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How can we exploit the protein corona?, Nanomedicine, Future …

§ May 16th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on How can we exploit the protein corona?, Nanomedicine, Future …

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Global $350.8 Billion Nanomedicine Market Analysis & Forecasts Report 2013-2025 – Research and Markets – Business Wire (press release)

§ May 16th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Global $350.8 Billion Nanomedicine Market Analysis & Forecasts Report 2013-2025 – Research and Markets – Business Wire (press release)

DUBLIN--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Research and Markets has announced the addition of the "Nanomedicine Market Analysis By Products, (Therapeutics, Regenerative Medicine, Diagnostics), By Application, (Clinical Oncology, Infectious diseases), By Nanomolecule (Gold, Silver, Iron Oxide, Alumina), & Segment Forecasts, 2013 - 2025" report to their offering.

The global nanomedicine market is anticipated to reach USD 350.8 billion by 2025

Development of novel nanotechnology-based drugs and therapies is driven by the need to develop therapies that have fewer side effects and that are more cost-effective than traditional therapies, in particular for cancer.

Application of nanotechnology-based contrast reagents for diagnosis and monitoring of the effects of drugs on an unprecedented short timescale is also attributive drive growth in the coming years. Additionally, demand for biodegradable implants with longer lifetimes that enable tissue restoration is anticipated to influence demand.

As per the WHO factsheet, cancer is found to be one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with approximately 14 million new cases in 2012 and 8.2 million cancer-related deaths. Thus, demand for nanomedicine in order to curb such high incidence rate is expected to boost market progress during the forecast period.

Solutions such as nanoformulations with triggered release for tailor-made pharmacokinetics, nanoparticles for local control of tumor in combination with radiotherapy, and functionalized nanoparticles for targeted in-vivo activation of stem cell production are anticipated to drive R&D, consequently resulting in revenue generation in the coming years.

Biopharmaceutical and medical devices companies are actively engaged in development of novel products as demonstrated by the increasingly growing partnerships between leading enterprises and nanomedicine startups. For instance, in November 2015, Ablynx and Novo Nordisk signed a global collaboration and a licensing agreement for development and discovery of innovative drugs with multi-specific nanobodies. This strategic partnership is anticipated to rise the net annual sales of the products uplifting the market growth.

However, in contrary with the applications of nanotechnology, the entire process of lab to market approval is a tedious and expensive one with stringent regulatory evaluation involved thereby leading investors to remain hesitant for investments.

Key Topics Covered:

1 Research Methodology

2 Executive Summary

3 Nanomedicine Market Variables, Trends & Scope

4 Nanomedicine Market: Product Estimates & Trend Analysis

5 Nanomedicine Market: Application Estimates & Trend Analysis

6 Nanomedicine Market: Nanomolecule Type Estimates & Trend Analysis

7 Nanomedicine Market: Regional Estimates & Trend Analysis, by Product, Application, & Nanomolecule Type

8 Competitive Landscape

For more information about this report visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/6fcvtv/nanomedicine

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Global $350.8 Billion Nanomedicine Market Analysis & Forecasts Report 2013-2025 - Research and Markets - Business Wire (press release)

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Nanomedicine Industry to 2023 : Market Capacity, Generation, Investment Trends, Regulations and Opportunities – MENAFN.COM

§ May 14th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanomedicine Industry to 2023 : Market Capacity, Generation, Investment Trends, Regulations and Opportunities – MENAFN.COM

(MENAFN Editorial) WiseGuyReports.Com Publish a New Market Research Report On - 'Nanomedicine Industry to 2023 : Market Capacity, Generation, Investment Trends, Regulations and Opportunities'.

Overview: Nanomedicine is an offshoot of nanotechnology, and refers to highly-specific medical intervention at the molecular scale for curing diseases or repairing damaged tissues. Nanomedicine uses nano-sized tools for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of disease, and to gain increased understanding of the complex underlying pathophysiology of the disease. It involves three nanotechnology areas of diagnosis, imaging agents, and drug delivery with nanoparticles in the 11,000 nm range, biochips, and polymer therapeutics.

The majority of nanomedicines used now allow oral drug delivery and its demand is increasing significantly. Although these nanovectors are designed to translocate across the gastrointestinal tract, lung, and bloodbrain barrier, the amount of drug transferred to the organ is lower than 1%; therefore improvements are challenging. Nanomedicines are designed to maximize the benefit/risk ratio, and their toxicity must be evaluated not only by sufficiently long term in vitro and in vivo studies, but also pass multiple clinical studies.

The major drivers of the nanomedicine market include its application in various therapeutic areas, increasing R & D studies about nanorobots in this segment, and significant investments in clinical trials by the government as well as private sector. The Oncology segment is the major therapeutic area for nanomedicine application, which comprised more than 35% of the total market share in 2016. A major focus in this segment is expected to drive the growth of the nanomedicine market in the future.

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Market Analysis: The 'Global Nanomedicine Market is estimated to witness a CAGR of 17.1% during the forecast period 20172023. The nanomedicine market is analyzed based on two segments therapeutic applications and regions.

Regional Analysis: The regions covered in the report are the Americas, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Rest of the World (ROW). The Americas is set to be the leading region for the nanomedicine market growth followed by Europe. The Asia Pacific and ROW are set to be the emerging regions. #Japan is set to be the most attractive destination and in Africa, the popularity and the usage of various nano-drugs are expected to increase in the coming years. The major countries covered in this report are the US, Germany, Japan, and Others.

Therapeutic Application Analysis: Nanomedicines are used as fluorescent markers for diagnostic and screening purposes. Moreover, nanomedicines are introducing new therapeutic opportunities for a large number of agents that cannot be used effectively as conventional oral formulations due to poor bioavailability. The therapeutic areas for nanomedicine application are Oncology, Cardiovascular, Neurology, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-infectives, and various other areas. Globally, the industry players are focusing significantly on R & D to gain approval for various clinical trials for future nano-drugs to be commercially available in the market. The FDA should be relatively prepared for some of the earliest and most basic applications of nanomedicine in areas such as gene therapy and tissue engineering. The more advanced applications of nanomedicine will pose unique challenges in terms of classification and maintenance of scientific expertise.

Key Players: Merck & Co. Inc., Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Gilead Sciences Inc., Novartis AG, Amgen Inc., Pfizer Inc., Eli Lilly and Company, Sanofi, Nanobiotix SA, UCB SA and other predominate & niche players.

Competitive Analysis: At present, the nanomedicine market is at a nascent stage but, a lot of new players are entering the market as it holds huge business opportunities. Especially, big players along with the collaboration with other SMBs for clinical trials of nanoparticles and compounds are coming with new commercial targeted drugs in the market and they are expecting a double-digit growth in the upcoming years. Significant investments in R & D in this market are expected to increase and collaborations, merger & acquisition activities are expected to continue.

Benefits: The report provides complete details about the usage and adoption rate of nanomedicines in various therapeutic verticals and regions. With that, key stakeholders can know about the major trends, drivers, investments, vertical player's initiatives, government initiatives towards the nanomedicine adoption in the upcoming years along with the details of commercial drugs available in the market. Moreover, the report provides details about the major challenges that are going to impact on the market growth. Additionally, the report gives the complete details about the key business opportunities to key stakeholders to expand their business and capture the revenue in the specific verticals to analyze before investing or expanding the business in this market.

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Table Of Contents Major Key Points

1 Industry Outlook 10 1.1 Industry Overview 10 1.2 Industry Trends 11 1.3 PEST Analysis 12

2 Report Outline 12 2.1 Report Scope 12 2.2 Report Summary 13 2.3 Research Methodology 14 2.4 Report Assumptions 14

3 Market Snapshot 16 3.1 Total Addressable Market (TAM) 16 3.2 Segmented Addressable Market (SAM) 16 3.3 Related Markets 17 3.3.1 mHealth Market 17 3.3.2 Healthcare Analytics Market 18

4 Market Outlook 18 4.1 Overview 18 4.2 Regulatory Bodies and Standards 19 4.3 Government Spending and Initiatives 19 4.4 Porter 5 (Five) Forces 21

5 Market Characteristics 22 5.1 Evolution 22 5.2 Ecosystem 25 5.2.1 Regulatory Process 25 5.2.2 Clinical Trials 25 5.2.3 Pricing and Reimbursement 26 5.3 Market Segmentation 28 5.4 Market Dynamics 28 5.4.1 Drivers 29 5.4.1.1 Emergence of nanorobotics 29 5.4.1.2 Applications and advantages of nanomedicine in various healthcare segments 29 5.4.1.3 Reasonable investments in R & D 30 5.4.1.4 Increased support from governments 30 5.4.2 Restraints 31 5.4.2.1 Long approval process and stringent regulations 31 5.4.2.2 Problems regarding nanoscale manufacturing 31 5.4.2.3 Risks related to nanomedicines 31 5.4.2.4 Undefined regulatory standards 31 5.4.3 Opportunities 32 5.4.3.1 Aging population with chronic care needs 32 5.4.3.2 Population and income growth in emerging countries 32 5.4.4 DRO Impact Analysis 33

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Global Nanomedical Devices Market Outlook by 2027 Market Productions, Statistics-Stryker Corporation, Medtronic … – Digital Journal

