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How covid-19 birthed the millennial caregiver – Livemint

§ April 25th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on How covid-19 birthed the millennial caregiver – Livemint

Anticipatory grief is that feeling we get about what the future holds when were uncertain. Usually it centres on death. We feel it when someone gets a dire diagnosis or when we have the normal thought that well lose a parent someday."

These words have resonated with people across the world. Accurately deconstructing the pit in the stomach, alternating waves of distress and panic, since the covid-19 pandemic really hit India, Kessler gave coherent voice to the scramble of feelings people seemed to be experiencing. The interview hit those who have parents over the age of 60, and those who have parents over the age of 60 with co-morbidities, particularly hard.

The interview was all over social media, shared rapidly on 23 March, when it was first published, and in the weeks that followed as the lockdown came into force two days later.

The 60-plus group is most at risk in a covid-19 world. The virus, in its microscopic enormity, has revealed the fragility of a mother or father who had not been seen as elderly", the vulnerability of individuals whose mortality had seemed distant enough so far.

Angshuman Chaudhary, 27, has lived away from his Guwahati home for nearly 11 years. The researcher at the Institute of Peace and Conflict studies (IPCS) in Delhi was to visit his parents before the lockdown was imposed. His mother suffers from asthma, father from arthritis, and both parents are mildly diabetic. While they live close to friends in an apartment complex, the lockdown has isolated them almost entirelyfor now its the two of them and their three cats.

It has all started bothering me now, especially after this, the covid-19 outbreak and the lockdown, where mobility is further restricted. They need more help now in terms of doing everyday things," says Chaudhary. When his mother had to be hospitalized recently owing to a severe stomach infection, Chaudharys father had to do all the shuttling, cooking and getting food to the hospital. A hospital is a place where you are prone to infections right now," he says. Usually I dont feel homesick or anything but these days there is a latent anxiety. There is this sense that as soon as the lockdown is over, all I would really like is to go home."

In Visakhapatnam, Lingam Vaidehi, 37, moved back home from Delhi shortly after her mother had to spend three weeks in the ICU owing to a pulmonary embolisma clot exploded in her lung". She has now been cooped up with her parents for over five weeks, ensuring her mother, who is 60, is taking her medicines, has her BiPap and oxygen concentrator handy, and ensuring no one goes in or out of the house other than her sister, who lives a few minutes away.

Millennials in India have rarely been seen as caregivers but with the covid-19 pandemic widening the ambit of who is now vulnerable, they suddenly find themselves anxious, even about financially and otherwise independent parents. Whether it is Chaudharys unlikely homesickness or Vaidehi and her family organizing medicines four months in advance and putting off routine procedures, this generation now finds itself in an unfamiliar role.

Initially, every day they had to draw her blood, to check the international normalized ratio (INR), based on which she would take a dose of the medicine prescribed," says Vaidehi. But though the frequency of these tests has come down, the family has decided to suspend them altogether and ensure her vitamin K intake is negligiblethis means no potatoes, tomatoes, green vegetables. During lockdown, this kind of diet is neither easy to maintain nor procure, but they have weighed the risks. Now she can take signs from her bodyif her palms turn blue or she gets dizziness, the balance is off. But a lab technician coming in or her going out to get blood drawn is something that makes us very uncomfortable right now," says Vaidehi.

She adds: I dont think we will see a very dire state. We are hoping she will get to keep up through this."

Not even a statistic

According to the World Population Ageing Report 2017 released by the population division of the UNs department of economic and social affairs, India had approximately 120 million people over the age of 60. But there is no assessment of caregiving for India, unlike the US, where theAARP, a non-profit interest group dedicated to empowering people to choose how they live as they age", showed that millennials make up 25%one in fourof the 40 million unpaid caregivers". In India, the focus so far has been on the sandwich generation"and largely womenwhich constituted those between the ages of 30-50, who have to take care of their children and their elderly parents and in-laws.

The problem is that we dont have data in India from the perspective of caregivers, especially millennials, so everything then becomes anecdotal," says Lekha Subaiya, demographer and assistant professor at the Population Research Centre, Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bengaluru. Theres a lot of research on ageing in Western countries because ageing is a much more pressing issue for them. For us, that hasnt happened yet so everything that has been written, or the research here, is largely about how many old people there are and what percentage has chronic morbidities," she adds. According to the UN, however, the share of older personsthose aged 60 or abovein Indias population is projected to increase to nearly 20% by 2050.

For millennials, especially those in their 20s who have just started out on their careers, the pandemic has brought into stark focus the need to balance the logistics of parent care with the needs of their children, if any, finances and Zoom calls..

Pune-based Mayuri Purkayastha, a young fellow at the non-profit Teach For India, believes you need to become financially independent faster so your parents dont have to support you during their retirement. When people are taking a gap year or travelling, you are in a rush to do something or the other to ensure you are not a financial burden on them," says the 23-year-old. Its never explicitly stated by parents but you feel the hesitation yourself in taking support."

And that is exactly what she did. Purkayastha finished her studies and started worktoday, she is financially independent. My parents are very strong, practical people and they want me to grow up and be the same. My mother has seen the worst in life so she doesnt believe in mollycoddling anyone."

In 2018, Purkayasthas mother was diagnosed with B-cell lymphoma, a form of cancer. Her parents live in Kolkata but during the lockdown she has been working to procure medicines for her mother online or coordinating with pharmacists in that city on the phone. Her mothers monthly medication costs 20,000Purkayastha shares the expenses of the online orders.

Challenges such as these are significantly higher in a region like Kashmir. No stranger to state-imposed restrictions, Kashmir is presently dealing with a situation where only users with postpaid mobile phones have access to data, and that too at 2G speeds. This at a time when people around the world are working from home, using meeting apps, downloading informative videos or accessing information seamlessly.

Kashmiri journalist Shuja Ul Haq, 37, took his mother to Delhi in December, when she was diagnosed with leukaemia. After the initial rounds of chemotherapy, they returned to Kashmir in early March, just as the pandemic hit this part of the world. Today, one wants to get help, medical advice online but the speed of the internet is slow here so you cant really do that. It definitely creates an impedimentif you have to send documents to doctors, its hard, its slow. Sometimes it takes hours for pictures to load. But you have to keep at it, what else can one do?" he says.

Haq, whose parents stay with him, says he has managed to find a hospital where his mother can be treated. But every time they visit, they carry their own bedding and ensure she is covered head to toe, an attempt to protect her from the virus.

Some of the issues, of course, are universal. Healthcare is expensive, particularly for cancer.

Haqs father is an advocate but doesnt practise as much as he used to. There was insurance but it wasnt enough for a disease like this. To begin with, the extended family helped and the family managed the rest from their savings. But with global markets and economies down, Haq is worried. Now the economy is also very slow. You dont know whether your jobs are secure. If at all they are secure, you dont know if there will be salary cuts," he says. The fact is that a disease and illness like this needs money constantlyyou still have to get medicines, which is very expensive. You still have to go to the doctors. Its definitely a cause of concern. We are taking it one day at a time."

Feeling of helplessness

The addition of covid-19 worries is taking a toll on the mental health of millennials. Mental health expert and columnist Pooja Priyamvada says many of the queries on social media and helplines of late have come from millennials living abroad, expressing anxiety about the health and safety of parents in India.

She lists the consequences. There is often caregivers fatigue, which usually manifests in a lot of anxiety because you are constantly anxious about the other person. Then there are times when you are unable to provide that care for whatever reasonlike right now due to restricted mobility. A lot of times, due to this depression kicks in as well," says Priyamvada. She goes back to what Kessler believes is at the heart of what the world is experiencing through covid-19. You feel inadequate. There is anticipatory grief, you feel like their safety, security, medical safety might be compromised. There is a certain helplessness about it."

Purkayastha, for instance, has been suffering from clinical depression since her mothers diagnosis. Being at a distance takes its own mental toll as well. There is a continuous uncertainty thats lingering. You never know," says Purkayastha But being away can also be a blessing at times, as horrible as that may sound. People tend to take illnesses differently so I suppose a lot has improved since my parents moved to Kolkata, where they are surrounded by friends. But earlier, in our house, all conversation was only about disease and prolonged thoughts of death."

Changing relationships

According to a WHO report, Even in India, a country where strong family ties have often been assumed to continue, only 20% of households include people living in joint or extended families."

Just ahead of the lockdown, as the number of covid-19 cases in the country began to swell, Shivank Jhanjhi, a 27-year-old law graduate, moved from Delhi to Gwalior to be with his parents. His brother lives in Gurugram, so he knew he would have to be in Gwalior to organize medicinesthey are not easily available there, he says. Jhanjhi has been trying to organize medicines with the help of friends with dispensaries and pharmacies in the city.

In June 2018, when Jhanjhi was away on a fellowship in Karnataka, his mother was diagnosed with, and operated on for, breast cancerhis relationship with his parents has changed since.

When the chemo was going on, thats something which somewhat made a difference to me emotionally. Their (your parents) behaviour completely changes, you see them as children. So over the last two years since she was diagnosed, the equation changed. Earlier, it was them caring about me more and I wasnt really being responsible. But now its different," he says. When I was in Delhi applying for a clerkship and all this covid-19 news started pouring in, all I could think about was how vulnerable my mother is and also the news they are consuming, the habits they stick to. I had to get back home and be there."

This concern seems to be a common phenomenon among millennials, particularly those living away from their parents.

Purkayastha has gone from speaking to her parents once a day to calling at least three times a day. Every time something causes anxiety, they are on the phonewhether its the rising number of cases or her building being declared a red zone. The communication has increased manifold, she is more patient and understanding.

Chaudhary is working towards a long-term shift in their living situations. This is something I have started thinking about now even though its a very uncomfortable thing for me to think about. It involves taking some major life decisions, like getting a permanent home in Delhi where my parents can come and live with me for at least a few months in the year. They are getting old and I am the only child. Thats a big concern. I would prefer now if they move here at least for a few months of the year, I would like to see them more often. Psychologically, it would make a huge difference."

*****

When the pandemic really hit home in mid-March, a common concern among millennials in urban set-ups, it appeared, was to keep their boomer parents indoors and ensure they followed social distancing protocols. The state-imposed lockdown, however, has made the vulnerabilities far more conspicuous, all-encompassinga gnawing worry.

From going out of their way to ensuring they dont infect their parents (frequent baths, changing clothes as soon as they get back home, making sure their parents eat right) to combating fake news, navigating hospital visits, worrying from a distance and trying their best to cope, the pandemic has changed the way they are viewing the elderly.

The balance, as Kessler points out in his interview to HBR, lies in shaping, not ignoring, anticipatory grief. The goal is to find balance in the things youre thinking. If you feel the worst image taking shape, make yourself think of the best image. We all get a little sick and the world continues. Not everyone I love dies. Maybe no one does because were all taking the right steps."

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Types of Respiratory Viral Infections – WTOP

§ April 25th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Types of Respiratory Viral Infections – WTOP

Our bodies are always working hard to fight off infections. Viruses are just one cause of the infections we can

Our bodies are always working hard to fight off infections. Viruses are just one cause of the infections we can get. Different types of viruses can affect different parts of the body. One area of the body that can be affected by a virus is the respiratory system.

The respiratory system is the group of tissues and organs that allows us to breathe, bringing in oxygen-rich air and exhaling carbon dioxide. You breathe air in through your nose and mouth, which wet and warm the air. Then the air travels through your voice box, down your windpipe and though two tubes into your lungs.

Here, cilia, tiny mucus-covered hairs, trap foreign particles and germs to filter the air that you breathe. You then cough or sneeze those particles out of your body. The average set of lungs breathes in about 2,000 gallons of air every day.

The upper part of the respiratory tract includes:

The nose.

Nasal cavities.

Mouth.

Throat.

Voice box, or larynx.

The lower respiratory tract includes:

The windpipe, also known as the trachea.

Bronchi, airways that branch off the trachea that circulate air in and out of the lungs.

A pair of lungs.

[READ: A Patients Guide to Respiratory Disease.]

Viruses of the Respiratory System

There are about 200 viruses known to cause disease in humans, says pediatric nurse practitioner Maryanne Tranter, founder of The Healthy Child Concierge in Columbus, Ohio.

Our respiratory system is especially vulnerable to certain viruses that can cause a cold, flu and other illnesses. Viruses are the smallest microorganism that can affect our cells and cause disease or illness, says pulmonologist and critical care medicine physician Dr. Ziad R. Mattar of Orlando Health in Orlando, Florida.

A respiratory viral infection refers to a virus that specifically affects the upper or lower respiratory tracts, or both. We typically get a respiratory viral infection through the mouth or nose via respiratory droplets, which are microscopic drops mostly made of water and produced when someone coughs, sneezes or talks. The viruses in these droplets are generally thought to be contagious if youre within 6 feet of the person who produces them. Viruses in droplets can live on surfaces for several hours, and you can get sick from touching those surfaces.

Those droplets, if coming from someone who is sick, can immediately start to infect and multiply in our cell linings, says Dr. Sudeb Dalai, an infectious disease specialist and clinical assistant professor with the Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine at Stanford University Medical Center in Palo Alto, California.

The viruses that affect the respiratory system almost all have a similar structure, and they are all transmitted through respiratory droplets, Dalai says. They also are all seasonal, meaning that they emerge and make people sick during certain times of the year.

Viruses can affect the respiratory system differently, depending on where they initially attack. For instance, when a virus affects the lungs and airways, it can make breathing harder and cause wheezing, says Dr. Tina Q. Tan, an attending physician of infectious diseases?at Ann & Robert H. Lurie Childrens Hospital of Chicago and a professor of pediatrics at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine.

A virus thats in the nose and nasal cavities can make you feel stuffy. Sometimes, these infections can affect other parts of the body. For instance, upper respiratory viral infections also can cause a viral ear infection because the ears and throat are connected by the eustachian tube, Tan says. An infection can cause that tube to become swollen or irritated, so fluid cant drain out of the ear properly. That fluid in the ear builds up and can lead to an infection.

There are many types of viruses that can lead to a respiratory viral infection. Some of the most common include:

Bronchitis.

Common cold.

Croup.

Flu.

COVID-19, which is technically known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2.

Pneumonia.

Respiratory syncytial virus, or RSV.

