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Nanomedicine Market 2020 Expected to Reach at Highest Revenue, Prosperous Growth, Recent Trends and Demand by Top Key Vendors like GE Healthcare,…

§ May 2nd, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanomedicine Market 2020 Expected to Reach at Highest Revenue, Prosperous Growth, Recent Trends and Demand by Top Key Vendors like GE Healthcare,…

Nanomedicine MarketReport offers detailed insight, industry knowledge, market forecasts, and analytics. This market research studies aim to predict market size and future growth potential across sectors such as suppliers, industries and regions. This research report also combines industry-wide statistically relevant quantitative data and relevant and insightful qualitative analysis. Report also analyzes noteworthy trends, emerging value of CAGR and present as well as future development.

The report focuses on market contributions and provides a brief introduction, a business overview, revenue distribution, and product doses. This research report comprises exclusive and important factors that could have a noteworthy impact on the development of the global market during the forecast period of 2020-2027.

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Regional Analysis:

As the demand for new innovative solutions increases and more startups arise in the space which leads to growth and excessive demand for the Nanomedicine Market in 2020 to 2027.This research report consists of the worlds crucial region market share, size (volume), trends including the product profit, price, Value, production, capacity, capability utilization, supply, and demand and industry growth rate.

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Theglobal Nanomedicine Market Reportanalyzes opportunities in the stakeholder market by identifying the high-growth sectors of the market. Identify key customers in the marketplace and comprehensively analyze key competencies such as new product launches. Partnerships, agreements and cooperation.

Major Points Covered in Table of Contents:

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SNBNCBS develops nanomedicine to alter oxidative stress in body – Devdiscourse

§ May 2nd, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on SNBNCBS develops nanomedicine to alter oxidative stress in body – Devdiscourse

Scientists at S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Kolkata (SNBNCBS) have developed a safe and cost-effective nanomedicine that promises treatment of a number of diseases by altering oxidative stress in the body. The research may provide a ray of hope in India's fight against COVID-19, as the nanomedicine can decrease or increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) in our body, depending on the situation and cure the disease.

The ability of this research for controlled enhancement of ROS in mammals raises hopes of a new potential for the application of nanomedicine in controlling virus infections, including COVID-19. Animal trial for the Reduction & Oxidation processes (Redox) healing of several diseases is completed, and now the institute is looking for sponsors to start clinical trials on humans.

The medicine combines nanoparticles extracted from manganese salt with citrus extracts, like from lemon. A crucial combination of manganese and citrate employing tricks of nanotechnology produces the nanomedicine. The artificially made nanomedicine was found to be important to maintain a balance of reduction and oxidation processes (Redox) in our body's tissues. Redox reactions in cells add or remove oxygen, and are essential for many processes such as generating energy in cells. The redox reactions can also create products harmful to cells called reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can instantly oxidize lipids (fat), proteins, and nucleic acids, accelerating the ageing process. However, it has to be noted that our immune cells naturally produce ROS or generate oxidative stress to kill viruses or bacteria and infected cells in our body. Thus, controlled-increase of ROS or oxidative stress aids our immune cells to perform their natural functions more efficiently.

Enhancement of oxidative stress by nanomedicine in animal tissue is also commendable and finds application in curing diseases, including neonatal jaundice. Recently the institute has shown that the added oxidative stress upon administration of the nanomedicine can break down bilirubin (the toxic molecule causing jaundice), providing a cure for hyperbilirubinemia (jaundice). In a trial on mice, the nanomedicine was found safe and swift, precisely bringing down bilirubin levels within two and a half hours. This ability of controlled enhancement of oxidative stress (ROS) in mammals paves new potential for the application of nanomedicine in controlling virus infection, including COVID-19. Recently, local administration of hydrogen peroxide, which is in a class of ROS, is recommended to be a way of surviving COVID-19. The excess ROS was achieved by applying the hydrogen peroxide chemical in respiratory track through a nebulizer is advised in order to inactivate COVID-19 by breaking down the viral structure. As a direct application of hydrogen peroxide creates several complications, including direct oxidation of normal body cells, replacement of the chemical by the nanomedicine would be beneficial.