§ May 5th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Global Nanomedical Devices Market Outlook by 2027 Market Productions, Statistics-Stryker Corporation, Medtronic … – Digital Journal

Global Nanomedical devices Information, by types (Implantable Biosensors), by applications (Drug release regulation) by end users (Hospitals, Clinics) - Forecast to 2027

This press release was orginally distributed by SBWire

Pune, Maharashtra -- (SBWIRE) -- 05/04/2017 -- Market Segments:

Global nanomedical devices Market has been segmented

-On the basis of Types which comprises of Implantable Biosensors, Implantable cardioverter-Defibrillators (ICD), Implantable drug delivery system

-On the basis of Applications, the market is segmented into Disease indication, Drug release regulation, controlling fast or irregular heartbeat, consistent drug delivery

-On the basis of End Users, market is segmented into Hospitals, clinics, research institutes

Market Highlight:

Till now, around 250 nanomedicine products are being tested or used in humans. According to experts, the long-term impact of nanomedicinal products on human health and the environment is still not certain. During the last 10 years, there has been steep growth in development of devices that integrate nanomaterials or other nanotechnology. Enhancement of in vivo imaging and testing has been a highly popular area of research, followed by bone substitutes and coatings for implanted devices. The market for nanomedical devices is booming. The global market for nanomedical devices is expected to reach US$ by the end of the forecasted period and is expected to grow at a CAGR.

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Key Players for Nanomedical devices Market:

Some of the key players in this market are:

-Stryker Corporation (U.S.) -Medtronic (Ire) -3M Company (U.S.) -St. Jude Medical, Inc. (U.S.) -PerkinElmer, Inc. (U.S.) -Starkey Hearing Technologies (U.S.) -Smith & Nephew plc. (U.K.)

Browse Report Details @ https://www.marketresearchfuture.com/reports/nanomedical-devices-market

Study Objectives of Nanomedical devices Market:

-To provide detailed analysis of the market structure along with forecast for the next 10 years of the various segments and sub-segments of the nanomedical devices Market

-To provide insights about factors affecting the market growth

-To analyze the nanomedical devices Market based on various factors- price analysis, supply chain analysis, porters five force analysis etc.

-To provide historical and forecast revenue of the market segments and sub-segments with respect to four main geographies and their countries- Americas, Europe, Asia, and Rest of World.

-To provide country level analysis of the market with respect to the current market size and future prospective

-To provide country level analysis of the market for segments by types, by applications, by end users and sub-segments.

-To provide overview of key players and their strategic profiling in the market, comprehensively analyzing their core competencies, and drawing a competitive landscape for the market

Request Table of Contents for this Report @ https://www.marketresearchfuture.com/request-toc/1236

The reports also covers brief analysis of Geographical Region includes:

Americas -North America US Canada -Latin America Europe -Western Europe Germany France Italy Spain U.K Rest of Western Europe -Eastern Europe Asia Pacific -Asia China India Japan South Korea Rest of Asia -Pacific The Middle East& Africa

About Market Research Future At Market Research Future (MRFR), we enable our customers to unravel the complexity of various industries through our Cooked Research Report (CRR), Half-Cooked Research Reports (HCRR), Raw Research Reports (3R), Continuous-Feed Research (CFR), and Market Research & Consulting Services.

MRFR team have supreme objective to provide the optimum quality market research and intelligence services to our clients. Our market research studies by products, services, technologies, applications, end users, and market players for global, regional, and country level market segments, enable our clients to see more, know more, and do more, which help to answer all their most important questions.

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/global-nanomedical-devices-market-outlook-by-2027-market-productions-statistics-stryker-corporation-medtronic-3m-company-802469.htm

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Nanomedicine enables all-in-one cancer treatment – Medical Physics Web (subscription)

§ May 3rd, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanomedicine enables all-in-one cancer treatment – Medical Physics Web (subscription)

Cancer is a complex disease to treat, and yet the operating principle of many current treatments is to simply kill healthy cells a little slower than cancerous ones. In response, scientists at the University of Electronic Science and Technology of China have developed a sophisticated nanoparticle-based treatment. Their theranostic nanoparticles carry an anti-cancer drug cargo, and showcase multiple cutting-edge nanomedicine technologies to enhance the drug's efficacy, including selective drug delivery, photoactive agents, and even signal-jamming genetic material.

The researchers have designed each individual nanoparticle to be a toolbox for cancer therapy, able to passively and actively target tumours (Biomater. Sci. 5 1001). The nanoparticles can act as contrast agents for both magnetic resonance imaging and X-ray, they deliver a concentrated dose of anti-cancer drugs, and they also thwart the cancer's attempts at developing immunity to the drug. They even deliver a photosensitizer that can be used to specifically weaken cancerous tissue by photodynamic treatment.

Yiyao Liu and colleagues demonstrated the efficacy of their nanodevices in vitro and in vivo on a range of cell lines and on tumours in living mice. They found that their nanoparticle drug-delivery technique effectively stopped tumour growth, whereas tumours in mice treated with the drug alone grew at a rate half that of a control group that had not been treated.

The nanoparticles are complex, many layered spheres. Protected by a jacket of natural polymer is a nugget of silica, holey like a sponge and soaked in doxorubicin, a common anti-cancer drug, along with the photosensitizer. The polymer jacket is pH sensitive so that it falls off in the acidic microenvironment of the tumour, only then releasing the active cargo.

Doxorubicin has two flaws. Firstly, it works by slotting in-between DNA base pairs to stop the replication process needed for cells to divide. This kills cells that need to duplicate quickly, such as cancerous cells, but harms many healthy cell types too. Secondly, it triggers the body's natural defences, causing cells to over express p-glycoprotein, a microscale pump that removes toxic molecules like doxorubicin from cells, and making the drug less and less effective against cancer.

The scientists at The University of Electronic Science and Technology of China countered both of these flaws. Healthy cell exposure is reduced by the polymer jacket, which makes sure the drug is only released under the conditions expected in a tumour. The jacket itself is covered in signal-jamming RNA to inhibit the expression of the cellular pumps, keeping the doxorubicin trapped inside the cells to allow the drug to work for longer. This impressive display of multifunctional nanoparticle design and synthesis demonstrates the power of nanomedicine for producing synergistic effects, offering new solutions to previously unsurmountable problems.

Denser nanoparticles boost drug penetration Personalize nanoparticles to target tumours Inhaled nanoparticles target lung cancer Nanoneedles deliver therapeutics into cells

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Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market is Set to Garner … – MilTech

§ May 3rd, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market is Set to Garner … – MilTech

Nanotechnology is one of the most promising technologies in 21st century. Nanotechnology is a term used when technological developments occur at 0.1 to 100 nm scale. Nano medicine is a branch of nanotechnology which involves medicine development at molecular scale for diagnosis, prevention, treatment of diseases and even regeneration of tissues and organs. Thus it helps to preserve and improve human health. Nanomedicine offers an impressive solution for various life threatening diseases such as cancer, Parkinson, Alzheimer, diabetes, orthopedic problems, diseases related to blood, lungs, neurological, and cardiovascular system.

A sample of this report is available upon request @ http://www.persistencemarketresearch.com/samples/6370

Development of a new nenomedicine takes several years which are based on various technologies such as dendrimers, micelles, nanocrystals, fullerenes, virosome nanoparticles, nanopores, liposomes, nanorods, nanoemulsions, quantum dots, and nanorobots.

In the field of diagnosis, nanotechnology based methods are more precise, reliable and require minimum amount of biological sample which avoid considerable reduction in consumption of reagents and disposables. Apart from diagnosis, nanotechnology is more widely used in drug delivery purpose due to nanoscale particles with larger surface to volume ratio than micro and macro size particle responsible for higher drug loading. Nano size products allow to enter into body cavities for diagnosis or treatment with minimum invasiveness and increased bioavailability. This will not only improve the efficacy of treatment and diagnosis, but also reduces the side effects of drugs in case of targeted therapy.

Global nanomedicine market is majorly segmented on the basis of applications in medicines, targeted disease and geography. Applications segment includes drug delivery (carrier), drugs, biomaterials, active implant, in-vitro diagnostic, and in-vivo imaging. Global nanomedicine divided on the basis of targeted diseases or disorders in following segment: neurology, cardiovascular, oncology, anti-inflammatory, anti-infective and others. Geographically, nanomedicine market is classified into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and MEA. Considering nanomedicine market by application, drug delivery contribute higher followed by in-vitro diagnostics. Global nanomedicine market was dominated by oncology segment in 2012 due to ability of nanomedicine to cross body barriers and targeted to tumors specifically however cardiovascular nanomedicine market is fastest growing segment. Geographically, North America dominated the market in 2013 and is expected to maintain its position in the near future. Asia Pacific market is anticipated to grow at faster rate due to rapid increase in geriatric population and rising awareness regarding health care. Europe is expected to grow at faster rate than North America due to extensive product pipeline portfolio and constantly improving regulatory framework.

