," Moore said. "I was doing bacteria art on the side, and I was also doing studio art, a combination of ceramics, printmaking and graphic design. It kind of felt natural to me to start using the bacteria, and I thought, 'This could be fun.' "

And though Moore hasn't yet discovered a life-saving medicine, her melding of art and science has helped guide her research as she pursues her degree in biological engineering at LSU.

"I'vealways been an artist and a scientist, even when I was just using art to explain science and science to explain art to other people or just to make it make sense to me," Moore said. "I would write poetry about the scientific concepts or make a little art piece to explain how an enzyme was going through certain pathways. It's definitely a mechanism of how I understand one with the other."

Now her two worlds can be observed in this all-female group show, which also features work byTaryn Moller, Chicory Miles, Amanda Morris and Mary Ratcliff. The exhibit was put together by the gallery's curator, Rodneyna Hart, who also is division director of the Capitol Park Museum.

"Rodneyna and I became friends when I was in a small, college art gallery show," Moore said. "She was the judge, and a little while ago, she said, 'I want to put you in a gallery.' She said it was going to be her last show at the Healthcare Gallery, and it was going to be art based around science."

At the center of Moore's show is her design of Marie, a 3D-printed, 5-foot-1-inch purple model used for cancer radiation therapy research.

The life-size Marie is accompanied by a Cancer Mandala, featuring a smaller model of Marie in front of a mandala, a geometric figure representing the universe in Hindu and Buddhist symbolism. Cancer Mandala combines data Moore collected from the various particle accelerators used in her research with histological image samples of different types of cancer.

Mandalas are made by monks to guide practitioners to enlightenment and are often painted, woven, made of sand and sometimes 3D, Moore said. The destruction of the sand mandala is a highly ceremonial process, where the piece is parted out and released back into nature. Similarly, certain cancer treatments literally and metaphorically take a person apart or remove the cellular issues manifesting within the physical form.

Moore's Apoptosis piece analyzes cell death. The central focus is an apoptosome, a large protein structure formed in the process of cell death. The circular facets of this mandala are composed of the genetic code of the apoptosome.

Moore credits Baton Rouge Community College microbiology Professor Mary Miller, St. Joseph's Academy's STEM Director Claire Luikart and local businesswoman Cathlin Disotell with helping her on these pieces.

In between these pieces, bacteria depicts the systems within a woman's body in Moore's "Vituvian Woman;" different species of bees in "The Most Important Species on Earth" and marine life to emphasize the importance of the ocean in "Thalassoplasso."

And the bacteria thrives, breathing life into the science of Moore's art.

The gallery, located at 3488 Brentwood Drive, is open 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. Monday through Friday.

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Scientists use ultrasound to open brain barrier to treating Alzheimers – Herald Publicist

§ December 3rd, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Scientists use ultrasound to open brain barrier to treating Alzheimers – Herald Publicist

Printed: 05:34 EST, three December 2019 | Up to date: 05:34 EST, three December 2019

Scientists have taken a step towards treating Alzheimers by getting access to hard-to-reach areas of the mind that they consider medicine to restore the illnesss injury want to focus on, a brand new research reveals.

There may be at the moment no efficient remedy and solely minimally helpful remedies for the devastating memory-loss illness.

One of the vital challenges to treating Alzheimers is the blood-brain barrier, a blockade of dense cells and blood vessels too stable for many drug molecules to go by way of.

However utilizing a specialised ultrasound approach, researchers at West Virginia College had been in a position to loosen the weave of the barrier briefly and safely in three Alzheimers sufferers.

Although the researchers arent but delivering medicine to the reminiscence areas theyll now attain, theres some proof the ultrasound itself might assist to cut back Alzheimers plaques.

Researchers used an ultrasound helmet to briefly loosen the blood-brain that blocks Alzheimers remedies from reaching reminiscence facilities within the mind (file)

We had been in a position to open the blood-brain barrier in a really exact method and doc closure of the barrier inside 24 hours, stated Dr Rashi Mehta, research co-author.

The approach was reproduced efficiently within the sufferers, with no adversarial results.

Dr Mehta and his group used an revolutionary helmet outfitted with over 1,000 exactly positioned nodes that ship ultrasound waves into the heads of sufferers.

Theyre angled and positioned optimally to focus on areas of the mind which can be crucial to reminiscence.

For the trial, the group recruited three girls ages 61, 72 and 73 all of whom had early-onset Alzheimers, together with indicators of the illness referred to as amyloid plaques.

Though the precise trigger and pathology of Alzheimers illness, these plaques, made up of irregular protein buildup, are thought to successfully clog the mind, damaging mind cells by consuming away at their protecting coating.

However the areas the place these plaques kind in Alzheimers illness are very troublesome to achieve.

Ultrasound waves can penetrate far additional into tissues with out doing injury than can gentle waves.

The secure, low-intensity waves produce sufficient light warmth to control cells on this case loosening the dense blood mind barrier.

The researchers additionally gave the individuals injections of a particular distinction dye that contained microscopic bubbles.

Whereas delivering the ultrasound pulses, the sufferers had been positioned in an MRI machine, photos from which confirmed the bubbles reaching the goal areas of the mind and altering form and dimension, confirming that the ultrasound waves had reached their vacation spot.

Inside 24 hours, the openings the ultrasound therapy had made within the blood-brain barrier had closed again up, an vital ingredient of the processs security.

Finally, this system may enable the supply of Alzheimers medicine.

However already, animal research have instructed that the ultrasound therapy itself might kick begin an immune response that tells the mind to wash up the waste proteins which have constructed up in amyloid plaques.

It is too quickly to say whether or not the three girls reaped any such advantages, however simply the demonstration that the process and reaches its goal is a substantial step in the fitting course.

We might prefer to deal with extra sufferers and research the long-term results to see if there are enhancements in reminiscence and signs related to Alzheimers illness, Dr Mehta stated.

As security is additional clarified, the following step could be to make use of this strategy to assist ship scientific medicine.

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Scientists use ultrasound to open brain barrier to treating Alzheimers - Herald Publicist

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Why the World Needs Bloodsucking Creatures | Science – Smithsonian

§ December 3rd, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Why the World Needs Bloodsucking Creatures | Science – Smithsonian

In a sprawling gallery of the Royal Ontario Museum, curators and technicians crowded around two large coolers that had recently arrived at the Toronto institution. Wriggling inside the containers were live sea lampreys, eel-like creatures that feed by clamping onto the bodies of other fish, puncturing through their skin with tooth-lined tongues, and sucking out their victims blood and bodily fluids. Staff members, their hands protected with gloves, carefully lifted one of the lampreys and plopped it into a tall tank. It slithered through the water, tapping on the glass walls with its gaping mouth, rings of fearsome teeth on full view.

Having explored its new environment, the lamprey settled onto the pebbles at the bottom of the tank. It will remain on display until March as part of a new exhibition exploring the oft-reviled critters that bite, pierce, scrape and saw their way through flesh to access their favorite food source: blood.

The exhibition, called Bloodsuckers, includes displays of other live animalsmosquitoes, ticks and leechesinterspersed throughout the gallery. And dozens of preserved specimens, arrayed down a long, curving wall, offer a glimpse into the diverse world of the roughly 30,000 species of bloodthirsty organisms across the globe. Among these critters are vampire moths, which can pierce the thick skins of buffalo and elephants. Vampire snails target sick and dying fish, making for easier prey. The oxpecker birds of Africa pluck ticks and other insects off large mammalsand then slurp blood from their hosts sores.

Sebastian Kvist, curator of invertebrates at the Royal Ontario Museum and co-curator of the exhibition, knows that these animals are likely to make some visitors shudder. But to him, blood-feeders are the loveliest of organisms, the result of a refined evolutionary process. Leeches are a particular favorite of Kvists, and his research focuses on the evolution of blood-feeding behavior, or hematophagy, in these predatory worms. Sometimes he even affectionately lets the leeches in his lab gorge themselves on his blood.

When you have live animals in your care, they demand some respect, he says. I think that it is giving back to the leech what we're getting from them to donate our warm blood.

Bloodsuckers opens in a corridor bathed in red light, where an installation featuring three strands of red blood cells dangles from the ceiling. Blood is a hugely abundant food source, so it makes sense that wherever vertebrates exist, animals would arise to steal their life-sustaining fluids. Blood-feeding likely evolved repeatedly over the course of our planets historyperhaps as many as 100 times, according to Kvist. Bloodsucking creatures have no common ancestor, as the behavior has cropped up independently in birds, bats, insects, fish and other animal groupsa testament to its evolutionary value.

I can think of no other system thats [so] intricate that has evolved separately, Kvist says. And it makes blood-feeding as a behavior even more beautiful.

Subsisting on a blood-heavy diet is tricky, however, and relatively few creatures have managed to retain this ability over time. Thirty thousand [bloodsuckers] out of the roughly 1.5 or 1.6 million species [of animals] that have been described is a very, very small number, Kvist says. But it turns out that being able to feed on blood puts tremendous strain on your physiology, on your morphology, and on your behavior.

For one, blood lacks B vitamins, which all animals require to convert food into energy. Many bloodsuckers thus host microscopic bacteria inside their bodies to provide these essential nutrients. Because blood is so iron-rich, its toxic to most animals in large amounts, but habitual blood-feeders have evolved to break it down.

Getting to the blood of a living creature is no mean feat either. Blood-feeding organisms have different ways of accessing their preferred snack. Mosquitoes, for instance, pierce the skin with their long, thin mouthparts, while certain biting flies boast serrated jaws that slash through flesh. But all of these methods risk being met with a deft swat from the host. To counteract this problem, some blood-feeders, like leeches, have mild anesthetics in their saliva, which help them go unnoticed as they feed. Certain creatures like vampire bats, lampreys and leeches also produce anticoagulants to keep their victims blood flowing, sometimes even after theyre done eating.

