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CDC – Nanotechnology – NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic

§ September 6th, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on CDC – Nanotechnology – NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic

Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on a near-atomic scale to produce new structures, materials and devices. The technology promises scientific advancement in many sectors such as medicine, consumer products, energy, materials and manufacturing. Nanotechnology is generally defined as engineered structures, devices, and systems. Nanomaterials are defined as those things that have a length scale between 1 and 100 nanometers. At this size, materials begin to exhibit unique properties that affect physical, chemical, and biological behavior. Researching, developing, and utilizing these properties is at the heart of new technology.

Workers within nanotechnology-related industries have the potential to be exposed to uniquely engineered materials with novel sizes, shapes, and physical and chemical properties. Occupational health risks associated with manufacturing and using nanomaterials are not yet clearly understood. Minimal information is currently available on dominant exposure routes, potential exposure levels, and material toxicity of nanomaterials.

Studies have indicated that low solubility nanoparticles are more toxic than larger particles on a mass for mass basis. There are strong indications that particle surface area and surface chemistry are responsible for observed responses in cell cultures and animals. Studies suggests that some nanoparticles can move from the respiratory system to other organs. Research is continuing to understand how these unique properties may lead to specific health effects.

NIOSH leads the federal government nanotechnology initiative. Research and activities are coordinated through the NIOSH Nanotechnology Research Center (NTRC) established in 2004.

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Introduction to Nanotechnology – Education

§ September 6th, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Introduction to Nanotechnology – Education

Definition of Nanotechnology:

Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at the realm of 1 to 100 nanometers. (For reference, a piece of paper is about 100,000 nanometers thick.) At the nanoscale, matter functions differently from both the individual atomic and macroscopic scales, so some unique properties are available for use in the field.

Development of Nanotechnology:

Nanotechnology is a natural end-result of scientific development and our ability to understand and manipulate matter at smaller and smaller levels.

Just as computers have gone from bulky, room-filling monstrosities to handheld computers, such reductions in size will continue until we reach fundamental physical limits.

Feynman & Nanotechnology:

On December 29, 1959, the influential American physicist Richard P. Feynman presented a talk to the American Physical Society entitled "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom: An Invitation to Enter a New Field of Physics." Among physicists, this is respectfully called "the classic talk" (it's the first hit on a Google search of "classic talk"). He asked "Why cannot we write the entire 24 volumes of the Encyclopedia Brittanica on the head of a pin?" and introduced the concept of nanotechnology.

Spread of Nanotechnology:

Though Feynman's speech inspired many researchers, it wasn't until the mid-1980s that nanotechnology began to seep into the cultural mainstream conversation. In 1986, the MIT researcher K. Eric Drexler wrote Engines of Creation which laid out extensive prospects of emerging nanotechnology research.

Nanotechnology & Medicine:

One major application of nanotechnology is in the field of medicine, and in fact the knowledge gained from research of natural nanomachines, such as bacteria, has proven essential to the field. In this respect, it has developed some close connections with biophysics. It is theorized that man-made nanomachines could repair damage to the human body that is currently untreatable.


One material which is frequently discussed in nanotechnological research is graphene, an atom-thick form of graphite which was discovered by a University of Manchester team in 2004.

Preparing for a Career in Nanotechnology:

There are few degrees of study specifically in nanotechnology, so look for a good, well-rounded physics program. Nanotechnology works at tiny levels of matter, so knowledge of atomic, molecular, chemical and quantum physics is essential to this field of study. Working knowledge of biochemistry, chemistry, and biophysics, as well as a proficiency with complex mathematics, would also help qualify you for this field.

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What is nanomedicine? – Definition from

§ September 6th, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on What is nanomedicine? – Definition from

Nanomedicine is the application of nanotechnology (the engineering of tiny machines) to the prevention and treatment of disease in the human body. This evolving discipline has the potential to dramatically change medical science.

Established and near-future nanomedicine applications include activity monitors, chemotherapy, pacemakers, biochip s, OTC tests, insulin pumps, nebulizers, needleless injectors, hearing aids, medical flow sensors and blood pressure, glucose monitoring and drug delivery systems.

Here are a few examples of how nanomedicine could transform common medical procedures:

The most advanced nanomedicine involves the use of nanorobot s as miniature surgeons. Such machines might repair damaged cells, or get inside cells and replace or assist damaged intracellular structures. At the extreme, nanomachines might replicate themselves, or correct genetic deficiencies by altering or replacing DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules.

In a 2006 publication on the worldwide status of nanomedicine, MedMarket Diligence reported that about 150 of the largest companies in the world are conducting nanotechnology research projects or planning nanotechnology products. According to Patrick Driscoll, President of MMD, there is a $1 billion market for nanotechnology applications, mostly in the area of MEMS (microelectromechanical systems), a figure that is likely to increase a hundred-fold by 2015.

This was last updated in May 2007

Contributor(s): Robert Freitas

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Nanotechnology Development – Nonotechnology development

§ September 5th, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanotechnology Development – Nonotechnology development

Nanotechnologies has vast new applications for solving major problems and creating opportunities for the human race. If nanotechnology solutions can be commercialised it can transform entire industries and substantially improve the way we live. Commercialisation of nanotechnologies often requires extensive capital investment over an extended period. This is especially so when it comes to nanotech development, the research and development phase tends to be relatively lengthy and length of this phase is hard to predict. Furthermore, because many projects will never be successful, many projects find it difficult to get finance. It is therefore the ability to obtain finance that determines the success or failure of a nanotechnology development venture, especially during the early phase. Obtaining commercial finance can therefore be the determining factor between success and failure of nanotechnology development projects, especially in the early stages. Successful finance often requires a mix of investors and bank finance secured by commercial property or residential property to ensure that interest rates remain affordable. In this respect a good mortgage broker can be essential in ensuring the success of your project.

Nanotechnology (nanotech) is science, engineering, and technology of the manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale. Nanoscience and nanotechnology are the study and application of extremely small things and can be used across all the other science fields, such as chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering.

The earliest, widespread description of nanotechnology referred to the particular technological goal of precisely manipulating atoms and molecules for fabrication of macroscale products, also now referred to as molecular nanotechnology. A more generalized description of nanotechnology was subsequently established by the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which defines nanotechnology as the manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers.

The ideas and concepts behind nanoscience and nanotechnology started with a talk entitled Theres Plenty of Room at the Bottom by physicist Richard Feynman at an American Physical Society meeting at the California Institute of Technology (CalTech) on December 29, 1959, long before the term nanotechnology was used. In his talk, Feynman described a process in which scientists would be able to manipulate and control individual atoms and molecules. Over a decade later, in his explorations of ultraprecision machining, Professor Norio Taniguchi coined the term nanotechnology. It wasnt until 1981, with the development of the scanning tunneling microscope that could see individual atoms, that modern nanotechnology began.

Much of the work being done today that carries the name nanotechnology is not nanotechnology in the original meaning of the word. Nanotechnology, in its traditional sense, means building things from the bottom up, with atomic precision. This theoretical capability was envisioned as early as 1959 by the renowned physicist Richard Feynman. I want to build a billion tiny factories, models of each other, which are manufacturing simultaneously. . . The principles of physics, as far as I can see, do not speak against the possibility of maneuvering things atom by atom. It is not an attempt to violate any laws; it is something, in principle, that can be done; but in practice, it has not been done because we are too big. Richard Feynman, Nobel Prize winner in physics

Scientists currently debate the future implications of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology may be able to create many new materials and devices with a vast range of applications, such as in medicine, electronics, biomaterials energy production, and consumer products.