[SEE: Are Summer Colds Worse Than Winter Ones?]

The Common Cold

The common cold is not caused by just one virus. In fact, it can be caused by hundreds of different viruses, Tan says. Some of the viruses associated with the common cold include:

Coronaviruses. While one member might currently be most notorious for the illness that causes COVID-19, this is a large family of viruses. Four types are common and cause mild to moderate respiratory infections, like the common cold.

Enteroviruses. Infections caused by enteroviruses are more common in the summer and fall, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In addition to the common cold, the enterovirus can potentially cause other health problems, such as low oxygen in the blood and conjunctivitis (a type of eye infection), according to the Enterovirus Foundation.

Rhinoviruses. Rhino means nose, so it may be no surprise that these types of infections are thought to be the cause of 30% to 35% of all common colds and the sniffling and sneezing that accompany them, according to the National Institutes of Health.

Symptoms associated with the common cold include:

A runny nose.

Congestion.

Cough.

A sore throat.

Feeling more tired.

A fever.

Losing your voice (laryngitis).

A cold is usually diagnosed with a history and exam performed by a health professional. However, many colds are managed at home without a formal diagnosis.

Theres no cure for a cold. Thats why drinking fluids, resting, staying home and using pain relievers or medicines to help your congestion as needed are usually the best way to get over a cold.

[SEE: Flu vs. the Common Cold: Symptoms and Treatment.]

The Flu

Like the common cold, flu isnt caused by just one type of virus. Its primarily caused by viruses called influenza type A or influenza type B. The exact virus that causes most flu in any given flu season is a usually a subtype of influenza A or B.

The most common flu symptoms include:

A fever of 100.4 F or higher.

Chills or feeling overheated.

Congestion or a runny nose.

Cough.

Fatigue.

Headache.

Muscle aches.

Not everyone who has the flu gets it diagnosed. However, those who do see a doctor for the flu may take one of several tests that help pinpoint that its the flu, according to the CDC. The results are available in as little as 15 minutes or in a few hours, depending on the test.

Those who are at higher risk for the flu and who suspect they have it should get tested for it, the CDC advises. Thats because they are more prone to flu complications. Higher-risk populations include:

Adults age 65 and older.

Children.

People with chronic conditions such as asthma, diabetes and heart disease.

Pregnant women.

Doctors may run tests to rule out other types of infections that have symptoms similar to the flu, Dalai says.

There are antiviral treatments for the flu that can reduce the number of days you are sick and help prevent serious flu complications, such as pneumonia, the CDC reports. Additionally, rest and maintaining a good fluid intake will help.

Getting the flu vaccine each year can help lower your risk and is effective 40% to 60% of the time, according to the CDC. That percentage can vary each year. Flu vaccines are important for people of all ages, as flu can lead to death. Among the 36 million to 56 million estimated flu illnesses in the U.S. from October 2019 to early April 2020, there were 24,000 to 62,000 deaths, the CDC reports in its preliminary estimates.

COVID-19

The new coronavirus is also called SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 and is caused by one strain of coronavirus. Thats why health experts call it the new coronavirus, indicating that this is not the first coronavirus affecting humans.

Symptoms of coronavirus usually appear within 2 to 14 days after exposure and include:

A fever.

Chills.

Cough.

Difficulty breathing.

Digestive symptoms, such as diarrhea.

Headache.

Loss of taste or smell.

Muscle pain.

Sore throat.

Not everyone who has the new coronavirus has been tested or is able to get tested for it. Those who do usually take a test in which health experts collect a sample from the upper respiratory tract via the nose. Those in the hospital for the new coronavirus also may have a test called a bronchoscopy, which helps doctors see the lungs and airways. During this test, doctors also will collect a sample that can be tested in a lab.

There is no current treatment for the new coronavirus, although many studies are in progress. During a search of the terms COVID-19 or SARS-CoV-2 performed on the website ClinicalTrials.gov in mid-April, Mattar found 621 trials underway. The trials involve a variety of medications types, including tocilizumab and anti-viral medications used to treat HIV, such as remdesivir. Although there are no results yet, the various trials should lead to some significant insights for those treating the virus, Mattar says.

[See: Common Childhood Respiratory Diseases]

Respiratory Syncytial Virus

RSV is more common in children, although adults can get it as well. It resembles a cold, but the severity of RSV symptoms depends on a childs age, Tranter says. Almost all children have had an RSV infection by age 2, according to the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases.

Those symptoms can include:

In infants younger than age 1: cough, difficulty breathing, fever and wheezing.

In younger children: wheezing thats diagnosed as bronchiolitis, which is an inflammation of the small breathing passageways in the lungs called bronchioles. However, this doesnt mean the child has asthma. They wheeze because their airways are already small, and the virus causes inflammation inside the airways, Tranter explains.

Older children often experience RSV as a cold or pneumonia. If they have asthma, the virus could make it worse.

In adults, RSV can cause cold-like symptoms, but they can become severe and are sometimes fatal in those who are older or those who have a weakened immune system or heart disease. This type of virus is thought to cause 177,000 hospitalizations in 14,000 deaths among those age 65 and over annually in the U.S., according to the NFID.

Health professionals will use a physical exam, which includes listening to the lungs, to help diagnose RSV. Other tests usually arent done unless a complication from RSV is suspected.

The best care for RSV is liquids, rest and alleviating symptoms with steamy bathrooms and cold-mist humidifiers, Tranter says. Children who develop severe RSV bronchiolitis also may need extra oxygen support and fluids. A vaccine for RSV is under development, but is not yet available, according to the CDC.

Preventing Infections

There are some tried-and-true ways to prevent getting any type of respiratory viral infection:

1. Wash your hands frequently, for at least 20 seconds.

2. Dont touch your face.

3. Stay at home when youre sick.

4. Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue, and throw the tissue away. If a tissue isnt available, use your elbow to cover it, not the palm of your hand.

5. Routinely disinfect any surfaces that are touched often.

6. Follow any social distancing guidelines recommended by federal or local authorities.

7. Wear a face mask when youre sick.

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What Is Hemopure? The Blood Substitute That Could Save Lives – Men’s Health

§ April 25th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on What Is Hemopure? The Blood Substitute That Could Save Lives – Men’s Health

ANTWAN PIPER WAS at dinner with colleagues on a work trip in Oklahoma when his wife, Alexis, called from back home in Texas. He figured he would call her back later, but then she called again. On the third call, he finally picked up. Alexis sounded out of breath and in pain, her voice tight. Ive already called the ambulance, she managed to get out.

It was Sunday, March 4, 2018, and Alexis was in crisisa term for when her sickle-cell anemia flares up. Due to this congenital condition, Alexiss red blood cellsnormally round and flexiblebecome rigid and sticky, and twist into a sickle-like shape, rendering them poor at carrying oxygen, job number one for red blood cells. They clump together and can get stuck in small blood vessels, blocking blood flow and oxygen in certain parts of the body, which causes excruciating pain.

Except this time felt different, far worse than ever before. In the span of several hours, Alexis had gone from feeling like she had a cold to experiencing shooting pain throughout her body, leaving her crumpled on the floor of their upstairs hallway. Antwan served as a master sergeant in the Air Force and a church pastor, while his wife, a former teacher, wrote upbeat and inspirational religious books.

Both were generally healthy and in their mid-30s, and they always tried to stay positive. At the moment, however, both were terrified. I dont think words can do it justice, the feeling of a husband hearing his wife in pain and he cant do anything about it, Antwan says.

When Alexis arrived at Brooke Army Medical Center, outside San Antonio, the doctors quickly went through the usual protocols for a sickle-cell patient in crisis, ultimately electing to give her a transfusion. They checked her blood type, found a match, and tapped a fresh bag of red blood cells into her IV, hoping they would diffuse among the damaged ones. After a few days of additional treatment, her doctors decided to give her another transfusion to try to raise her level of hemoglobin, a blood protein that transports oxygen. During this second transfusion, Alexis began writhing and screaming. The pain was unbearablea ten out of ten, she says.

Alexiss hematologist, Lauren Lee, M.D., recognized the problem immediately: The patient had been receiving transfusions since age seven. Now shed entered a potentially fatal state of hyperhemolysis, a condition in which the immune system attacks red blood cells, believing them to be an invading pathogen, which further hampers fresh oxygen transportation to strangled cells.

A healthy persons hemoglobin level is 12 to 15 grams per deciliter. Because of her condition, Alexiss typical level was 7, but it had dropped to about 5 by the time she was admitted. It kept falling as she slipped in and out of consciousness and hospital staff rushed her to the ICU.

By the time Antwan reached her bedside, things looked bleak. Alexiss hemoglobin level had dropped into the 2-to-3 range, and she was very weak. Thats when they started prompting me, preparing me for her dying, he says. Theyre telling me theres been no survivors among patients with such a low hemoglobin level.

But Dr. Lee had one last idea. She got in touch with two top hematologistsMarc Zumberg, M.D., and Colonel Andrew Cap, M.D., Ph.D.and everyone thought one risky intervention might still be worth a shot. It was a transfusion of, well, not blood exactly but rather an approximation called Hemopure, a synthetic blood-like product made from cow blood.

Because Hemopure is not actual blood, it could theoretically be given to just about anyone. Its shelf stable and adaptive to any blood type. Gin up enough and you could have it on tap in ambulances and Army-medic backpacks, just about anywhere you might need a lifesaving transfusion on demand.

The catch: Hemopure has not yet been approved by the FDA. In the U.S. its only available through compassionate use, for patients with life-threatening conditions who have exhausted all other treatment options. Dr. Lee said there was no guarantee that it would work, and no guarantee that it would be free of side effects. All it had to do was deliver oxygen throughout Alexiss body until she was well enough to start making her own blood cells. Dr. Lee asked Antwan if he was interested, and he said he wanted to pray over it. Its either this or she dies, she remembers saying. We wanted to give it a shot.

Antwan agonized over all of these thoughts as he prayed. They told me what they were hoping it would do, but they couldnt guarantee me that it would work, he says. We were exhausted, and we didnt have time. I really struggled, because of the uncertainty and the side effects they really didnt know. He couldnt ask Alexis since she was unresponsive. It was all up to him.

He signed the consent.

LATE ONE NIGHT, Zaf Zafireliss phone started beeping and buzzing. He picked it up, knowing immediately what kind of call this would be: another desperate surgeon inquiring about Hemopure, the blood substitute made by the company he ran. Zafirelis was CEO of a tiny biotech outfit called Hemoglobin Oxygen Therapeutics, which had been operating on a shoestring but had recently secured space to open a new manufacturing facility across the street from a slaughterhouse in Pennsylvania.

He was used to getting three or four calls a week, always about patients whom conventional interventions had failed, always in the direst of straits. One time, it was a young man on Long Island with a rectal hemorrhage. Another, a 28-year-old woman in Michigan who needed risky heart surgery. Then there was the 35-year-old patient with anemia as a result of her leukemia. And the man in his 70s with a potentially fatal GI bleed.

Sometimes these calls came from doctors with patients who had severe anemia and no options, like Alexis. Often they involved patients who could not receive blood transfusions because of their religious beliefs, like Jehovahs Witnesses, whose interpretation of the Bible prohibits ingesting the blood of their fellow man.

After a short talk with Dr. Lee, Zafirelis shipped ten units of Hemopure via emergency medical courier straight to San Antonio. He knew from experience that it could give her a shot. The product will keep a patient who needs oxygen alive almost for as long as needed, he says somewhat carefully.

Hemopure and products like it first came about as a response to the HIV/AIDS crisis of the 1980s, when many patients were unwittingly infected with the virus via blood transfusions. That led to a rush by several companies to transcend science fiction with a safe, pathogen-free alternative to natural blood.

The problems with traditional blood supplies are fairly straightforward. You can run out, donations can be tainted with pathogens, and the stuff doesnt last that long outside the bodyeven chilled, youve got just a few weeks before packed red blood cells lose effectiveness.

Beginning in the late 80s, scientists set out to come up with a replacement that would be not only disease-free but also stable without refrigeration. Whoever invented it certainly stood to prosper. That was like the Holy Grail of blood, says Kendall Crookston, M.D., Ph.D., a professor of medicine at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine. But they pushed it from the bench into clinical trials perhaps too quickly.

Two early formulations emerged, both focused on doing bloods main job of transporting oxygen from the lungs to cells. The first was a red and syrupy class of artificial hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) that replicated the action of red blood cells. The second was a milky set of compounds called perfluorocarbons, which transported oxygen chemically. By the early aughts, there were more than half a dozen products in various stages of development. But during clinical trials for two products, PolyHeme (an HBOC) and Oxygent (a perfluorocarbon), people died and trials were halted. Investors fled, and the sector promptly tanked.

Hemopure survived, but barely. Unlike the other HBOCs, it was made from cow blood and not expired human blood. It contained no actual red or white blood cells, plasma, lipoproteins, or any other ingredient of the complex cocktail that is human blood. Instead, it delivered oxygen via hemoglobin made by separating the red blood cells out of cow blood, then lysing or chemically piercing them to produce microscopic hemoglobin molecules. Further (and proprietary) processing and polymerization rendered the hemoglobin into a solution easily processed by the body.

Hemopure lacked many of the properties of whole bloodit didnt clot or create new antibodies. Could it keep you from bleeding out? Maybe, so long as your body caught up and eventually took over the healing process. But Zafirelis, who helped pioneer Hemopure at a company called Biopure, didnt like how market speculation seemed to gloss over the drawbacks. He left the company in 1995. Its an unreasonable comparison, he says. Theres no way an artificial product can match what the real thing does.

The SEC alleged that, starting in 2003, Biopure had failed to publicly disclose that the FDA had put a hold on a clinical trial of the product in emergency-room trauma patients due to safety concerns. The companys stock crashed, and three executives were indicted for making false representations about the health of the venture. Zafirelis was brought back as CEO in 2004 and helped popularize a veterinary HBOC version that has saved dogs, tropical parrots, an African rhino (through penile infusion), even a shark at a Vegas casino.