A leech feeds five times its body weight in blood, up to ten times sometimes, Kvist says. If that blood congealed or clotted inside its body, then the leech would fall to the bottom [of the water] like a brick.

Kvist and Doug Currie, the Royal Ontario Museums senior curator of entomology and co-curator of the exhibition, hope museum visitors gain a newfound appreciation for the elegance of bloodsucking organisms. Humans share a long and complicated relationship with blood-feeders. Leeches, for instance, were once seen as a life-saving force, and are in fact still used by medical experts today after certain types of surgery that overfull parts of the body with blood. But at the same time, we are unnerved by creatures that steal blooda wariness that has persisted for centuries, as suggested by the fearsome bloodsuckers that populate folklore traditions around the world.

A natural history and culture institution, the Royal Ontario Museum also explores how blood-feeding, a trait that exists in nature, has crept into the human imagination and morphed into something fantastical. Monsters abound within the gallery. There are models of the chupacabra, a beast rumored to drain livestock of their blood, and the yara-ma-yha-who, which originated in the oral traditions of Australia and boasts blood suckers on its fingers and toes.

These creatures do not directly resemble any real blood-feeding animal. Instead, they speak to our innate fear of something taking our life force, says Courtney Murfin, the interpretive planner who worked with curators to craft the exhibitions narrative.

Dracula, arguably the most famous of all the fictional bloodsuckers, may have a more tangible connection to the natural world. Legends of vampires predate Bram Stokers 1897 novelvisitors can see a first edition copy of the book at the exhibitionbut the notion that these undead beings could transform into bats originated with Dracula. Vampire bats, which live in Mexico and Central and South America, feed on the blood of mammals and birds. They were first described in 1810 and documented by Charles Darwin in 1839. The animals may have influenced Stokers supernatural count.

Depictions of vampires in todays popular culture run the gamut from cool to sexy to goofy. We can have fun with them now, Murfin says, because we know they arent real. But when vampire lore arose in eastern Europe in the early 1700s, the beasts were a source of true terror. Confusion about normal traits observed in decomposing bodies, like swollen stomachs and blood in the mouth, led to the belief that corpses could rise from their graves to feast on the blood of the living.

They started digging up graves and staking the people to the ground so they couldn't stand up at night, Kvist says.

Fears about losing their blood to vampires did not, however, dampen Europeans enthusiasm for bloodletting, an age-old medical practice that sometimes involved applying leeches to the skin. The treatment can be traced back to the ancient world, where it arose from the belief that draining blood helped rebalance the bodys humors: blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile. Bloodletting reached its peak in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, when a leech mania swept across Europe and America. Pharmacies stored the critters in ornate jarsone is on display at the museumand Hirudo medicinalis, or the European medicinal leech, was harvested to the brink of extinction.

Bloodletters also had other ways of getting the job done. One corner of the exhibition is packed with a grisly assortment of artificial bloodletting tools: scarificators, which, with the push of a lever, released multiple blades for opening up the skin; glass cups that were heated and suctioned onto the skin, drawing blood to the surface; smelling salts, in case the procedure proved a bit too overwhelming for the patient.

While medical professionals no longer believe that leeching can cure everything from skin diseases to dental woes, leeches are still valued in medicine today. Hirudin, the anticoagulant in leech saliva, is unrivalled in its strength, according to Kvist. Its synthesized in labs and given to patients in pills and topological creams to treat deep vein thrombosis and prevent strokes. Leeches themselves make appearances in hospitals. Theyre helpful to doctors who perform skin grafts or reattachments of fingers, toes and other extremities. Newly stitched arteries heal more quickly than veins, so blood that is being pumped into the reattached area doesnt flow back into the body, which can in turn prevent healing.

Stick a leech on, and it will relieve that congestion of the veins, says Kvist, who also studies the evolution of anticoagulants in leeches.

Earlier this year, Kvist received a call from Parks Canada asking for help with an unusual conundrum. A man had been apprehended at Torontos Pearson International Airport with nearly 4,800 live leeches packed into his carry-on luggage, and officials needed help identifying the critters. Kvist took a look at some of the leeches, which appeared to have been smuggled from Russia, and pinpointed them as Hirudo verbana. Because they are threatened by over-harvesting, this species is listed by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna, meaning it cannot be transported without a permit. Just what the man was doing with the bloodsuckers is unclear, but Kvist says he claimed to sell them for New Age medicinal purposes.

There is a larger-than-we-think underground network of people that use leeches to treat a variety of ailments, Kvist says. The Royal Ontario Museum took in around 300 of the contraband critters, and a few dozen are presently lounging in a display tank at Bloodsuckers.

While leeches have long been valued for their healing propertiesscientifically valid or otherwisesome bloodsuckers are better known for their ability to transmit serious illnesses. Certain species of mosquito, for instance, spread West Nile, Zika and malaria. Ticks transmit Lyme disease. The exhibition does not shy away from exploring the dangers associated with blood-feeders, and it offers advice on how to protect yourself from infection.

Some fears are real, Kvist says. Disease, unfortunately, is a necessary consequence of blood-feeding.

Most blood-feeding animals, though, do not pose a serious threat to humans. In fact, bloodsuckers are vital to the health of our planet. Mosquitoes are an important food source for birds. Fish eat leeches. Even sea lampreys, which are invasive to the Great Lakes, can bring essential nutrients to the aquatic habitats where they spawn. And like all species, blood-feeders contribute to the Earths biodiversitya richness of life that is fast declining due to factors like pollution, climate change and habitat degradation.

Many, many animal groups need to be part of conversations regarding biodiversity, Kvist says, but he and his colleagues opted to spotlight the bloodthirsty ones. The museum hopes to help visitors feel more comfortable living alongside these animalseven if they arent willing to volunteer an arm for a leechs next meal.

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Colorectal Cancer Diagnostics Market Analysis Of Growth, Trends Progress And Challenges Till Upcoming Year 2017 to 2022 – The Market Expedition

§ December 3rd, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Colorectal Cancer Diagnostics Market Analysis Of Growth, Trends Progress And Challenges Till Upcoming Year 2017 to 2022 – The Market Expedition

Business Intelligence Report on the Colorectal Cancer Diagnostics Market

Fact.MR, in a recently published market study, offers valuable insights related to the overall dynamics of the Colorectal Cancer Diagnostics Market in the current scenario. Further, the report assesses the future prospects of the Colorectal Cancer Diagnostics by analyzing the various market elements including the current trends, opportunities, restraints, and market drivers.

As per the report, the Colorectal Cancer Diagnostics Market is set to grow at a CAGR of ~XX% over the forecast period 2017 to 2022 and exceed a value of ~US$ XX by the end of 2029. The report suggests that significant progress in technology, growing investments towards R&D projects, and increasing awareness related to curbing industrial waste are some of the primary factors that are expected to drive the growth of the Colorectal Cancer Diagnostics Market during the assessment period 2017 to 2022.

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The presented report offers a microscopic view of the market scenario in different regions. The political and economic environment are thoroughly assessed to provide clarity on the growth prospects of the Colorectal Cancer Diagnostics market in each regional market.

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Electroplating method makes conductive nanostraws for injecting into and sampling from cells – Chemical & Engineering News

§ December 3rd, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Electroplating method makes conductive nanostraws for injecting into and sampling from cells – Chemical & Engineering News

Credit: ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces

An array of platinum nanostraws can be used to deliver molecules to cells or sample their contents.

Hollow nanosized needles, or nanostraws, are a promising tool for opening up tiny, temporary holes in cell membranes to deliver molecules or sample a cells contents. Nanostraws could also deliver gene editors into cells for immunotherapy, cutting the need to use costly viruses for the job. But making nanostraws requires expensive manufacturing equipment in a clean room facility, and using nanostraws often requires applying a high voltage in order to open up the cell membrane. Now, researchers have developed a more affordable fabrication approach that can be done in an ordinary lab. Whats more, the new nanostraws are conductive, thus lowering the amount of voltage needed to levels less likely to damage cells (ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2019, DOI: 10.1021/acsami.9b15619).

Researchers made earlier iterations of nanostraws with atomic layer deposition (ALD), which grows thin films of materials such as metal oxides one layer of atoms at a time. In their new approach, Xi Xie of Sun Yat-Sen University and colleagues replaced ALD with electroplating, a simple process which uses an electrical potential to deposit ions in a solution onto a surface.

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They first sputtered a thin layer of gold on the bottom surface of a polycarbonate template containing an array of pores in order to make a conductive base layer. Then they electroplated platinum, gold, or the conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)three common materials used in electrophysiology studiesfrom the top. The materials lined the pores of the template, creating the hollow nanostraws. The team then used mechanical polishing and oxygen plasma etching to remove the polycarbonate template, revealing an array of vertical nanostraws, each a few hundred nanometers in diameter. According to Xie, their method can work with templates of various pore sizes or pore densities, or with other plating materials.

Ciro Chiappini, a nanomedicine researcher at Kings College London, says this study is a needed and significant step toward developing affordable nanostraws.

Using a representative platinum nanostraw array, Xie and colleagues demonstrated that they could deliver a fluorescent dye into cultured human cells and extract intracellular materials to examine how the levels of an enzyme changed over time.

The conductivity of the new nanostraws allowed the researchers to open tiny pores in the cell membrane by applying a voltage of only 35 V, a safer range for cells compared with 1020 V needed when using nonconductive nanostraws.