If you have news about nanotechnology that you would like to publicise or you are interested in nanotechnology finance please contact us.

Please check out our nanotechnology forum.

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Nanotechnology – Flinders University

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A postgraduate program Fast facts

Course type: Postgraduate (coursework) Availability (full-time or part-time): Full-time (N/A for Grad Cert) l Part-time Location: On campus

Course name: Graduate Certificate in Nanotechnology Duration (full-time equivalent): 6 months SATAC code: 2GC075 CRICOS code: Not available to international students

Course name: Graduate Diploma in Nanotechnology Duration (full-time equivalent): 1 year SATAC code: 2GD045 CRICOS code: 057869J

Course name: Master of Nanotechnology Duration (full-time equivalent): 2 years SATAC code: 2CM060 CRICOS code: 057870E

Students will develop the capacity to understand the basic scientific concepts underpinning nanoscience and the properties of materials and biomaterials at the atomic/molecular level and the scaling laws governing these properties. They will understand current frontier developments in nanotechnology, and recognise and develop novel and innovative ideas using a range of laboratory methods, specifically the fabrication and characterisation tools used in nanotechnology such as various microscopies, surface modifications and molecular level construction methods. Communication, problem-based and critical thinking skills that will promote life long learning in their future careers will also be developed during these courses.

The courses articulate and the sequentially developed topics allow progression through the three awards. Candidates who have completed the Graduate Certificate are awarded credit towards the Graduate Diploma. Candidates who have completed the Graduate Diploma are awarded credit towards the Masters.

The Graduate Certificate and Graduate Diploma are for students who require coverage of the fundamental knowledge and skills in the core areas. The Masters award also covers the fundamental knowledge and skills, subsequently extending them through advanced study of selected areas and development of research and problem solving skills. Masters candidates complete a significant research/industry training project, and prepare a professional thesis or report on the project from project conception, design of methods, collection of results and their analysis, through to final conclusions and recommendations for future work. The project also equips students with skills in advanced experimental nanotechnology tools which will further enhance their employment prospects in the industry.

Refer to the course rule:

Graduates of these nanotechnology postgraduate courses will be in great demand in industry, research institutions and government organisations. The cross-disciplinary nature of their degree opens up many possibilities and the collaborations forged in the Masters project only serve to expand the opportunities.

The skills in communication, research, teamwork and computing, along with the capacity for critical thinking and analysis, make graduates of these programs exceptional candidates for positions in forward thinking institutions. Careers in environment, biomedicine, chemistry, and industries such as building, electronics, materials and renewable energy beckon for these graduates and an exciting career at the forefront of a new science awaits.

A coursework Masters is also a pathway to PhD for those who dont have an honours degree and prefer to develop a research career.

Applicants for the Graduate Certificate, Graduate Diploma and Masters in Nanotechnology must normally hold a degree in any relevant discipline of science or engineering or equivalent qualification from an approved tertiary institution. Examples of relevant disciplines include but are not limited to Chemistry, Physics, Materials Engineering, Chemical Engineering or Biotechnology

Students who have completed the four-year undergraduate Nanotechnology course at Flinders cannot be admitted to the Graduate Certificate or Graduate Diploma but may have 36 units of credit towards completion of the Masters program. Students who have completed the Graduate Certificate or Graduate Diploma (or other qualifications deemed equivalent) receive credit when progressing to the Graduate Diploma or Masters.

International students: Entry and English language requirements

Check SATAC.

Place type: Full fee paying

2016: $11,655

Place type: Full fee paying

2016: $24,519

Place type: Full fee paying

2016: $24,519


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Nanotechnology and Bioengineering – Research Innovation …

§ September 5th, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanotechnology and Bioengineering – Research Innovation …

Nanotechnology and bioengineering transform basic science into novel materials, devices and processes for improved sustainability and health. They play a vital role in current and emerging technologies, and contribute to all areas of engineering through materials expertise including developing new materials and improving existing ones.

UQs researchers in this field are internationally renowned with accolades including: three past Australian Research Council (ARC) Federation Fellows; one State of Queensland Premier's Fellow; one ARC Professorial Fellow; four ARC Future Fellows; four Fellows of the Australian Academy for Technological Science and Engineering (ATSE); one Fellow of the Australian Academy of Science; an ATSE Clunies Ross Award; a Eureka Prize; and a CSIRO Office of the Chief Executive Science Leader. Australian nanomaterials pioneer, Professor Max Lu, has been named a Queensland Great and also received a China International Science and Technology Award.

Nano-bio applications are as diverse as sustainable energy, regenerative medicine, biomedical imaging, drug and vaccine delivery, and personalised medicine. The impact of these new technologies will be felt across a wide range of endeavours, from therapeutic and tissue regeneration products, to bioderived consumer products and environmental applications. Of particular interest at UQ is nanotechnology research at the biological interface, including nanoparticles developed to detect early cancer markers in the blood; smart surfaces mimicking conditions in the body and encouraging high rates of stem cell production; and the engineering of cells to produce the building blocks for plastics.

Our Nano- and Bio- researchers have extensive global links with universities and industry. Collaborative partner highlights include DOW Chemicals, DSM Biologics, DuPont, GS Caltex, Merck and Co, Stanford University, University of California, Berkeley, MIT, University of Oxford, Harvard, Max Planck Institute, and the ETH.

UQ activity is centred at the Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (AIBN), and the Schools of Chemical Engineering; Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences; Information Technology and Electrical Engineering; and Mechanical and Mining Engineering.

Infrastructure: UQ has substantial infrastructure supporting intensive research activity in nanotechnology including: The Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology supporting three NCRIS facilities in nanofabrication, biologics and metabolomics. Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis with advanced facilities for electron microscopy The Centre for Advanced Imaging with extensive capabilities in NMR studies for soft materials and biomolecules.

UQ start-up company TenasiTech Pty Ltd is commercialising a polymer nanocomposites platform as applied to large polyurethane and acrylic polymer markets and applications. This technology has a strong focus on fundamental materials science with global benchmarking, biomaterials and nanomaterials toxicology studies, and scalable advanced manufacturing.

Biomedical engineering (BME) is a rapidly growing transdisciplinary field that bridges the gap between technology, medicine and biology. The core aim of UQ BME is to find practical solutions in medical and biomedical sciences using engineering approaches and analyses, for example, developing life support systems, designing devices to aid the impaired or disabled, or creating systems to allow better diagnosis of medical disorders. The BME group at UQ is led by Professor Stuart Crozier, who co-developed the technology now used in two-thirdsof the worlds high field MRI systems sold since 1996.

UQs Centre for Systems and Synthetic Biology develops approaches for handling complex, transient dynamics in developing tissue as well as rational design of complex pathways. These novel approaches are used in the design of bioprocesses as diverse as the production of blood cells for transfusion and the production of industrial biopolymers.