These findings have been published in international journals. In October last year, a comprehensive review entitled "Role of Nanomedicine in Redox Mediated Healing at Molecular Level" of all the development has been published in the journal Bimolecular concepts. The concept got the immediate attention of international experts in the field and referred as "a new front in redox medicine, the emerging field of ROS-based nanomedicine, involving nanomaterials with ROS-regulating properties, holds promise for optimized therapeutic efficacies" in a recent Nature journal in March in this year. The efficacy of the developed nanomedicine in balancing oxidative stress (ROS) in mice was tested recently by injecting Lead (Pb) ions to create higher oxidative stress (ROS) and liver damage. It was found that the nanomedicine reduces the oxidative stress of the mammal due to lead-exposure and also helps to remove the toxic ions from the liver (popularly known as chelation therapy in medicine) reversing the damage of the organ. Recently, ChemMedChem has highlighted this work on the front cover.

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Global Drug Discovery Informatics Industry – Yahoo Finance UK

§ May 2nd, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Global Drug Discovery Informatics Industry – Yahoo Finance UK

Drug Discovery Informatics market worldwide is projected to grow by US$1. 9 Billion, driven by a compounded growth of 10. 9%. Sequencing & Target Data Analysis, one of the segments analyzed and sized in this study, displays the potential to grow at over 12.

New York, April 30, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Reportlinker.com announces the release of the report "Global Drug Discovery Informatics Industry" - https://www.reportlinker.com/p05798423/?utm_source=GNW 5%. The shifting dynamics supporting this growth makes it critical for businesses in this space to keep abreast of the changing pulse of the market. Poised to reach over US$1.2 Billion by the year 2025, Sequencing & Target Data Analysis will bring in healthy gains adding significant momentum to global growth.

- Representing the developed world, the United States will maintain a 12.4% growth momentum. Within Europe, which continues to remain an important element in the world economy, Germany will add over US$83.3 Million to the regions size and clout in the next 5 to 6 years. Over US$88.9 Million worth of projected demand in the region will come from Rest of Europe markets. In Japan, Sequencing & Target Data Analysis will reach a market size of US$82.1 Million by the close of the analysis period. As the worlds second largest economy and the new game changer in global markets, China exhibits the potential to grow at 10.3% over the next couple of years and add approximately US$317.1 Million in terms of addressable opportunity for the picking by aspiring businesses and their astute leaders. Presented in visually rich graphics are these and many more need-to-know quantitative data important in ensuring quality of strategy decisions, be it entry into new markets or allocation of resources within a portfolio. Several macroeconomic factors and internal market forces will shape growth and development of demand patterns in emerging countries in Asia-Pacific. All research viewpoints presented are based on validated engagements from influencers in the market, whose opinions supersede all other research methodologies.

- Competitors identified in this market include, among others,

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I. INTRODUCTION, METHODOLOGY & REPORT SCOPE

II. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1. MARKET OVERVIEW

Drug Discovery Informatics: A PreludeGlobal Competitor Market SharesDrug Discovery Informatics Competitor Market Share ScenarioWorldwide (in %): 2019 & 2025