These straws could make cellular treatments such as CAR-T therapy faster, safer, and cheaper, says Nicholas A. Melosh, a materials scientist at Stanford University who has done nanostraw research. Typical immunotherapy delivers therapy to a patients immune cells using viruses, which is costly and carries the risk of dangerous immune responses once the cells are put back into the patient, he says. Nanostraws could potentially deliver the necessary therapies to cells without the need for viruses.

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Protein-Protected Metal Nanoclusters That Behave Like Natural Enzymes – Advanced Science News

§ December 3rd, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Protein-Protected Metal Nanoclusters That Behave Like Natural Enzymes – Advanced Science News

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Metal nanoclusters, made up of several to one hundred metal atoms (e.g., Au, Ag, Cu, Pt), are a novel class of intermediate between metal atoms and nanoparticles. As their size (<2 nm) borders on the Fermi wavelength of electrons, metal nanoclusters possess strong photoluminescence in comparison with large metal nanoparticles (>2 nm). This, combined with tunable fluorescence emissions, high photostability, good quantum yields and facile synthesis, make them excellent fluorescent labels for biomedical applications.

However, the reduction of metal ions in liquid solution during synthesis usually causes large nanoparticles rather than small metal nanocluster formation because of their tendency to aggregate. In light of this, proteins whose thiol, amino, and carboxyl groups have a strong affinity for metal atoms are typically used to stabilize metal nanoclusters to protect them from aggregationthese proctected clusters are commonly called protein-protected metal nanoclusters.

Protein-protected metal nanoclusters have excellent biocompatibility and have received considerable attention as a luminescent probe in a number of fields such as biosensing, bioimaging, and imaging-guided therapy. However, apart from unique optical properties, protein-protected metal nanoclusters also possess interesting biological properties such as enzyme-like activity similar to that of natural enzymes; until recently, this has been an overlooked quality that is starting to shine in basic research and practical applications.

Nanozymes is a new termed used to refer to nanomaterials with intrinsic enzyme-like activity. Since professor Yan and coworkers first discovered that nanoparticleswhich are traditionally assumed to be inertpossessed intrinsic enzyme-like activity, a substantial amount of work has focused on further developing and harnessing the advantageous properties of nanozymes, which include high catalytic ability, high stability, and low cost. Nowadays, more than 540 kinds of nanomaterials, which possess intrinsic enzymatic activity, have been reported from 350 laboratories in 30 countries and have been used in biological analysis, environmental treatment, as antibacterial agents, cancer therapy, and antioxidation therapy.

In a recent study published in WIREs Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology, Professor Xiyun Yan and Kelong Fan explore the newly developing field of biologically active protein-protected metal nanoclusters, namely those that possess peroxidase, oxidase, and catalase activities, and are consequently used for biological analysis and environmental treatment.

An intriguing example of this is bovine serum albumin-protected gold (Au) nanoclusters, which exhibit peroxidase enzymatic activity to catalyze the oxidation of colored organic substrates, which is currently carried out using natural peroxidases. This method showed an advantage over the natural peroxidase-based methods because bovine serum albumin-protected Au nanoclusters exhibited higher robustness and retained enzymatic activity over a wide range of pH and temperatures. In another example, lysozyme-protected platinum (Pt) nanoclusters exhibit oxidase enzymatic activity which has been applied to the oxidative degradation of pollutants, such as methylene blue in lake water.

The proteins themselves not only provide protection and stabilization during synthesis, but can also provide a myriad of other functions to the nanoclusters. Proteins have been shown to enable in vivo applications because of their enhanced biocompatibility. In fact, a protease-responsive sensor for in vivo disease monitoring was designed by utilizing the peroxidase activity of peptide-protected Au nanoclusters and their ultra-small size dependent tumor accumulation and renal clearance properties.

The sensor was developed using peptides which are the substrates/targets of disease related proteases as protective ligands to synthesis the Au nanoclusters nanozymes, which were then conjugated to a carrier. After reaching the site of disease, the sensor was disassembled in response to the dysregulated protease and the liberated Au nanoclusters were filtered through the kidneys and into urine to produce a rapid and sensitive colorimetric readout of diseases state. By employing different enzymatic substrate as protective ligands for Au nanoclusters, this modular approach could enable the rapid detection of a diverse range of diseases with dysregulated protease activities such as cancer, inflammation, and thrombosis.

These findings have extended the horizon of protein-protected metal nanoclusters properties as well as their application in various fields, says Kelong Fan. Furthermore, in the field of nanozymes, protein-protected metal nanoclusters have emerged as an outstanding new addition. Due to their ultra-small size (<2 nm), they usually have higher catalytic activity, more suitable size for in vivo application, better biocompatibility and photoluminescence in comparison with large size nanozymes. We think that ultra-small nanozymes based on protein-protected MNCs are on the verge of attracting great interest across various disciplines and will stimulate research in the fields of nanotechnology and biology.

Despite the advantages and advancedprogress in the development of protein-protected metal nanoclusters asultra-small nanozymes, there are still some challenges that need to be addressedin future work.

First, most researchers still only rely on bovine serum albumin as both the reducing agent and stabilizer. Since we know that protein-protected metal nanoclusters may retain the bioactivity of the protein ligand, it is necessary to explore methods for synthesizing other new protein-protected metal nanoclusters, which will widen the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of protein-protected metal nanoclusters nanozymes.

Second, there are six types of catalytic reactions in nature: oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, isomerases, ligases, and lyases. Thus far, although many protein-protected metal nanoclusters have demonstrated enzyme activities they all are oxidoreductase-like activities such as peroxidase, oxidase, and catalase. Therefore, there is a ample room to develop other types of nanozymes based on protein-protected metal nanoclusters. In this regard, more understanding of the structures and catalytic mechanisms of protein-protected metal nanoclusters is required in addition to the deeper understanding on natural enzymes themselves.

Third, a considerable number of reports have suggested that ultra-small nanozymes based on protein-protected metal nanoclusters are promising tools for biological analysis. However, little is known about the therapeutic function of these ultra-small clusters in vivo despite their advantages of suitable size and good biocompatibility. It is well known that peroxidase, oxidase, and catalase are main enzymes in biological systems involved in the maintenance of redox homeostasis. Thus, more attention should be paid to the usage of these ultra-small nanozymes based on protein-protected metal nanoclusters as bio-catalysts in various human diseases involved in redox dysregulation such as cancer, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases. It is also possible to employ the products of redox nanozymes to treat other diseases, for example, use the toxic hydroxyl radicals produced by peroxidase nanozymes to treat bacterial infection.

Overall, there is still much room for future research and application of ultra-small nanozymes based on protein-protected metal nanoclusters. It is expected that the enzyme-like activity of protein-protected metal nanoclusters will certainly attract broader interests across various disciplines and stimulate research in the fields of nanotechnology and biology, making these emerging ultra-small nanozymes become novel multifunctional nanomaterials for a number of biomedical applications.

Kindly contributed by the authors.

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Protein-Protected Metal Nanoclusters That Behave Like Natural Enzymes - Advanced Science News

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Nanomedicines Market forecasted to surpass the value of ~US$ XX Mn/Bn by 2015 2021 – Space Market Research

§ December 3rd, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Nanomedicines Market forecasted to surpass the value of ~US$ XX Mn/Bn by 2015 2021 – Space Market Research

Persistence Market Research recently published a market study that provides analytical insights related to the overall prospects of the Nanomedicines Market during the forecast period 2015 2021. The report aims to assist business players, stakeholders, and investors to improve their standing in the current market landscape and gain a competitive edge over their competitors. The presented study evaluates the major trends, opportunities, drivers, and challenges that are expected to impact the growth of the Nanomedicines Market in the upcoming years.

The report reveals that the Nanomedicines Market is expected to register a CAGR growth of ~XX% during the forecast period and surpass the value of ~US$XX by the end of 2015 2021. Some of the leading factors that are expected to drive the growth of the market include, rising investments for research and development, the advent of cutting-edge technology, and favorable government policies in certain regions.

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Some of the major companies dealing in global nanomedicines market include Abbott Laboratories, GE Healthcare, Johnson & Johnson, Merck & Company Inc., Pfizer Inc, and CombiMatrix Corporation. Other significant players of the market include Celgene Corporation, Mallinckrodt plc., Sigma-Tau Pharmaceuticals Inc., Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Nanosphere Inc., and UCB SA.

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To support companies in overcoming complex business challenges, we follow a multi-disciplinary approach. At PMR, we unite various data streams from multi-dimensional sources. By deploying real-time data collection, big data, and customer experience analytics, we deliver business intelligence for organizations of all sizes.

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Urinary tract infection zithromax – Can you take magnesium with zithromax – Does zithromax have gram negative coverage – Laughlin Entertainer

§ December 2nd, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Urinary tract infection zithromax – Can you take magnesium with zithromax – Does zithromax have gram negative coverage – Laughlin Entertainer

Urinary tract infection zithromax - Can you take magnesium with zithromax - Does zithromax have gram negative coverage  Laughlin Entertainer

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Urinary tract infection zithromax - Can you take magnesium with zithromax - Does zithromax have gram negative coverage - Laughlin Entertainer

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Strong Beers May Be Full Of The Same Gut-Friendly Bacteria As Yogurt – IFLScience

§ December 2nd, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Strong Beers May Be Full Of The Same Gut-Friendly Bacteria As Yogurt – IFLScience

Given that every human contains about as many bacteria as body cells, its no surprise that probiotic foods like kimchi, sauerkraut, and certain types of yogurt have become so popular. Fortunately for those who arent into fermented cabbage, research suggests that drinking a strong beer a day could also help to maintain a healthy community of gut microbes.