The Nanotechnology&Bioengineering at UQbrochure is available at:

Nanotechnology and Bioengineering

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Robot-Assisted Surgery – Brown University

§ September 2nd, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Robot-Assisted Surgery – Brown University


Technology is revolutionizing the medical field with the creation of robotic devices and complex imaging. Though these developments have made operations much less invasive, robotic systems have their own disadvantages that prevent them from replacing surgeons. Minimally invasive surgery is a broad concept encompassing many common procedures that existed prior to the introduction of robots, such as laparoscopic cholecystectomy or gall bladder excisions. It refers to general procedures that avoid long cuts by entering the body through small (usually about 1cm) entry incisions, through which surgeons use long-handled instruments to operate on tissue within the body. Such operations are guided by viewing equipment (i.e. endoscope) and, therefore, do not necessarily need the use of a robot. However, it is not incorrect to say that computer-assisted and robotic surgeries are categories under minimally invasive surgery.

Both computer-assisted and robotic surgeries have similarities when it comes to preoperative planning and registration. Because a surgeon can use computer simulation to run a practice session of the robotic surgery beforehand, there is a close tie between these two categories and this may explain why some people often confuse them as interchangeable. However, their main distinctions lie in the intraoperative phase of the procedure: robotic surgeries may use a large degree of computer assistance, but computer-assisted surgeries do not use robots.

Computer-assisted surgery (CAS), also known as image-guided surgery, surgical navigation, and 3-D computer surgery, is any computer-based procedure that uses technologies such as 3D imaging and real-time sensing in the planning, execution and follow-up of surgical procedures. CAS allows for better visualization and targeting of sites as well as improved diagnostic capabilities, giving it a significant advantage over conventional techniques. Robotic surgery, on the other hand, requires the use of a surgical robot, which may or may not involve the direct role of a surgeon during the procedure. A robot is defined as a computerized system with a motorized construction (usually an arm) capable of interacting with the environment. In its most basic form, it contains sensors, which provide feedback data on the robots current situation, and a system to process this information so that the next action can be determined. One key advantage of robotic surgery over computer-assisted is its accuracy and ability to repeat identical motions.

Before these procedures can be carried out, robotic surgery requires the use of computer imaging to diagnose and perform the operation. These imaging modalities can generate either 3-D figures through computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or 2-D ones through ultrasonography, fluoroscopy, and X-ray radiography. Out of the various methods of imaging, the main one in use is computer tomography (CT). CT scans use back projection and detectors to obtain cross-section images that are particularly useful when diagnosing cancers and viewing the chest and the abdomen. This kind of imaging is critical to diagnosis. Because these images can pinpoint pathologies, the surgeon is given a great degree of precision in guiding the instruments around healthy tissue with minimal injury. However, before the procedure can be carried out, there are three steps that must be overcome: planning, registration, and navigation. Planning is achieved through the careful observation of the images that are generated through these different imaging modalities. The surgeon uses this information to determine surgical pathways and methodologies. Following this step, the surgeon must coordinate the image data with the actual patient in a process known as registration. Once this is achieved, a surgeon or robot can implement the navigation step. Using the planning and images, surgeons can manually guide instruments through the patient (computer-assisted) or robotic arms can carry out the procedure (robotic) using sensor feedback. The decision between robotic or manual navigation depends on cost, safety concerns, difficulty of execution, and other factors. These variables are changing, however, with the advent of cheaper robotic production methods and added safety features.

Because computer-assisted and robotic surgeries are so integrated, the advanced imaging techniques and robotics we explore will be classified as robotic surgery, or computer-assisted robotic surgery. Even if nothing is ever one hundred percent safe, devices have the potential to be fatal if they malfunction. Therefore, considerable consternation exists in the medical field over these equipment. Industries have attempted to reduce these risks through redundant sensors and robot movement barriers, but these safety features increase cost, making them inaccessible to some physicians. Nevertheless, robotic arms can access the body much easily through the small incisions than a surgeon can, and can integrate large amounts of data and images to access areas deep within the body with precision. And though they cannot process qualitative information to make judgments during the surgery, they are still able to filter out hand tremors and scale the surgeons large movements into smaller ones in the patient.

As will be seen, robots do not actually replace humans but rather improve their ability to operate through the small incisions. In programming these devices, considerable effort is put into creating proper algorithms, accurate sensors, and improved user interfaces. Technology is becoming more and more integrated into the medical system. From imaging systems to preprogrammed robots, each specialty is finding benefits from these advances. In this website, we will explore the influence of computer-assisted surgery on neurosurgery, orthopedics, urology, and cardiology as well as look into current trends and future outlooks for this growing field in medicine.

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Robotic surgery: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

§ August 30th, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Robotic surgery: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Robotic surgery is similar to laparoscopic surgery. It can be performed through smaller cuts than open surgery. The small, precise movements that are possible with this type of surgery give it some advantages over standard endoscopic techniques.

The surgeon can make small, precise movements using this method. This can allow the surgeon to do a procedure through a small cut that once could be done only with open surgery.

Once the robotic arm is placed in the abdomen, it is easier for the surgeon to use the surgical tools than with laparoscopic surgery through an endoscope.

The surgeon can also see the area where the surgery is performed more easily. This method lets the surgeon move in a more comfortable way, as well.

Robotic surgery can take longer to perform. This is due to the amount of time needed to set up the robot. Also, many hospitals may not have access to this method.

Robotic surgery may be used for a number of different procedures, including:

Robotic surgery cannot be used for some complex procedures.

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Prostate Cancer Treatment with David Samadi, MD …

§ August 27th, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Prostate Cancer Treatment with David Samadi, MD …

Robotic prostatectomy is a radical prostatectomy that is also known as Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy (RALP). It is a minimally invasive prostate removal and cancer treatment surgery. Dr. Samadi developed his signature SMART (Samadi Modified Advanced Robotic Technique) Prostate Surgery, which incorporates oncologic principles, combines it with open radical prostatectomy skills and builds upon it with a robotic surgery approach.

SMART is a revolutionary and advanced prostate cancer surgery and prostate cancer treatment method, which drastically reduces blood loss, pain, hospital stay, recovery time and the side effects of other types of prostate cancer treatments. The SMART Technique is also known as bloodless prostate surgery. The SMART Technique does not require opening the endopelvic fascia or cutting the dorsal vein complex. This results in no sutures and less damage to the neurovascular bundle.

Dr. Samadi is able to enter into the patient through a few small "keyhole" entrances and handle the SMART robotic surgery with very tiny and precise instruments that allow him to perform the surgery with great precision and remove the patient's prostate gland without doing any harm to surrounding tissue. The patient is left with only a few small marks on his abdomen - none of the scars normally associated with prostate cancer treatment and surgery.

Dr. Samadi is the leader in this field and delivers top results to his patients, with the help of the da Vinci surgical robot by Intuitive Surgical. He has operated on many celebrities, including Roy Emerson, Hall of Fame Tennis Pro. He is a frequent expert medical contributor, as part of FOX News Medical A-Team. He has been interviewed and featured in many leading publications , such as Forbes and New York Magazine.

He presents his clinical research at medical conferences as a subject matter expert nationally and internationally and has written many medical papers on prostate cancer and robotic surgery. Samadi has lectured internationally and trains doctors in robotic surgery. A member of the American Urologic Association and the American Medical Association, his work has been reported on in many medical journals in addition to numerous websites on the Internet.