But the worst was yet to come. In April 2008, The Journal of the American Medical Associationpublished a meta-analysis of clinical trials of five HBOC products, including Hemopure, partially funded by the Washington, D.C., public-interest group Public Citizen. The authors added up the fatalities in the treatment and control groups from hundreds of combined treatments and concluded that these products actually increased a patients risk of heart attack and possibly death because they scavenge nitric oxide, a blood-borne gas that causes blood vessels to expand. Without it, blood vessels constrict. Thats a danger, but so is dying while doing nothing.

In 2009, the venture was sold to a new set of investors, who kept Zafirelis on board to see if they could resurrect the dream. They downsized dramatically and were trying to figure out how to reboot. Zafireliss company was on life support.

THE TEN UNITS of Hemopure reached the hospital less than 24 hours after Dr. Lee called Zafirelis. Unlike blood, which is shipped in ice-packed coolers, it arrived in a simple cardboard box. Each plastic bag inside sloshed with 250 milliliters of a dark-red liquid whose color reminds Zafirelis more of cabernet sauvignon than of actual blood.

Brooke Army Medical Centers care team hitched the bag to Alexiss IV, and its contents began to flow in. Whereas blood can take some time to start working, artificial hemoglobin transports oxygen quickly. And because the molecules are so tiny, about one-thousandth the size of red blood cells, they could easily filter into Alexiss partially blocked blood vessels. Dr. Lee and the rest of the team watched as her hemoglobin level stabilized and then slowly began to climb.

Meanwhile, Dr. Lee gave Alexis other drugs and vitamins that she hoped would help her body begin to produce its own red blood cells again, as well as another experimental drug to stop the inflammatory reaction that was breaking down her existing red blood cells.

Over the next day or so, they infused another unit of Hemopure, and another, and another. Alexis woke up. By about the fourth bag, she was able to have a conversation, Dr. Lee recalls. She looked the best she had ever looked.

When the fifth bag was tapped, all that changed instantly. Alexiss eyes fluttered and she started violently seizing, not just once but over and over. Dr. Lee wondered if Alexis was receiving too much oxygen, so she stopped the treatment and the seizures halted. Alexiss hemoglobin level was dropping again.

Antwan had to face the same question with even higher stakes: Keep trying or let her go? Would he allow them to continue the Hemopure treatment on his wife, even if it risked causing more seizuresand possibly brain damage?

ZAFIRELIS HAS ZERO uncertainty about why he continues to pursue the dream of substitute blood, and why it matters. He thinks its time to drop comparisons and reset expectations completely. The mistake that previous companies made was that they started claiming this was artificial blood, which its notits red cells only, Zafirelis says. This is where the industry hype ran away from science. (So much so that in 2007, Danish cyclist Michael Rasmussen was forced to quit the Tour de France while in the leaders yellow jersey because hed somehow secured Hemopure as a performance enhancer. It was useless, he later tweeted. Pure placebo.)

Zafireliss plan is to test Hemopure in situations in which real blood simply doesnt make sense, by working with the military (which receives FDA priority for the development of lifesaving medical products) and patients who have no alternative left. The Department of Defense recently committed $8.2 million to study Hemopure in up to 1,600 pre-hospital trauma patients in South Africa, where ambulance-transport times are far longer than the 11-minute average in the U.S. and clean blood is in short supply.

In fact, Hemopure has been approved for hospital use in South Africa for decades. It has a very good safety record over 20 years, but we dont have a lot of data for its use in trauma situations, which is why we want to do this study, says Lee Wallis, M.D., the head of the division of emergency medicine at both the University of Cape Town and Stellenbosch University, who is in charge of the project.

Courtesy

Courtesy

Bruce Spiess, M.D., a professor of anesthesiology at the University of Florida, points out the broader potential for doctors in emergency situations throughout the developing world, where blood is sparse and diseases are harder to control.

Zafirelis is also working with a consortium of U.S. medical institutions, including the University of Michigan, Duke University, the University of Texas Southwest Medical Center, and the University of Rochester, to look at future applications of products like Hemopure. Thats part of a $4.8 million National Institutes of Health study examining the overall impact of those last-ditch interventions, even if they fail. Its often a choice between giving patients something and giving them nothing, says Dr. Crookston.

But in the eyes of the FDA, the notion of substitute blood is a hypothesis that still needs testingand some patients are in the unenviable position of being able to help with that. Their unfortunate health issues offer opportunities for doctors to learn new ways of assisting others. To not take advantage of that prolongs the inability to help those in similar situations. Thats part of why Zafirelis still answers his phone every time, but also why hes encouraging less invasive experiments with just as much potential.

Hemopure stands to revolutionize not just critical and emergency care but transplants, too. In 2014, for instance, a Dutch transplant surgeon named Robert Porte requested Hemopure for a study testing how a perfusion system that circulates fluids might recondition 16 donated livers that had been initially declined for regular transplantation. After the treatment, 11 were deemed viable and were successfully transplanted into patients who had no other option for treating their advanced liver disease. These patients were severely ill at the time, but all 11 of them (and their livers) were doing fine six months later.

Normally, transplant surgeons weigh the risks and make a call: Is this organ healthy enough to help the recipient survive? There is no way you can do a test drive, Dr. Porte says. You cant take a risk with a patients life, so you have to err on the safe side. At the same time, people are dying on the wait list because we dont have enough good organs.

If Dr. Portes findings pan out, he estimates that the technique could increase the supply of available livers by 20 percent. In the meantime, Wake Forest University and the Cleveland Clinic are studying the implications for hand and limb transplants. And the journal Nature recently shared a study that shows perfusion with Hemopure can revive dead pig-brain cells, something that might eventually help stroke victims.

Tests on live pigs reveal that Hemopure may also affect ischemiain which blocked blood vessels may damage the heart or the brainby bringing oxygen there more quickly and efficiently than real blood can. In each case, the promise of a cure-all is being more narrowly defined, strategically sharpened, and potentially firmed up for more investment. Through success and, yes, sometimes failure, Zafirelis has learned that Hemopure can deliver oxygen to tissues and keep them alive outside of the body, in some cases more effectively than natural blood. You have to do it under the right conditions, he says.

"WE DON'T KNOW what kind of condition shell be in, Antwan remembers the doctors telling him. We wont know how much or the degree of brain damage she may have suffered until she wakes up or starts moving around. He wanted to pray again. There is no time to pray, they told him. You have to decide now.

After talking to a friend from church, Antwan decided that Alexiss best chance was to keep going. Alexis received a sixth unit of Hemopure, enough to sustain her until her body could begin producing its own red blood cells with their own hemoglobin. Shortly after the last dose drained in, she was placed in a medically induced coma to prevent further seizures and assist her body with recovery. But even after her condition stabilized and she woke up, she faced a long and difficult road.

Alexis spent six weeks total in the hospital, often feeling foggy and confused. When her hemoglobin climbed back to 5.5around the same level as when she was admittedshe was discharged to keep recuperating at home.

The oxygen-deprived state had damaged her muscles and motor skills, so she spent several months in physical and cognitive therapy with a home nurse, learning to walk again. Antwan took time off from work to be with her as she recovered. He doesnt regret his decision to use Hemopure, and Alexis doesnt, either. Shes back working on her books and views the experience as nothing short of a miracle: Im grateful that God could use something that hadnt been done before and allow it graciously to help me in a very tough time and an ugly, life-threatening situation.

Zafirelis remains hopeful. He recently got a call from a 19-year-old male Jehovahs Witness in North Carolina with sickle-cell disease, who received 23 units of Hemopure. Another came from a 28-year-old man in Nebraska with sickle-cell complications cascading into pneumonia, respiratory failure, and acute congestive heart failure. He received 27 units over the course of more than two weeks. Both survived. All told, more than $1 billion has been invested in research and development for Hemopure, and the product has saved more than 400 people in life-or-death situations. That survival rate should only increase with more chances.

This has become my lifes work now, Zafirelis says. I cannot give up. I believe in it. Ive seen it work. Hes ready to pull more bags out of storage the next time the phone rings.

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Energy conservation may be a major function of sleep, says new research – Tdnews

§ April 25th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Energy conservation may be a major function of sleep, says new research – Tdnews

Can staying up late make you fat? A growing body of research has suggested that poor sleep quality is linked to an increased risk of obesity by deregulating appetite, which in turn leads to more calorie consumption.

But a new study published this week in PLOS Biology found that the direction of this reaction might actually be flipped: Its not the sleep loss that leads to obesity, but rather that excess weight can cause poor sleep, according to researchers from the University of Pennsylvanias Perelman School of Medicine and the University of Nevada, Reno, who discovered their findings in the microscopic worm Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans).

We think that sleep is a function of the body trying to conserve energy in a setting where energetic levels are going down. Our findings suggest that if you were to fast for a day, we would predict you might get sleepy because your energetic stores would be depleted, said study co-author David Raizen, MD, PhD, an associate professor of Neurology and member of the Chronobiology and Sleep Institute at Penn.

Raizen emphasized that while these findings in worms may not translate directly to humans, C. elegans offer a surprisingly good model for studying mammalian slumber. Like all other animals that have nervous systems, they need sleep. But unlike humans, who have complex neural circuitry and are difficult to study, a C. elegans has only 302 neurons one of which scientists know for certain is a sleep regulator.

In humans, acute sleep disruption can result in increased appetite and insulin resistance, and people who chronically get fewer than six hours of sleep per night are more likely be obese and diabetic. Moreover, starvation in humans, rats, fruit flies, and worms has been shown to affect sleep, indicating that it is regulated, at least in part, by nutrient availability. However, the ways in which sleeping and eating work in tandem has remained unclear.

We wanted to know, what is sleep actually doing? Short sleep and other chronic conditions, like diabetes, are linked, but its just an association. Its not clear if short sleep is causing the propensity for obesity, or that the obesity, perhaps, causes the propensity for short sleep, said study co-author Alexander van der Linden, PhD, an associate professor of Biology at the University of Nevada, Reno.

To study the association between metabolism and sleep, the researchers genetically modified C. elegans to turn off a neuron that controls sleep. These worms could still eat, breathe, and reproduce, but they lost their ability to sleep. With this neuron turned off, the researchers saw a severe drop in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, which is the bodys energy currency.

That suggests that sleep is an attempt to conserve energy; its not actually causing the loss of energy, Raizen explained.

In previous research, the van der Linden lab studied a gene in C. elegans called KIN-29. This gene is homologous to the Salt-Inducible Kinase (SIK-3) gene in humans, which was already known to signal sleep pressure. Surprisingly, when the researchers knocked out the KIN-29 gene to create sleepless worms, the mutant C. elegans accumulated excess fat resembling the human obesity condition even though their ATP levels lowered.

The researchers hypothesized that the release of fat stores is a mechanism for which sleep is promoted, and that the reason KIN-29 mutants did not sleep is because they were unable to liberate their fat. To test this hypothesis, the researchers again manipulated the KIN-29 mutant worms, this time expressing an enzyme that freed their fat. With that manipulation, the worms were again able to sleep.

Raizen said this could explain one reason why people with obesity may experience sleep problems. There could be a signaling problem between the fat stores and the brain cells that control sleep, he said.

While there is still much to unravel about sleep, Raizen said that this paper takes the research community one step closer to understanding one of its core functions and how to treat common sleep disorders.

There is a common, over-arching sentiment in the sleep field that sleep is all about the brain, or the nerve cells, and our work suggests that this isnt necessarily true, he said. There is some complex interaction between the brain and the rest of the body that connects to sleep regulation.

Additional authors on this paper include Jeremy Grubbs and Lindsey Lopes, who completed this research while students at the University of Nevada, Reno and the Perelman School of Medicine, respectively.

This study was funded by the National Institutes of Health grants R01NS107969 and R01NS088432, COBRE P20GM103650, and the National Science Foundation grant IOS1353014.

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Assessing the Fallout From the Coronavirus Pandemic Spinal Muscular Atrophy Medicine Market Global Industry Analysis, Trends and Forecast, 2019-2027…

§ April 25th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Assessing the Fallout From the Coronavirus Pandemic Spinal Muscular Atrophy Medicine Market Global Industry Analysis, Trends and Forecast, 2019-2027…

Analysis of the Global Spinal Muscular Atrophy Medicine Market

The presented report on the global Spinal Muscular Atrophy Medicine market offers valuable insights related to the future prospects of the Spinal Muscular Atrophy Medicine market. The study evaluates the various parameters that are expected to influence the growth of the Spinal Muscular Atrophy Medicine market over the forecast period including the current trends, regulatory framework, and evolving policy structure across different regions. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global Spinal Muscular Atrophy Medicine market along with the projected plan of action is included in the presented study.

As per the study, the Spinal Muscular Atrophy Medicine market is poised to exceed the value of ~US$XX by the end of 2019 and grow at a CAGR of ~XX% during the considered forecast period, 20XX-20XX. The growth opportunities for established and emerging market players, drivers of the market, and existing challenges in the Spinal Muscular Atrophy Medicine market are thoroughly analyzed. Although the market is expected to witness a slow growth rate in the first half of the forecast period due to the COVID-19 pandemic, market growth is expected to gather momentum in the second half.

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Spinal Muscular Atrophy Medicine Market Bifurcation

By Region

The regional assessment included in the Spinal Muscular Atrophy Medicine market sheds light on the scenario of the Spinal Muscular Atrophy Medicine market in various geographies. The scope of growth, market share, size, and future prospects of the Spinal Muscular Atrophy Medicine market in each regional market is illustrated in the report along with informative graphs and figures.

By Product Type

The product adoption assessment sheds light on the pricing structure, supply-demand ratio and the innovations involved in each product.