Speaking at an event organised by probiotic drink manufacturer Yakult, Eric Claassen from the University of Amsterdam presented his research on beer, explaining how certain brands contain huge numbers of beneficial micro-organisms.

While most beers go through just one fermentation process, some of the stronger Belgian brews are fermented twice in order to break down more of the sugars in the plant material to alcohol. Unlike the first round of fermentation, this second round typically uses a type of yeast that produces acids that are poisonous to many of the bacteria that cause illness.

Each time a person drinks one of these beers, they reinforce their intestinal army of microscopic defenders with millions of these pathogen-busting booze microbes. While this could potentially have a beneficial effect on the drinkers health, Classen is keen to point out that moderation is needed.

In high concentrations, alcohol is bad for the gut but if you drink just one of these beers every day it would be very good for you, he told attendees.

Previous studies have found that heavy drinking damages gut bacteria, leading to an abnormal composition of intestinal microbiota, so relying on beer to boost ones health clearly isnt a good idea.

Its also worth noting that, in spite of the many claims made about the health benefits of probiotic foods, we still dont have much evidence to back up most of these assumptions. Most probiotics contains bacteria belonging to the Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium groups, and while it is thought that these microbes can help with everything from diarrhoea to eczema, researchers dont yet know which specific bacteria are helpful for what.

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The shocking history of the torpedo ray and other electric fish – The News Herald

§ December 2nd, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on The shocking history of the torpedo ray and other electric fish – The News Herald

It is fascinating to reflect back in history, imagine how an electrical shock from a fish was viewed when all of nature was interpreted on the basis of four elements, air, earth, fire, and water.

Many of us are aware of the lesser electric ray, Narcine brasiliensis, some perhaps too familiar considering the nearly 35-volt jolt it can deliver if touched. Less common locally is the related Atlantic torpedo, Torpedo nobiliana.

We intuitively understand the physical basis of an electric shock, with our lives dependent on an electrical infrastructure. Nevertheless, it is fascinating to reflect back in history, imagine how an electrical shock from a fish was viewed when all of nature was interpreted on the basis of four elements, air, earth, fire, and water. In contrast, electricity is a phenomenon of relatively recent history, popularized beginning in the 18th century by Benjamin Franklin flying his kite in a thunderstorm.

First, it is instructive to review the diversity of electric fish. Mostly, we think of electrogenic fish that produce an electric organ discharge (EOD). Then there are fish that are electrosensory, a sense we do not possess. Many fish are both electrosensory and generate EODs.

Fish can be strongly or weakly electrogenic. The former includes skates and rays, (the genus Torpedo contains 10 species, some generating EODs up to 220 volts), stargazers (to 50 volts), and the electric Nile catfish Malapterus electricus (to 350 volts). Most familiar is the South American electric eel, Electrophorus electricus, with EODs of up to 700 volts, jolts known to stun and disable a horse.

In contrast, weakly electric fish generate EODs around 1 volt, several hundred species in all including many common in the aquarium trade such as elephantnose and knifefishes. These fish are also electrosensory and communicate with each other electrically. Moreover, by monitoring objects that distort their own electric fields they can electrolocate, analogous to sonic location used by bats and porpoises, active mechanisms especially useful in the dark.

Other electrosensory fish are passive (no EODs), detecting the electrical fields of both animate and inanimate objects as weak as 1 nanovolt (10-9 V) per centimeter. To illustrate this extraordinary sensitivity consider that a shark can detect a flounder buried in the sand, and can navigate, monitoring its own electric field as it swims, its body acting as a conductor moving through the earths magnetic field, the biological equivalent of an electricity generator. The passive electrosense is a primitive feature found in lampreys, all elasmobranchs (sharks, skates and rays), sturgeon and paddlefish. Essentially an aquatic sensory mechanism, the duckbill platypus, a mammal, has developed a parallel electrosense used to detect prey.

The shocking history origins deal primarily with torpedoes abundant in Mediterranean waters and brought to the attention of scholars, physicians and philosophers during the classical Greco-Roman era. The earliest reference to torpedoes was in Hippocratic writings in the 5th century B.C. Plato and Socrates (4th century B.C.) alluded to their powers as magic, benumbing the mind, whereby the flat sea torpedo torpifies those who come into contact. The Greeks referred to the effect as nrk, from which narcotic, narcosis, narcotize were derived based on the fishs ability to cause numbness, torpor, and involuntary muscle twitches.

Aristotle (374-322 B.C.), writing in his Historia Animalium, noted its specialized numbing as a purposeful intelligence that it used to capture prey. He was supplied specimens by local fishermen and by Alexander the Great. These fishermen reported that the mysterious force of the torpedo could be felt even at a distance when touched holding a metal rod (trident) or the salty lines of a fishing net.

Pliny the Elder (1st century A.D.), the great Roman naturalist, wrote in his 37 volume Naturalis Historia that if only touched with the end of a spear or staff, this fish has the property of benumbing even the most vigorous arm and of riveting the feet of the runner. He interpreted the shock as an odor of emanation from the fish, a poison that could run up a spear and kill a man, even a horse, a mixture of science and fable.

Greco-Roman medical literature included many therapeutic uses for the torpedo discharge, of course without any idea of the force electricity. Among some 271 remedies ascribed to Scribonius (3 B.C.-54 A.D.) were treatments using torpedoes for headaches to gout. The latter, foot pain or podagra, was common among Roman aristocrats given their rich diets and lead poisoning from wine containers. The foot placed on a live torpedo on the moist shore relieved gout pain up to the knee. Headache relief involved placing a live torpedo on the spot of the pain but required subsequent removal lest ability to feel be taken away. This numbing effect is not so far-fetched knowing now that electrical stimulation is used clinically to relieve pain and thought to release endorphins.

In addition to relief of headache pain, Discorides (1st century A.D.) used torpedoes to treat a condition of the seat, now interpreted to mean application to the prolapsed seat (prolapsus ani in Latin), that is, hemorrhoids. This form of electrotherapy is potentially valid given that electrical stimulation can cause constriction of blood vessels and hemorrhoidal shrinkage.

Galen (129-200 A.D.), the most accomplished physician and philosopher in Roman antiquity, also tested the shock of the torpedo, finding it useful in treating headaches. In describing its analgesic remedy, he likened the effect to a cold venom, some form of corpuscular matter. He equated hand numbness transmitted through the trident to the lodestone (a magnet) effect in which a body can acquire the power of a separate object.

The immobilizing actions of the torpedo also captured the imagination of ancient poets who suggested that catching a torpedo can make an angler remorseful. Oppian (2nd century A.D.), writes poetically that the Cramp-fish (torpedo) paint their magick wands, where icy torch the strongest fin commands one touch of hers dams up the vital Flood, Contracts the Nerves, and clots the stagnate Blood. Torpedoes also appeared prominently in Mediterranean paintings and pottery.

Authors from classical antiquity significantly influenced how torpedoes, along with the Nile catfish, were perceived well into the Middle Ages, a period during which Christianity and Islam emerged along with a decline in the spirit of scientific investigation, the Dark Ages. Physicians still used torpedoes for head pain and podagra as specified in medical texts. Byzantine writings concerning nrk were essentially compilations from the previous classical era and associated the magical powers with various occult practices.

Well into the Renaissance, despite advances in architecture, medicine, and science, there was no further insight into the nature of the discharge. By the 16th century, European exploration and conquest had generated considerable interest in the torporific (electric) eel that horrified natives along the Orinoco River in South America. Still, the only explanation available was that the torpedo discharge was mechanical, associated with violent contractions in the fish.

The discharge itself was interpreted at the time according to atomistic theories of sensation attributed largely to Galileo, whereby microscopic pores, canals and glands produced minute corpuscles (atoms) used to explain multiple physiological processes including perspiration. This was incorporated in Stefano Lorenzinis (1678) corpuscular theory attributing numbness to corpuscles (molti corpuscoli) that entered the hand to block nerves as a result of touching the fish. The mechanical theory was later discredited since contractions by the torpedo proved to be invisible, unrepeatable, and any movements were no doubt affected by the tremor induced in the experimenters hand in response to the shock.

Electricity as a physical entity became established in mid-17th century Europe, confirmed scientifically by the 18th using instruments such as the Leyden jar, a capacitor that was introduced into the publics imagination by Abbe Jean-Antoine Nollet (1700-1770), in a demonstration before royal onlookers in Versailles that 180 hand-holding grenadiers who completed the circuit leaped in unison at its discharge.

These instruments were capable of producing sparks, akin to static electricity we can generate by stroking fur or amber, and were seemingly related to the demonstration of atmospheric electricity by Benjamin Franklin. Self-educated, Franklin abandoned his lucrative printing business in 1748 to study electricity and later moved to England in 1757 to join the Royal Society of London, where he contributed prominently to developments in fish electricity. He also is credited with the concept of polarity, based on his theory that lightning is charged differently between clouds (negative) and land (positive), and concluding that natural and man-made electricity are the same.

As interest in electricity grew in the 18th century, it led to numerous attempts, including by Franklin, to use electrotherapy to treat palsies, hysteria, and other paralyzing illnesses. Still, despite the ancient history of torpedo therapeutics, no scientific understanding of animal electricity was yet available. Although nerves were envisioned as conduits to the brain as early as the 4th century B.C., conveyance (conduction) along the nerve was still attributed variously to ethereal spirits, fluids, or mechanical vibrations.