2. FOCUS ON SELECT PLAYERS

3. MARKET TRENDS & DRIVERS

Robust Drug Discovery Investments in Response to Growing GlobalDisease Burden Provides the Foundation for Growth in theMarketGrowing Global Disease Burden Intensifies the R&D Urgency forNew & Potent Drugs: Global Disease Burden (In Million DALYs(Disability-Adjusted Life Years)) for the Years 2015, 2017 &2019Rising Drug Development Spending Acts as the Chief Catalyst forthe Adoption of Drug Discovery Informatics: GlobalPharmaceutical R&D Spending (In US$ Billion) for the Years2017, 2019, 2022 and 2024Migration to Data Driven Drug Development Provides theCornerstone for Growth in the MarketGrowing Focus on Optimizing Hit to Lead (H2L) Processes inEarly Stage Drug Discovery to Benefit Growth of Drug DiscoveryInformatics/ChemoinformaticsGrowing Use of In-Silico Methods in Drug Development Bodes Wellfor the Use of InformaticsThe Rise of Nanoinformatics as the New Era of Research inNanomedicine Marks the Beginning of Use of Informatics inNanomedicineExploding Commercial Opportunity for Nanomedicine Bodes Wellfor the Growth of Nanoinformatics: Global Nanomedicine Market(In US$ Billion) for the Years 2017, 2019, 2022 and 2024Cloud Computing Emerges to Play a Key Role in BioinformaticsCost Benefits Over In-House Informatics Helps Expand theCommercial Visibility of Outsourced InformaticsContinuously Evolving CRO Industry Highlights the GrowingImportance & Value of Pharma R&D Outsourcing: Global ContractResearch Organization (CRO) Market (In US$ Billion) for theYears 2017, 2019, 2022 and 2024Robust Adoption of Bioinformatics Services Highlights theGrowing Dominance of Informatics Outsourcing Over TraditionalIn-House Informatics: Global Bioinformatics Services Market(In US$ Billion) by Service Type for the Years 2017, 2019,2022 and 2024Competitive Challenges Faced by the Pharma Industry & theEnsuing Need for Decision Support Tools & CollaborativeDiscovery Opens the Flood Gates of Opportunity for DrugDiscovery InformaticsRising Global Healthcare Spending Spurs Government Focus OnCost Containment Driving Pharma Companies to Cut Drug Pricesby Reducing Research Costs: Global Healthcare Spending(In US$ Trillion) by Government, Private & Consumer Out-of-Pocket for the Years 2017, 2019, 2022 and 2025Productivity Gains, Acceleration of Speed & Success of DrugDiscovery Research Drive Adoption of Drug DiscoveryInformaticsMove Towards Value-Based Care & the Resulting Emergence of theEra of Precision Medicine Catalyzes the Commercial Value ofDrug Discovery InformaticsRobust Outlook for Precision Medicine Strengthens the BusinessCase for Drug Discovery Informatics: Global Market forPrecision Medicine (In US$ Billion) for the Years 2017, 2019,2022 and 2024

4. GLOBAL MARKET PERSPECTIVE

Table 1: Drug Discovery Informatics Global Market Estimates andForecasts in US$ Thousand by Region/Country: 2018-2025Table 2: Drug Discovery Informatics Market Share Shift acrossKey Geographies Worldwide: 2019 VS 2025Table 3: Sequencing & Target Data Analysis (Function) WorldMarket by Region/Country in US$ Thousand: 2018 to 2025Table 4: Sequencing & Target Data Analysis (Function) MarketShare Breakdown of Worldwide Sales by Region/Country: 2019 VS2025Table 5: Docking (Function) Potential Growth Markets Worldwidein US$ Thousand: 2018 to 2025Table 6: Docking (Function) Market Sales Breakdown byRegion/Country in Percentage: 2019 VS 2025Table 7: Molecular Modelling (Function) Geographic MarketSpread Worldwide in US$ Thousand: 2018 to 2025Table 8: Molecular Modelling (Function) Market ShareDistribution in Percentage by Region/Country: 2019 VS 2025Table 9: Library Preparation (Function) World Market Estimatesand Forecasts by Region/Country in US$ Thousand: 2018 to 2025Table 10: Library Preparation (Function) Market Share Breakdownby Region/Country: 2019 VS 2025Table 11: Other Functions (Function) World Market byRegion/Country in US$ Thousand: 2018 to 2025Table 12: Other Functions (Function) Market Share Distributionin Percentage by Region/Country: 2019 VS 2025Table 13: Software (Solution) World Market Estimates andForecasts in US$ Thousand by Region/Country: 2018 to 2025Table 14: Software (Solution) Market Percentage ShareDistribution by Region/Country: 2019 VS 2025Table 15: Services (Solution) Market Opportunity AnalysisWorldwide in US$ Thousand by Region/Country: 2018 to 2025Table 16: Services (Solution) Market Share Distribution inPercentage by Region/Country: 2019 VS 2025Table 17: Pharmaceutical & Biotechnology Companies (End-Use)Worldwide Sales in US$ Thousand by Region/Country: 2018-2025Table 18: Pharmaceutical & Biotechnology Companies (End-Use)Market Share Shift across Key Geographies: 2019 VS 2025Table 19: Contract Research Organizations (CROS) (End-Use)Global Market Estimates & Forecasts in US$ Thousand byRegion/Country: 2018-2025Table 20: Contract Research Organizations (CROS) (End-Use)Market Share Breakdown by Region/Country: 2019 VS 2025Table 21: Other End-Uses (End-Use) Demand Potential Worldwidein US$ Thousand by Region/Country: 2018-2025Table 22: Other End-Uses (End-Use) Share Breakdown Review byRegion/Country: 2019 VS 2025