Market Segment AnalysisThe research report includes specific segments by Type and by Application. This study provides information about the sales and revenue during the historic and forecasted period of 2015 to 2026. Understanding the segments helps in identifying the importance of different factors that aid the market growth.Segment by Type, the Spinal Muscular Atrophy Medicine market is segmented intoLMI-070ND-602NT-1654NusinersenNXD-30001Others

Segment by ApplicationHospitalClinicOthers

Global Spinal Muscular Atrophy Medicine Market: Regional AnalysisThe Spinal Muscular Atrophy Medicine market is analysed and market size information is provided by regions (countries). The report includes country-wise and region-wise market size for the period 2015-2026. It also includes market size and forecast by Type and by Application segment in terms of sales and revenue for the period 2015-2026.The key regions covered in the Spinal Muscular Atrophy Medicine market report are:North AmericaU.S.CanadaEuropeGermanyFranceU.K.ItalyRussiaAsia-PacificChinaJapanSouth KoreaIndiaAustraliaTaiwanIndonesiaThailandMalaysiaPhilippinesVietnamLatin AmericaMexicoBrazilArgentinaMiddle East & AfricaTurkeySaudi ArabiaU.A.EGlobal Spinal Muscular Atrophy Medicine Market: Competitive AnalysisThis section of the report identifies various key manufacturers of the market. It helps the reader understand the strategies and collaborations that players are focusing on combat competition in the market. The comprehensive report provides a significant microscopic look at the market. The reader can identify the footprints of the manufacturers by knowing about the global revenue of manufacturers, the global price of manufacturers, and sales by manufacturers during the forecast period of 2015 to 2019.The major players in global Spinal Muscular Atrophy Medicine market include:Astellas Pharma Inc.AveXis, Inc.Bioblast Pharma Ltd.Cytokinetics, Inc. 24F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.GenethonGenzyme CorporationGMP-Orphan SASIonis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Longevity Biotech, IncNeurodyn Inc.Neurotune AGNovartis AGSarepta Therapeutics, Inc.Voyager Therapeutics, Inc.Vybion, Inc.WAVE Life Sciences Ltd.

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Competitive Assessment

The completion landscape of the Spinal Muscular Atrophy Medicine market is accurately depicted in the report. The report includes the company profiles of some of the leading companies in the Spinal Muscular Atrophy Medicine market wherein the product portfolio, pricing structure, and market share of each company is provided.

Vital Information that can be drawn from the Spinal Muscular Atrophy Medicine Market Report

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The report aims to address the following queries related to the Spinal Muscular Atrophy Medicine market:

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COVID-19, A lesson for Science and Society – The Indian Awaaz

§ April 25th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on COVID-19, A lesson for Science and Society – The Indian Awaaz

By Dr. Seyed Ehtesham Hasnain

COVID-19 pandemic has shaken human lives in an unprecedented manner. Never before in the history of humanity has any threat had affected every domain of our existence. The deadly virus has attacked the very notion of ManThe Social Animal. Interestingly we are being saved by non-drug interventions such as quarantine, social distancing, hand washing, and for health-care workers masks and other protective equipment.

The greatly reduced COVID-19 infection burden and even mortality seen in many parts of the world where BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin) vaccination has been the widely used practice, may not just be a coincidence. BCG was originally developed against Tuberculosis (TB) and this hundred-year-old TB vaccine offers broad protection and sharply reduce the incidence of respiratory infections.

Three weeks after the pandemic was declared by the WHO, it is increasingly clear from the Covid-19 data that countries which have been practicing universal BCG vaccination are relatively giving a better to fight to SARS-CoV-2 which could be BCGS trained immunity effect.

The effect of Covid-19 as per a recent report in the journal Science, the disease can attack almost anything in the body with devastating consequences.

We are all hoping for a vaccine in 2021. But what do we do in the meantime? And more importantly we will have to live with the threat of coronavirus for the foreseeable future and adapt accordingly because there is no guarantee a vaccine can be developed immediately. The biggest lesson that we learn out of the COVID-19 pandemic is to be remain protected indoors, distancing socially.

Three ways how Science will get us through the COVID-19 Pandemic: The modern frontiers: Within just weeks of the first reported case, scientists had not only identified by microscopic the virus responsible for the disease, but had sequenced its entire genome.

The curiosity-driven foundations: There is value, intrinsically, to knowing something about any aspect of the natural world. The curiosity-driven research of evolutionary virologists, of disease ecologists, of biophysicists, and scientists across many other fields of inquiry not only informs clinicians and policymakers, but also every cutting-edge piece of research at the frontiers of the field today.

The edge of fundamental: This is the most powerful knowledge in all of science; the fundamental limits of whats physically possible. Scientists are constantly working to push the limits of whats known. Scientific investments need to occur not only on the front lines of the current crisis, but on a wide-variety of curiosity driven, frontiers including at fundamental level itself.

Scientific lessons to be learntCovid-19 early genome annotation led to key knowledge transfer allowing vaccine developments and efforts in drug design.However, some neo characteristics of Covid-19 has left a void and could be addressed by thorough interventions.We are living in extraordinary times that call for united efforts, as these problems are much too complex in magnitude and scale for anyone to solve alone. The Information Storm that COVID-19 is raising globally is rather difficult to cope with.

Research at Jamia HamdardEarlier research at the JH Institute of Molecular Medicine showed that the SARS-CoV-2 has very high transmissibility and that SARS-CoV-2s inherent feature of viral aggregation increases its survivability and fitness, a property that will likely help in viral persistence and becoming endemic.

Analyses of about 4000 clinical isolates of SARS-CoV-2, including 25 isolates sequenced in India (largest such comparative study ever done till date globally), showed that Indian isolates are not unique, they all cluster along isolates from other continents, Europe and North America highlighting spill over from these nations. Mutation analyses revealed highest variation in Spike, Envelope protein and ORF1a and that each amino acid in constituent ORFs has undergone mutation an observation which has major Implications in diagnosis and vaccine development. He also flagged the low infection and mortality figures in India and wondered at the possibility of this to be BCGs Trained Immunity effect.

Impact on World PoliticsThe pandemic has global political effects as more suffering is ahead for the developing world. Pandemic is shaking bedrock assumptions about US exceptionalism and the likely global leadership void waiting to be filled. Debate rages over ideology, power blocs, social inequalities and distribution of wealth across the world. Though nothing could be predicted, yet world leaders, policymakers and analysts have started talking about the shape of the new situation emerge post-Corona.

Dr. Seyed Ehtesham Hasnain is a noted scientist and Vice-Chancellor of Jamia Hamdard

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Global C Difficile Infection Drug Market 2020 Global Industry Growth Analysis, Segmentation, Size, Share, Trend, Future Demand And Leading Players…

§ April 25th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Global C Difficile Infection Drug Market 2020 Global Industry Growth Analysis, Segmentation, Size, Share, Trend, Future Demand And Leading Players…

Recent report on C Difficile Infection Drug Market Size by Application, By Types, By Regional Outlook Global Industry Analysis, Share, Growth, Opportunity, Latest Trends, and Forecast to 2025.

The new report offers a powerful combination of latest, in-depth research studies on the C Difficile Infection Drug market. The authors of the report are highly experienced analysts and possess deep market knowledge.

Download Sample Copy of the Report to understand the structure of the complete report (Including Full TOC, Table & Figures): http://marketresearchbazaar.com/requestSample/15639

Major Players Analyzed Under This Report are:

MerckAstellasEli LillyANI PharmaceuticalFlynn PharmaAspen PharmacareAkornMerus labsPfizerAstraZenecaStridesSanofiFreseniusXelliaZhejiang MedicineLupin

C Difficile Infection Drug Players/Suppliers Profiles and Sales Data: Company, Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors, Product Category, Application and Specification with Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin, Main Business/Business Overview.

Table Of Content

Market Overview: Scope & Product Overview, Classification of C Difficile Infection Drug by Product Category (Market Size (Sales), Market Share Comparison by Type (Product Category)), C Difficile Infection Drug Market by Application/End Users (Sales (Volume) and Market Share Comparison by Application), Market by Region (Market Size (Value) Comparison by Region, Status and ProspectC Difficile Infection Drug Market by Manufacturing Cost Analysis:Key Raw Materials Analysis, Price Trend of Key Raw Materials, Key Suppliers of Raw Materials, Market Concentration Rate of Raw Materials, Proportion of Manufacturing Cost Structure (Raw Materials, Labor Cost), Manufacturing Process Analysis

Key Benefits for Stakeholders

The study provides an in-depth analysis of the C Difficile Infection Drug market size along with the current trends and future estimations to elucidate the imminent investment pockets.Information about key drivers, restraints, and opportunities and their impact analysis on the market size is provided.Porters five forces analysis illustrates the potency of buyers and suppliers operating in the portable gaming industry.The quantitative analysis of the C Difficile Infection Drug industry from 2020 to 2026 is provided to determine the C Difficile Infection Drug market potential.

C Difficile Infection Drug Market is estimated to reach xxx million USD in 2020 and projected to grow at the CAGR of xx% during 2020-2026

The research report is broken down into chapters, which are introduced by the executive summary. Its the introductory part of the chapter, which includes details about global market figures, both historical and estimates. The executive summary also provides a brief about the segments and the reasons for the progress or decline during the forecast period. The insightful research report on the C Difficile Infection Drug market includes Porters five forces analysis and SWOT analysis to understand the factors impacting consumer and supplier behavior.

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Market Segment Analysis

The research report includes specific segments by Type and by Application. Each type provides information about the production during the forecast period of 2015 to 2026. Application segment also provides consumption during the forecast period of 2015 to 2026. Understanding the segments helps in identifying the importance of different factors that aid the market growth.

Segment by Type MetronidazoleVancomycinFidaxomycinOthers

Segment by Application Pre-treatmentMid-term treatmentOthers

C Difficile Infection Drug Market: Competitive Landscape

This section of the report identifies various key manufacturers of the market. It helps the reader understand the strategies and collaborations that players are focusing on combat competition in the market. The comprehensive report provides a significant microscopic look at the market. The reader can identify the footprints of the manufacturers by knowing about the global revenue of manufacturers, the global price of manufacturers, and production by manufacturers during the forecast period of 2015 to 2019.

C Difficile Infection Drug Market: Regional Analysis

The report offers in-depth assessment of the growth and other aspects of the C Difficile Infection Drug market in important regions, including the U.S., Canada, Germany, France, U.K., Italy, Russia, China, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Southeast Asia, Mexico, and Brazil, etc. Key regions covered in the report are North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Latin America.

The report has been curated after observing and studying various factors that determine regional growth such as economic, environmental, social, technological, and political status of the particular region. Analysts have studied the data of revenue, production, and manufacturers of each region. This section analyses region-wise revenue and volume for the forecast period of 2015 to 2025. These analyses will help the reader to understand the potential worth of investment in a particular region.

Key Strategic Developments:The study also includes the key strategic developments of the C Difficile Infection Drugmarket, comprising R&D, new product launch, M&A, agreements, collaborations, partnerships, joint ventures, and regional growth of the leading competitors operating in the market on a global and regional scale.

Key Market Features:The report evaluated key market features, including revenue, price, capacity, capacity utilization rate, gross, production, production rate, consumption, market share, CAGR, and gross margin.Analytical Tools: The C Difficile Infection Drug Market report includes the precisely studied and weighed data of the key industry players and their scope in the C Difficile Infection Drug market by means of several analytical tools

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Nanomedicine Market: Industry Analysis and forecast 2026 – Research Columnist

§ April 25th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanomedicine Market: Industry Analysis and forecast 2026 – Research Columnist

Nanomedicine Marketwas valued US$ XX Bn in 2018 and is expected to reach US$ XX Bn by 2026, at CAGR of XX% during forecast period of 2019 to 2026.

The report study has analyzed revenue impact of covid-19 pandemic on the sales revenue of market leaders, market followers and disrupters in the report and same is reflected in our analysis.

Nanomedicine Market Drivers and Restrains:Nanomedicine is an application of nanotechnology, which are used in diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, and control of biological systems. Nanomedicine usages nanoscale manipulation of materials to improve medicine delivery. Therefore, nanomedicine has facilitated the treatment against various diseases. The nanomedicine market includes products that are nanoformulations of the existing drugs and new drugs or are nanobiomaterials. The research and development of new devices as well as the diagnostics will become, more effective, enabling faster response and the ability to treat new diseases are likely to boost the market growth.

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The nanomedicine markets are driven by factors such as developing new technologies for drug delivery, increase acceptance of nanomedicine across varied applications, rise in government support and funding, the growing need for therapies that have fewer side effects and cost-effective. However, long approval process and risks associated with nanomedicine (environmental impacts) are hampering the market growth at the global level. An increase in the out-licensing of nanodrugs and growth of healthcare facilities in emerging economies are likely to create lucrative opportunities in the nanomedicine market.

Nanomedicine Market Segmentation Analysis:Based on the application, the nanomedicine market has been segmented into cardiovascular, neurology, anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, and oncology. The oncology segment held the dominant market share in 2018 and is projected to maintain its leading position throughout the forecast period owing to the rising availability of patient information and technological advancements. However, the cardiovascular and neurology segment is projected to grow at the highest CAGR of XX% during the forecast period due to presence of opportunities such as demand for specific therapeutic nanovectors, nanostructured stents, and implants for tissue regeneration.

Nanomedicine Market Regional Analysis:Geographically, the Nanomedicine market has been segmented into North America, the Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. North America held the largest share of the Nanomedicine market in 2018 due to the rising presence of patented nanomedicine products, the availability of advanced healthcare infrastructure and the rapid acceptance of nanomedicine. The market in Asia Pacific is expected to expand at a high CAGR of XX% during the forecast period thanks to rise in number of research grants and increase in demand for prophylaxis of life-threatening diseases. Moreover, the rising investments in research and development activities for the introduction of advanced therapies and drugs are predicted to accelerate the growth of this region in the near future.

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Nanomedicine Market Competitive landscapeMajor Key players operating in this market are Abbott Laboratories, CombiMatrix Corporation, General Electric Company, Sigma-Tau Pharmaceuticals, Inc, and Johnson & Johnson. Manufacturers in the nanomedicine are focusing on competitive pricing as the strategy to capture significant market share. Moreover, strategic mergers and acquisitions and technological innovations are also the key focus areas of the manufacturers.