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Urology: Prostate Cancer Treatment, Biopsy, Kidney Stones …

§ August 27th, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Urology: Prostate Cancer Treatment, Biopsy, Kidney Stones …

UCLA Urology has again earned a top spot in the U.S. News and World Reports 2015-2016 Best Hospitals Honor Roll.

UCLA Urology, which previously ranked No. 4, is now ranked No. 3 in the nation.

UCLA Pediatric Urology is also ranked in the top 20 in the nation, at #19 this year. UCLA Healths hospitals in Westwood and Santa Monica, which previously ranked No. 5 in the country, tied for No. 3 this year.

Best Hospitals Honor Roll

Gladys Y. Ng, MD, MPH - Assistant Clinical Professor of Urology. Dr. Ng earned her medical degree from Albany Medical College and her Masters in Public Health from Yale University. She subsequently completed her Urology Residency at UCLA and fellowship training in Genitourinary Reconstruction at Emory University. Her clinical and research interests include urologic reconstruction with a focus on both male and female pelvic conditions, as well as general urology. More about Dr. Ng

Caroline L. Wallner, MD - Assistant Clinical Professor of Urology. Dr. Wallner graduated from David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, and then completed her general surgery and Urology residency at Loma Linda. Her clinical interests include diseases of the prostate, urinary stone disease, erectile dysfunction, and general urology. She specializes in open, endoscopic, laparoscopic, and robotic-assisted surgeries. More about Dr. Wallner

Meet Our UCLA Urology Expert Team

Are You a Referring Physician?

The eReferral system allows for easy, secure electronic communications directly with a UCLA Urologist regarding your patient. Refer Patients | eReferral

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Nanobiotechnology – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

§ August 27th, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanobiotechnology – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nanobiotechnology, bionanotechnology, and nanobiology are terms that refer to the intersection of nanotechnology and biology.[1] Given that the subject is one that has only emerged very recently, bionanotechnology and nanobiotechnology serve as blanket terms for various related technologies.

This discipline helps to indicate the merger of biological research with various fields of nanotechnology. Concepts that are enhanced through nanobiology include: nanodevices (such as biological machines), nanoparticles, and nanoscale phenomena that occurs within the discipline of nanotechnology. This technical approach to biology allows scientists to imagine and create systems that can be used for biological research. Biologically inspired nanotechnology uses biological systems as the inspirations for technologies not yet created.[2] However, as with nanotechnology and biotechnology, bionanotechnology does have many potential ethical issues associated with it.

The most important objectives that are frequently found in nanobiology involve applying nanotools to relevant medical/biological problems and refining these applications. Developing new tools, such as peptoid nanosheets, for medical and biological purposes is another primary objective in nanotechnology. New nanotools are often made by refining the applications of the nanotools that are already being used. The imaging of native biomolecules, biological membranes, and tissues is also a major topic for the nanobiology researchers. Other topics concerning nanobiology include the use of cantilever array sensors and the application of nanophotonics for manipulating molecular processes in living cells.[3]

Recently, the use of microorganisms to synthesize functional nanoparticles has been of great interest. Microorganisms can change the oxidation state of metals. These microbial processes have opened up new opportunities for us to explore novel applications, for example, the biosynthesis of metal nanomaterials. In contrast to chemical and physical methods, microbial processes for synthesizing nanomaterials can be achieved in aqueous phase under gentle and environmentally benign conditions. This approach has become an attractive focus in current green bionanotechnology research towards sustainable development.[4]

The terms are often used interchangeably. When a distinction is intended, though, it is based on whether the focus is on applying biological ideas or on studying biology with nanotechnology. Bionanotechnology generally refers to the study of how the goals of nanotechnology can be guided by studying how biological "machines" work and adapting these biological motifs into improving existing nanotechnologies or creating new ones.[5][6] Nanobiotechnology, on the other hand, refers to the ways that nanotechnology is used to create devices to study biological systems.[7]

In other words, nanobiotechnology is essentially miniaturized biotechnology, whereas bionanotechnology is a specific application of nanotechnology. For example, DNA nanotechnology or cellular engineering would be classified as bionanotechnology because they involve working with biomolecules on the nanoscale. Conversely, many new medical technologies involving nanoparticles as delivery systems or as sensors would be examples of nanobiotechnology since they involve using nanotechnology to advance the goals of biology.

The definitions enumerated above will be utilized whenever a distinction between nanobio and bionano is made in this article. However, given the overlapping usage of the terms in modern parlance, individual technologies may need to be evaluated to determine which term is more fitting. As such, they are best discussed in parallel.

Most of the scientific concepts in bionanotechnology are derived from other fields. Biochemical principles that are used to understand the material properties of biological systems are central in bionanotechnology because those same principles are to be used to create new technologies. Material properties and applications studied in bionanoscience include mechanical properties(e.g. deformation, adhesion, failure), electrical/electronic (e.g. electromechanical stimulation, capacitors, energy storage/batteries), optical (e.g. absorption, luminescence, photochemistry), thermal (e.g. thermomutability, thermal management), biological (e.g. how cells interact with nanomaterials, molecular flaws/defects, biosensing, biological mechanisms s.a. mechanosensing), nanoscience of disease (e.g. genetic disease, cancer, organ/tissue failure), as well as computing (e.g. DNA computing). The impact of bionanoscience, achieved through structural and mechanistic analyses of biological processes at nanoscale, is their translation into synthetic and technological applications through nanotechnology.

Nano-biotechnology takes most of its fundamentals from nanotechnology. Most of the devices designed for nano-biotechnological use are directly based on other existing nanotechnologies. Nano-biotechnology is often used to describe the overlapping multidisciplinary activities associated with biosensors, particularly where photonics, chemistry, biology, biophysics, nano-medicine, and engineering converge. Measurement in biology using wave guide techniques, such as dual polarization interferometry, are another example.

Applications of bionanotechnology are extremely widespread. Insofar as the distinction holds, nanobiotechnology is much more commonplace in that it simply provides more tools for the study of biology. Bionanotechnology, on the other hand, promises to recreate biological mechanisms and pathways in a form that is useful in other ways.