III. MARKET ANALYSIS

GEOGRAPHIC MARKET ANALYSISUNITED STATESMarket Facts & FiguresUS Drug Discovery Informatics Market Share (in %) by Company:2019 & 2025Dwindling Government Funding Support for Healthcare R&D,A Major Challenge for Growth in the CountryMarket AnalyticsTable 23: United States Drug Discovery Informatics MarketEstimates and Projections in US$ Thousand by Function: 2018 to2025Table 24: United States Drug Discovery Informatics Market ShareBreakdown by Function: 2019 VS 2025Table 25: United States Drug Discovery Informatics MarketEstimates and Projections in US$ Thousand by Solution: 2018 to2025Table 26: United States Drug Discovery Informatics Market ShareBreakdown by Solution: 2019 VS 2025Table 27: United States Drug Discovery Informatics LatentDemand Forecasts in US$ Thousand by End-Use: 2018 to 2025Table 28: Drug Discovery Informatics Market Share Breakdown inthe United States by End-Use: 2019 VS 2025CANADATable 29: Canadian Drug Discovery Informatics Market Estimatesand Forecasts in US$ Thousand by Function: 2018 to 2025Table 30: Drug Discovery Informatics Market in Canada:Percentage Share Breakdown of Sales by Function for 2019 and2025Table 31: Canadian Drug Discovery Informatics Market Estimatesand Forecasts in US$ Thousand by Solution: 2018 to 2025Table 32: Drug Discovery Informatics Market in Canada:Percentage Share Breakdown of Sales by Solution for 2019 and2025Table 33: Canadian Drug Discovery Informatics MarketQuantitative Demand Analysis in US$ Thousand by End-Use: 2018to 2025Table 34: Canadian Drug Discovery Informatics Market ShareAnalysis by End-Use: 2019 VS 2025JAPANTable 35: Japanese Market for Drug Discovery Informatics:Annual Sales Estimates and Projections in US$ Thousand byFunction for the Period 2018-2025Table 36: Japanese Drug Discovery Informatics Market ShareAnalysis by Function: 2019 VS 2025Table 37: Japanese Market for Drug Discovery Informatics:Annual Sales Estimates and Projections in US$ Thousand bySolution for the Period 2018-2025Table 38: Japanese Drug Discovery Informatics Market ShareAnalysis by Solution: 2019 VS 2025Table 39: Japanese Demand Estimates and Forecasts for DrugDiscovery Informatics in US$ Thousand by End-Use: 2018 to 2025Table 40: Drug Discovery Informatics Market Share Shift inJapan by End-Use: 2019 VS 2025CHINATable 41: Chinese Drug Discovery Informatics Market GrowthProspects in US$ Thousand by Function for the Period 2018-2025Table 42: Chinese Drug Discovery Informatics Market byFunction: Percentage Breakdown of Sales for 2019 and 2025Table 43: Chinese Drug Discovery Informatics Market GrowthProspects in US$ Thousand by Solution for the Period 2018-2025Table 44: Chinese Drug Discovery Informatics Market bySolution: Percentage Breakdown of Sales for 2019 and 2025Table 45: Chinese Demand for Drug Discovery Informatics in US$Thousand by End-Use: 2018 to 2025Table 46: Chinese Drug Discovery Informatics Market ShareBreakdown by End-Use: 2019 VS 2025EUROPEMarket Facts & FiguresEuropean Drug Discovery Informatics Market: Competitor MarketShare Scenario (in %) for 2019 & 2025Market AnalyticsTable 47: European Drug Discovery Informatics Market DemandScenario in US$ Thousand by Region/Country: 2018-2025Table 48: European Drug Discovery Informatics Market ShareShift by Region/Country: 2019 VS 2025Table 49: European Drug Discovery Informatics Market Estimatesand Forecasts in US$ Thousand by Function: 2018-2025Table 50: European Drug Discovery Informatics Market ShareBreakdown by Function: 2019 VS 2025Table 51: European Drug Discovery Informatics Market Estimatesand Forecasts in US$ Thousand by Solution: 2018-2025Table 52: European Drug Discovery Informatics Market ShareBreakdown by Solution: 2019 VS 2025Table 53: European Drug Discovery Informatics AddressableMarket Opportunity in US$ Thousand by End-Use: 2018-2025Table 54: European Drug Discovery Informatics Market ShareAnalysis by End-Use: 2019 VS 2025FRANCETable 55: Drug Discovery Informatics Market in France byFunction: Estimates and Projections in US$ Thousand for thePeriod 2018-2025Table 56: French Drug Discovery Informatics Market ShareAnalysis by Function: 2019 VS 2025Table 57: Drug Discovery Informatics Market in France bySolution: Estimates and Projections in US$ Thousand for thePeriod 2018-2025Table 58: French Drug Discovery Informatics Market ShareAnalysis by Solution: 2019 VS 2025Table 59: Drug Discovery Informatics