The objective of the report is to present a comprehensive analysis of Nanomedicine Market including all the stakeholders of the industry. The past and current status of the industry with forecasted market size and trends are presented in the report with the analysis of complicated data in simple language. The report covers all aspects of the industry with a dedicated study of key players that includes market leaders, followers and new entrants by region. PORTER, SVOR, PESTEL analysis with the potential impact of micro-economic factors by region on the market are presented in the report. External as well as internal factors that are supposed to affect the business positively or negatively have been analyzed, which will give a clear futuristic view of the industry to the decision-makers. The report also helps in understanding Nanomedicine Market dynamics, structure by analyzing the market segments and project the Nanomedicine Market size. Clear representation of competitive analysis of key players By Type, Price, Financial position, Product portfolio, Growth strategies, and regional presence in the Nanomedicine Market make the report investors guide.Scope of the Nanomedicine Market:

Nanomedicine Market by Modality:

Diagnostics TreatmentsNanomedicine Market by Diseases:

Oncological Diseases Infectious Diseases Cardiovascular Diseases Orthopedic Disorders Neurological Diseases Urological Diseases Ophthalmological Diseases Immunological DiseasesNanomedicine Market by Application:

Neurology Cardiovascular Anti-Inflammatory Anti-Infectives OncologyNanomedicine Market by Region:

Asia Pacific North America Europe Latin America Middle East AfricaNanomedicine Market Major Players:

Abbott Laboratories CombiMatrix Corporation General Electric Company Sigma-Tau Pharmaceuticals, Inc Johnson & Johnson Mallinckrodt plc. Merck & Company, Inc. Nanosphere, Inc. Pfizer, Inc. Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. Celgene Corporation UCB (Union Chimique Belge) S.A. AMAG Pharmaceuticals Nanospectra Biosciences, Inc. Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Leadiant Biosciences, Inc. Epeius Biotechnologies Corporation Cytimmune Sciences, Inc.

MAJOR TOC OF THE REPORT

Chapter One: Nanomedicine Market Overview

Chapter Two: Manufacturers Profiles

Chapter Three: Global Nanomedicine Market Competition, by Players

Chapter Four: Global Nanomedicine Market Size by Regions

Chapter Five: North America Nanomedicine Revenue by Countries

Chapter Six: Europe Nanomedicine Revenue by Countries

Chapter Seven: Asia-Pacific Nanomedicine Revenue by Countries

Chapter Eight: South America Nanomedicine Revenue by Countries

Chapter Nine: Middle East and Africa Revenue Nanomedicine by Countries

Chapter Ten: Global Nanomedicine Market Segment by Type

Chapter Eleven: Global Nanomedicine Market Segment by Application

Chapter Twelve: Global Nanomedicine Market Size Forecast (2019-2026)

Browse Full Report with Facts and Figures of Nanomedicine Market Report at:https://www.maximizemarketresearch.com/market-report/nanomedicine-market/39223/

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Diabetes Reversed in Mice With CRISPR-Edited Stem Cells From Patients – Technology Networks

§ April 24th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Diabetes Reversed in Mice With CRISPR-Edited Stem Cells From Patients – Technology Networks

Using induced pluripotent stem cells produced from the skin of a patient with a rare, genetic form of insulin-dependent diabetes calledWolfram syndrome, researchers transformed the human stem cells into insulin-producing cells and used the gene-editing tool CRISPR-Cas9 to correct a genetic defect that had caused the syndrome. They then implanted the cells into lab mice and cured the unrelenting diabetes in those mice.

The findings, from researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, suggest the CRISPR-Cas9 technique may hold promise as a treatment for diabetes, particularly the forms caused by a single gene mutation, and it also may be useful one day in some patients with the more common forms of diabetes, such as type 1 and type 2.

The study is published online April 22 in the journal Science Translational Medicine.

Patients with Wolfram syndrome develop diabetes during childhood or adolescence and quickly require insulin-replacement therapy, requiring insulin injections multiple times each day. Most go on to develop problems with vision and balance, as well as other issues, and in many patients, the syndrome contributes to an early death.

This is the first time CRISPR has been used to fix a patients diabetes-causing genetic defect and successfully reverse diabetes, said co-senior investigatorJeffrey R. Millman, PhD, an assistant professor of medicine and of biomedical engineering at Washington University. For this study, we used cells from a patient with Wolfram syndrome because, conceptually, we knew it would be easier to correct a defect caused by a single gene. But we see this as a stepping stone toward applying gene therapy to a broader population of patients with diabetes.

Wolfram syndrome is caused by mutations to a single gene, providing the researchers an opportunity to determine whether combining stem cell technology with CRISPR to correct the genetic error also might correct the diabetes caused by the mutation.

A few years ago, Millman and his colleagues discovered how to convert human stem cells into pancreatic beta cells. When such cells encounter blood sugar, they secrete insulin. Recently, those same researchers developed a new technique to more efficiently convert human stem cells into beta cells that are considerably better at controlling blood sugar.

In this study, they took the additional steps of deriving these cells from patients and using the CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing tool on those cells to correct a mutation to the gene that causes Wolfram syndrome (WFS1). Then, the researchers compared the gene-edited cells to insulin-secreting beta cells from the same batch of stem cells that had not undergone editing with CRISPR.

In the test tube and in mice with a severe form of diabetes, the newly grown beta cells that were edited with CRISPR more efficiently secreted insulin in response to glucose. Diabetes disappeared quickly in mice with the CRISPR-edited cells implanted beneath the skin, and the animals blood sugar levels remained in normal range for the entire six months they were monitored. Animals receiving unedited beta cells remained diabetic. Their newly implanted beta cells could produce insulin, just not enough to reverse their diabetes.

We basically were able to use these cells to cure the problem, making normal beta cells by correcting this mutation, said co-senior investigatorFumihiko Urano, MD, PhD, the Samuel E. Schechter Professor of Medicine and a professor of pathology and immunology. Its a proof of concept demonstrating that correcting gene defects that cause or contribute to diabetes in this case, in the Wolfram syndrome gene we can make beta cells that more effectively control blood sugar. Its also possible that by correcting the genetic defects in these cells, we may correct other problems Wolfram syndrome patients experience, such as visual impairment and neurodegeneration.

In the future, using CRISPR to correct certain mutations in beta cells may help patients whose diabetes is the result of multiple genetic and environmental factors, such as type 1, caused by an autoimmune process that destroys beta cells, and type 2, which is closely linked to obesity and a systemic process called insulin resistance.

Were excited about the fact that we were able to combine these two technologies growing beta cells from induced pluripotent stem cells and using CRISPR to correct genetic defects, Millman said. In fact, we found that corrected beta cells were indistinguishable from beta cells made from the stem cells of healthy people without diabetes.

Moving forward, the process of making beta cells from stem cells should get easier, the researchers said. For example, the scientists have developed less intrusive methods, making induced pluripotent stem cells from blood and they are working on developing stem cells from urine samples.

In the future, Urano said, we may be able to take a few milliliters of urine from a patient, make stem cells that we then can grow into beta cells, correct mutations in those cells with CRISPR, transplant them back into the patient, and cure their diabetes in our clinic. Genetic testing in patients with diabetes will guide us to identify genes that should be corrected, which will lead to a personalized regenerative gene therapy.

Reference:

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‘Silent hypoxia’ may be killing COVID-19 patients. But there’s hope. – Livescience.com

§ April 24th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on ‘Silent hypoxia’ may be killing COVID-19 patients. But there’s hope. – Livescience.com

As doctors see more and more COVID-19 patients, they are noticing an odd trend: Patients whose blood oxygen saturation levels are exceedingly low but who are hardly gasping for breath.

These patients are quite sick, but their disease does not present like typical acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a type of lung failure known from the 2003 outbreak of the SARS coronavirus and other respiratory diseases. Their lungs are clearly not effectively oxygenating the blood, but these patients are alert and feeling relatively well, even as doctors debate whether to intubate them by placing a breathing tube down the throat.

The concern with this presentation, called "silent hypoxia," is that patients are showing up to the hospital in worse health than they realize. But there might be a way to prevent that, according to a New York Times Op-Ed by emergency department physician Richard Levitan. If sick patients were given oxygen-monitoring devices called pulse oximeters to monitor their symptoms at home, they might be able to seek medical treatment sooner, and ultimately avoid the most invasive treatments.

Related: Are ventilators being overused on COVID-19 patients?

"This is not a new phenomenon," said Dr. Marc Moss, the division head of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus. There are other conditions in which patients are extremely low on oxygen but don't feel any sense of suffocation or lack of air, Moss told Live Science. For example, some congenital heart defects cause circulation to bypass the lungs, meaning the blood is poorly oxygenated.

However, the increased understanding that people with COVID-19 may show up with these atypical coronavirus symptoms is changing the way doctors treat them.

Normal blood-oxygen levels are around 97%, Moss said, and it becomes worrisome when the numbers drop below 90%. At levels below 90%, the brain may not get sufficient oxygen, and patients might start experiencing confusion, lethargy or other mental disruptions. As levels drop into the low 80s or below, the danger of damage to vital organs rises.

However, patients may not feel in as dire straits as they are. A lot of coronavirus patients show up at the hospital with oxygen saturations in the low 80s but look fairly comfortable and alert, said Dr. Astha Chichra, a critical care physician at Yale School of Medicine. They might be slightly short of breath, but not in proportion to the lack of oxygen they're receiving.

There are three major reasons people feel a sense of dyspnea, or labored breathing, Moss said. One is something obstructing the airway, which is not an issue in COVID-19. Another is when carbon dioxide builds up in the blood. A good example of that phenomenon is during exercise: Increased metabolism means more carbon dioxide production, leading to heavy breathing to exhale all that CO2.

Related: Could genetics explain why some COVID-19 patients fare worse than others?

A third phenomenon, particularly important in respiratory disease, is decreased lung compliance. Lung compliance refers to the ease with which the lungs move in and out with each breath. In pneumonia and in ARDS, fluids in the lungs fill microscopic air sacs called alveoli, where oxygen from the air diffuses into the blood. As the lungs fill with fluid, they become more taut and stiffer, and the person's chest and abdominal muscles must work harder to expand and contract the lungs in order to breathe.

This happens in severe COVID-19, too. But in some patients, the fluid buildup is not enough to make the lungs particularly stiff. Their oxygen levels may be low for an unknown reason that doesn't involve fluid buildup and one that doesn't trigger the body's need to gasp for breath.

Exactly what is going on is yet unknown.

Chichra said that some of these patients might simply have fairly healthy lungs, and thus have the lung compliance (or elasticity) so not much resistance in the lungs when a person inhales and exhales to feel like they are not short on air even as their lungs become less effective at diffusing oxygen into the blood. Others, especially geriatric patients, might have comorbidities that mean they live with low oxygen levels regularly, so they're used to feeling somewhat lethargic or easily winded, she said.

Related: 11 surprising facts about the respiratory system

In the New York Times Op-Ed on the phenomenon, Levitan wrote that the lack of gasping might be due to a particular phase of the lung failure caused by COVID-19. When the lung failure first starts, he wrote, the virus may attack the lung cells that make surfactant, a fatty substance in the alveoli, which reduces surface tension in the lungs, increasing their compliance. Without surfactant, the increased surface tension causes the alveoli to deflate, but if they are not filled with fluid,, they won't feel stiff, Levitan wrote. This could explain how the alveoli fail to oxygenate the blood without the patient noticing the need to gasp for more air.

The virus might also create hypoxia by damaging the blood vessels that lead to the lungs, Moss said. Normally, when a patient has pneumonia, the tiny blood vessels around the fluid-filled areas of the lungs constrict (called hypoxic vasoconstriction): Sensing a lack of oxygen in the damaged areas, the body shunts blood to other, healthier parts of the lungs. Because pneumonia fills the lungs with fluid, the person will feel starved for air and gasp for breath. But their vessels send the blood to the least-damaged parts of the lung, so their blood oxygenation stays relatively high, given the damage.

In COVID-19, that balance may be off. The lungs aren't very fluid-filled and stiff, but the blood vessels don't constrict and reroute blood to the least-damaged spots. People feel free to inhale and exhale without resistance, but the blood is still trying to pick up oxygen at alveoli that are damaged and inefficient.

"What is most likely happening here is that hypoxic vasoconstriction is lost for some reason, so that blood does flow to places where there is some damage to the lungs," Moss said. It could also be a combination of factors, he added.

"I'm not going to say the alveoli are normal and the surfactant is normal, but when someone has hypoxia out of proportion to what you would see in the lung, that makes lung specialists think there is a problem on the blood vessel side," he said.

In the New York Times, Levitan suggests that patients who are not sick enough to be admitted to the hospital be given pulse oximeters, devices that clamp to the finger to measure blood oxygenation. If their oxygenation numbers start to fall, it could be an early warning sign to seek medical treatment.

"It's an intriguing possibility," Moss said.

Even without widespread at-home oxygen monitoring, doctors are now starting to differentiate between patients who have low oxygen levels and who are working hard to breathe, and those who have low oxygen levels but are breathing without distress, Chichra said. Early in the pandemic, knowing that COVID-19 patients can start to fail quickly, physicians tended to put people with hypoxia on ventilators quickly. Now, Chichra said, it's becoming clear that patients who aren't struggling for breath often recover without being intubated. They may do well with oxygen delivered via nasal tube or a non-rebreather mask, which fits over the face to deliver high concentrations of oxygen.

Hypoxic patients who are breathing quickly and laboriously, with elevated heart rates, tend to be the ones who need mechanical ventilation or non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation, Chichra said. The latter is a method that uses a face mask instead of a tube down the throat, but also uses pressure to push air into the lungs.

"The key difference we've found between these folks is that the people who are working hard to breathe are the folks who usually need to be intubated," Chichra said.

Originally published on Live Science.

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Our planet, us and Covid-19 – Daily Times

§ April 24th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Our planet, us and Covid-19 – Daily Times

Howsoever one looks at it, Covid-19 is unprecedented in living memory. A microscopic, non-living organism has battered every economy and humbled all the great powers. It has exposed man, with his awesome arsenals, supercomputers, interplanetary rockets, and sophisticated hospitals as weak and helpless.

The humble coronavirus has struck such terror into peoples hearts everywhere that quacks and charlatans of all denominations are having a field day, recommending all manner of cures, from cow urine to hot water gargles, from holy water to black seed, in addition to chants and prayers. Believers find some joy in the worlds collective misery, for it redeems their belief that there is a divine force infinitely more powerful than any superpower. He watches and, every now and then, punishes mankind for its sins.

Those of the opposite persuasion, which includes atheists, agnostics, humanists and freethinkers, feel vindicated that mankinds collective and callous disregard for the worlds flora, fauna, land and environment is now coming back to haunt us, as they had repeatedly warned.