Nanomedicine is a field of medical science whose applications are increasing more and more thanks to nanorobots and biological machines, which constitute a very useful tool to develop this area of knowledge. In the past years, researchers have done many improvements in the different devices and systems required to develop nanorobots. This supposes a new way of treating and dealing with diseases such as cancer; thanks to nanorobots, side effects of chemotherapy have been controlled, reduced and even eliminated, so some years from now, cancer patients will be offered an alternative to treat this disease instead of chemotherapy, which causes secondary effects such as hair lose, fatigue or nausea killing not only cancerous cells but also the healthy ones. At a clinical level, cancer treatment with nanomedicine will consist on the supply of nanorobots to the patient through an injection that will seek for cancerous cells leaving untouched the healthy ones. Patients that will be treated through nanomedicine will not notice the presence of this nanomachines inside them; the only thing that is going to be noticeable is the progressive improvement of their health.[8]

Nanobiotechnology (sometimes referred to as nanobiology) is best described as helping modern medicine progress from treating symptoms to generating cures and regenerating biological tissues. Three American patients have received whole cultured bladders with the help of doctors who use nanobiology techniques in their practice. Also, it has been demonstrated in animal studies that a uterus can be grown outside the body and then placed in the body in order to produce a baby. Stem cell treatments have been used to fix diseases that are found in the human heart and are in clinical trials in the United States. There is also funding for research into allowing people to have new limbs without having to resort to prosthesis. Artificial proteins might also become available to manufacture without the need for harsh chemicals and expensive machines. It has even been surmised that by the year 2055, computers may be made out of biochemicals and organic salts.[9]

Another example of current nanobiotechnological research involves nanospheres coated with fluorescent polymers. Researchers are seeking to design polymers whose fluorescence is quenched when they encounter specific molecules. Different polymers would detect different metabolites. The polymer-coated spheres could become part of new biological assays, and the technology might someday lead to particles which could be introduced into the human body to track down metabolites associated with tumors and other health problems. Another example, from a different perspective, would be evaluation and therapy at the nanoscopic level, i.e. the treatment of Nanobacteria (25-200nm sized) as is done by NanoBiotech Pharma.

While nanobiology is in its infancy, there are a lot of promising methods that will rely on nanobiology in the future. Biological systems are inherently nano in scale; nanoscience must merge with biology in order to deliver biomacromolecules and molecular machines that are similar to nature. Controlling and mimicking the devices and processes that are constructed from molecules is a tremendous challenge to face the converging disciplines of nanotechnology.[10] All living things, including humans, can be considered to be nanofoundries. Natural evolution has optimized the "natural" form of nanobiology over millions of years. In the 21st century, humans have developed the technology to artificially tap into nanobiology. This process is best described as "organic merging with synthetic." Colonies of live neurons can live together on a biochip device; according to research from Dr. Gunther Gross at the University of North Texas. Self-assembling nanotubes have the ability to be used as a structural system. They would be composed together with rhodopsins; which would facilitate the optical computing process and help with the storage of biological materials. DNA (as the software for all living things) can be used as a structural proteomic system - a logical component for molecular computing. Ned Seeman - a researcher at New York University - along with other researchers are currently researching concepts that are similar to each other.[11]

DNA nanotechnology is one important example of bionanotechnology.[12] The utilization of the inherent properties of nucleic acids like DNA to create useful materials is a promising area of modern research. Another important area of research involves taking advantage of membrane properties to generate synthetic membranes. Proteins that self-assemble to generate functional materials could be used as a novel approach for the large-scale production of programmable nanomaterials. One example is the development of amyloids found in bacterial biofilms as engineered nanomaterials that can be programmed genetically to have different properties.[13]Protein folding studies provide a third important avenue of research, but one that has been largely inhibited by our inability to predict protein folding with a sufficiently high degree of accuracy. Given the myriad uses that biological systems have for proteins, though, research into understanding protein folding is of high importance and could prove fruitful for bionanotechnology in the future.

Lipid nanotechnology is another major area of research in bionanotechnology, where physico-chemical properties of lipids such as their antifouling and self-assembly is exploited to build nanodevices with applications in medicine and engineering.[14]

This field relies on a variety of research methods, including experimental tools (e.g. imaging, characterization via AFM/optical tweezers etc.), x-ray diffraction based tools, synthesis via self-assembly, characterization of self-assembly (using e.g. dual polarization interferometry, recombinant DNA methods, etc.), theory (e.g. statistical mechanics, nanomechanics, etc.), as well as computational approaches (bottom-up multi-scale simulation, supercomputing).

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Da Vinci Surgery – Gynecology

§ August 21st, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Da Vinci Surgery – Gynecology

Risks & Considerations Related to Benign Hysterectomy (removal of the uterus and possibly nearby organs): Injury to the ureters (the ureters drain urine from the kidney into the bladder), vaginal cuff problem (scar tissue in vaginal incision, infection, bacterial skin infection, pooling/clotting of blood, incision opens or separates), injury to bladder (organ that holds urine), bowel injury, vaginal shortening, problems urinating (cannot empty bladder, urgent or frequent need to urinate, leaking urine, slow or weak stream), abnormal hole from the vagina into the urinary tract or rectum, vaginal tear or deep cut. Uterine tissue may contain unsuspected cancer. The cutting or morcellation of uterine tissue during surgery may spread cancer, and decrease the long-term survival of patients.

Risks & Considerations Related to Cancer Hysterectomy (removal of the uterus and possibly nearby organs): Injury to the ureters (the ureters drain urine from the kidney into the bladder), vaginal cuff problem (scar tissue in vaginal incision, infection, bacterial skin infection, pooling/clotting of blood, incision opens or separates), injury to bladder (organ that holds urine), bowel injury, vaginal shortening, problems urinating (cannot empty bladder, urgent or frequent need to urinate, leaking urine, slow or weak stream), abnormal hole from the vagina into the urinary tract or rectum, vaginal tear or deep cut.

Serious complications may occur in any surgery, including da Vinci Surgery, up to and including death. Individual surgical results may vary. Patients should talk to their doctor to decide if da Vinci Surgery is right for them. Patients and doctors should review all available information on non-surgical and surgical options in order to make an informed decision. Please also refer to for Important Safety Information.

da Vinci Surgery with Single-Site Instruments is cleared for use in gallbladder removal, and for hysterectomy and ovary removal for benign conditions. Patients who are not candidates for non-robotic minimally invasive surgery are also not candidates for da Vinci Surgery, including da Vinci Surgery with Single-Site Instruments. There may be an increased risk of incision-site hernia with single-incision surgery, including Single-Site surgery with da Vinci. Unless otherwise noted, all people depicted are models. 2015 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. All rights reserved. Product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders.

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Nanorobots in Medicine – Nanomedicine

§ August 19th, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanorobots in Medicine – Nanomedicine

Nanorobots in Medicine

Future applications of nanomedicine will be based on the ability to build nanorobots. In the future these nanorobots could actually be programmed to repair specific diseased cells, functioning in a similar way to antibodies in our natural healing processes.

Developing Nanorobots for Medicine

Design analysis for a cell repair nanorobot: The Ideal Gene Delivery Vector: Chromallocytes, Cell Repair Nanorobots for Chromosome Repair Therapy

Design analysis for an antimicrobial nanorobot: Microbivores: Artifical Mechanical Phagocytes using Digest and Discharge Protocol

A Mechanical Artificial Red Cell: Exploratory Design in Medical Nanotechnology

Nanorobots in Medicine: Future Applications

The elimination of bacterial infections in a patient within minutes, instead of using treatment with antibiotics over a period of weeks.

The ability to perform surgery at the cellular level, removing individual diseased cells and even repairing defective portions of individual cells.

Significant lengthening of the human lifespan by repairing cellular level conditions that cause the body to age.

Nanomedicine Reference Material

An online copy of volume one of the bookNanomedicine by Robert Freitas.

Chapter 7: "Engines of Healing" from the book Engines of Creation, The Coming Era of Nanotechnology by Eric Drexler

For a fun, fictionalized account of miniaturized medicine rent the 1966 movie Fantastic Voyage, or read the novelization of the movie by Isaac Asimov.

Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems

Nanomedicine Center for Nucleoprotein Machines

Related Pages

In about 20 years researchers plan to have the capability to build an object atom by atom or molecule by molecule. Molecular manufacturing, also called molecular nanotechnology will provide the ability to build the nanorobots needed for future applications of nanomedicine.

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Nanomedicine Fact Sheet –

§ August 18th, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanomedicine Fact Sheet –

Nanomedicine Overview

What if doctors had tiny tools that could search out and destroy the very first cancer cells of a tumor developing in the body? What if a cell's broken part could be removed and replaced with a functioning miniature biological machine? Or what if molecule-sized pumps could be implanted in sick people to deliver life-saving medicines precisely where they are needed? These scenarios may sound unbelievable, but they are the ultimate goals of nanomedicine, a cutting-edge area of biomedical research that seeks to use nanotechnology tools to improve human health.

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A lot of things are small in today's high-tech world of biomedical tools and therapies. But when it comes to nanomedicine, researchers are talking very, very small. A nanometer is one-billionth of a meter, too small even to be seen with a conventional lab microscope.

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Nanotechnology is the broad scientific field that encompasses nanomedicine. It involves the creation and use of materials and devices at the level of molecules and atoms, which are the parts of matter that combine to make molecules. Non-medical applications of nanotechnology now under development include tiny semiconductor chips made out of strings of single molecules and miniature computers made out of DNA, the material of our genes. Federally supported research in this area, conducted under the rubric of the National Nanotechnology Initiative, is ongoing with coordinated support from several agencies.

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For hundreds of years, microscopes have offered scientists a window inside cells. Researchers have used ever more powerful visualization tools to extensively categorize the parts and sub-parts of cells in vivid detail. Yet, what scientists have not been able to do is to exhaustively inventory cells, cell parts, and molecules within cell parts to answer questions such as, "How many?" "How big?" and "How fast?" Obtaining thorough, reliable measures of quantity is the vital first step of nanomedicine.

As part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Common Fund [], the NIH [] has established a handful of nanomedicine centers. These centers are staffed by a highly interdisciplinary scientific crew, including biologists, physicians, mathematicians, engineers and computer scientists. Research conducted over the first few years was spent gathering extensive information about how molecular machines are built.

Once researchers had catalogued the interactions between and within molecules, they turned toward using that information to manipulate those molecular machines to treat specific diseases. For example, one center is trying to return at least limited vision to people who have lost their sight. Others are trying to develop treatments for severe neurological disorders, cancer, and a serious blood disorder.

The availability of innovative, body-friendly nanotools that depend on precise knowledge of how the body's molecular machines work, will help scientists figure out how to build synthetic biological and biochemical devices that can help the cells in our bodies work the way they were meant to, returning the body to a healthier state.

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Last Updated: January 22, 2014

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nanotechnology – National Geographic Education

§ August 17th, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on nanotechnology – National Geographic Education

administer Verb

to oversee, manage, or be in charge of.

(atomic force microscope)microscope that uses a tiny probe mounted on a cantilever to scan the surface of an object.

having a consistent, unusual, negative reaction to a substance.

one of several forms of a chemical element. Not all elements have allotropes.

translucent, yellow-orange material made of the resin of ancient trees. Amber is sometimes considered a gemstone.

predicting total, usually global, disaster.

to put together.

the basic unit of an element, composed of three major parts: electrons, protons, and neutrons.

to enlarge or add to.

(singular: bacterium) single-celled organisms found in every ecosystem on Earth.

process by which chemicals are absorbed by an organism, either from exposure to a substance with the chemical or by consumption of food containing the chemical.

(buckminsterfullerene) very stable form of carbon whose 60-atom structure looks like a geodesic dome.

growth of abnormal cells in the body.

structure that is fixed or supported at one end and free on the other.

substance that causes or quickens a chemical reaction, without being affected by it.

made of clay.

group of physical disorders that cause motor disability.

treatment of a disease (usually cancer) using drugs or other chemical agents toxic to the diseased cells and tissue.

natural chemical that helps regulate metabolism.

clearness or transparency.

process of changing from a liquid to a thickened or semi-solid mass.

dark, solid fossil fuel mined from the earth.

suspension in which particles of one substance are dispersed (suspended) in another substance.

able to transmit something, such as electricity or heat.

to use up.

hard, flexible metal (steel) with banded, wavy markings created by forging the metal in strips.

(singular: datum) information collected during a scientific study.

man-made molecule in which the atoms are arranged in branches radiating out from a central core. Also called an arborol or cascade molecule.

process of converting seawater to fresh water by removing salt and minerals.

having to do with the identification of an illness or disease.

type of crystal that is pure carbon and the hardest known natural substance.

liquid fuel (usually a type of petroleum) used to propel diesel engines. Also called diesel oil and diesel fuel.

a harmful condition of a body part or organ.

strong and long-lasting.

able to bend easily.

flow of electricity, or charged particles, through a conductor.

conductor through which an electric current enters or leaves a substance (or a vacuum) whose electrical characteristics are being measured.

study of the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons.

discharge or release.

person who plans the building of things, such as structures (construction engineer) or substances (chemical engineer).

glue or coating made from resins. Also called epoxy resin.

gases and particles expelled from an engine.

very costly.

to make or construct.

to remove particles from a substance by passing the substance through a screen or other material that catches larger particles and lets the rest of the substance pass through.

emission of light by a substance during exposure to another source of light.

coal, oil, or natural gas. Fossil fuels formed from the remains of ancient plants and animals.

system or order of a nation, state, or other political unit.

two-dimensional molecule of carbon arranged in a regular hexagonal (honeycomb-shaped) pattern.

soft, common allotrope of carbon that is the highest rank of coal. Also called black lead.

apocalyptic scenario where nanoscale robots malfunction and endlessly replicate themselves, consuming all matter on Earth.

iron-rich protein found in the red blood cells of many animals. In vertebrates, hemoglobin transports oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues, and transports carbon dioxide from the body's tissues to the lungs.

shape having six sides.

event or symbol representing a belief, nation, or community.

unable to be pierced (penetrated) or understood.

having to do with the reaction of a tissue to irritation, injury, or infection.

structures and facilities necessary for the functioning of a society, such as roads.

something new.

deliberate or on-purpose.

to set one thing or organism apart from others.

glowing brightness.

type of blood cancer that occurs when white blood cells that help protect the body from infection and disease (lymphocytes) begin behaving abnormally.

to not work correctly.

production of goods or products in a factory.

having to do with the Middle Ages (500-1400) in Europe.

thin coating of material that certain substances, such as water, can pass through.

tiny organism, usually a bacterium.

small semiconductor with electrical circuits that carry information.

instrument used to view very small objects by making them appear larger.

study, design, and use of microscopes.

(metal matrix composite) compound with at least two parts, one being a metal.

smallest physical unit of a substance, consisting of two or more atoms linked together.

collection of tiny particles that acts as a binding agent to materials such as sand or plastics.

material made of different components and mixed at the nanometer-scale.

(nm) billionth of a meter.

material that has an average particle size of 1-100 nanometers.

length scale whose relevant unit of measurement is the nanometer (nm), or a billionth of a meter. Also called the nanoscopic scale.

development and study of technological function and devices on a scale of individual atoms and molecules.

hollow cylinder made of a single element, usually carbon.