Quantitative DemandAnalysis in France in US$ Thousand by End-Use: 2018-2025Table 60: French Drug Discovery Informatics Market ShareAnalysis: A 7-Year Perspective by End-Use for 2019 and 2025GERMANYTable 61: Drug Discovery Informatics Market in Germany: RecentPast, Current and Future Analysis in US$ Thousand by Functionfor the Period 2018-2025Table 62: German Drug Discovery Informatics Market ShareBreakdown by Function: 2019 VS 2025Table 63: Drug Discovery Informatics Market in Germany: RecentPast, Current and Future Analysis in US$ Thousand by Solutionfor the Period 2018-2025Table 64: German Drug Discovery Informatics Market ShareBreakdown by Solution: 2019 VS 2025Table 65: Drug Discovery Informatics Market in Germany: AnnualSales Estimates and Forecasts in US$ Thousand by End-Use forthe Period 2018-2025Table 66: Drug Discovery Informatics Market Share Distributionin Germany by End-Use: 2019 VS 2025ITALYTable 67: Italian Drug Discovery Informatics Market GrowthProspects in US$ Thousand by Function for the Period 2018-2025Table 68: Italian Drug Discovery Informatics Market byFunction: Percentage Breakdown of Sales for 2019 and 2025Table 69: Italian Drug Discovery Informatics Market GrowthProspects in US$ Thousand by Solution for the Period 2018-2025Table 70: Italian Drug Discovery Informatics Market bySolution: Percentage Breakdown of Sales for 2019 and 2025Table 71: Italian Demand for Drug Discovery Informatics in US$Thousand by End-Use: 2018 to 2025Table 72: Italian Drug Discovery Informatics Market ShareBreakdown by End-Use: 2019 VS 2025UNITED KINGDOMTable 73: United Kingdom Market for Drug Discovery Informatics:Annual Sales Estimates and Projections in US$ Thousand byFunction for the Period 2018-2025Table 74: United Kingdom Drug Discovery Informatics MarketShare Analysis by Function: 2019 VS 2025Table 75: United Kingdom Market for Drug Discovery Informatics:Annual Sales Estimates and Projections in US$ Thousand bySolution for the Period 2018-2025Table 76: United Kingdom Drug Discovery Informatics MarketShare Analysis by Solution: 2019 VS 2025Table 77: United Kingdom Demand Estimates and Forecasts forDrug Discovery Informatics in US$ Thousand by End-Use: 2018 to2025Table 78: Drug Discovery Informatics Market Share Shift in theUnited Kingdom by End-Use: 2019 VS 2025REST OF EUROPETable 79: Rest of Europe Drug Discovery Informatics MarketEstimates and Forecasts in US$ Thousand by Function: 2018-2025Table 80: Rest of Europe Drug Discovery Informatics MarketShare Breakdown by Function: 2019 VS 2025Table 81: Rest of Europe Drug Discovery Informatics MarketEstimates and Forecasts in US$ Thousand by Solution: 2018-2025Table 82: Rest of Europe Drug Discovery Informatics MarketShare Breakdown by Solution: 2019 VS 2025Table 83: Rest of Europe Drug Discovery Informatics AddressableMarket Opportunity in US$ Thousand by End-Use: 2018-2025Table 84: Rest of Europe Drug Discovery Informatics MarketShare Analysis by End-Use: 2019 VS 2025ASIA-PACIFICTable 85: Drug Discovery Informatics Market in Asia-Pacific byFunction: Estimates and Projections in US$ Thousand for thePeriod 2018-2025Table 86: Asia-Pacific Drug Discovery Informatics Market ShareAnalysis by Function: 2019 VS 2025Table 87: Drug Discovery Informatics Market in Asia-Pacific bySolution: Estimates and Projections in US$ Thousand for thePeriod 2018-2025Table 88: Asia-Pacific Drug Discovery Informatics Market ShareAnalysis by Solution: 2019 VS 2025Table 89: Drug Discovery Informatics Quantitative DemandAnalysis in Asia-Pacific in US$ Thousand by End-Use: 2018-2025Table 90: Asia-Pacific Drug Discovery Informatics Market ShareAnalysis: A 7-Year Perspective by End-Use for 2019 and 2025REST OF WORLDTable 91: Rest of World Drug Discovery Informatics MarketEstimates and Forecasts in US$ Thousand by Function: 2018 to2025Table 92: Drug Discovery Informatics Market in Rest of World:Percentage Share Breakdown of Sales by Function for 2019 and2025Table 93: Rest of World Drug Discovery Informatics MarketEstimates and Forecasts in US$ Thousand by Solution: 2018 to2025Table 94: Drug Discovery Informatics Market in Rest of World:Percentage Share Breakdown of Sales by Solution for 2019 and2025Table 95: Rest of World Drug Discovery Informatics MarketQuantitative Demand Analysis in US$ Thousand by End-Use: 2018to 2025Table 96: Rest of World Drug Discovery Informatics Market ShareAnalysis by End-Use: 2019 VS 2025