Major drivers for nanomedicine market include improved regulatory framework, increasing technological know-how and research funding, rising government support and continuous increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cancer, kidney disorder, and orthopedic diseases. Some other driving factors include rising number of geriatric population, awareness of nanomedicine application and presence of high unmet medical needs. Growing demand of nanomedicines from the end users is expected to drive the market in the forecast period. However, market entry of new companies is expected to bridge the gap between supply and demand of nanomedicines. Above mentioned drivers currently outweigh the risk associated with nanomedicines such as toxicity and high cost. At present, cancer is one of the major targeted areas in which nanomedicines have made contribution. Doxil, Depocyt, Abraxane, Oncospar, and Neulasta are some of the examples of pharmaceuticals formulated using nanotechnology.

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Key players in the global nanomedicine market include: Abbott Laboratories, CombiMatrix Corporation, GE Healthcare, Sigma-Tau Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Johnson & Johnson, Mallinckrodt plc, Merck & Company, Inc., Nanosphere, Inc., Pfizer, Inc., Celgene Corporation, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., and UCB (Union chimique belge) S.A.

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Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market is Set to Garner ... - MilTech

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Tumor-Shrinking Nanoparticle Prevents Cancer Recurrence – Controlled Environments Magazine

§ May 3rd, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Tumor-Shrinking Nanoparticle Prevents Cancer Recurrence – Controlled Environments Magazine

A Mayo Clinic research team has developed a new type of cancer-fighting nanoparticle aimed at shrinking breast cancer tumors, while also preventing recurrence of the disease. In the study, published in Nature Nanotechnology, mice that received an injection with the nanoparticle showed a 70 to 80 percent reduction in tumor size. Most significantly, mice treated with these nanoparticles showed resistance to future tumor recurrence, even when exposed to cancer cells a month later.

The results show that the newly designed nanoparticle produced potent anti-tumor immune responses to HER2-positive breast cancers. Breast cancers with higher levels of HER2 protein are known to grow aggressively and spread more quickly than those without the mutation.

In this proof-of-concept study, we were astounded to find that the animals treated with these nanoparticles showed a lasting anti-cancer effect, says Betty Y.S. Kim, M.D., Ph.D., principal investigator, and a neurosurgeon and neuroscientist who specializes in brain tumors at Mayo Clinics Florida campus. Unlike existing cancer immunotherapies that target only a portion of the immune system, our custom-designed nanomaterials actively engage the entire immune system to kill cancer cells, prompting the body to create its own memory system to minimize tumor recurrence. These nanomedicines can be expanded to target different types of cancer and other human diseases, including neurovascular and neurodegenerative disorders.

Kims team developed the nanoparticle, which she has named Multivalent Bi-specific Nano-Bioconjugate Engager, a patented technology with Mayo Clinic Ventures, a commercialization arm of Mayo Clinic. Its coated with antibodies that target the HER2 receptor, a common molecule found on 40 percent of breast cancers. Its also coated with molecules that engage two distinct facets of the bodys immune system. The nanoparticle hones in on the tumor by recognizing HER2 and then helps the immune cells identify the tumor cells to attack them.

The molecules attached to the nanoparticle rev up the bodys nonspecific, clean-up cells (known as macrophages and phagocytes) in the immune system that engulf and destroy any foreign material. The design of the nanoparticle prompts these cells to appear in abundance and clear up abnormal cancer cells. These clean-up cells then relay information about the cancer cells to highly specialized T-cells in the immune system that help eradicate remaining cancer cells, while maintaining a memory of these cells to prevent cancer recurrence. Its the establishment of disease-fighting memory in the cells that makes the nanoparticle similar to a cancer vaccine. Ultimately, the bodys own cells become capable of recognizing and destroying recurrent tumors.

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Researchers develop new tumor-shrinking nanoparticle to fight cancer, prevent recurrence – Phys.Org

§ May 1st, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Researchers develop new tumor-shrinking nanoparticle to fight cancer, prevent recurrence – Phys.Org

May 1, 2017 Credit: CC0 Public Domain

A Mayo Clinic research team has developed a new type of cancer-fighting nanoparticle aimed at shrinking breast cancer tumors, while also preventing recurrence of the disease. In the study, published today in Nature Nanotechnology, mice that received an injection with the nanoparticle showed a 70 to 80 percent reduction in tumor size. Most significantly, mice treated with these nanoparticles showed resistance to future tumor recurrence, even when exposed to cancer cells a month later.

The results show that the newly designed nanoparticle produced potent anti-tumor immune responses to HER2-positive breast cancers. Breast cancers with higher levels of HER2 protein are known to grow aggressively and spread more quickly than those without the mutation.

"In this proof-of-concept study, we were astounded to find that the animals treated with these nanoparticles showed a lasting anti-cancer effect," says Betty Y.S. Kim, M.D., Ph.D., principal investigator, and a neurosurgeon and neuroscientist who specializes in brain tumors at Mayo Clinic's Florida campus. "Unlike existing cancer immunotherapies that target only a portion of the immune system, our custom-designed nanomaterials actively engage the entire immune system to kill cancer cells, prompting the body to create its own memory system to minimize tumor recurrence. These nanomedicines can be expanded to target different types of cancer and other human diseases, including neurovascular and neurodegenerative disorders."

Dr. Kim's team developed the nanoparticle, which she has named "Multivalent Bi-specific Nano-Bioconjugate Engager," a patented technology with Mayo Clinic Ventures, a commercialization arm of Mayo Clinic. It's coated with antibodies that target the HER2 receptor, a common molecule found on 40 percent of breast cancers. It's also coated with molecules that engage two distinct facets of the body's immune system. The nanoparticle hones in on the tumor by recognizing HER2 and then helps the immune cells identify the tumor cells to attack them.

The molecules attached to the nanoparticle rev up the body's nonspecific, clean-up cells (known as macrophages and phagocytes) in the immune system that engulf and destroy any foreign material. The design of the nanoparticle prompts these cells to appear in abundance and clear up abnormal cancer cells. These clean-up cells then relay information about the cancer cells to highly specialized T-cells in the immune system that help eradicate remaining cancer cells, while maintaining a memory of these cells to prevent cancer recurrence. It's the establishment of disease-fighting memory in the cells that makes the nanoparticle similar to a cancer vaccine. Ultimately, the body's own cells become capable of recognizing and destroying recurrent tumors.

Since the late 1990s, the field of nanomedicine has focused on developing nanoparticles as simple drug delivery vehicles that can propel chemotherapy drugs to tumors. One pitfall is that the body tends to purge the particles before they reach their destination.

"Our study represents a novel concept of designing nanomedicine that can actively interact with the immune cells in our body and modulate their functions to treat human diseases," says Dr. Kim. "It builds on recent developments in cancer immunotherapy, which have been successful in treating some types of tumors; however, most immunotherapy developed so far does not harness the power of the entire immune system. We've developed a new platform that reaches tumor cells and also recruits abundant clean-up cells for a fully potent immune response."

Future studies in the lab will explore the ability of the nanoparticle to prevent long-term recurrence of tumors, including metastases at sites distant from the primary tumor. What's more, the nanoparticle is designed to be modular, meaning it can carry molecules to fight other types of disease. "This approach hopefully will open new doors in the design of new nanomedicine-based immunotherapies," she says.

Explore further: Nanoparticles target and kill cancer stem cells that drive tumor growth

More information: Multivalent Bi-Specific Nano-Bioconjugate Engager for Targeted Cancer Immunotherapy, Nature Nanotechnology (2017). nature.com/articles/doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.69

Journal reference: Nature Nanotechnology

Provided by: Mayo Clinic

Many cancer patients survive treatment only to have a recurrence within a few years. Recurrences and tumor spreading are likely due to cancer stem cells that can be tough to kill with conventional cancer drugs. But now researchers ...

For all the success of a new generation of immunotherapies for cancer, they often leave an entire branch of the immune system's disease-fighting forces untapped. Such therapies act on the adaptive immune system, the ranks ...

Researchers from Mayo Clinic have quantified the numbers of various types of immune cells associated with the risk of developing breast cancer. The findings are published in a study in Clinical Cancer Research.

In several types of cancer, elevated expression of the chemokine receptor CCR4 in tumors is associated with poor patient outcomes. Communication through CCR4 may be one mechanism that cancer cells use to create a pro-tumor ...

Researchers at the University of Michigan have had initial success in mice using nanodiscs to deliver a customized therapeutic vaccine for the treatment of colon and melanoma cancer tumors.

Researchers at the University of Cincinnati (UC) College of Medicine have been able to generate multifunctional RNA nanoparticles that could overcome treatment resistance in breast cancer, potentially making existing treatments ...

In the world of semiconductor physics, the goal is to devise more efficient and microscopic ways to control and keep track of 0 and 1, the binary codes that all information storage and logic functions in computers are based ...

The possibilities for the new field of two-dimensional, one-atomic-layer-thick materials, including but not limited to graphene, appear almost limitless. In new research, Penn State material scientists report two discoveries ...

A Mayo Clinic research team has developed a new type of cancer-fighting nanoparticle aimed at shrinking breast cancer tumors, while also preventing recurrence of the disease. In the study, published today in Nature Nanotechnology, ...

By now, it is well understood that thinning a material down to a single atom thickness can dramatically change that material's physical properties. Graphene, the best known 2-D material, has unparalleled strength and electrical ...