(nanoceramic matrix composite) compound made of layered mineral particles, usually including a metal as another component. Also called nanoclay.

one of five awards established by the Swedish businessman Alfred Nobel in 1901. Nobel Prizes are awarded in physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, and peace.

having to do with facilities or resources located underwater, usually miles from the coast.

fossil fuel formed from the remains of marine plants and animals. Also known as petroleum or crude oil.

large, elevated structure with facilities to extract and process oil and natural gas from undersea locations.

having to do with vision or sight.

small piece of material.

five-sided shape.

able to convert solar radiation to electrical energy.

person who studies the relationship between matter, energy, motion, and force.

person who is among the first to do something.

expanding shell of superheated, glowing gas ejected from a dying star (red giant).

chemical material that can be easily shaped when heated to a high temperature.

(polymer nanocomposite) compound with nanoparticles dispersed within it.

introduction of harmful materials into the environment.

pots, vessels, or other material made from clay or ceramic.

happening before the expected time.

thin instrument for exploring the depth or other qualities of a material.

semiconductor whose electronic and optical characteristics are closely related to its size and shape. Also called a single-electron transistor.

to resist or push back.

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Bassett Healthcare Network | Shoulder & Sports Medicine …

§ August 15th, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Bassett Healthcare Network | Shoulder & Sports Medicine …

Tally Lassiter, Jr., M.D., M.H.A., and Jocelyn Wittstein, M.D., lead the Shoulder and Sports Medicine Research Institute for Bassett Healthcare Network. Dr. Lassiter is director of the Shoulder and Sports Medicine Institute and Dr. Wittstein leads the Institutes research efforts, which focuses on how to prevent and manage shoulder and athletic injuries in people living in central New York. Both see patients for consultations and surgical management of orthopedic disorders in Oneonta at FoxCare Center and Oneonta Specialty Services.

Orthopedic surgeons Drs. Lassiter and Wittstein use the latest techniques in treating patients for a range of orthopedic conditions, including arthroscopic rotator cuff tears and shoulder instability surgery, arthritis of shoulder joint with total shoulder replacement. In advanced cases of arthritis, and when the patient has not responded to other corrective measures, the ball and the socket of the shoulder is replaced in shoulder replacement surgery, giving good predictable pain relief. Biologic patches are now one option to repair very large rotator cuff tears. Minimally invasive surgical procedures may be used in some cases of arthritic shoulder conditions where bone spurs are a problem.

Patients presenting with very advanced shoulder arthritis and extremely limited shoulder use due to associated rotator cuff tears, who have not responded to pain medication or other modalities, may benefit from a newer procedure called reverse shoulder arthroplasty. It is so named because the usual positions of the ball and socket replacements are reversed in the shoulder. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty gives the patient pain relief and ability to lift their arm above their head.

Drs. Lassiter and Wittstein also have additional training in outpatient anterior cruciate ligament and complicated knee ligament surgery, elbow arthroscopy and ligament reconstruction in athletes whose sport involves repeated throwing, such as baseball or football. Dr. Lassiter has additional training in hip arthroscopy for labral tears in athletes, femoral-acetabular impingement and early hip arthritis.

For an appointment with either Dr. Lassiter or Dr. Wittstein, at FoxCare Center, call 607-432-2239, or Oneonta Specialty Services, call 607-433-6300.

September 20-21, 2013

Guest Speaker: Jamie Moyer

Chairperson:Jocelyn Wittstein, MD Assistant: Tally Lassiter, Jr, MD, MHA

May 19, 2012 Press Release Conference agenda Guest Speaker: Tommy John Chairperson:Jocelyn Wittstein, MD Assistant: Tally Lassiter, Jr, MD, MHA

Anterior Shoulder Instability Dr. Lassiter, Bassett Sports Medicine Conference, June 13, 2012

PCL and Complex Knee Injuries Dr. Lassiter, Bassett Sports Medicine Conference, February 15, 2012

ACL: Graft Choices and Newer TechniquesDr. Lassiter, Bassett Sports Medicine Conference, January 11, 2012

Patella Instability Dr. Lassiter, Saratoga Seminars Orthopaedic Summer Symposium, August 5-6, 2011

Pediatric Sports Medicine Injuries: Lower ExtremityDownload as .pdfDr. Lassiter, February 1, 2011

Traumatic Shoulder Instability Dr. Wittstein, July 8, 2006

Treatment of AC Separations Dr. Wittstein, 2009

Shoulder Injuries in Athletes Dr. Wittstein, 2010

Patellar Instabilty Dr. Wittstein, December 14, 2010

ACL Reconstruction, Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair, and Shoulder Stabilization Dr. Wittstein, Central New York Academy of Medicine, 2011

Pediatric Upper Extremity Sports Injuries Dr. Wittstein, February 22, 2011

Hip Arthroscopy: FAI and Labral tears Dr. Lassiter, March 18, 2011

Presentationsmade at the National Baseball Hall of Fame:

Wednesday, May 4, 2011 Dr. Lassiter: Management of Rotator Cuff Disease Dr. Wittstein:Advances in Shoulder Arthroplasty - Treatment of Shoulder ArthritisWednesday, May 18, 2011Dr. Wittstein: Shoulder Injuries in Overhead Sports: Prevention and Treatment Dr. Lassiter: Elbow Injuries in Athletes

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Alcor: FAQ – Technical

§ August 10th, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Alcor: FAQ – Technical

Index - 1.General - 2.Technical - 3.Ethical - 4.Spiritual 5.Financial - 6.Membership - 7.Misinformed See also Scientists' Cryonics FAQ

Q: What are nanotechnology and nanomedicine?

A: Molecular nanotechnology is an emerging technology for manufacturing and manipulating matter at the molecular level. The concept was first suggested by Richard Feynman in 1959. The theoretical foundations of molecular nanotechnology were developed by K. Eric Drexler, Ralph Merkle, and others in the 1980s and 1990s. More recently the future medical applications of nanotechnology have been explored in detail by Robert Freitas in his books, Nanomedicine Vol. I (Basic Capabilities) and Nanomedicine Vol. IIA (Biocompatibility). These scientists have concluded that the mid to late 21st century will bring an explosion of amazing capabilities for analyzing and repairing injured cells and tissues, similar to the information processing revolution that is now occurring. These capabilities will include means for repairing and regenerating tissue after almost any injury provided that certain basic information remains intact. A non-technical overview of nanotechnology, including an excellent chapter on cryonics ("biostasis"), is available in Eric Drexler's book, Engines of Creation.


Q: Won't memories be lost if brain electrical activity stops?

A: Short-term memory depends on electrical activity. However long-term memory is based on durable molecular and structural changes within the brain. Quoting from the Textbook of Medical Physiology by Arthur C. Guyton (W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 1986):

We know that secondary memory does not depend on continued activity of the nervous system, because the brain can be TOTALLY INACTIVATED (emphasis added) by cooling, by general anesthesia, by hypoxia, by ischemia, or by any method, and yet secondary memories that have been previously stored are still retained when the brain becomes active once again.

This is known from direct clinical experience with surgical deep hypothermia, for which complete shutdown of brain electrical activity (electrocortical silence) is not only permissible, but desirable for good neurological outcome.