IV. COMPETITION

CERTARA USACHARLES RIVER LABORATORIES INTERNATIONALCOLLABORATIVE DRUG DISCOVERY, INC.DASSAULT SYSTMESGVK BIOSCIENCES PVT.IBM CORPORATIONINFOSYSJUBILANT LIFE SCIENCESNOVO INFORMATICS PVT.OPENEYE SCIENTIFIC SOFTWAREPERKINELMERSCHRODINGER LLCSELVITA SATHERMO FISHER SCIENTIFICV. CURATED RESEARCHRead the full report: https://www.reportlinker.com/p05798423/?utm_source=GNW

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SNBNCBS develops nanomedicine to alter oxidative stress; may help in fight against COVID-19 – All India Radio

§ May 1st, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on SNBNCBS develops nanomedicine to alter oxidative stress; may help in fight against COVID-19 – All India Radio

Scientists at SN Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Kolkata (SNBNCBS) have developed a safe and cost-effective nanomedicine that promises treatment of a number of diseases by altering oxidative stress in the body. The research may provide a ray of hope in Indias fight against COVID-19, as the nanomedicine can decrease or increase reactive oxygen species in the body, depending on the situation and cure the disease.

The research on nanomedicines may be effective against viral infection. Recently, the institute has shown that the added oxidative stress upon administration of the nanomedicine can break down bilirubin that causes jaundice, providing a cure for this serious ailment.

In a trial on mice, the nanomedicine was found safe and swift, precisely bringing down bilirubin levels within two and a half hours. This ability of controlled enhancement of oxidative stress in mammals paves new potential for the application of nanomedicine in controlling virus infection, including COVID-19.

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SNBNCBS develops nanomedicine to alter oxidative stress; may help in fight against COVID-19 - All India Radio

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Nanomedicine Market : Industry Analysis and forecast 2026 – MR Invasion

§ May 1st, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanomedicine Market : Industry Analysis and forecast 2026 – MR Invasion

Nanomedicine Marketwas valued US$ XX Bn in 2018 and is expected to reach US$ XX Bn by 2026, at CAGR of XX% during forecast period of 2019 to 2026.

The report study has analyzed revenue impact of covid-19 pandemic on the sales revenue of market leaders, market followers and disrupters in the report and same is reflected in our analysis.