As interest in animal electricity continued to grow, electric fish contributed significantly to the eventual electrical basis of physiological function in both nerve and muscle. A major contribution from the Dutch, with settlements in Guiana, S.A., came from awareness of the more powerful electric eel whose discharge was equated with that of the Leyden jar, both capable of knocking a person to the ground. The only difference was that neither spark (eq., lightning) nor weak crackling sound (eq., thunder) could be elicited from the eel, facts that contributed to remaining resistance to the idea of fish electricity.

An American physician who worked briefly in Guiana (Edward Bancroft, 1744-1821) presented evidence that shocks from the torporific eel traveled up the fishing line and could be felt by several people holding hands (in series). John Walsh (1726-1795), a wealthy English colonel with an interest in natural history provided singular evidence for the electrical nature of Torpedo.

Armed with a series of experiments outlined by his collaborator, Benjamin Franklin, Walsh traveled to La Rochelle and nearby lIsle de R on the French Atlantic coast where the rays were abundant. Using public demonstrations he showed that the discharge could be felt 40 feet away when connected to the fish by a wire, that up to eight persons holding hands in series were affected, and that two persons, one touching the upper surface of the fish, the other the lower surface, only felt the shock when they completed the circuit by holding hands. In letters back to Franklin, Walsh concluded that the effect is certainly torpedinal electricity.

His work was forwarded to Henry Cavendish (1731-1810), the brilliant chemist (discoverer of oxygen), physicist and member of the Royal Society (along with Walsh, Franklin, Bancroft and other notables), who provided quantitative explanations supporting fish electricity. Franklin returned to the United States in 1775 in fear of arrest as a spy as progression toward the American Revolution became obvious. Ironically, it was August 1, 1776, when Walsh finally succeeded in demonstrating the convincing spark from a fish discharge, made possible by the arrival of a live electric eel from Guiana whose discharge was 10 times greater than the torpedo.

The torpedo and electric eel were important in the realization that animals function electrically. As such they had great influence on two Italian physician scientists, Luigi Galvani (1773-1798) and Alessandro Volta (1745-1827). Galvanis experiments led him to propose that electricity was inherent in the tissues of the nerve by demonstrating that frog leg muscles twitched when the [motor] nerve was stimulated with a weak electrical current. One such experiment used long wires connected to an electrical device in the room. This is known to have inspired Mary Shelley to create Frankenstein in her 1817 saga by attracting the electrical activity from a lightning storm.

Volta claimed that the electricity was not intrinsic to the nerve but rather originated in the metals Galvani used to touch the nerve. His own experiments with the frog used a pile or battery that he is credited with inventing. This first battery, dissimilar metals sandwiched around moistened cardboard, was inspired in turn by the electric organ of the torpedo. From these signature experiments, preceded by work through the ages, it is clear that torporific fishes have played a major role in shaping civilization through the life sciences and medicine.

Lon Wilkens, an emeritus professor of neuroscience at the University of Missouri-St. Louis, lives on St. George Island.

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2 newborns sickened by tick bites could signal an increase in infections among babies – PIX11 New York

§ December 1st, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on 2 newborns sickened by tick bites could signal an increase in infections among babies – PIX11 New York

Two newborn babies experienced illnesses rare for their age group after they were bitten by ticks, according to a case study published Wednesday in the medical journal Pediatrics.

The infants, one girl and a boy, were taken to hospitals in New York because they were experiencing common signs of infection: rashes, fever and irritability.

What wasnt common to the doctors who treated the babies were the more unusual symptoms: anemia, an elevated heart rate and a low blood platelet count.

The doctors, from Stony Brook Childrens Hospital and Hampton Community Healthcare in New York, said that the infants were suffering from tick-borne infections that are rare in newborns because of limited exposure.

Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases are a growing threat to the health of people in the United States, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The number of reported cases of these diseases grew from more than 48,000 in 2016 to nearly 60,000 in 2017. New tick-borne germs have been discovered, too.

These two cases really underscore just the extent to which these ticks are spreading and bringing the tick-borne infections along with them, said Dr. Andrew Handel, who helped treat the babies and practices in the Pediatric Infectious Diseases division at Stony Brook Childrens Hospital. As we see those ticks being spread throughout the community, we also see a growing population of individuals who can become infected with them.

Changes in land use patterns may contribute to the spread of ticks, as suburban development in forest areas means ticks and animal hosts are in close contact.

A 6-week-old previously healthy infant boy was brought to a hospital in June after experiencing symptoms including irritability, poor feeding, vomiting and high fever.

Lab results showed the boy was also anemic, with a low blood platelet count.

He was treated with antibiotics and was transferred to Stony Brook Childrens Hospital, where more testing revealed worsening anemia and blood platelet counts, as well as elevated levels of liver enzymes, which hint at an injured liver and a risk for liver disease.

His mother remembered seeing a bloody flea on her sons arm 20 days before his symptoms began. The family lives in a tick-endemic area, their home surrounded by tall grasses. Tick-borne diseases occur most frequently in the Northeast, mid-Atlantic and Upper Midwest.

Another round of antibiotics was started, but the boys hemoglobin level severely dropped, requiring a packed red blood cell transfusion.

A test confirmed the boy to have babesiosis a rare, sometimes severe disease caused by the bite of a tick infected with Babesia microti, a microscopic parasite that infects red blood cells.

In August, a 5-week-old previously healthy infant girl was brought to the hospital emergency department because of a fever and an unusual rash.

Her parents reported removing an engorged black bug from her ear six days before her symptoms started. Their baby was rarely outdoors, although the familys dogs walked outside.

Pets are well-known to carry ticks into the home. So take avoidance maneuvers, said Dr. Paul Auwaerter, clinical director of infectious diseases at John Hopkins University School of Medicine. Shampoo or collars can be helpful. Auwaerter was not involved in either of the case studies.

The baby girls heart was beating at a higher than normal rate. She was diagnosed with early disseminated Lyme disease, meaning the bacteria causing the disease had spread throughout her body.

Both babies illnesses were remedied by rounds of antibiotics, but because no data exists to guide Lyme disease management in newborns, doctors referred to the American Academy of Pediatrics Red Book, which offers care solutions for infectious diseases.

There are also no clinically validated or FDA-approved tests for tick-borne infection for newborns.

Many questions remain, but the doctors thought that reporting their ideas and conclusions that we came up with while treating these two infants might be helpful for future providers who come across similar cases, Handel said.

For older groups, there is testing to find tick-borne illnesses earlier and treatments that resolve symptoms. Both help to prevent long-term complications.

Children have a higher risk of getting Lyme and other tick-borne diseases because they tend to be more exposed to them.

Kids, especially when they get beyond a certain age, bathe themselves, and theyre not really looking for ticks, Auwaerter said. Children tend to be outdoors more in play.

Having pets leaves your family more at risk, too. They can carry ticks in from outside, and sometimes the ticks are hard to find because of a pets fur. Pet owners can talk with their veterinarians about medications for preventing tick bites.

There are ways you can protect yourself, your kids and your pets getting tick-borne diseases most importantly, doing your nightly tick checks, Handel said.

The CDC recommends also avoiding high grasses, using insect repellent, bathing or showering as soon as you get inside, conducting full body tick checks and putting clothes in the dryer on high heat to kill ticks.

Although tick-borne illnesses are rare for newborns, doctors should consider them if they meet an infant who has a fever, an unusual rash or other signs of infection and lives in a tick-endemic area, Handel said.

We dont want parents to hear about these cases and have an excess of anxiety that this could happen to their child, Handel said. Of course, that did happen and it can happen. But this is very unusual.

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Podcast: Science Storytellers is an outreach program that turns kids into science journalistswithout the pesky deadlines – Chemical & Engineering…

§ December 1st, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Podcast: Science Storytellers is an outreach program that turns kids into science journalistswithout the pesky deadlines – Chemical & Engineering…

Credit: Lauren Wolf/C&EN

For its latest episode, Stereo Chemistry handed its recorders over to kid journalists interviewing grown-up chemists about cutting-edge research. Listen in as the children get answers to questions about DNA, environmental clean-up, and even CH activation. The kids reporting was part of an outreach program called Science Storytellers that took place during the American Chemical Society National Meeting in San Diego in August. Science Storytellers empowers kids to ask questions as they interact, one-on-one, with real scientists, such as synthetic organic chemist Jin-Quan Yu of Scripps Research Institute California (shown in the photo). In this episode, youll also hear from the creator of Science Storytellers, Jenny Cutraro, to learn how this outreach activity is designed to break down barriers between scientists and the public.

Subscribe to Stereo Chemistry now on Apple Podcasts, Google Play, or Spotify.

The following is the script for the podcast. We have edited the interviews within for length and clarity.

Arthur: Are you a chemist-ist?

Kyle Bentz: I am a chemist.

Matt Davenport: Im Matt Davenport and I am not a chemist. But I can tell you what youre listening to. Its Stereo Chemistry. More specifically, though, its me eavesdropping on interviews between scientists and early-career science writers. Very early career. I forgot to ask Arthur here just how old he was, but I think its safe to assume he has not had any formal journalism training. Still, his questions are fire. Such as:

Arthur: Do you have like a smelting machine that can combine two elements together to make another element?

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Matt: And then theres was:

Arthur: How do you make soap?

Kyle Bentz: How do we make soap?

Kyle Bentz: So our soap is really special...

Matt: Arthurs interviewing Kyle Bentz, a postdoc in Seth Cohens lab at the University of California, San Diego. Their get-together is part of an outreach program called Science Storytellers that lets kids interact with real scientists one-on-one, to help kids learn firsthand not just what scientists actually do, but how they do it and why it matters.

For example, Kyle got his bachelors in chemistry in 2011, the year after the Deepwater Horizon oil rig exploded in the Gulf of Mexico. The explosion killed 11 people and caused the worst oil spill our oceans have ever seen. Nearly 5 million barrels of oil poured into the Gulf.