The ability to pattern materials at ever-smaller sizesusing electron-beam lithography (EBL), in which an electron-sensitive material is exposed to a focused beam of electrons, as a primary methodis driving advances ...

Some of the most promising and puzzling phenomena in physics play out on the nanoscale, where a billionth-of-a-meter shift can make or break perfect electrical conductivity.

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Parvus Therapeutics, Novartis Partner on Novel Diabetes Nanomedicine – Drug Discovery & Development

§ April 30th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Parvus Therapeutics, Novartis Partner on Novel Diabetes Nanomedicine – Drug Discovery & Development

Parvus Therapeutics, a biopharmaceutical company developing disease-modifying nanomedicines to halt or reverse autoimmune disease without causing general immune suppression, has entered into a license and collaboration agreement with Novartis for its lead Navacim for treating type 1 diabetes. Navacims constitute a novel pharmacological class of therapeutic comprised of nanoparticles (NPs) coated with disease-relevant peptide-major histocompatibility complexes (pMHCs) that alter the behavior of disease-causing T lymphocytes. Navacims are the first biopharmaceuticals to demonstrate in preclinical models the ability to restore immune tolerance in a disease-specific manner throughin vivoformation and expansion of regulatory T-cells (T-regs) without causing general immune suppression.

Under the terms of the agreement, Novartis receives exclusive, worldwide rights to use Parvus Navacim technology to develop and commercialize products for the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and will be responsible for clinical-stage development and commercialization activities. Parvus will be primarily responsible for conducting the ongoing preclinical work for the T1D program and filing the IND in collaboration with Novartis through a joint steering committee. Parvus has received an upfront payment and will receive research funding to support preclinical activities. In addition, Parvus is eligible to receive downstream development, regulatory, and sales milestone payments, as well as product royalties. Novartis has also made an equity investment in Parvus.

T1D Navacims are composed of an iron oxide nanoparticle conjugated with multiple copies of a peptide derived from a pancreatic autoantigen, presented in the context of an MHC molecule. Preclinical studies have shown that Navacims achieve their therapeutic effect by reprogramming cognate pathogenic T cells into tissue-specific beneficial T-regs and thereafter inducing their systemic expansion. The expanded T-regs target and suppress the autoimmune disease-causing immune cells, sparing other immune cells and restoring the immune system to the normal steady state. Navacims have the potential, therefore, to specifically treat the autoimmune disease without increasing the risk of infection.

This is a transformative collaboration for Parvus. We are excited by this strong endorsement of the science behind our Navacim platform, as well as the opportunity to collaborate closely with a globally recognized leader in the field of immunology and autoimmune disease, stated Janice M. LeCocq, CEO of Parvus. "This will augment our resources across the Navacim platform and accelerate the development of our T1D program. We are also pursuing the development of multiple Navacims that target autoimmune diseases where there is high unmet need for disease-modifying drugs without causing systemic immunosuppression.

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Iran to hold intl. nanotech. conf. in May – Mehr News Agency – English Version

§ April 30th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Iran to hold intl. nanotech. conf. in May – Mehr News Agency – English Version

The INN Secretariat, based in Iran, is offering a two-day conference and workshop onNanotechnology and Nanomedicine, known as NTNM2017,scheduled to be held fromMay 2 to 3, 2017at Materials Energy Research Center (MERC), Alborz.

This is a scientific congregation, which brings together researchers, scientists, key decision makers, and industry professionals on the common platform for a brief yet intense period of discussion, collaboration, and addressing nanomedicine-related subjects.

The conference/workshop will be held on the following themes: Surface Modification Strategies; Nanomedicine, Diagnosis, and Therapy; Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery Systems; Toxicology and Risk; Assessment of Nanomaterials; Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine; Nanotechnology and Environmental Health; and Nanobiodevices and Biosensors.

NTNM2017 aims at strengthening the relations and technological collaborations inter/intra Islamic member states and improving transfer of experience among the academic researchers. It also seeks to promote joint cooperation between scientific, research, and technology centers of OIC member states with research and technology centers outside the OIC member states.

Over 20 professors and prominent researchers from 57 Muslim and non-Muslim countries will take part in the conference.

MS/3964205

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Nanomedicine Market Size Worth $350.8 Billion By 2025 | CAGR: 11.2%: Grand View Research, Inc. – Press Release Rocket

§ April 29th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanomedicine Market Size Worth $350.8 Billion By 2025 | CAGR: 11.2%: Grand View Research, Inc. – Press Release Rocket

Grand View Research, Inc. Market Research And Consulting.

According to new report published by Grand View Research,The global nanomedicine market size was estimated at USD 138.8 billion in 2016.Demand for biodegradable implants with longer lifetimes that enable tissue restoration is anticipated to influence demand.

The global nanomedicine market is anticipated to reach USD 350.8 billion by 2025, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. Development of novel nanotechnology-based drugs and therapies is driven by the need to develop therapies that have fewer side effects and that are more cost-effective than traditional therapies, in particular for cancer.

Application of nanotechnology-based contrast reagents for diagnosis and monitoring of the effects of drugs on an unprecedented short timescale is also attributive drive growth in the coming years. Additionally, demand for biodegradable implants with longer lifetimes that enable tissue restoration is anticipated to influence demand.

As per the WHO factsheet, cancer is found to be one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with approximately 14 million new cases in 2012 and 8.2 million cancer-related deaths. Thus, demand for nanomedicine in order to curb such high incidence rate is expected to boost market progress during the forecast period.

Solutions such as nanoformulations with triggered release for tailor-made pharmacokinetics, nanoparticles for local control of tumor in combination with radiotherapy, and functionalized nanoparticles for targeted in-vivo activation of stem cell production are anticipated to drive R&D, consequently resulting in revenue generation in the coming years.

Biopharmaceutical and medical devices companies are actively engaged in development of novel products as demonstrated by the increasingly growing partnerships between leading enterprises and nanomedicine startups. For instance, in November 2015, Ablynx and Novo Nordisk signed a global collaboration and a licensing agreement for development and discovery of innovative drugs with multi-specific nanobodies. This strategic partnership is anticipated to rise the net annual sales of the products uplifting the market growth.

However, in contrary with the applications of nanotechnology, the entire process of lab to market approval is a tedious and expensive one with stringent regulatory evaluation involved thereby leading investors to remain hesitant for investments.

Full research report on nanomedicine market analysis:http://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/nanomedicine-market

U.S. nanomedicine market by products, 2013 2025 (USD Billion)

Further key findings from the report suggest:

Therapeutics accounted for the largest share of market revenue in 2016 owing to presence of nanoemulsions, nanoformulations, or nanodevices

These devices possess the ability to cross biological barriers. Moreover, presence of drugs such as Doxil, Abraxane, and Emend is attributive for higher revenue generation

Presence of substantial number of products manufactured through the use of microbial sources can be attributed for the largest share

In-vitrodiagnostics is expected to witness lucrative progress as a result of R&D carried out in this segment

Introduction of nano-enabled biomarkers, vectors and contrast agents with high-specificity and sensitivity are attributive for projected progress

Clinical cardiology is expected to witness the fastest growth through to 2025 owing to development in nano-functionalization and modification of surfaces for increased biocompatibility of implants in treatment of late thrombosis

Moreover, an abundance of research publications and patent filings from European region with a share of about 25% in nanomedicine-related publications is supportive for revenue generation from European economies

Asia Pacific is estimated to witness the fastest growth over the forecast period

Factors responsible include government and regulatory authorities that have implemented a framework to encourage R&D collaborations and framework extension.

Key players operating in this industry include Pfizer Inc., Ablynx NV, Nanotherapeutics Inc., Nanoviricides Inc., Abraxis Inc., Arrowhead Research Inc., Celgene Corporation, Bio-Gate AG, and Merck

Active expansion strategies are undertaken by a number of the major market entities in order to strengthen their position

North America dominated the industry in 2016, accounting for a 42% of total revenue

Presence of key participants operating in the region are involved in collaborative activities are attributive for the largest share of North America in sector revenue

View more reports of this category by Grand View Research at:http://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry/pharmaceuticals

Grand View Research has segmented the nanomedicine market on the basis of product, application, nanomolecule type, and region:

Nanomedicine Product Outlook (Revenue, USD Billion; 20132025)

Therapeutics

Regenerative medicine

In-vitro diagnostics

In-vivo diagnostics

Vaccines

Nanomedicine Application Outlook (Revenue, USD Billion; 2013 2025)

Clinical Oncology

Infectious diseases

Clinical Cardiology

Orthopedics

Others

Nanomedicine Nanomolecule Type Outlook (Revenue, USD Billion; 2013 2025)

Nanoparticles

Nanoshells

Nanotubes

Nanodevices

Nanomedicine Regional Outlook (Revenue, USD Billion; 2013 2025)

Read Our Blog:Nanomedicine: Nanoparticles-An innovative solution for targeted drug delivery

About Grand View Research

Grand View Research, Inc. is a U.S. based market research and consulting company, registered in the State of California and headquartered in San Francisco. The company provides syndicated research reports, customized research reports, and consulting services. To help clients make informed business decisions, we offer market intelligence studies ensuring relevant and fact-based research across a range of industries, from technology to chemicals, materials and healthcare.