Nanomedicine Market Drivers and Restrains:Nanomedicine is an application of nanotechnology, which are used in diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, and control of biological systems. Nanomedicine usages nanoscale manipulation of materials to improve medicine delivery. Therefore, nanomedicine has facilitated the treatment against various diseases. The nanomedicine market includes products that are nanoformulations of the existing drugs and new drugs or are nanobiomaterials. The research and development of new devices as well as the diagnostics will become, more effective, enabling faster response and the ability to treat new diseases are likely to boost the market growth.

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The nanomedicine markets are driven by factors such as developing new technologies for drug delivery, increase acceptance of nanomedicine across varied applications, rise in government support and funding, the growing need for therapies that have fewer side effects and cost-effective. However, long approval process and risks associated with nanomedicine (environmental impacts) are hampering the market growth at the global level. An increase in the out-licensing of nanodrugs and growth of healthcare facilities in emerging economies are likely to create lucrative opportunities in the nanomedicine market.

Nanomedicine Market Segmentation Analysis:Based on the application, the nanomedicine market has been segmented into cardiovascular, neurology, anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, and oncology. The oncology segment held the dominant market share in 2018 and is projected to maintain its leading position throughout the forecast period owing to the rising availability of patient information and technological advancements. However, the cardiovascular and neurology segment is projected to grow at the highest CAGR of XX% during the forecast period due to presence of opportunities such as demand for specific therapeutic nanovectors, nanostructured stents, and implants for tissue regeneration.

Nanomedicine Market Regional Analysis:Geographically, the Nanomedicine market has been segmented into North America, the Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. North America held the largest share of the Nanomedicine market in 2018 due to the rising presence of patented nanomedicine products, the availability of advanced healthcare infrastructure and the rapid acceptance of nanomedicine. The market in Asia Pacific is expected to expand at a high CAGR of XX% during the forecast period thanks to rise in number of research grants and increase in demand for prophylaxis of life-threatening diseases. Moreover, the rising investments in research and development activities for the introduction of advanced therapies and drugs are predicted to accelerate the growth of this region in the near future.

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Nanomedicine Market Competitive landscapeMajor Key players operating in this market are Abbott Laboratories, CombiMatrix Corporation, General Electric Company, Sigma-Tau Pharmaceuticals, Inc, and Johnson & Johnson. Manufacturers in the nanomedicine are focusing on competitive pricing as the strategy to capture significant market share. Moreover, strategic mergers and acquisitions and technological innovations are also the key focus areas of the manufacturers.

The objective of the report is to present a comprehensive analysis of Nanomedicine Market including all the stakeholders of the industry. The past and current status of the industry with forecasted market size and trends are presented in the report with the analysis of complicated data in simple language. The report covers all aspects of the industry with a dedicated study of key players that includes market leaders, followers and new entrants by region. PORTER, SVOR, PESTEL analysis with the potential impact of micro-economic factors by region on the market are presented in the report. External as well as internal factors that are supposed to affect the business positively or negatively have been analyzed, which will give a clear futuristic view of the industry to the decision-makers. The report also helps in understanding Nanomedicine Market dynamics, structure by analyzing the market segments and project the Nanomedicine Market size. Clear representation of competitive analysis of key players By Type, Price, Financial position, Product portfolio, Growth strategies, and regional presence in the Nanomedicine Market make the report investors guide.Scope of the Nanomedicine Market:

Nanomedicine Market by Modality:

Diagnostics TreatmentsNanomedicine Market by Diseases:

Oncological Diseases Infectious Diseases Cardiovascular Diseases Orthopedic Disorders Neurological Diseases Urological Diseases Ophthalmological Diseases Immunological DiseasesNanomedicine Market by Application:

Neurology Cardiovascular Anti-Inflammatory Anti-Infectives OncologyNanomedicine Market by Region:

Asia Pacific North America Europe Latin America Middle East AfricaNanomedicine Market Major Players:

Abbott Laboratories CombiMatrix Corporation General Electric Company Sigma-Tau Pharmaceuticals, Inc Johnson & Johnson Mallinckrodt plc. Merck & Company, Inc. Nanosphere, Inc. Pfizer, Inc. Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. Celgene Corporation UCB (Union Chimique Belge) S.A. AMAG Pharmaceuticals Nanospectra Biosciences, Inc. Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Leadiant Biosciences, Inc. Epeius Biotechnologies Corporation Cytimmune Sciences, Inc.