Kyle went to grad school at the University of Florida and earned his PhD in 2017. His thesis was about next-generation polymers for cleaning up oil spills. Or, as he explained them to Arthur, special soaps. Arthur had questions.

Arthur: Whats the difference between like the bar soaps and the ones you just...

Kyle Bentz: The bar soaps and the liquid ones?

Matt: It was really cool to see this exchange when it happened a few months ago. And its really fun for me to listen to it now, as we close in on the end of the year. You know, the holiday season. When some of us grownups are hoping that our jaded hearts will grow three sizes as were reminded of the innocence and wonderment of youth. I had a chance to talk with Kyle more after Arthur finished his interview.

Matt (at Science Storytellers): What was your favorite thing about the Science Storytellers event?

Kyle Bentz: Just talking to the kids. I love how excited they are about even like just the simplest things. Theyre so inquisitive and just the questions they ask are, I think theyre the questions that we dont ask enough.

Matt (in studio): In this episode, were going to dive into Science Storytellers as a sort of cross-section of scientific outreach. At its core, outreach is about communicating and engaging with folks who arent in the lab. Who arent running simulations on supercomputing clusters or losing sleep to analyze data.

Outreach helps people see how science impacts their lives, for example, in the understanding the logic behind certain rules or policies. Outreach also helps bring people into the fold, so those people so maybe they can start to see themselves doing science. Or at least better understand why some people feel called to do it.

This Science Storytellers event was part of the ACS Kids Zone at the national meeting of the American Chemical Society in San Diego at the end of August. The ACS publishes C&EN, which makes this podcast.

At the ACS Kid Zone, there were a bunch of demos for kids and their families, including this one that blew my mind where you could make art in a really gnarly way with food coloring and shaving cream. If you want to get a glimpse of what it was like, you should check out live video from the Kids Zone on our Facebook page. Well also share a link in this episodes description.

But Science Storytellers was one activity amongst all this outreach goodness. And so you might be wondering why focus on this particular one? Because we work with Science Storytellers to put on events like this, and were proud to do it. Communicating chemistry is important to C&EN, no matter what the age of our audience is. Science Storytellers help kids communicate science using the tools of journalismasking questions, taking notes, and then reporting out what they learned. Those things, those are literally what we do here. Its a perfect fit. So on the day of the event, C&EN editors and reporters were there, helping to set up, direct traffic, and connect kids with scientists. And I was there with my recorder rolling.

So what weve got in store for you is more kids talking shop with chemists. Well take you inside some more conversations, like what you heard between Arthur and Kyle, to give you a sense of what the program is like. It will be adorable and there will be talk of cyborgs. Then youll hear from Jenny Cutraro, who created the program, to learn the story behind Science Storytellers. How did it start? What are its goals? Where can you catch it next?

And, of course, if youre interested in outreach, you dont need to wait for Science Storytellers to come to your town to go for it. You can try to link up with local schools or an ACS local section to learn more about opportunities. Or even just talk to kids you about what you do and why you do it, then be sure to let them ask questions.

So lets jump back into a Science Storytellers convo. Our interviewer is David and our researcher Chava Angell. Chava is a PhD student in Yi Chens lab at UCSD where she studies DNA nanotechnology. Ill let David take it from here.

David: What do you do about DNA?

Chava Angell: What do I do about DNA?

Chava Angell: So what do you know about DNA first?

David: I know that everybody has DNA.

Chava Angell: Yeah. So everyone has DNA. And DNA can determine what we look like. So what color are your eyes?

Chava Angell: Brown. So thats your DNA telling your body, Hey, my eyes are brown. But DNA comes in four bases and these four bases are what makes it up.

Matt: Chava came prepared for this. Shes got four different colored rubber bands, one for each type of base. Then she explains the rules. Going up and down, any color can bind to any color. But left to right, only certain color combinations are allowed.

Chava Angell: So, in this case, were going to say that pink binds with green, so lets put those right next to each other on your notebook. Like this, yeah. And purple binds with orange. Exactly. And what we can do is put our purple and orange right underneath it and thats a DNA strand. Its cool right?

Chava Angell: And what I do is I actually design DNA sequences.

David: Hmm. What if like a green and a green?

Chava Angell: Those cant bind that way. Now the green and the green could bind this way, longwise. But green can only bind to a pink.

David: Oh. What if like this.

Matt: Davids onto something.

Matt: He builds up on what Chava showed him, green to pink, orange to purple.

Chava Angell: Yeah. Thats a sequence. You just built your own DNA sequence.

Chava Angell: So what other questions do you have for me? I can answer stuff about DNA.

David: When did you started this?

Chava Angell: When did I start working with DNA?

Chava Angell: About 5 years ago, I started my PhD.

David: But the thing is, 5 years ago, how old are you?

Matt (at Science Storytellers): [Giggles]

Matt (in studio): Five years ago, I was starting my career as a science writer and I had chance to meet a reporter for the news section of the journal Nature. I remember him describing what they looked for in writers and he said, We want reporters who are fearless. What Im getting at here is that I think David could work for Nature.

Fearlessness aside, his interview with Chava was pretty representative of what I heard at Science Storytellers. In broad strokes, the kids would start out by asking the scientists what they worked on. The scientists would have an answer prepared for that part. But then the kids would just go wherever their curiosity took them and the scientists followed them into that uncharted territory.

But it was actually Fernando Soto, one of the scientists, who took the day where I least expected and I just have to share that. Fernando is a PhD student working on micro- and nanorobots in Joseph Wangs lab at UCSD. In a recent paper, Fernando made what he calls rotibots. Rotibot is derived from rotifers, which are these blobby microscopic animals that live in the water. The bot part of rotibot comes from the fact the Fernando has loaded them up with engineered microbeads, little chemical machines that dont hurt the rotifer, but can pull heavy metals and other contaminants out of the water as the rotibot swims around. He was telling this to his interviewer, Ollin, describing a rotibot as a kind of cyborg.

Thats when Fernando posed what might be my most favorite question ever. If you had to pick one animal to make a cyborg, what would it be?

Fernando Soto: A hedgehog, then you can make it run real fast like Sonic the Hedge. Very cool. I would like to use a raccoon because raccoons have very sensitive hands.

Matt: Three months later and I still cant decide what animal Id pick. Probably something from the cat family. Maybe an ocelot. An ocebot.

Anyhow, back to Science Storytellers. So youve just heard the kids kill the interviews. What about the reporting out? Well, they were awesome at that part, too. Youre about to hear from Ayla, who had been talking with Jin-Quan Yu of Scripps Research. Hes on organic chemist and his team is studying CH activation. Ill try to set this up without stealing Aylas thunder, but the idea is you start with inexpensive long hydrocarbon chains. Like the ones in soap molecules. Then you use a metal catalyst to activate CH bonds and turn them into carbon-carbon bonds to make an even more useful molecule.

Ayla: So that it could wash your hands and it could be like washing the dirt off your hands. Still useful. Still useful. But then if you could just introduce those two together

Ayla: Then it could make medicine.

Jin-Quan Yu: Thats crazy. You see, you get it. If its not crazy, not new, thats not science. You get the point. You really get the point.

Matt: You might be picking how excited Jin-Quan Yu was to be part of Science Storytellers. To be fair, all of the scientists seemed to have a blast with it, but particularly Jin-Quan. I learned that part of this was because he grew up in a remote village in China and he says he doesnt remember actually doing a science experiment until high school. So he was genuinely jazzed to be in the ACS Kids Zone, seeing children getting hands-on experiences with science at a much younger age than he had.

And another part of his excitement was getting to talk one-on-one with the kids. You could tell he took a lot away from that interaction.

Matt (at Science Storytellers): You seem very excited.

Jin-Quan Yu: Yeah, because I was surprised with what comes out of their mouths, what they are asking me. It exceeded my expectations, honestly. I am impressed with some of the kids, they can describe what you have taught them in 10 minutes in two sentences, more accurately than me.

And even some of them are also interested in how science can help society. Theres like a social consciousness and responsibility. That side Im also impressed in.

Matt: Were going to take a quick break. When we come back, youre going to hear from the creator of Science Storytellers, as well as the editor that got C&EN involved with the program. Stay tuned.

Matt: Well hello there. Its still me, Matt. But I just wanted to take a break from the episode really quick to tell you about a super awesome webinar that will be coming your way on Wednesday, Dec. 4 at 2 pm Eastern. Lauren Wolf, the fearless leader of C&ENs science coverage team, will be hosting a look back at our favorite chemistry breakthroughs from 2019. Shell be joined by a panel of very special guests who will also be predicting what the big scientific achievements of 2020 are going to be. Its going to be a ton of fun and you dont want to miss it. So, again, mark your calendars for Dec. 4 at 2 pm Eastern. And stay tuned to our website cen.acs.org for more details. Or better yet, sign up for our newsletter. That way youll get the latest chemistry news and goings-on delivered right to your inbox. Sign up today at cenm.ag/newsletter. All right. Back to the show.

Jenny Cutraro: Science Storytellers. We held our first event in Boston in 2017 and the program itself came to sort of came to light just the fall before as an idea that Id had simmering around in my mind for a while about how to better engage kids with science. And were going into our fourth year of running this event at science conferences.

Matt (in the studio): That is Jenny Cutraro, a science writer and the creator of Science Storytellers. That first Boston event was at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, or AAAS. Youll hear that abbreviation again later. Jenny and I caught up on the phone after the ACS conference in San Diego this fall.