For more information: http://www.grandviewresearch.com

Media Contact Company Name: Grand View Research, Inc. Contact Person: Sherry James, Corporate Sales Specialist U.S.A. Email: Send Email Phone: 1-415-349-0058, Toll Free: 1-888-202-9519 Address:28 2nd Street, Suite 3036 City: San Francisco State: California Country: United States Website: http://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/nanomedicine-market

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Nanomedicine | The Scientist Magazine

§ April 26th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanomedicine | The Scientist Magazine

From bioimaging to drug delivery and therapeutics, nanotechnology is poised to change the way doctors practice medicine.

By Weihong Tan,Lei Mei,Guizhi Zhu | August 1, 2014

LAGUNA DESIGN/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY/CORBIS

In a 1959 lecture at Caltech famously dubbed Theres Plenty of Room at the Bottom, American physicist and Nobel laureateto-be Richard Feynman discussed the idea of manipulating structures at the atomic level. Although the applications he discussed were theoretical at the time, his insights prophesied the discovery of many new properties at the nanometer scale that are not observed in materials at larger scales, paving the way for the ever-expanding field of nanomedicine. These days, the use of nanosize materials, comparable in dimension to some proteins, DNA, RNA, and oligosaccharides, is making waves in diverse biomedical fields, including biosensing, imaging, drug delivery, and even surgery.

Nanomaterials typically have high surface areato-volume ratios, generating a relatively large substrate for chemical attachment. Scientists have been able to create new surface characteristics for nanomaterials and have manipulated coating molecules to fine-tune the particles behaviors. Most nanomaterials can also penetrate living cells, providing the basis for nanocarrier delivery of biosensors or therapeutics. When systemically administered, nanomaterials are small enough that they dont clog blood vessels, but are larger than many small-molecule drugs, facilitating prolonged retention time in the circulatory system. With the ability to engineer synthetic DNA, scientists can now design and assemble nanostructures that take advantage of ?Watson-Crick base pairing to improve target detection and drug delivery.

Both the academic community and the pharmaceutical industry are making increasing investments of time and money in nanotherapeutics. Nearly 50 biomedical products incorporating nanoparticles are already on the market, and many more are moving through the pipeline, with dozens in Phase 2 or Phase 3 clinical trials. Drugmakers are well on their way to realizing the prediction of Christopher Guiffre, chief business officer at the Cambridge, Massachusettsbased nanotherapeutics company Cerulean Pharma, who last November forecast, Five years from now every pharma will have a nano program.

Technologies that enable improved cancer detection are constantly racing against the diseases they aim to diagnose, and when survival depends on early intervention, losing this race can be fatal. While detecting cancer biomarkers is the key to early diagnosis, the number of bona fide biomarkers that reliably reveal the presence of cancerous cells is low. To overcome this challenge, researchers are developing functional nanomaterials for more sensitive detection of intracellular metabolites, tumor cellmembrane proteins, and even cancer cells that are circulating in the bloodstream. (See Fighting Cancer with Nanomedicine, The Scientist, April 2014.)

The extreme brightness, excellent photostability, and ready modulation of silica nanoparticles, along with other advantages, make them particularly useful for molecular imaging and ultrasensitive detection.

Silica nanoparticles are one promising material for detecting specific molecular targets. Dye-doped silica nanoparticles contain a large quantity of dye molecules housed inside a silica matrix, giving an intense fluorescence signal that is up to 10,000 times greater than that of a single organic fluorophore. Taking advantage of Frster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET), in which a photon emitted by one fluorophore can excite another nearby fluorophore, researchers can synthesize fluorescent silica nanoparticles with emission wavelengths that span a wide spectrum by simply modulating the ratio of the different dyesthe donor chromophore and the acceptor chromophore. The extreme brightness, excellent photostability, and ready modulation of silica nanoparticles, along with other advantages, make them particularly useful for molecular imaging and ultrasensitive detection.

THE NANOMEDICINE CABINET: Scientists are engineering nanometer-size particles made of diverse materials to aid in patient care. The unique properties of these structures are making waves in biomedical analysis and targeted therapy. See full infographic: JPG | PDF TAMI TOLPAOther materials that are under investigation as nanodetectors include graphene oxide (GO), the monolayer of graphite oxide, which has unique electronic, thermal, and mechanical properties. Semiconductor-material quantum dots (QDs), now being developed by Shuming Nies group at Emory University, exhibit quantum mechanical properties when covalently coupled to biomolecules and could improve cancer imaging and molecular profiling.1 Spherical nucleic acids (SNAs), in which nucleic acids are oriented in a spherical geometry, scaffolded on a nanoparticle core (which may be retained or dissolved), are also gaining traction by the pioneering work of Chad Mirkins group at Northwestern University.2 (See illustration.)

Nanoparticles are also proving their worth as probes for various types of bioimaging, including fluorescence, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography (PET). For instance, Xiaoyuan Chen, now at the National Institutes of Healths National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, and Hongjie Dai of Stanford University have developed carbon nanotubes for performing PET scans in mice. When modified with the macromolecule polyethylene glycol to improve biocompatibility, the nanotubes were very stable and remained in circulation for days, far longer than the few hours typical of many molecular imaging agents.3 Further modification with a short-peptide targeting ligand called RGD caused the nanotubes to selectively accumulate in tumors that overexpressed integrin, the molecular target of RGD, enabling precise tumor imaging.

To further increase the specificity of nanodetectors, researchers can add recognition probes such as aptamersshort synthetic nucleic acid strands that bind target molecules. For example, we conjugated gold nanoparticles with aptamers that had been identified through iteratively screening DNA probes using living cancer cells.4 Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are shed into the bloodstream from primary tumors and provide a potential target for early cancer diagnosis. However, CTCs are rare, with blood concentrations of typically fewer than 10 cells per milliliter of blood. Collaborating with physicians to profile samples from leukemia patients, we demonstrated that aptamers are capable of differentiating among different subtypes of leukemia, as well as among patient samples before and after chemotherapy (unpublished data). In addition to leukemia, we have selected aptamers specific to cancers of the lung, liver, ovaries, colon, brain, breast, and pancreas, as well as to bacterial cells. Other researchers have developed nanoparticles with numerous and diverse surface aptamers, enabling them to bind their targets more efficiently and securely.

NANOCAPSULES: A false-color transmission electron micrograph of liposomes, spherical particles composed of a lipid bilayer around a central cavity that can be engineered to deliver both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs to specific cells in the body DAVID MCCARTHY/SCIENCE SOURCEThe prototype of targeted drug delivery can be traced back to the concept of a magic bullet, proposed by chemotherapy pioneer and 1908 Nobel laureate Paul Ehrlich. Ehrlich envisioned a drug that could selectively target a disease-causing organism or diseased cells, leaving healthy tissue unharmed. A century later, researchers are developing many types of nanoscale magic bullets that can specifically deliver drugs into target cells or tissues.

Doxil, the first nanotherapeutic approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, is a liposome (~100 nm in diameter) containing the widely used anticancer drug doxorubicin. The therapy takes advantage of the leaky blood vasculature and poor lymphatic drainage in tumor tissues that allow the nanoparticles to squeeze from blood vessels into a tumor and stay there for hours or days. Scientists have also been developing nanotherapeutics capable of targeting specific cell types by binding to surface biomarkers on diseased cells. Targeting ligands range from macromolecules, such as antibodies and aptamers, to small molecules, such as folate, that bind to receptors overexpressed in many types of cancers.

Aptamers in particular are a popular tool for targeting specific cells. Aptamer development is efficient and cost-effective, as automated nucleic acid synthesis allows easy, affordable chemical synthesis and modification of functional moieties. Other advantages include high stability and long shelf life, rapid tissue penetration based on the relatively small molecular weights, low immunogenicity, and ease of antidote development in the case of an adverse reaction to therapy by simply administering an aptamers complementary DNA. We have demonstrated the principle of modifying aptamers on the surfaces of doxorubicin-containing liposomes, which then selectively delivered the drug to cultured cancer cells.5

Recent advances in predicting the secondary structures of a DNA fragment or interactions between multiple DNA strands, as well as in technologies to automatically synthesize predesigned DNA sequences, has opened the door to more advanced applications of aptamers and other DNA structures in nanomedicine. For instance, we have developed aptamer-tethered DNA nanotrains, assembled from multiple copies of short DNA building blocks. On one end, an aptamer moiety allows specific target cell recognition during drug delivery, and a long double-stranded DNA section on the other end forms the boxcars for drug loading. The nanotrains, which can hold a high drug payload and specifically deliver anticancer drugs into target cancer cells in culture and animal models,6 could reduce drug side effects while inhibiting tumor growth. Alternatively, Daniel Anderson of MIT engineered a tetrahedral cage of DNA, often called DNA origami, for folate-mediated targeted delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to silence some tumor genes.7 And Mirkins SNAs can similarly transport siRNAs as guided missiles to knock out overexpressed genes in cancer cells. Mirkins group also recently demonstrated that the SNAs were able to penetrate the blood-brain barrier and specifically target genes in the brains of glioblastoma animal models.2 Peng Yin of Harvard Medical School and the Wyss Institute and others are now building even more complex DNA nanostructures with refined functions, such as smart biomedical analysis.8

Conventional assembly of such DNA nanostructures exploits the hybridization of a DNA strand to part of its complementary strand. In addition, we have discovered that DNA nanostructures called nanoflowers because they resemble a ring of nanosize petals, can be self-assembled through liquid crystallization of DNA, which typically occurs at high concentrations of the nucleic acid.9 Importantly, these DNA nanostructures can be readily incorporated with components possessing multiple functionalities, such as aptamers for specific recognition, fluorophores for molecular imaging, and DNA therapeutics for disease therapy.