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Robotic Surgery at St. Vincent’s

§ August 8th, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Robotic Surgery at St. Vincent’s

St. Vincent's minimally invasive da Vinci Robotic surgery.

Specializing in:

If you or a loved one have been recommended for, or are contemplating surgery for a condition that can not be addressed through medication or lifestyle changes, we invite you to learn more about St. Vincent's minimally invasive advanced robotic surgical options enabled by da Vinci and get to know our team of dedicated robotic specialists.

Among them is St. Vincent's chairman of surgery, Douglas A. Ross who leads our team of highly skilled and dedicated robotic surgeons.

"The smallness of the robot's arms is the key to its effectiveness," says Dr. Doug Ross, MD, FACS. "da Vinci can actually work inside the body in areas very difficult for surgeons to get to and work in," he said. "This permits much more delicate and finessed moves to be made than could normally be done, even with laparoscopic instrumentation. The result is a safer environment for the patient."

Patients who choose a da Vinci robot-assisted surgical intervention experience the following benefits:

"These are the kind of patient-friendly results we like, so we're very excited about our High-Definition 3-D da Vinci Robot, and the phenomenal minimally invasive skills our physicians have developed," says Dr. Ross.

To learn more, please contact us for a consult where we can discuss your medical history, explain St. Vincent's surgical options and guide you through the process.

Meet our Surgeons >

The da Vinci Surgical System is designed to provide surgeons with enhanced capabilities, including high-definition 3D vision and a magnified view. Your doctor controls the da Vinci System, which translates his or her hand movements into smaller, more precise movements of tiny instruments inside your body. Though it is often called a "robot," da Vinci cannot act on its own: Instead, the surgery is performed entirely by your doctor.

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Nanorobotics – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

§ August 7th, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanorobotics – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

"Nanobots" redirects here. For the They Might Be Giants album, see Nanobots (album).

Nanorobotics is the emerging technology field creating machines or robots whose components are at or close to the scale of a nanometre (109 meters).[1][2][3] More specifically, nanorobotics refers to the nanotechnology engineering discipline of designing and building nanorobots, with devices ranging in size from 0.110 micrometers and constructed of nanoscale or molecular components.[4][5] The names nanobots, nanoids, nanites, nanomachines, or nanomites have also been used to describe these devices currently under research and development.[6][7]

Nanomachines are largely in the research and development phase,[8] but some primitive molecular machines and nanomotors have been tested. An example is a sensor having a switch approximately 1.5 nanometers across, capable of counting specific molecules in a chemical sample. The first useful applications of nanomachines might be in nanomedicine. For example,[9]biological machines could be used to identify and destroy cancer cells.[10][11] Another potential application is the detection of toxic chemicals, and the measurement of their concentrations, in the environment. Rice University has demonstrated a single-molecule car developed by a chemical process and including buckyballs for wheels. It is actuated by controlling the environmental temperature and by positioning a scanning tunneling microscope tip.

Another definition is a robot that allows precision interactions with nanoscale objects, or can manipulate with nanoscale resolution. Such devices are more related to microscopy or scanning probe microscopy, instead of the description of nanorobots as molecular machine. Following the microscopy definition even a large apparatus such as an atomic force microscope can be considered a nanorobotic instrument when configured to perform nanomanipulation. For this perspective, macroscale robots or microrobots that can move with nanoscale precision can also be considered nanorobots.

According to Richard Feynman, it was his former graduate student and collaborator Albert Hibbs who originally suggested to him (circa 1959) the idea of a medical use for Feynman's theoretical micromachines (see nanotechnology). Hibbs suggested that certain repair machines might one day be reduced in size to the point that it would, in theory, be possible to (as Feynman put it) "swallow the doctor". The idea was incorporated into Feynman's 1959 essay There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom.[12]

Since nanorobots would be microscopic in size, it would probably be necessary for very large numbers of them to work together to perform microscopic and macroscopic tasks. These nanorobot swarms, both those incapable of replication (as in utility fog) and those capable of unconstrained replication in the natural environment (as in grey goo and its less common variants[clarification needed]), are found in many science fiction stories, such as the Borg nanoprobes in Star Trek and The Outer Limits episode The New Breed.

Some proponents of nanorobotics, in reaction to the grey goo scenarios that they earlier helped to propagate, hold the view that nanorobots capable of replication outside of a restricted factory environment do not form a necessary part of a purported productive nanotechnology, and that the process of self-replication, if it were ever to be developed, could be made inherently safe. They further assert that their current plans for developing and using molecular manufacturing do not in fact include free-foraging replicators.[13][14]

The most detailed theoretical discussion of nanorobotics, including specific design issues such as sensing, power communication, navigation, manipulation, locomotion, and onboard computation, has been presented in the medical context of nanomedicine by Robert Freitas. Some of these discussions remain at the level of unbuildable generality and do not approach the level of detailed engineering.

The joint use of nanoelectronics, photolithography, and new biomaterials provides a possible approach to manufacturing nanorobots for common medical applications, such as for surgical instrumentation, diagnosis and drug delivery.[15][16][17] This method for manufacturing on nanotechnology scale is currently in use in the electronics industry.[18] So, practical nanorobots should be integrated as nanoelectronics devices, which will allow tele-operation and advanced capabilities for medical instrumentation.[19][20]

Nubot is an abbreviation for "nucleic acid robot." Nubots are organic molecular machines at the nanoscale.[21] DNA structure can provide means to assemble 2D and 3D nanomechanical devices. DNA based machines can be activated using small molecules, proteins and other molecules of DNA.[22][23][24] Biological circuit gates based on DNA materials have been engineered as molecular machines to allow in-vitro drug delivery for targeted health problems.[25] Such material based systems would work most closely to smart biomaterial drug system delivery,[26] while not allowing precise in vivo teleoperation of such engineered prototypes.

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Boston Sports Medicine | Doctor Thomas Gill

§ August 4th, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Boston Sports Medicine | Doctor Thomas Gill

Dr. Thomas Gill and members of the Boston Sports Medicine and Research Institute are nationally and internationally recognized as leaders in the field of Sports Medicine and research. Dr. Gill has served as Head Team Physician for the New England Patriots, Medical Director for the Boston Red Sox, Team Physician for the Boston Bruins, Venue Medical Director for both men's and women's World Cup Soccer, Medical Director for the Boston Breakers, Consultant to Boston College and Harvard University, and Chief of the MGH Sports Medicine Service.

"I am a 57 year old female and tore my ACL and PCL. Dr Gill performed surgery on these tears and within 4 months my knee was as good as new. There is no better Sports Orthopedic Surgeon in New England!!"

"I cannot believe that I am the first one to write this. He is the "KNEE GOD".

"Dr. Gill has taken wonderful care of me for more than ten years. He is an attentive listener, and is a caring, skilled, and realistic surgeon. Dr. Gill has consistently made accurate diagnoses of my injuries and ailments; with each injury or ailment, he has prescribed treatments that resulted in improvement. Dr. Gill performed surgery on me at Massachusetts General Hospital and at MGH West (in Waltham), and I have maintained the highest level of confidence in him throughout my worries, aches, pains, surgery, and rehab."

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