Matt (on the phone): I dont know the best way to describe science storytellers. Because its easy to say what it is, right? Its kids have the opportunity to interact directly with scientists, interviewing them one-on-one. But I also feel like that doesnt do it justice, right? The experience is so much more than that. Im curious, Jenny, like when people ask you what is Science Storytellers, how do you explain that?

Jenny Cutraro: That is a great question. So, in part, I explained it the way that you just did. That its a program that gives kids a chance to sit down and interview scientists, the way that a professional journalist would interview a scientist if working on a story. But going a little bit below the surface, this program also is meant to break down barriers between scientists and the public. And to help not just kids have an opportunity to talk with scientists, but also to give scientists a chance to really engage on a more personal level, with an audience of people who may not be scientists themselves. So they they gain their own benefits from this program in that way too.

Matt (in the studio): Also on the line was C&ENs very own Jessica Marshall, the editor who forged our partnership with Science Storytellers.

Jessica Marshall: I was at the first AAAS meeting where Jenny brought Science Storytellers and your phrasing is just right, Matt. Like the description just doesnt do it justice. I thought, Oh, that sounds kind of neat. But then when you go and you see the looks on the faces of the kids and the scientists in sort of pure delight and pure engagement and just completely gaining from interacting with each other. Each learning from the other. The scientists are so surprised by the kids questions. The kids are so happy to just get to ask whatever they want and theyre so interested in what theyre doing. Their notes are super cute, what theyre writing down. And I just thought that I was I was totally blown away by what the actual experience was. And it just seemed like the kind of thing that C&EN and ACS might also really like to be a part of.

Matt (on the phone): Yeah, I think one of my favorite memories from the Science Storytellers event was walking around and seeing the notes that kids were taking during the interview with the scientists. The best one, I didnt see it, but Lisa Jarvis, one of our other reporters who was there came up to me and said, Theres a kid taking a note right there and it just says, Did not know that. It was the cutest thing.

Have there been any experiences from the last several years of doing Science Storytellers that stick out to you as your favorites, or maybe most memorable?

Jenny Cutraro: Sure. The program starts out with us giving kids a reporters notebook and a little sticky note with a bulleted list of questions that a journalist might ask of a scientist. Theyre things like what is your research all about, why is this important, why are you interested in this and our second year into it, we added another question. And that question was, have you ever been wrong? And that year almost every response that we got back from kids on an exit sheet that they give us, every single kid wrote on their form, I was surprised to discover that scientists can be wrong, that they can make mistakes. One of them said, I was surprised to discover that you blew up your lab one time.

Which, I wish I had been listening in on that conversation. That may sound like a little thing, but I think that is so important to get across to kids that scientists dont just do an experiment and have an answer. They learn by trial and error. Theres so much messiness around science and I think for them it was really eye-opening. And the scientists that I spoke to afterwards also really enjoyed being asked that question because they dont often get to talk about that.

That, to me, really speaks to a couple of things. And one of them is its probably time to take a deeper look at how were teaching science to young kids. And if theyre coming away with the idea that science is a bunch of facts and that scientists are always right, somehow, were missing the mark there. So I think thats a bit of a red flag. And even for adult audiences, I think that can be somewhat of a surprise as well. And its a difficult thing to talk about, uncertainty and science and mistakes. Thats, I think, an area thats really ripe for more research into perceptions about science and where they where they start up. Where do kids start thinking that you cant make a mistake in science lab or that science is just about following basically a recipe for an experiment.

Matt: So Jessica, is there one memory that sticks out from your involvement?

Jessica: Yeah, more than any specific thing. Its just this great visual to see the scientist sitting next to this kid with their notebook and just such an equal, such equal voices in that conversation. You know, the scientist taking the kids questions just as seriously as if it were an actual reporter sitting right there and just that interaction is amazing.

Jenny Cutraro: And thats, thats really intentional on our part to. We really want to give kids some agency and the feeling that. Theyre being heard and were letting them lead the way, kind of on purpose. It gives them just a little bit of a sense of power.

Matt: One of the things really impress me in San Diego was how much the kids knew about science and how much they wanted to share what they knew. But Ive only been a parent for two years. Jenny and Jessica have both been parenting for longer, so I wanted to ask for their takes, too.

Is this something that your kids do? Like, is that just kids being kids?

Jenny Cutraro: Totally. I mean, I think kids especially if they already have some knowledge about something they love to share that and when you give them an audience thats a scientist and they can share their science knowledge, theyll run

Jessica: Yeah, theyre so locked in when theyre learning. Their attention is just locked. When its when its satisfying their curiosity, it stays with them, I feel like.

We had this thing, we were at the dinner table the other night and we were talking about atoms and molecules and protons, electrons, whatever. And were like, yeah, and the different atoms, they have different things. And carbon wants to make four bonds. And oxygen wants to make two and hydrogen wants to make one. Next thing you know, theyre just like drawing like free form, like it was like a puzzle, like a logic thing. And they were showing me these molecules, like Does this one work? I was kind of floored by that.

Jenny Cutraro: I love that story.

Matt: So, on the flip side of this, I loved how into it the scientists are, too. Theyre there for it, right? Like, wherever the conversation goes, they are with the kid.

Jenny Cutraro: They really do engage on a very personal level. And I have had some scientists afterwards approached me to say, and this was especially true of earlier career scientistsPhD students, postdocsthat this is one of the first times during an outreach event that theyve had a chance to talk about their own specific research. Its not that theyre partnering with their universitys outreach team to run a demo or to give a talk about a topic. Its really sometimes getting kind of into the weeds about what it is that they study. And I think thats part of that engagement.

Jessica: I dont know if this is totally true, but I have a sense that maybe some of the scientists volunteers come in assuming that its going to be a little more of that kind of traditional interaction of, like, Im here telling you what I do. And so I think maybe theyre also sort of inspired and refreshed by what a what a conversation it is and how much the kids bring to it.

Matt: So, any plans for the next one? Like for folks listening, is there something they can look forward to?

Jessica: I dont think we have planned for sure for our next ACS iteration, we hope that we can be back again. But its also coming to Seattle in February, right, Jenny. For AAAS?

Jenny Cutraro: AAAS is. I have a feeling that there are some C&EN editors who already may be facilitating some of these conversations at the booth once again. Im very excited to have them there.

Jessica: Yes, I live in Seattle. And so I plan to be a volunteer at the Science Storytellers event at AAAS in February, which will be a lovely way to spend a day.

Matt (in studio): If you are a scientist or a science writer who would like to be involved with Science Storytellers this February in Seattle, drop Jenny a line at jenny@sciencestorytellers.org. Thats Jenny with a Y. You can also follow Science Storytellers on Facebook and Twitter.

Before we sign off, we wanted to extend a huge thanks to the Fleet Science Center in San Diego for sharing their amazing venue with us. And to ACSs Office of External Affairs and Communications, which helped fund C&ENs partnership with Science Storytellers in San Diego. And, lastly but not leastly, to all the wonderful volunteers who helped at the ACS Kids Zone, including the Science Storytellers scientists: Chava Angell, Kyle Bentz, Darryl Boyd, Gary Siuzdak, Fernando Soto, Audrey Velasco-Hogan, and Jin-Quan Yu.

This episode was written and produced by me, Matt Davenport. Stereo Chemistry is edited by Lauren Wolf and Amanda Yarnell. Our fantastic copy editor is Sabrina Ashwell.

Now lets talk about music. In todays episode, you heard Stomp and Oasis by Rex Banner, as well as Here We Go Again by Jake Bradford-Sharp and Cold by Anthony Lazaro.

Well be back in December with another brand new episode and with a little luck, maybe an ocebot. Thanks for listening.

Chemical & Engineering News

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Podcast: Science Storytellers is an outreach program that turns kids into science journalistswithout the pesky deadlines - Chemical & Engineering...

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Innovative Report on Nanomedicine Market with Focusing on Eminent Players- Nanosphere Inc.,Pfizer Inc.,Combimatrix Corp – Finance Daily Tribune

§ November 30th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Innovative Report on Nanomedicine Market with Focusing on Eminent Players- Nanosphere Inc.,Pfizer Inc.,Combimatrix Corp – Finance Daily Tribune

Global Nanomedicine Market research report from Crystal Market Research covers overview defines characteristics, size and growth, segmentation, regional breakdowns, competitive landscape, market share, trends and strategies for the Nanomedicine industry.The size section gives the revenues, covering both the historic data of the Nanomedicine market and forecasting the future. Drivers and restraints are studied with respect to external factors influencing the growth of the market.

The authors of the Nanomedicine report shed light on lucrative business prospects, prominent trends, regulatory situations, and price scenarios of the global Nanomedicine market. Importantly, the report gives a detailed analysis of macroeconomic and microeconomics factors impacting the growth of the global Nanomedicine market. It is divided into various sections and chapters to help with easy understanding of each and every aspect of the global Nanomedicine market.

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High-Def Help: How TVs Could Help Us Learn About the Brain – The National Interest Online

§ November 30th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on High-Def Help: How TVs Could Help Us Learn About the Brain – The National Interest Online

While many people love colorful photos of landscapes, flowers or rainbows, some biomedical researchers treasure vivid images on a much smaller scale as tiny as one-thousandth the width of a human hair.

To study the micro world and help advance medical knowledge and treatments, these scientists use fluorescent nano-sized particles.

Quantum dots are one type of nanoparticle, more commonly known for their use in TV screens. Theyre super tiny crystals that can transport electrons. When UV light hits these semiconducting particles, they can emit light of various colors.

One nanometer is one-millionth of a millimeter. RNGS Reuters/Nanosys

That fluorescence allows scientists to use them to study hidden or otherwise cryptic parts of cells, organs and other structures.