Another example of novel nanoparticles is DNA micelles, three-dimensional nanostructures that can be readily modified to include aptamers for specific cell-type recognition, or DNA antisense for gene silencing. The lipid core and sphere of projecting nucleic acids can enter cells without any transfection agents and have high resistance to nuclease digestion, making them ideal candidates for drug delivery and cancer therapy.

Researchers are developing many types of nanoscale magic bullets that can specifically deliver drugs into target cells or tissues.

Such advances in targeting are now making it possible to deliver combinations of drugs and ensure that they reach target cells simultaneously. Paula Hammond and Michael Yaffe of MIT recently reported a liposome-based combination chemotherapy delivery system that can simultaneously deliver two synergistic chemotherapeutic drugs, erlotinib and doxorubicin, for enhanced tumor killing.10 Erlotinib, an inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), promotes the dynamic rewiring of apoptotic pathways, which then sensitizes cancer cells to subsequent exposure to the DNA-damaging agent doxorubicin. By incorporating erlotinib, a hydrophobic molecule, into the lipid bilayer shell while packaging the hydrophilic doxorubicin inside of the liposomes, the researchers achieved the desired time sequence of drug releasefirst erlotinib, then doxorubicinin a one-two punch against the cancer. They also demonstrated that the efficiency of drug delivery to cancer cells was enhanced by coating the liposomes with folate.

Scientists are also engineering smart nanoparticles, which activate only in the disease microenvironment. For example, George Church of Harvard Medical School and the Wyss Institute and colleagues invented a logic-gated DNA nanocapsule that they programmed to deliver drugs inside cells only when a specific panel of disease biomarkers is overexpressed on the cell surface.11 And Donald Ingbers group, also at Harvard Medical School and the Wyss Institute, developed microscale aggregates of thrombolytic-drug-coated nanoparticles that break apart under the abnormally high fluid shear stress of narrowed blood vessels and then bind and dissolve the problematic clot.12

With these and other nanoplatforms for targeted drug delivery being tested in animal models, medicine is now approaching the prototypic magic bullet, sparing healthy tissue while exterminating disease.

In addition to serving as mere drug carriers that deliver the toxic payload to target cells, nanomaterials can themselves function as therapeutics. For example, thermal energy is emerging as an important means of therapy, and many gold nanomaterials can convert photons into thermal energy for targeted photothermal therapy. Taking advantage of these properties, we conjugated aptamers onto the surfaces of gold-silver nanorods, which efficiently absorb near-infrared light and convert energy from photons to heat. These aptamer-conjugated nanorods were capable of selectively binding to target cells in culture and inducing dramatic cytotoxicity by converting laser light to heat.13

Magnetic nanoparticles are also attractive for their ability to mediate heat induction. Jinwoo Cheon of Yonsei University in Korea developed coreshell magnetic nanoparticles, which efficiently generated thermal energy by a magnetization-reversal process as these nanoparticles returned to their relaxed states under an external, alternating-current magnetic field.14 Using this technology, Cheon and his colleagues saw dramatic tumor regression in a mouse model. A third type of nanosize therapeutic involves cytotoxic polymers. For example, we synthesized a nucleotide-like molecule called an acrydite with an attached DNA aptamer that specifically binds to and enters target cancer cells.15 The acrydite molecules in the resultant acrydite-aptamer conjugates polymerized with each other to form an aptamer-decorated molecular string that led to cytotoxicity in target cancer cells, including those exhibiting multidrug resistance, a common challenge in cancer chemotherapy.

Many other subfields have been advanced by recent developments in nanomedicine, including tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, medical devices, and vaccines. We must proceed with caution until these different technologies prove safe in patients, but nanomedicine is now poised to make a tremendous impact on health care and the practice of clinical medicine.

Guizhi Zhu is a postdoctoral associate in the Department of Chemistry and at the Health Cancer Center of the University of Florida. Weihong Tan is a professor and associate director of the Center for Research at the Bio/Nano Interface at the University of Florida. He also serves as the director of the Molecular Science and Biomedicine Laboratory at Hunan University in China, where Lei Mei is a graduate student.

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Novartis signs collaboration deal with Parvus for diabetes nanomedicine – Pharmaceutical Business Review

§ April 21st, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Novartis signs collaboration deal with Parvus for diabetes nanomedicine – Pharmaceutical Business Review

PBR Staff Writer Published 20 April 2017

Pharma giant Novartis has acquired the exclusive, worldwide rights for Parvus Therapeutics Navacim technology for type 1 diabetes (T1D) treatment.

Novartishas also made an undisclosed equity investment inCanada-based Parvus.

Under the terms, Novartis will develop and market products made from the Navacim technology besides taking responsibility of its clinical-stage development and commercialization efforts.

Parvus CEO Janice M LeCocq said: This is a transformative collaboration for Parvus. We are excited by this strong endorsement of the science behind our Navacim platform, as well as the opportunity to collaborate closely with a globally recognized leader in the field of immunology and autoimmune disease.

"This will augment our resources across the Navacim platform and accelerate the development of our T1D program.

We are also pursuing the development of multiple Navacims that target autoimmune diseases where there is high unmet need for disease-modifying drugs without causing systemic immunosuppression.

Parvus, which has secured an upfront payment for the rights, will handle the existing preclinical activities for the T1D program. It will file the Investigational New Drug (IND) jointly with Novartis through a jointly formed steering committee.

The Canadian pharma will also get funding for its research that will back the preclinical activities of Navacim.

Further, it will be entitled to receivedevelopment, regulatory and sales milestone payments. Along with them, it will get product royalties from the Swiss pharma giant, Novartis.

According to Parvus, Navacims comprise nanoparticles (NPs) coated with disease-relevant peptide-major histocompatibility complexes (pMHCs) that modify the behavior of T lymphocytes which are known to cause the disease.

They are claimed by Parvus to have the ability to specifically treat the autoimmune disease without increasing the risk of infection.

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Novartis signs collaboration deal with tiny Parvus for diabetes … – FierceBiotech

§ April 19th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Novartis signs collaboration deal with tiny Parvus for diabetes … – FierceBiotech

Novartis, which has had a busy week for its CAR-T and NASH programs, today moved onto diabetes after penning a new pact with virtual Canadian biotech Parvus Therapeutics to use its leading tech.

Exact monetary terms werent given in the release, but Novartis gets exclusive, worldwide rights to use Parvus Navacims nanomedicine tech, specifically for diabetes patients with Type 1 (T1D), and will take on the clinical and sales work for this program.

On its side, privately owned Parvus will be primarily in charge of the ongoing preclinical work for the T1D program and filing an IND with Novartis.

Parvus has received an undisclosed upfront payment and will also gain a research funding boost to help out with its preclinical work. Biobucks have also been lined up, with Novartis in addition taking an equity investment in the biotech.

Navacims are made up of nanoparticles coated with disease-relevant peptide-major histocompatibility complexes. They are designed to change the behavior of disease-causing T lymphocytes.

Parvus says Navacims "are the first biopharmaceuticals to demonstrate in preclinical models the ability to restore immune tolerance in a disease-specific manner through in vivo formation and expansion of regulatory T-cells without causing general immune suppression, although they will need to go through many more years of clinical trials to assess efficacy and safety in humans.

But for Parvus, this is a major deal at an early stage from one of the biggest biomedical companies in the world, confirming its previously stated desire to team up with a Big Pharma.

This is a transformative collaboration for Parvus, said Janice LeCocq, CEO of Parvus. We are excited by this strong endorsement of the science behind our Navacim platform, as well as the opportunity to collaborate closely with a globally recognized leader in the field of immunology and autoimmune disease.

This will augment our resources across the Navacim platform and accelerate the development of our T1D program."

The company will also continue work on using Navacims against autoimmune diseases, notably where there is high unmet need for disease-modifying drugs that do not cause systemic immunosuppression.

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Nanomedicine: A Vast Horizon on a Molecular Landscape – Part IX, Organs-on-a-chip II – Lexology (registration)

§ April 19th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanomedicine: A Vast Horizon on a Molecular Landscape – Part IX, Organs-on-a-chip II – Lexology (registration)

This is the ninth article in a review series on Nanomedicine. We reviewed the major research and entrepreneurial development of nanomedicine and the relevant patent landscape (Part I and Part II). The first topic we discussed was Organs-on-a-chip (Part III). Here, we continue our discussion in this field with focus on entrepreneurial developments. We also have other reviews about nanoparticles for drug delivery (Part IV), cancer therapeutics (Part V), and bio-imaging (Part VI). We also included a discussion about functional nanoparticles: quantum dots (Part VII) and magnetic nanoparticles (Part VIII). As in the past, those patent documents cited in the article are summarized in a table at the end.