Call it what you will, divine power or the forces of nature, surely Covid-19 contains a serious message for mankind. And it is not out of the blue. Climatologists, environmentalists, naturalists, animal rights advocates and the like have long warned that our reckless and senseless depredation of nature will not be without dire consequences. We extract, consume, dispose and discard living and non-living matter from our planet with great brutality and as if there is no tomorrow. Be it the bowel of the earth or the deep sea, defenceless animal or pristine forest, meandering river, verdant valley or towering mountain, if there is a dollar to be made by exploiting it, we will ravage it.

Animals we kill not just for food and medicine, but also for their furs and skins to make branded coats, hats, purses, wallets, belts and shoes. Bears we keep alive in cages to extract their bile for our benefit. Sharks are thrown back into the ocean to die after chopping off their fins for soup.

One wishes there was some court somewhere, where mankind could be arraigned for its collective and individual crimes against other species and nature itself.

It is now almost certain that this latest coronavirus (Covid-19) originated in bats and passed to humans through another animal, perhaps the pangolin. The previous mutation of the coronavirus (SARS) had likewise jumped from bat to man through the civet cat. HIV and Ebola virus also made their transition from animal to human through our consumption of bushmeat.

We have treated some members of our own species only slightly better than animals. Rohingyas in Myanmar, Ahmadis in Pakistan and, increasingly, Muslims in India are treated as less than human. Not so long ago, we kept slaves. Why, even now the poor and the destitute are forced into lives of virtual slavery.

Our haughty ways barely conceal the truth that we are an endangered species and in grave danger of working towards our own extinction

For those who are feeling pessimistic about the current situation, it was just about a hundred years ago that the influenza pandemic of 1919-20 killed between 50 and 100 million people, followed by the Great Depression a decade later, which caused mass poverty in the West.

It is fair to assume that these gloomy times will pass, nations will bounce back, and our legions of doomsday prophets will fall silent until the next catastrophe. But it cannot and should not be back to business as usual. If we dont learn the right lessons from this and mend our ways, then indeed we are on the descent to doom. Something somewhere must give.

Our pursuit of higher and higher rates of growth and profit, gluttony and profligacy, and our endless armed conflicts are wreaking havoc on Mother Earth. The scourge of plastic, pollution of air, river and sea, deforestation, overfishing, relentless mining, and damming of rivers are slowly killing not just animals but us as well. We are biting the hand that feeds us.

Thanks to the humble coronavirus, Newtons third law of physics, which says that to every action there is an equal and opposite reaction, seems to extend to biology. And also to climatology, judging by the increasing frequency of draughts, fires, landslides and floods.

Being no more than specks of dust before the overwhelming forces of nature, we are too weak to destroy the earth even if we keep trying for another ten thousand years. But through our callousness, lust, greed and profligacy we can make it unliveable for ourselves, not to mention our descendants.

There is no doubting the power and fury of nature. Increasingly, our life on earth has been nature versus man, in the sense that nature unleashes its destructive forces and we seek the wherewithal to protect ourselves from them, while using its resources for our sustenance.

But we may now actually be at a moment of reckoning. Our pursuit of self-aggrandisement at every level, personal and familial, village, town and country, and our treatment of the flora and fauna with reckless and cruel abandon must stop.

Despite our marvellous scientific and medical advances, nature is taking its revenge on us through more frequent draughts, floods, landslides, fires and epidemics. Warnings have been many, from nature, from scientists, and from good men and women, but our lust for the good life and material pleasure, and penchant for violence and war has made a mockery of their warnings.

Our life on the planet should not be a battle of nature versus man but one of mutual coexistence to the benefit of all. Unfortunately, we have distorted this relationship into one of hostility. There can be no doubt as to who would triumph in a war of man versus nature. Our haughty ways barely conceal the truth that we are an endangered species and in grave danger of working towards our own extinction.

The writer is a former academic with a doctorate in modern history. He can be reached at raziazmi@hotmail.com

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Boosting the Immune System Really Does Help With COVID-19, Experts Say – Phoenix New Times

§ April 24th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Boosting the Immune System Really Does Help With COVID-19, Experts Say – Phoenix New Times

According to some of the more dramatic pandemic predictions, as many as 150 million Americans will come down with COVID-19 before a vaccine becomes widely available. While avoiding it altogether is the ideal scenario, as the virus continues to spread, for many, infection is inevitable.

Given that unfortunate reality, building up a personal defense system against an invisible enemy is paramount, according to the experts.

In March, Banner Health published a blog post: How You Can Boost Your Immune System, with the message: A strong immune system is the ultimate defense against illness, whether its COVID-19, seasonal flu, or something else. The posts advice is largely mundane: Get eight hours of sleep, eat nutritious foods, exercise, hydrate, and do what you can to reduce stress in an incredibly stressful time.

Most people understand that adopting healthier habits is a good idea, but can these habits really boost your immune system so that a coronavirus infection looks more like, say, a common cold? Jessica Lancaster, an immunologist researcher at the Mayo Clinic, thinks its a distinct possibility.

If you had two people with the same virus exposure and very similar genetic makeup, Lancaster said, and if one had been better overall sleeping, eating well, and exercising that person would most likely be much better off than the person who is not caring for themselves as well.

The microscopic novel coronavirus typically enters the body through the nose, she said. From there, it begins a deliberate and dangerous process of multiplying and penetrating deeper down the respiratory tract and into the bloodstream. A spry immune system bolstered by exercise, healthy food, and plenty of sleep will harass the virus before it wreaks the kind of havoc that requires hospitalization, ICU admission, or a ventilator.

Essentially, the immune system is a collection of cells, surveilling our body for unwelcome visitors: viruses, bacteria, various toxins, and cancer. When something isnt right, alarm bells go off and the immune system springs into action to make things right.

Jessica Lancaster, immunologist at the Mayo Clinic

YouTube/Mayo Clinic

Our immune systems ability to react to alarm bells and fight off foreign intruders depends on a multitude of factors. Among them are our age, where we live, what we do for work, and three biggies: good sleep, low stress, and healthy eating. These things have a profound effect on two major contributors to our immune systems sharpness: chronic inflammation and cortisol levels.

In the case of COVID-19, the virus hijacks lung cells and eventually damages them to where they become inflamed. But when there is chronic inflammation in people, such as those with preexisting conditions like heart disease or lung disease, the immune cells are worn out or lulled to sleep.

In these cases, Lancaster said, [immune cells] are kind of used to hearing these signals over and over again. When they have to actually respond to something, they're already exhausted.

For example, if you are regularly exposed to toxic chemicals that cause inflammation, like cigarette smoke, you can have a boy that cried wolf situation, where the body gets jaded to these constant warning signs of trouble and is slower to respond.

For someone with COVID-19, any kind of delayed immune response can be catastrophic.

When you have something that is quite aggressive like coronavirus, which can strike really quickly if you have a lagging immune response, that can be devastating because by the time everything is mobilized, its too late. There's too much damage to the lungs, Lancaster said.

One simple way to avoid inflammation is to avoid overeating. If you eat too many calories, it can be hard for your body to regulate its blood sugar. And that leads to inflammation, Lancaster said, adding that this kind of blood sugar-induced inflammation tends to affect the kidneys, liver, and pancreas.

When it comes to supplements, Lancaster is ambivalent. But she admitted that when she gets sick herself, she takes zinc lozenges. She cited some inconclusive evidence that Vitamin C may have some antiviral properties or may be simply reducing inflammation across the body.

Cortisol is another of the bodys loud alarm bells. It is our primary stress hormone, and according to Lancaster, it can cause drastic changes to the way that your cells can function on a genetic level. A burst of cortisol here or there can help you spring into action to avoid a threat, but too much, too often can leave your body stuck in an uncomfortable, unhealthy kind of overdrive.

Lab research shows that immune cells can't fight viruses as well when they are injected with cortisol. In 2018, researchers at the University of Kent found cortisol levels to be a critical factor at play in leukemia cases, showing that the stress hormone hinders the immune systems ability to incapacitate intruders before they really get destructive.

Reading, meditating, and especially exercising may lower cortisol levels in people.

Exercising has the added benefit of helping you get your eight hours of sleep, all of which helps reduce inflammation and regulate stress hormones.Last week, a cardiovascular researcher at the University of Virginia released findings suggesting that an antioxidant that is naturally released during exercise can significantly reduce the risk of suffering fromacute respiratory distress syndrome, a severe problem that occurs in 20 to 42 percent of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Exercise, the research found, boosts production of an antioxidant known as extracellular superoxide dismutase, or EcSOD, which "hunts" atomic free radicals that can harm the body's cells.

Beth Jacobs

University of Arizona

"We cannot live in isolation forever, said Zhen Yan of the University of Virginia School of Medicine in an April 15 University of Virginia news release. "Regular exercise has far more health benefits than we know. The protection against this severe respiratory disease condition is just one of the many examples.

Beth Jacobs, a nutritional epidemiologist at the University of Arizona, is wary about making any promises about how any type of immune boosting can influence ones chances of coming down with a bad case of the virus.

"We know essentially nothing about COVID19 yet," she said in a recent interview.

In lieu of more specific knowledge about the virus, she echoes Lancasters sentiments about the importance of healthy habits. When it comes to immunity, she said, it is all about the three interlocked concepts, which are diet, physical activity, and sleep.

Essentially, [sleep] is the time when you're repairing what's happened during the day, Jacobs said. It allows you to heal up to take on the next day.

While science has yet to uncover the inner workings of sleep, Jacob says we can infer its value from its incredible cost. Our ancient ancestors risked being eaten while they laid motionless for hours a day for it, she pointed out.

She urges persistence and patience in developing new, healthy habits, stressing that we are still at the very beginning of the pandemic. Try new recipes and get outside, Jacobs urged.

Use the time to go outside and walk," she said. "And if you've never walked before, just take a 10-minute walk, and then a 15-minute walk next week. Just keep going."

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When Europe eases its coronavirus lockdowns, will the UK watch and learn? – The Guardian

§ April 24th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on When Europe eases its coronavirus lockdowns, will the UK watch and learn? – The Guardian

The lockdown is wreaking havoc with the economy, children are missing vital education, those with mental health problems or experiencing domestic abuse are suffering, and people in need of non-Covid-19 healthcare are not getting it. Though the cabinet seems divided over the answer, the question is genuine: when will the UK exit the Covid-19 lockdown?

If the government has an exit strategy, it is keeping it closely guarded. As with so much about the governments response, such as the identity of most members of its Covid-19 advisory group, information is released on a strictly need-to-know basis. What we do know is that the government will not set a specific date. It is right not to do so. Donald Trump may believe he is battling a germ that is brilliant, a characteristic not normally associated with a microscopic clump of genetic material, but even he abandoned his initial goal of opening up the US by Easter. This very smart virus does not observe religious festivals or read his tweets.

The seeming unwillingness of the British government to share its thinking with the public contrasts starkly with the approach taken elsewhere. The European Union has published a roadmap that lays out a phased approach for containing the virus. Cynics might be forgiven for recalling the contrast between the EUs detailed Brexit impact assessments and the superficial British ones, which had to be prised from the hands of ministers many months later. In the case of coronavirus, the UK would do well to follow the European roadmap, which recommends developing a robust system of contact tracing, expanding testing capacity and reinforcing PPE supplies as among the first steps towards lifting a lockdown.

Other European countries have also set out their proposals in varying levels of detail. Angela Merkel gave an in-depth explanation of the scientific basis behind Germanys lockdown strategy, drawing on a deep understanding of the epidemiology. In a speech marked by humility and acceptance that mistakes had been made, Emmanuel Macron explained that the process would be lengthy: schools would be opened when the data supported it, but restaurants and bars would remain closed for much longer.

The countries that are most advanced in this process are those that closed down earliest, and thus managed to better contain the spread of the virus. This approach contrasts with that of the United Kingdom, which delayed its lockdown. Germany, which has attracted widespread praise for its ability to deliver widespread testing, is opening up smaller shops, as is Austria, although this is subject to customers distancing from each other and wearing face coverings. The Czech Republic, which like its neighbour Slovakia has strongly encouraged face coverings, is also opening small businesses. Denmark, meanwhile, is starting to open up elementary schools. These governments have made clear that continued progress is dependent on the course of the pandemic, and restrictions might well be reimposed but they have been much more open with citizens about their respective approaches than the UK has been.

The key elements that a British exit strategy must include are fairly obvious, providing, as the UK government keeps repeating, that these decisions are led by science. The science is clear. The only way to get back to anything like normality is to get what epidemiologists call the reproduction number, or R0, below 1. Put another way, we must find ways to ensure that those who are infected in a community pass that infection on to fewer than one other person. We can be certain this point is being made by Englands chief medical officer, an experienced infectious disease epidemiologist. But how can this be achieved?

The EUs document provides helpful guidance for what the UKs strategy might look like. First, it should not even consider lifting restrictions until it has adequate data to be sure that the R0 really is below one. It can only do so if it has sufficient testing in place, for both the virus, determining who is infected, and the antibody, telling us who has been infected in the past and is therefore, hopefully, immune. This will require many more tests than the governments current daily target of 100,000.

At the same time, it will be important to show that the death rate really is falling, which will require far better data than is currently being provided, which has created considerable confusion about the number of deaths outside hospitals, especially in care homes. And the NHS must be ready for any resurgence once restrictions are lifted. This means having enough PPE, which is no more than an aspiration at present. Finally, the UK will need sufficient public health capacity to tackle resurgent infections, a task that will require enormous efforts to reverse the effects of a decade of cuts.

Easing the lockdown will have to be accompanied by other measures to reduce transmission, such as continued physical distancing and, increasingly likely, face coverings, as in France, Austria, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Change must be gradual, with health authorities closely monitoring the effects. In Italy, regions are taking the first very hesitant steps at different speeds, while in Spain those in construction and manufacturing sectors who are now permitted to go back to work must maintain stringent precautions.

Throughout this process, it will be essential to follow what other countries are doing. The approaches taken by various European countries offer a natural laboratory in which to test our own ideas. We must avoid simplistic comparisons, but also accept that the different approaches offer many learning opportunities. Unfortunately, some government advisers seem reluctant to take this opportunity.