Im part of a group of nanotechnology and neuroscience researchers at the University of Washington investigating how quantum dots behave in the brain.

Common brain diseases are estimated to cost the U.S. nearly US$800 billion annually. These diseases including Alzheimers disease and neurodevelopmental disorders are hard to diagnose or treat.

Nanoscale tools, such as quantum dots, that can capture the nuance in complicated cell activities hold promise as brain-imaging tools or drug delivery carriers for the brain. But because there are many reasons to be concerned about their use in medicine, mainly related to health and safety, its important to figure out more about how they work in biological systems.

Quantum dots as next-generation dyes

Researchers first discovered quantum dots in the 1980s. These tiny particles are different from other crystals in that they can produce different colors depending on their size. They are so small that they are sometimes called zero-dimensional or artificial atoms.

The most commonly known use of quantum dots nowadays may be TV screens. Samsung launched their QLED TVs in 2015, and a few other companies followed not long after. But scientists have been eyeing quantum dots for almost a decade. Because of their unique optical properties they can produce thousands of bright, sharp fluorescent colors scientists started using them as optical sensors or imaging probes, particularly in medical research.

Scientists have long used various dyes to tag cells, organs and other tissues to view the inner workings of the body, whether that be for diagnosis or for fundamental research.

The most common dyes have some significant problems. For one, their color often cannot survive very long in cells or tissues. They may fade in a matter of seconds or minutes. For some types of research, such as tracking cell behaviors or delivering drugs in the body, these organic dyes simply do not last long enough.

Quantum dots would solve those problems. They are very bright and fade very slowly. Their color can still stand out after a month. Moreover, they are too small to physically affect the movement of cells or molecules.

Those properties make quantum dots popular in medical research. Nowadays quantum dots are mainly used for high resolution 3D imaging of cells or molecules, or real-time tracking probes inside or outside of animal bodies that can last for an extended period.

But their use is still restricted to animal research, because scientists are concerned about their use in human beings. Quantum dots commonly contain cadmium, a heavy metal that is highly poisonous and carcinogenic. They may leak the toxic metal or form an unstable aggregate, causing cell death and inflammation. Some organs may tolerate a small amount of this, but the brain cannot withstand such injury.

How quantum dots behave in the brain

My colleagues and I believe an important first step toward wider use of quantum dots in medicine is understanding how they behave in biological environments. That could help scientists design quantum dots suitable for medical research and diagnostics: When theyre injected into the body, they need to stay small particles, be not very toxic and able to target specific types of cells.

We looked at the stability, toxicity and cellular interactions of quantum dots in the developing brains of rats. We wrapped the tiny quantum dots in different chemical coats. Scientists believe these coats, with their various chemical properties, control the way quantum dots interact with the biological environment that surrounds them. Then we evaluated how quantum dots performed in three commonly used brain-related models: cell cultures, rat brain slices and individual live rats.

We found that different chemical coats give quantum dots different behaviors. Quantum dots with a polymer coat of polyethylene glycol (PEG) were the most promising. They are more stable and less toxic in the rat brain, and at a certain dose dont kill cells. It turns out that PEG-coated quantum dots activate a biological pathway that ramps up the production of a molecule that detoxifies metal. Its a protective mechanism embedded in the cells that happens to ward off injury by quantum dots.

Quantum dots are also eaten by microglia, the brains inner immune cells. These cells regulate inflammation in the brain and are involved in multiple brain disorders. Quantum dots are then transported to the microglias lysosomes, the cells garbage cans, for degradation.

But we also discovered that the behaviors of quantum dots vary slightly between cell cultures, brain slices and living animals. The simplified models may demonstrate how a part of the brain responds, but they are not a substitute for the entire organ.

For example, cell cultures contain brain cells but lack the connected cellular networks that tissues have. Brain slices have more structure than cell cultures, but they also lack the full organs blood-brain barrier its Great Wall that prevents foreign objects from entering.

Whats the future for quantum dots?

Our results offer a warning: Nanomedicine research in the brain makes no sense without carefully considering the organs complexity.

That said, we think our findings can help researchers design quantum dots that are more suitable for use in living brains. For example, our research shows that PEG-coated quantum dots remain stable and relatively nontoxic in living brain tissue while having great imaging performance. We imagine they could be used to track real-time movements of viruses or cells in the brain.

In the future, along with MRI or CT scans, quantum dots may become vital imaging tools. They might also be used as traceable carriers that deliver drugs to specific cells. Ultimately, though, for quantum dots to realize their biomedical potential beyond research, scientists must address health and safety concerns.

Although theres a long way to go, my colleagues and I hope the future for quantum dots may be as bright and colorful as the artificial atoms themselves.

This article by Mengying Zhang first appeared in 2019 in The Conversation via Creative Commons License.

Image: Reuters.

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The Global Digital Microscope Market Is Estimated to Grow $ 2.7 Bn by 2026 New Products and Services – DC Velocity

§ November 30th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on The Global Digital Microscope Market Is Estimated to Grow $ 2.7 Bn by 2026 New Products and Services – DC Velocity

The following information has been upload by the submitting company and has not been edited or checked for accuracy. If you have any queries about the following products or services, please contact the company itself.

Forecasting November 30, 2019

The Digital Microscope Market was valued at US$1.7 billion in the year 2018 and is estimated to reach US$2.7 billion by 2026, at a CAGR of 5.95%.

A digital microscope is a combination of a traditional optical microscope, digital multimedia, and digital processing technology. Digital microscopy imaging technology includes optical components for microscopic imaging, data acquisition component to record images produced by digital video devices, CMOS, CCD, digital cameras wherein these images are transferred to the computer storage device by graphics card interface or USB interface. The core component of digital microscopy is software control for image capture, processing, and real-time measurement to improve image quality.

Recent advancement of digital microscopes includes installation of online image acquisition, processing, and analysis systems software. Higher resolution, large field view, increased magnification, real-time view, 2D/3D image display are the main features of the digital microscope. There are both portable and desktop digital microscopes available in the global market. The sequential process of an Image sensor, analog signal, pixel conversion, digital signal and digital operation to display is driven principle in Digital Microscope. Advanced features include live imaging and snapshot, patented image analysis software, user-friendly interface and Wi-Fi. Different levels and various categories of digital microscopes include microscopes with built-in USB cameras requiring a PC (or MAC), HDMI, Wi-Fi, video or SXGA cameras and tablet PC with touch screen controls to see the live image.

The applications of digital microscopes span across fields like electronics, electricals, material science, metallurgy, mechanical, medical diagnostics, forensics, and R&D areas. Increased use of digital microscopes in R&D, material science and medical, diagnostics impact the demand during the forecast period. The evolution of microscopes over the years has been drastic. The inclusion of more features had made it essential in most of the fields to obtain key insights especially in medicine and biological research. With the inclusion of advanced features, the cost of the microscope also increases. Few microscopes with more advanced features even cost more than a million dollars. Further technical limitations and software updates also hinder market growth. However, Govt., research, and academic institutions are investing more in the latest digital microscopes to obtain more accurate data and also contribute more to education. Also, accurate identification and visualization of several pathological conditions with or without dyes have become possible with the use of digital microscopes. Further, Fluorescence-based microscopic examinations have enabled specific detection of particular proteins or clarify their localization in cells and tissues or as markers for beginning cell death, depending on particular test conditions. Besides, the use of microscope had increased in the manufacturing sectors of miniature transistor chips, nanoelectronics, quantum dots, and optoelectronics where the demand for digital microscopes is high. These factors are expected to contribute more towards the market growth in the forecast period between 2019 and 2026.

Optima Insights had segmented the key components of the report based on Modality (Desktop & Portable), Application (R&D, Healthcare, Forensics, Electrical, Electronics, Mechanical, Metallurgy & Material Sciences) and Region (North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, Middle East & Africa).

As far as geography is concerned North American market holds the major share with more than 40% contribution towards the growth followed by Europe and the Asia Pacific. In the forthcoming years, the contribution of the Asia Pacific region is expected to increase with more focused research and transfer of technology.

The desktop microscopes hold more than 75% of the market share with portable microscopes contributing less than 20%. However, the contribution of portable microscopes in market growth is expected to increase by more than 21% during the forecast period. The major share of the microscope use is split by only four disciplines such as healthcare, R&D, Material Sciences and Electronics with more than 80% of the market share with the R&D sector alone holding more than 35% of the market share.

Totally 88 companies across geographies were identified as potential players in the market. This includes Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc, Bruker Corporation, Carl Zeiss AG, Leica microsystems, JEOL Ltd, Keyence Corporation, Olympus Corporation, Nikon Corporation, Horiba Scientific, Oxford Instruments plc, Tagarno Digital Microscope Solutions and more... The companies entitled to more than 600 products that are being used across several disciplines.

Key Technological Overview Synaptive Medical has a Modus V Fully-automated, hands-free, robotically-controlled digital microscope with advanced visualization that supports a wide range of surgical approaches and workflows Imec has developed on-chip lens-free microscope integrated into life sciences and biotech tools, targeting multiple applications such as label-free cell monitoring, automated cell culturing

Research Scope Provides detailed Analysis of the Market Structure along with forecast of the various segments and sub-segments. Provides a Comparative Analysis of Key Marketed and Pipeline Products. Provides Key Information on Players involved. Provides a Complete Overview of Market Segments and the Regional Outlook. Provides In-depth Coverage of Key News, including Major Mergers, Acquisitions and Product Development updates such as clinical trial progression updates and regulatory updatesThe Report Provides Key Insights on History of the Digital Microscope Market, 2015 to 2017 Forecast of the Digital Microscope Market Growth till the year 2026 The key market drivers, restraints, challenges, future

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