Recently, Draper announced a three-year agreement with Pfizer. This collaboration focuses on developing effective disease models for testing potential drug candidates based on microphysiological systems, also known as organs-on-a-chip.

The organs-on-a-chip technology is a three-dimensional microfluidic based multi-cell co-culture system that models the physiological, mechanical, and molecular environment of the human body and mimics the physiological functions of human organs. This technology offers unique in vitro disease models for new drug screening and toxicology testing. This technology has attracted attentions not only from academic institutes but also from the pharmaceutical industry. One of the main reasons for this interest is the potential cost and time savings for drug research and the development process. As required by the FDA drug approval process, new drug chemical entities are tested in animals before going into human Phase I testing for the drug approval process. The preclinical animal testing process is tedious and extremely expensive. Additionally, animal models are not always predictive for characterizing drug safety in humans. About 40% of drug compounds fail in Phase I clinical trials (Clinical Development Success Rates 2006-2015, BIO Industry Analysis, June 2016). To address these challenges, organs-on-a-chip has been proposed as a novel method to develop human disease models and replace preclinical animal testing.

We have briefly reviewed the research development and IP landscape in organs-on-a-chip. Here we would like to focus on the entrepreneurial developments in this field. As in the past, those patent documents cited in the article are summarized in the table at the end.

AxoSim Technologies

AxoSim is a New Orleans based startup launched in 2014. Its main pipeline is a Nerve-On-A-Chip, which is a 3D cell-based model mimicking living nerve tissue. It aims at preclinical prediction of neurological safety and efficacy in the early stages of drug development. This technology was developed from Dr. Michael J. Moores group at Tulane University (US 20150112244).

Draper

The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory is an American not-for-profit research and development organization, having a long history from 1932. In 2009, Draper initiated a new area of medical systems. Draper closely collaborated with scientists at MIT to develop microphysiological systems to emulate human organs and create disease models. At the end of 2016, Draper announced a 3-year agreement with Pfizer, using the organs-on-a-chip technology to facilitate pre-clinical drug development with a focus on personalized medicine. Currently Draper has built three microphysiological systems for modeling liver, vasculature and gastrointestinal organs (US 7,670,797, US 8,951,302, US 9,067,179, US 9,528,082).

Emulate Bio

Emulate Bio is a Wyss Institute spin-off company launched in 2014. It focuses on developing multiple organ-on-a-chip systems to model human physiological systems. The technology is based on discoveries in Dr. Donald Ingbers lab, using models of the lung, liver, intestine, skin and brain (US 8,647,861). This lab is also interested in other organ systems such as the kidney and heart. In 2015, Emulate collaborated with Johnson & Johnson and Merck using organs-on-a-chip for drug discovery and development processes. In 2016, Emulate announced a collaboration with Seres Therapeutics to investigate Novel Microbiome Therapeutics for inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Hepregen

Hepregen is a MIT spin-off company founded in 2007, based on a technique developed in Dr. Sangeeta Bhatias lab (US 6,133,030). Its main product, HepetoPac Assay, utilizes a micropatterned hepatocyte co-culture system to model the metabolic activities of a liver system and was released in 2013. Their other pipeline product is HepetoMune, targeting an inflamed human liver model.

HREL

HREL is a Merck supported company, which was incubated in New Jersey from 2007-2011. Its technology originated from Dr. Michael Shulers group at Cornell University (US 7,288,405 and US 8,748,180). In 2013, HREL launched three liver-on-a-chip products for human, rat and dog. HREL has also established a collaboration with Sanofi for pre-clinic drug development.

InSphero

InSphero is a Swiss company founded in 2009. They use a scaffold-free 3D cell culture technique to generate self-assembled microtissues, emulating human organ systems (US 9,267,103 and WO/2017/001680). Their current pipelines include liver, pancreas, tumor, and skin microtissue systems and in vitro toxicology and drug discovery services.

Nortis

Nortis is a Seattle based company, spun out of the University of Washington in 2012. Nortis developed a microfluidic kidney-on-a-chip for drug testing and launched its commercial product on 2015 (US 7,622,298 and US 20150240194A1).

Tara Biosystems

Tara Biosystems is a New York-based Columbia University spin out company founded in 2014. Their focus is on developing a heart-on-a-chip system. The technology is based on research from Dr. Gordana Vunjak-Novakovics group at Columbia University and Dr. Milica Radisics group at Toronto University (US 20170002330A1 and US 20160282338). Tara Biosystems uses a Biowire platform, to introduce electrical stimulation on a microchip to stimulate stem cells to mature into heart tissue. This microtissue mimics adult heart muscles, offering a platform for drug discovery, cardiac toxicology, and personalized cardiology.

TissUse

TissUse is a Berlin, Germany-based company developing a Multi-Organ-Chip platform based on technology discovered in Dr. Roland Lausters lab at Technische Universitat Berlin (US 20130295598). This company uses a multi-organ-chip as a platform to emulate human metabolic activities and accelerate the development of pharmaceutical, chemical, cosmetic, and personalized medical products. Currently, TissUse has announced their 2-Organ-Chip and 4-Organ-Chip products, involving simultaneously culturing from 2 to 4 different organ equivalents on a single chip connected to each other by perfusion channels or vasculature. Their next goal is to develop a human-on-a-chip system, with a larger number of organs cocultured on a single chip.

The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory

The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Wolfgang MORITZ;

Jens KELM

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Nanomedicine: A Vast Horizon on a Molecular Landscape - Part IX, Organs-on-a-chip II - Lexology (registration)

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Nanomedicine Awards 2017: applications are now open! – Cordis News

§ April 18th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanomedicine Awards 2017: applications are now open! – Cordis News

The European Technology Platform for Nanomedicine (ETPN) and the EU-funded project ENATRANS, announce the launching of the 3rd edition of the Nanomedicine Awards, which aim to promote and reward two excellent innovative nanomedicine-based solutions that could bring significant benefits to patients, answering thereby unmet medical needs. The winners in both categories will be announced and rewarded during the BIO-Europe conference in Berlin in November 2017. Apply Now!

Open to companies as well as to academic and private researchers across the globe, candidates should: - present totally new approaches based on Nanomedicine for the diagnosis and/or therapy of human diseases - describe explicit and defined potential market.

Applications will be assessed by a panel of highly-qualified nanomedicine, pharma, medtech and investment specialists.

The Awards ceremony will take place during BIO-Europe 2017 in Berlin (Germany), on 7 November 2017.

Both winners will benefit from a full registration to BIO-Europe 2017 including the participation in the partnering event and a public presentation of the awarded projects. In addition, they will be granted an individual session with the experts of the Translation Advisory Board (TAB, http://www.nanomedtab.eu), a presentation slot during the ETPN Annual Event 2017 in Malaga as well as a 1-year free membership to the ETPN (www.etpnanomedicine.eu).

The Award is supported by the EBD Group, the leading partnering firm for the global life science industry, and Nanobiotix, a late clinical-stage nanomedicine company pioneering novel approaches for the treatment of cancer.

THE DEADLINE TO SUBMIT CANDIDATURES IS 15 AUGUST 2017. APPLY ONLINE AT http://nanomedicine-award.com/apply-now/

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Nanomedicine enables all-in-one cancer treatment – nanotechweb.org

§ April 18th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanomedicine enables all-in-one cancer treatment – nanotechweb.org

Cancer is a complex disease to treat, and yet the operating principle of many current treatments is to simply kill healthy cells a little slower than cancerous ones. In response, scientists at The University of Electronic Science and Technology of China have developed a sophisticated nanoparticle-based treatment. Their theranostic nanoparticles carry an anti-cancer drug cargo, and showcase multiple cutting-edge nanomedicine technologies to enhance the drug's efficacy, including selective drug delivery, photoactive agents, and even signal-jamming genetic material.

The researchers have designed each individual nanoparticle to be a toolbox for cancer therapy, able to passively and actively target tumours (Biomater. Sci. 2017 Advance Article). The nanoparticles can act as contrast agents for both magnetic resonance imaging and X-ray, they deliver a concentrated dose of anti-cancer drugs, and they also thwart the cancer's attempts at developing immunity to the drug. They even deliver a photosensitizer that can be used to specifically weaken cancerous tissue by photodynamic treatment.

Yiyao Liu and colleagues demonstrated the efficacy of their nanodevices in vitro and in vivo on a range of cell lines and on tumours in living mice. They found that their nanoparticle drug-delivery technique effectively stopped tumour growth, whereas tumours in mice treated with the drug alone grew at a rate half that of a control group that had not been treated.

The nanoparticles are complex, many layered spheres. Protected by a jacket of natural polymer is a nugget of silica, holey like a sponge and soaked in doxorubicin, a common anti-cancer drug, along with the photosensitizer. The polymer jacket is pH sensitive so that it falls off in the acidic microenvironment of the tumour, only then releasing the active cargo.