Martin McKee is professor of European public health at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and an adviser to the World Health Organization

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Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market Analysis by Size, Share, Top Key Manufacturers, Demand Overview, Regional Outlook And Growth Forecast…

§ April 24th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market Analysis by Size, Share, Top Key Manufacturers, Demand Overview, Regional Outlook And Growth Forecast…

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Global Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market Segmentation

This market was divided into types, applications and regions. The growth of each segment provides an accurate calculation and forecast of sales by type and application in terms of volume and value for the period between 2020 and 2026. This analysis can help you develop your business by targeting niche markets. Market share data are available at global and regional levels. The regions covered by the report are North America, Europe, the Asia-Pacific region, the Middle East, and Africa and Latin America. Research analysts understand the competitive forces and provide competitive analysis for each competitor separately.

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Global Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market Regions and Countries Level Analysis

The regional analysis is a very complete part of this report. This segmentation highlights Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) sales at regional and national levels. This data provides a detailed and accurate analysis of volume by country and an analysis of market size by region of the world market.

The report provides an in-depth assessment of growth and other aspects of the market in key countries such as the United States, Canada, Mexico, Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Russia and the United States Italy, China, Japan, South Korea, India, Australia, Brazil and Saudi Arabia. The chapter on the competitive landscape of the global market report contains important information on market participants such as business overview, total sales (financial data), market potential, global presence, Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) sales and earnings, market share, prices, production locations and facilities, products offered and applied strategies. This study provides Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) sales, revenue, and market share for each player covered in this report for a period between 2016 and 2020.

Why choose us:

We offer state of the art critical reports with accurate information about the future of the market.

Our reports have been evaluated by some industry experts in the market, which makes them beneficial for the company to maximize their return on investment.

We provide a full graphical representation of information, strategic recommendations and analysis tool results to provide a sophisticated landscape and highlight key market players. This detailed market assessment will help the company increase its efficiency.

The dynamics of supply and demand shown in the report offer a 360-degree view of the market.

Our report helps readers decipher the current and future constraints of the Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) market and formulate optimal business strategies to maximize market growth.

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Table of Contents:

Study Coverage: It includes study objectives, years considered for the research study, growth rate and Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) market size of type and application segments, key manufacturers covered, product scope, and highlights of segmental analysis.

Executive Summary: In this section, the report focuses on analysis of macroscopic indicators, market issues, drivers, and trends, competitive landscape, CAGR of the global Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) market, and global production. Under the global production chapter, the authors of the report have included market pricing and trends, global capacity, global production, and global revenue forecasts.

Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market Size by Manufacturer: Here, the report concentrates on revenue and production shares of manufacturers for all the years of the forecast period. It also focuses on price by manufacturer and expansion plans and mergers and acquisitions of companies.

Production by Region: It shows how the revenue and production in the global market are distributed among different regions. Each regional market is extensively studied here on the basis of import and export, key players, revenue, and production.

About Us:

Market Research Intellect provides syndicated and customized research reports to clients from various industries and organizations with the aim of delivering functional expertise. We provide reports for all industries including Energy, Technology, Manufacturing and Construction, Chemicals and Materials, Food and Beverage and more. These reports deliver an in-depth study of the market with industry analysis, market value for regions and countries and trends that are pertinent to the industry.

Contact Us:

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Tags: Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market Size, Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market Growth, Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market Forecast, Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market Analysis

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Dine with an MIT luminary for a good cause: Flash charity auction offers the opportunity to bid on lunch with MIT professors in support of COVID-19…

§ April 24th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Dine with an MIT luminary for a good cause: Flash charity auction offers the opportunity to bid on lunch with MIT professors in support of COVID-19…

CAMBRIDGE, Mass., April 23, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- Dream of dining and discussing space travel withformer NASA astronautand MITAerospace Engineering Professor,Jeffrey Hoffman? Want to grab a sandwich and talk sports analytics withBen Shields,former ESPN executive and Senior Lecturer at MIT Sloan?Perhaps you'd like to break bread and ponder the future of nanomedicine withPaula Hammond, the head of MIT's Department of Chemical Engineering?

Now is your chance. Agrassroots organizationof MIT staff and faculty members have launched acharity auctionoffering participants the opportunity to bid on lunches with over 50 luminaries at MIT. In addition, the group is runninga rafflewhereparticipants can contribute $5 to be entered into a drawing to win a lunch with the MIT faculty member of their choice from the auction.

The proceeds from the fundraiser will be disbursed to theCambridge Community Foundation's Cambridge COVID-19 Emergency Fundand theCambridge Mayor's Disaster Relief Fund for COVID-19with the help ofCommunity Giving at MIT.

As the global pandemic has erupted over the last month, MIT has worked to help the City of Cambridge weather the ongoing public health emergency. The Institute's assistance has included direct financial support, suspension of rent for tenants in MIT-owned properties, housing for emergency responders in unused MIT buildings, and other initiatives.

"I share with my colleagues a feeling of responsibility to help supportthose who've been affected by the current health crisis here in our home city of Cambridge," saysDavid V. Capodilupo, Assistant Dean ofMIT Sloan Global Programs."This is one smalland we hopefun and interestingway for us to give back to our local community during this challenging period."

Bidding for the fundraiser, which is modeled after Warren Buffett's annual charity auction, launched on April 16thandwill conclude on April 30th at 11:55pm. Winning bidders can choose between a conversation with their chosen faculty member via Zoom or an in-person lunch to take place after social distancing measures are eased.

"At a time of lockdowns and social distancing, this fundraiser can help build new and meaningful connections," says Longzhen Han, Assistant Director of theMIT Regional Entrepreneurship Acceleration Program,who is spearheading the fundraiser. "Not only does MIT have brilliant faculty members, they are also very generous. We are thrilled that they are dedicating their time in this unique way to benefit a good cause close to home."

The auction website showcases the nearly 60 professors from over 10 different departments who have signed on to the effort. Each bio includes a fun factconsider it a conversation starterabout the faculty member.For instance,Jeffrey C. Grossman, the Department Head of Materials Science and Engineering, used to be a competitive ballroom dancer.Zeynep Ton, Professor of the Practice of Operations Management at MIT Sloan, played volleyball for Penn State and participated in two NCAA final four tournaments. MeanwhileRoberto Rigobon, Professor of Applied Economics at the school, once played in a rock band that had three number one hit songs in Venezuela.

Rene Richardson Gosline, a Senior Lecturer in the Management Science group at MIT Sloan, says she was inspired to join the effort because, "Instead of shuffling the deck, COVID-19 may calcify structural inequality and hit the vulnerable hardest. We must all do our part. At MIT, we say, "Of the world. In the world. For the world.' The #mitcharitylunches embody this ethos."

All donations to the auction are tax deductible. The organizers say they are open to engaging with local donor organizations interested in making matching gifts or providing other support.

"Our greatest weapon is the strength of our community," saysSharmila C. Chatterjee, Senior Lecturer in Marketing and the Academic Head for the MBA Track in Enterprise Management at MIT Sloan."We do well when every single member does well. Working together, as one, is the only way to make this happen."

For more information, clickhere.

About the MIT Sloan School of ManagementThe MIT Sloan School of Management is where smart, independent leaders come together to solve problems, create new organizations, and improve the world. Learn more at mitsloan.mit.edu

For further information, contact:

Paul Denning

or

Patricia Favreau

Director of Media Relations

Associate Director of Media Relations

617-253-0576

617-253-3492

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SOURCE MIT Sloan School of Management

http://www.mitsloan.mit.edu

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Almost Half Of Americans Are Breathing Unhealthy Air, Report Finds – IFLScience

§ April 22nd, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Almost Half Of Americans Are Breathing Unhealthy Air, Report Finds – IFLScience

Climate change is driving increases in unhealthy air, putting 150 million Americans nearly half of the countrys population at risk for associated respiratory issues amid the Covid-19 pandemic.

A recentstudy from Harvard University found air pollution is linked to higher death rates associated with the respiratory disease Covid-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Living and breathing polluted air, particularly during times of increased vulnerability, may be putting the health and lives of Americans at risk.

"Air pollution is linked to greater risk of lung infection," said American Lung Association President and CEO Harold Wimmer in a statement. "Protecting everyone from Covid-19 and other lung infections is an urgent reminder of the importance of clean air."

In its 161-page State of the Air report, the American Lung Association analyzed ozone pollution and particle pollution data from 2016, 2017, and 2018 all of which are among the five hottest years on record. Western counties were found to be experiencing record-breaking spikes in particle pollution, largely associated with climate-spurred wildfire seasons that have swept through the western US.

Particle pollution, also known as PM2.5, is made up of unhealthy particles from wildfires, wood-burning stoves, and coal-fired plants, among other sources. These microscopic particles can become lodged in the lungs to potentially enter the bloodstream, triggering asthma attacks and other respiratory impacts. During the timeframe analyzed, most cities saw an increase in number of days where the daily particular pollution detected was higher than average, while nine states reached the most number of days with above average PM2.5 ever reported, which were largely linked to Californias deadly 2018 wildfire season.

Worst US Cities By Daily Particle Pollution Average

1. Fresno-Madera-Hanford, California

2. Bakersfield, California

3. San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, California

4. Fairbanks, Alaska

5. Yakima, Washington

6. Los Angeles-Long Beach, California

7. Missoula, Montana

8. Redding-Red Bluff, California

9. Salt Lake City-Provo-Orem, Utah

10. Phoenix-Mesa, Arizona

Worst US Cities For Annual Particle Pollution

1. Bakersfield, California

2. Fresno-Madera-Hanford, California

3. Visalia, California

4. Los Angeles-Long Beach, California

5. San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, California

6. Fairbanks, Alaska

7. Phoenix-Mesa, Arizona

8. El Centro, California

9. Pittsburgh-New Castle-Weirton, PA-OH-WV

10. Detroit-Warren-Ann Arbor, Michigan

Ozone pollution, also known as smog, is a respiratory irritant that can cause shortness of breath and respiratory issues as well as shorten lifespan. Warmer temperatures associated with climate change can drive the formation of ozone pollution and make it more difficult to clean up. Across the nation, more than 137 million people live in an area with what is considered a failing grade for ozone pollution.

Top 10 Most Ozone-Polluted Cities

1. Los Angeles-Long Beach, California

2. Visalia, California

3. Bakersfield, California

4. Fresno-Madera-Hanford, California

5. Sacramento-Roseville, California

6. San Diego-Chula Vista-Carlsbad, California

7. Phoenix-Mesa, Arizona

8. San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, California

9. Las Vegas-Henderson, Nevada

10. Denver-Aurora, Colorado

Air quality has improved in some communities, among them the San Francisco Bay Area, which experienced less ozone air pollution than previously recorded. The nations four cleanest cities were those that did not experience high ozone or particle pollution days and also saw the lowest annual particle pollution levels.

Cleanest US Cities (not ranked)

Even so, the report notes that many Americans are still breathing unhealthy air that affects everyone, particularly vulnerable populations like children, the elderly, and people living with underlying health conditions such as asthma and lung disease.

"The science is clear: the nation needs stronger limits on ozone and particle pollution to safeguard health, especially for children and people with lung disease. Every family has the right to breathe healthy air and the right to know when air pollution levels are unhealthy, concluded Wimmer.

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Explainer: Heres what the coronavirus does to the body – Daily Nation

§ April 22nd, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Explainer: Heres what the coronavirus does to the body – Daily Nation

By ELIZABETH MERABMore by this Author

As the number of confirmed cases of Covid-19 surges past 2.5 million globally and deaths surpass 170,000, clinicians and pathologists are struggling to understand the damage wrought by the coronavirus as it tears through the body.

They are realising that although the lungs are ground zero, its reach can extend to many organs including the heart and blood vessels, kidneys, gut, and brain.

Heres what coronavirus does to the body.

The onset of the infection

When an infected person expels virus-laden droplets and someone else inhales them, the novel coronavirus, called SARS-CoV-2, enters the nose and throat.

It finds a welcome home in the lining of the nose, according to a preprint from scientists at the Wellcome Sanger Institute and elsewhere.

They found that cells there are rich in a cell-surface receptor called angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).

Throughout the body, the presence of ACE2, which normally helps regulate blood pressure, marks tissues vulnerable to infection, because the virus requires that receptor to enter a cell.

Once inside, the virus hijacks the cells machinery, making myriad copies of itself and invading new cells.

If the immune system doesnt beat back SARS-CoV-2 during this initial phase, the virus then marches down the windpipe to attack the lungs, where it can turn deadly.

The thinner, distant branches of the lungs respiratory tree end in tiny air sacs called alveoli, each lined by a single layer of cells that are also rich in ACE2 receptors.

Normally, oxygen crosses the alveoli into the capillaries, tiny blood vessels that lie beside the air sacs; the oxygen is then carried to the rest of the body.

For most patients, Covid-19 begins and ends in their lungs, because like the flu, coronaviruses are respiratory diseases.

Once infected, the immune system begins to fight the virus, a battle that disrupts this healthy oxygen transfer.

White blood cells release inflammatory molecules called chemokines, which in turn summon more immune cells that target and kill virus-infected cells, leaving fluid and dead cellspusbehind, which is then diagnosed as pneumonia, with its corresponding symptoms: coughing; fever; and rapid, shallow respiration. Some Covid-19 patients recover, sometimes with no more support than oxygen breathed in through nasal prongs.

In severe cases however, patients lungs are damaged resulting in respiratory failure. Even if death doesnt occur, some patients survive with permanent lung damage.

According to the WHO, SARS punched holes in the lungs, giving them a honeycomb-like appearanceand these lesions are present in those afflicted by novel coronavirus, too.

When that occurs, patients often have to be put on ventilators to assist their breathing. Meanwhile, inflammation also makes the membranes between the air sacs and blood vessels more permeable, which can fill the lungs with fluid and affect their ability to oxygenate blood.

In severe cases, you basically flood your lungs and you cant breathe, Frieman says. Thats how people are dying, said University of Maryland School of Medicine associate professor Matthew B. Frieman, at an interview.

Some patients in Italy have been diagnosed with infection of the heart muscle (viral myocarditis).

More than 1 in 5 patients developed heart damage as a result of Covid-19 in Wuhan, China, one small study published March 27 in the journal JAMA Cardiology suggested.

SARS-CoV-2 can infiltrate both the heart and the lungs, because they each contain cells covered with the surface proteins known as angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which serves as the gateway for the virus to enter cells, Live Science previously reported.