Doxorubicin has two flaws. Firstly, it works by slotting in-between DNA base pairs to stop the replication process needed for cells to divide. This kills cells that need to duplicate quickly, such as cancerous cells, but harms many healthy cell types too. Secondly, it triggers the body's natural defences, causing cells to over express p-glycoprotein, a microscale pump that removes toxic molecules like doxorubicin from cells, and making the drug less and less effective against cancer.

The scientists at The University of Electronic Science and Technology of China countered both of these flaws. Healthy cell exposure is reduced by the polymer jacket, which makes sure the drug is only released under the conditions expected in a tumour. The jacket itself is covered in signal-jamming RNA to inhibit the expression of the cellular pumps, keeping the doxorubicin trapped inside the cells to allow the drug to work for longer. This impressive display of multifunctional nanoparticle design and synthesis demonstrates the power of nanomedicine for producing synergistic effects, offering new solutions to previously unsurmountable problems.

Personalizing nanoparticles to better target tumours Optimising the killing of tumor cells by targeted CNTs Silica nanoparticles suppress tumour growth

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Nanomedicine enables all-in-one cancer treatment - nanotechweb.org

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Department of Nanomedicine | Houston Methodist

§ April 16th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Department of Nanomedicine | Houston Methodist

The Department of Nanomedicine focuses on interdisciplinary research by combining nanoengineering, mathematical modeling and biomedical sciences to develop nanotechnology-enabled therapeutic and diagnostic platforms for combating diseases including cancer, cardiovascular diseases and infectious diseases. Our research spans a wide range of areas including personalized nanochannel drug delivery systems, injectable nanovectors that achieve desired therapeutic concentrations in target tissue, discovery of new protein biomarkers through proteomics, developing biodegradable synthetic polymers with the biological functions of natural biomaterial scaffolds, and microfluidics for disease diagnostics.

Mauro Ferrari, PhD, president and CEO of the Houston Methodist Research Institute, and his team have developed the first drug delivery system to successfully eliminate lung metastases in mice models withtriple negativebreast cancer.Learn more.

Alessandro Grattoni, PhD Assistant Professor of Nanomedicine, Institute for Academic Medicine Chair, Department of Nanomedicine Houston Methodist

Houston Methodist received about $1.25 million from the Center for the Advancement of Science in Space (CASIS) to develop an implantable device that delivers therapeutic drugs at a rate guided by remote control.Learn more.

Department of Nanomedicine Houston Methodist Research Institute 6670 Bertner Ave. Houston, TX 77030 713.441.1261

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The Nanomedicine Market to Grow at a CAGR of 17.1% During the Forecast Period 2017-2023 to Aggregate $392.80 … – Digital Journal

§ April 10th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on The Nanomedicine Market to Grow at a CAGR of 17.1% During the Forecast Period 2017-2023 to Aggregate $392.80 … – Digital Journal

Nanomedicine has the potential to be the future in biotherapeutics replacing the older versions of drug delivery.

Bangalore, India - April 10, 2017 - (Newswire.com)

Infoholic Research LLP, a global market research and consulting organization, has published a study titled Global Nanomedicine Market Drivers, Opportunities, Trends, and Forecasts: 20172023.

According to Infoholic Research, nanomedicine is the future with new revenue stream in the healthcare industry. Nanomedicine could provide cost-effective novel therapies and diagnostics using the empowering capacity of nanotechnology applied in the healthcare industry. Nanomedicine could increase the efficiency and diminish the side effects unlike the other tender therapies for any particular condition. The elementary principles of this technique are based on the targeted drug delivery using nanoparticles (such as nanorobots), proper analysis using sensors and micro electro mechanical system (MEMS), and to diagnose in vivo biochemical activities. The result is an increasingly better understanding of the molecular biology of diseases leading to new targets for more specific and earlier diagnostic and therapeutic treatments. These new options will cause profound changes in future healthcare systems by enabling more personalized, regenerative, and remote medicinal activities. According to Infoholic Research, the Global Nanomedicine market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 17.1% during the forecast period 20172023 to touch an aggregate of $392.80 billion by 2023.

Receive a sample of the report

@https://www.infoholicresearch.com/request-a-sample-report/?repid=4654

The Global Nanomedicine market is analyzed based on two segments application areas and regions. The regions covered in the report are the Americas, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Rest of the World (ROW). In the Americas region, the US and Canada are set to be the leading countries. The Europe is set to be the second leading region and holds more than 23% of the market share in 2016. Germany is one of the leading countries in Europe in terms of revenue. In Asia Pacific, Japan is the most attractive country for the players and holds huge business opportunities. The ROW is set to be an emerging market in the next 56 years.

The application areas covered in the report are Oncology, Cardiovascular, Neurology, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-infective, and other therapeutics. The Cardiovascular, Anti-inflammatory, and Neurology application segments are expected to gain more market share by 2023. The market is expected to be on a positive year on year growth rate, as the Cardiovascular and the Neurology segments have just started to see wide-scale adoption in the field of nanomedicine. The Oncology segment is expected to generate revenue of $144.00 billion by 2023.

Although, the market is experiencing a lack of well-defined FDA directives, which can restore standardization in the field of nanomedicines and related subjects, nanotechnology funding is expected to increase significantly during the forecast period with the increasing investments from government and private sectors. Victor Mukherjee, Assistant Manager (Research Healthcare) at Infoholic Research

Buy complete report onGlobal Nanomedicine market Drivers, Opportunities, Trends, & Forecasts 2017 2023

@https://www.infoholicresearch.com/report/global-nanomedicine-market-trends-2017-2023/

Further, the report also aims to cover the below points:

Provides an in-depth analysis of the key business opportunities in countries and verticals

Provides the complete details about the various types of nanomedicine drugs overview

Provides the complete details about the analysis of top 16 players

Provides industry outlook including current and future market trends, drivers, restraints and emerging technologies

Market is analyzed by countries the US, Germany, Japan, and Others

Press Release Service by Newswire.com

Original Source: The Nanomedicine Market to Grow at a CAGR of 17.1% During the Forecast Period 2017-2023 to Aggregate $392.80 Billion by 2023

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Researchers develop a lab-scale prototype for the treatment of skin … – Phys.Org

§ April 8th, 2017 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Researchers develop a lab-scale prototype for the treatment of skin … – Phys.Org

April 7, 2017 Frontal and lateral views of the developed system. Credit: Universidad Politcnica de Madrid

Researchers from Universidad Politcnica de Madrid, in collaboration with Universitat Politcnica de Valencia and CIBER's Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), have designed a laser device specifically designed for optical hyperthermia applications.

A joint research project of Universidad Politcnica de Madrid (UPM), Universitat Politcnica de Valencia (UPV) and CIBER's Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN) has developed a low-cost, lab-scale device for treatments based on optical hyperthermia applications via laser. This technique is used in therapies against skin cancer, and it kills the tumor cells by overheating them. This research has been published in Sensors and Actuators A Physical.

According to the researchers, overheating is achieved by irradiating synthesized metallic nanoparticles. "When receiving radiation, the particles heat the tumor tissue, reaching a temperature between 42 C and 48 C, causing hypoxia that leads to cellular death," explains Roberto Montes, a researcher from UPV.

The prototype developed by both UPM and UPV researchers consists of an infrared laser with a power up to 500mW able to provide a power density up to 4W/cm2, a sensor that records the temperature in real time during the irradiation, and a laser power regulator, among other components.

However, if the laser is focused on tissues impregnated with gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs), it causes local overheating. This presents a great advantage compared to other techniques that cannot distinguish between healthy tissues and damaged tissues," says Roberto Montes.

According to the researchers, there are diverse laser applicators on the market used in dermatology and even surgery. At certain power and wavelengths, the laser energy is converted into heat and produces ablation (burning). The new system does not aim to "burn" the cells with the adjacent inflammation that this causes, but to introduce nanoheaters into such cells, which, when excited by the laser, increase in temperature between 42 C and 48 C, resulting in hypoxia and the cells' "natural" death.

This equipment is already being successfully used in vitro cellular crops and in therapies that combine hyperthermia with the controlled release of drugs. "Although the equipment has been designed to exclusively work in a lab environment, once the technique is refined, it could be easily applied to a hospital environment with small changes. Of course, we are in an initial phase, and there is much to do toward clinical usage: animal tissue testing, later testing on living animals, and finally to verify its application in patients", add Javier Ibez.

Explore further: Magnetic hyperthermia, an auxiliary tool in cancer treatments

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Cancer treatments based on laser irridation of tiny nanoparticles that are injected directly into the cancer tumor are working and can destroy the cancer from within. Researchers from the Niels Bohr Institute and the Faculty ...

Precise targeting biological molecules, such as cancer cells, for treatment is a challenge, due to their sheer size. Now ,Taiwanese scientists have proposed an advanced solution, based on a novel combination of previously ...

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When the molecules that carry the genetic code in our cells are exposed to harm, they have defenses against potential breakage and mutations.

The ephemeral electron movements in a transient state of a reaction important in biochemical and optoelectronic processes have been captured and, for the first time, directly characterized using ultrafast X-ray spectroscopy ...

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Research led by a Stanford scientist promises to increase the performance of high-power electrical storage devices, such as car batteries.

Everyone knows that the game of billiards involves balls careening off the sides of a pool tablebut few people may know that the same principle applies to fusion reactions. How charged particles like electrons and atomic ...

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