The stomach: A shared gateway

But why does a respiratory virus bother the gut at all?

During the SARS and MERS outbreaks, nearly a quarter of patients had diarrheaa much more significant feature of those zoonotic coronaviruses.

When any virus enters your body, it looks for human cells with its favorite doorwaysproteins on the outside of the cells called receptors.

If the virus finds a compatible receptor on a cell, it can invade. Some viruses are picky about which door they choose, but others are a little more promiscuous.

They can very easily penetrate into all types of cells, says Anna Suk-Fong Lok, assistant dean for clinical research at the University of Michigan Medical School and former president of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

Both SARS and MERS viruses can access the cells that line your intestines and large and small colon, and those infections appear to flourish in the gut, potentially causing the damage or the leakage of fluid that becomes diarrhoea.

Researchers believe Covid-19 uses the same receptor as SARS, and this doorway can be found in your lungs and small intestines.

Two studiesone in the New England Journal of Medicine and one preprint in medRxiv involving 1,099 caseshave also detected the virus in stool samples, which might indicate the virus could spread via feces.

But this is far from conclusive.

Coronaviruses can also cause problems in other systems of the body, due to the hyperactive immune response we mentioned earlier.

Among 184 Covid-19 patients in a Dutch ICU, 38 percent had blood that clotted abnormally, and almost one-third already had clots, according to a April 10 paper in Thrombosis Research.

Blood clots can break apart and land in the lungs, blocking vital arteriesa condition known as pulmonary embolism, which has reportedly killed Covid-19 patients.

Clots from arteries can also lodge in the brain, causing stroke. Many patients have dramatically high levels of D-dimer, a by-product of blood clots, said Behnood Bikdeli, a cardiovascular medicine fellow at Columbia University Medical Center.

The more we look, the more likely it becomes that blood clots are a major player in the disease severity and mortality from COVID-19, Bikdeli told Science Magazine.

The liver is a large, meaty organ that sits on the right side of the belly. Normally you can't feel the reddish-brown organ that weighs about 1.4 kilos, because it's protected by the rib cage.

The liver is essential for digesting food and ridding your body of toxic substances. Its main job is to process your blood after it leaves the stomach, filtering out the toxins and creating nutrients your body can use.

It also makes the bile that helps your small intestine break down fats. Your liver also contains enzymes, which speed up chemical reactions in the body. However, any condition that damages the liver and prevents it from functioning well.

When a disease-causing virus like SARS-CoV-2 spreads from the respiratory system, your liver is often one downstream organ that suffers and doctors have seen indications of liver injury with SARS, MERS, and Covid-19often mild, though more severe cases have led to severe liver damage and even liver failure.

In an interview with National Geographic, Anna Suk-Fong Lok, assistant dean for clinical research at the University of Michigan Medical School and former president of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases said: Once a virus gets into your bloodstream, they can swim to any part of your body. The liver is a very vascular organ so [a coronavirus] can very easily get into your liver.

In a normal body, Lok explains, liver cells are constantly dying off and releasing enzymes into your bloodstream.

The organ then quickly regenerates new cells and because of that regeneration process, the liver can withstand a lot of injury.

But at times one can have abnormally high levels of enzymes in their blood, as has been a common characteristic of patients suffering from SARS and MERS, making it a warning sign that the liver may have suffered an injury.

If its a mild injury the liver will quickly bounce back from but if the injury is more severe, it can lead to liver failure.

Kidney: Its all connected

The worldwide fears of ventilator shortages for failing lungs have received plenty of attention. Not so a scramble for another type of equipment: dialysis machines.

If these folks are not dying of lung failure, theyre dying of renal failure, says neurologist Jennifer Frontera of New York Universitys Langone Medical Center, which has treated thousands of Covid-19 patients.

The kidneys are caught up in this Covid-19 mess, too. Like the liver, your kidneys act as a filter of blood.

Each kidney is filled with about 800,000 microscopic distilling units called nephrons which have two main components: a filter to clean the blood and little tubes that return the cleaned blood back to your body or send the waste down to your bladder as urine.

When it comes to zoonotic diseases like coronaviruses, its the kidney tubules that seem to be most affected.

In fact, studies have shown the novel coronavirus can cause renal injury like SARS and MERS where six percent and a quarter of patients suffered these injuries.

After the SARS outbreak, the WHO reported that the virus was found in kidney tubules, which can become inflamed.

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Mass graves in Brazil as fears grow over effect of coronavirus on Amazon tribes – The Times

§ April 22nd, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Mass graves in Brazil as fears grow over effect of coronavirus on Amazon tribes – The Times

BrazilMass graves are being dug in Brazils Amazon city of Manaus, amid heightened concerns of the effect of the virus on vulnerable indigenous tribes.

Manaus, a city with a population of about two million, is handling more than 100 burials a day, three times the normal average. Arthur Virgilio Neto, the mayor, told CNN Brasil that the situation was critical and the local health system was overwhelmed.

The city is a gateway to the Amazon, a vast region that is still home to more than 300 tribes, whose way of life has remained largely unchanged for centuries.

There are concerns about the effect of Covid-19 on indigenous Amazon tribes

REUTERS/BRUNO KELLY

Indigenous people are seen as acutely vulnerable to Covid-19, mainly owing to the fact that they live far from medical care. Some tribal leaders have expressed concerns

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Nanomedicine Market Analysis by Size, Share, Top Key Manufacturers, Demand Overview, Regional Outlook And Growth Forecast to 2026 – Cole of Duty

§ April 22nd, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanomedicine Market Analysis by Size, Share, Top Key Manufacturers, Demand Overview, Regional Outlook And Growth Forecast to 2026 – Cole of Duty

The Nanomedicine Market report focuses on the economic developments and consumer spending trends across different countries for the forecast period 2020 to 2026. Studies also show which countries and regions will perform better in the coming years. In addition, the study talks about growth rate, market share and the latest developments in the Nanomedicine industry around the world. In addition, the special mention of the most important market participants contributes to the importance of the entire market study.

The study predicts the growth of the Nanomedicine Market based on market size, market share, demand, trends and gross sales. It also focuses on the positions of large companies in relation to the competitive landscape and their individual share in the world market. The report segments the industry by product type, application and end use. It shows the latest trends and technological developments in the industry that can influence the industry. The study provides a detailed perspective on the trends observed in the market, the contributing factors, the main players, the key companies and the main areas with growth potential.

Global Nanomedicine Market Segmentation

This market was divided into types, applications and regions. The growth of each segment provides an accurate calculation and forecast of sales by type and application in terms of volume and value for the period between 2020 and 2026. This analysis can help you develop your business by targeting niche markets. Market share data are available at global and regional levels. The regions covered by the report are North America, Europe, the Asia-Pacific region, the Middle East, and Africa and Latin America. Research analysts understand the competitive forces and provide competitive analysis for each competitor separately.

To get Incredible Discounts on this Premium Report, Click Here @ https://www.marketresearchintellect.com/ask-for-discount/?rid=201321&utm_source=COD&utm_medium=888

Global Nanomedicine Market Regions and Countries Level Analysis

The regional analysis is a very complete part of this report. This segmentation highlights Nanomedicine sales at regional and national levels. This data provides a detailed and accurate analysis of volume by country and an analysis of market size by region of the world market.

The report provides an in-depth assessment of growth and other aspects of the market in key countries such as the United States, Canada, Mexico, Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Russia and the United States Italy, China, Japan, South Korea, India, Australia, Brazil and Saudi Arabia. The chapter on the competitive landscape of the global market report contains important information on market participants such as business overview, total sales (financial data), market potential, global presence, Nanomedicine sales and earnings, market share, prices, production locations and facilities, products offered and applied strategies. This study provides Nanomedicine sales, revenue, and market share for each player covered in this report for a period between 2016 and 2020.

Why choose us:

We offer state of the art critical reports with accurate information about the future of the market.

Our reports have been evaluated by some industry experts in the market, which makes them beneficial for the company to maximize their return on investment.

We provide a full graphical representation of information, strategic recommendations and analysis tool results to provide a sophisticated landscape and highlight key market players. This detailed market assessment will help the company increase its efficiency.

The dynamics of supply and demand shown in the report offer a 360-degree view of the market.

Our report helps readers decipher the current and future constraints of the Nanomedicine market and formulate optimal business strategies to maximize market growth.

Have Any Query? Ask Our Expert @ https://www.marketresearchintellect.com/need-customization/?rid=201321&utm_source=COD&utm_medium=888

Table of Contents:

Study Coverage: It includes study objectives, years considered for the research study, growth rate and Nanomedicine market size of type and application segments, key manufacturers covered, product scope, and highlights of segmental analysis.

Executive Summary: In this section, the report focuses on analysis of macroscopic indicators, market issues, drivers, and trends, competitive landscape, CAGR of the global Nanomedicine market, and global production. Under the global production chapter, the authors of the report have included market pricing and trends, global capacity, global production, and global revenue forecasts.

Nanomedicine Market Size by Manufacturer: Here, the report concentrates on revenue and production shares of manufacturers for all the years of the forecast period. It also focuses on price by manufacturer and expansion plans and mergers and acquisitions of companies.

Production by Region: It shows how the revenue and production in the global market are distributed among different regions. Each regional market is extensively studied here on the basis of import and export, key players, revenue, and production.

About Us:

Market Research Intellect provides syndicated and customized research reports to clients from various industries and organizations with the aim of delivering functional expertise. We provide reports for all industries including Energy, Technology, Manufacturing and Construction, Chemicals and Materials, Food and Beverage and more. These reports deliver an in-depth study of the market with industry analysis, market value for regions and countries and trends that are pertinent to the industry.

Contact Us:

Mr. Steven Fernandes

Market Research Intellect

New Jersey ( USA )

Tel: +1-650-781-4080

Tags: Nanomedicine Market Size, Nanomedicine Market Growth, Nanomedicine Market Forecast, Nanomedicine Market Analysis

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Nanomedicine Market Analysis by Size, Share, Top Key Manufacturers, Demand Overview, Regional Outlook And Growth Forecast to 2026 - Cole of Duty

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Nature Communications Highlights Research by Scientists at Graybug Vision and Johns Hopkins University on Sustained Treatment of Retinal Diseases -…

§ April 21st, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nature Communications Highlights Research by Scientists at Graybug Vision and Johns Hopkins University on Sustained Treatment of Retinal Diseases -…

REDWOOD CITY, Calif., April 21, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Graybug Vision, Inc., a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company focused on developing transformative medicines to treat vision-threatening diseases of the retina and optic nerve, announces that a recent publication of the article Sustained treatment of retinal vascular diseases with self-aggregating sunitinib microparticles in Nature Communications was recognized as an Editors Highlight by the journal.

The article details the findings of a collaborative preclinical research project involving scientists at Graybug Vision and the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. The researchers developed a novel non-inflammatory polymer microparticle formulation containing sunitinib, an approved tyrosine kinase inhibitor drug that blocks vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors. The microparticle formulation was specifically designed to self-aggregate into a depot in the eye.

The study demonstrated that a single intravitreal (IVT) injection of sunitinib microparticles potently suppresses choroidal neovascularization in a mouse model for six months, far longer than the effect of an IVT injection of aflibercept in the same model. The sunitinib microparticles were also shown to block VEGF-induced leukostasis and retinal nonperfusion, which are associated with the progression of diabetic retinopathy.

The invention of new compositions and methods to produce non-inflammatory polymer microparticles for the eye was a key achievement in prior research led by Justin Hanes, Ph.D., Lewis J. Ort Professor of Ophthalmology and Director of the Center of Nanomedicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and Peter J. McDonnell, Director of the Wilmer Eye Institute at Johns Hopkins. Graybug Vision was founded on the basis of technologies initially developed by Justin Hanes in collaboration with co-author Peter A. Campochiaro, M.D., Professor of Ophthalmology and Director of the Retinal Cell and Molecular Laboratory at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.

VEGF signaling plays a critical role in retinal diseases like wet age-related macular degeneration, and our experiments with the sunitinib sustained-release formulation showed efficacy and durability, said Ming Yang, Vice President of Research and Development at Graybug Vision. Based on the results reported in this publication, Graybug advanced GB-102 into clinical development to evaluate its potential to improve the lives of patients with ocular diseases, concluded Ming Yang.

GB-102, Graybugs microparticle depot formulation of the anti-VEGF sunitinib malate, is currently in Phase 2 clinical development in patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD). It seeks to reduce the need for frequent IVT injections by expanding treatment duration to six months while reducing the burden of current treatments.

About Wet AMDWet AMD is one of the most common retinal diseases, leading to vision decline caused by excess VEGF. VEGF is a protein produced by cells that stimulates the formation of abnormal new blood vessels behind the retina, called choroidal neovascularization. The leakage of fluid and protein from the vessels causes retinal degeneration and leads to severe and rapid loss of vision. Early intervention is essential to treat wet AMD. According to the American Academy of Ophthalmology, the prevalence of wet AMD in the United States is estimated at 1.75 million people. We estimate that approximately 20 million adults are affected by wet AMD worldwide.

About Graybug VisionGraybug Vision is a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company focused on developing transformative medicines to treat diseases of the retina and optic nerve. The companys proprietary ocular delivery technologies are designed to maintain effective drug levels in ocular tissue for up to six months and potentially longer, improving patient compliance, reducing healthcare burdens and ultimately delivering better clinical outcomes. Graybugs lead product candidate, GB-102, a microparticle depot formulation of sunitinib malate, inhibits multiple neovascular pathways for the intravitreal treatment of retinal diseases, including wet age-related macular degeneration, with a six-month dosing regimen. This approach is differentiated from the current standard of care, which requires more frequent dosing and primarily targets one neovascular pathway. Graybug is also using its proprietary technologies to develop GB-401, an injectable depot formulation of a beta-adrenergic prodrug, for primary open angle glaucoma, with a dosing regimen of once every six months or longer, and GB-103, a longer-acting version of GB-102, designed to maintain therapeutic drug levels in the retinal tissue for 12 months with a single injection. Founded in 2011 on the basis of technology licensed from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Graybug is headquartered in Redwood City, California. For more information, please visitwww.graybug.com.

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