MAJOR TOC OF THE REPORT

Chapter One: Nanomedicine Market Overview

Chapter Two: Manufacturers Profiles

Chapter Three: Global Nanomedicine Market Competition, by Players

Chapter Four: Global Nanomedicine Market Size by Regions

Chapter Five: North America Nanomedicine Revenue by Countries

Chapter Six: Europe Nanomedicine Revenue by Countries

Chapter Seven: Asia-Pacific Nanomedicine Revenue by Countries

Chapter Eight: South America Nanomedicine Revenue by Countries

Chapter Nine: Middle East and Africa Revenue Nanomedicine by Countries

Chapter Ten: Global Nanomedicine Market Segment by Type

Chapter Eleven: Global Nanomedicine Market Segment by Application

Chapter Twelve: Global Nanomedicine Market Size Forecast (2019-2026)

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Bioactive Materials Market Forecast to 2027 Covid-19 Impact and Global Analysis – Cole of Duty

§ May 1st, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Bioactive Materials Market Forecast to 2027 Covid-19 Impact and Global Analysis – Cole of Duty

The bioactive materials defined as any matter, construct or surface that interacts with biological systems. These materials promote a specific biological response at the edge or interface of the material that results in the formation of a bond between the material and tissues. The bioactive materials are used in a wide range of applications including, drug delivery systems, artificial organs, biosensors, nanomedicine, dentistry and others.

The bioactive materials market is anticipated to grow with a significant rate in the coming years, due to increasing healthcare expenditure by the consumers, and rising technological advancements across the globe. However, rising geriatric population is anticipated to offer more growth opportunities for the players operating in the bioactive materials market.

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The Covid-19 (coronavirus) pandemic is impacting society and the overall economy across the world. The impact of this pandemic is growing day by day as well as affecting the supply chain. The COVID-19 crisis is creating uncertainty in the stock market, massive slowing of supply chain, falling business confidence, and increasing panic among the customer segments. The overall effect of the pandemic is impacting the production process of several industries including Chemicals and Materials, and many more. Trade barriers are further restraining the demand- supply outlook. As government of different regions have already announced total lockdown and temporarily shutdown of industries, the overall production process being adversely affected; thus, hinder the overall Bioactive Materials Market globally. This report on Bioactive Materials Market provides the analysis on impact on Covid-19 on various business segments and country markets. The report also showcase market trends and forecast to 2027, factoring the impact of Covid -19 Situation.

The Global Bioactive Materials Market Analysis to 2027 is a specialized and in-depth study of the chemical industry with a focus on the global market trend. The report aims to provide an overview of global market with detailed market segmentation by type, material, application, and geography. The global bioactive materials market is expected to witness high growth during the forecast period. The report provides key statistics on the market status of the leading bioactive materials market players and offers key trends and opportunities in the market.

The global bioactive materials market is segmented on the basis of type, material, and application. On the basis of type, the bioactive materials market is segmented as, granules, moldable, powder, and others. Based on the material, the market is classified as, composite, glass-ceramic, glass, and others. On the basis of application, the bioactive materials market is categorized as, bioengineering, surgery, dentistry, and others.

The report provides a detailed overview of the industry including both qualitative and quantitative information. It provides overview and forecast of the global bioactive materials market based on type, material, and application. It also provides market size and forecast till 2027 for overall market with respect to five major regions, namely; North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific (APAC), Middle East and Africa (MEA) and South & Central America. The bioactive materials market by each region is later sub-segmented by respective countries and segments. The report covers analysis and forecast of 13 countries globally along with current trend and opportunities prevailing in the region.

North America is expected to contribute to the largest share in the bioactive materials market in the coming years, due to early adoption of new healthcare technologies and high expenditure in healthcare in the region. However, Asia Pacific is expected to witness significant growth in the market during the forecast period, owing to growing awareness regarding availability of several treatments, advancing healthcare infrastructure, rising purchasing power of consumers, and a progressing medical industry in the region.

The report analyzes factors affecting bioactive materials market from both demand and supply side and further evaluates market dynamics effecting the market during the forecast period i.e., drivers, restraints, opportunities, and future trend. The report also provides exhaustive PEST analysis for all five regions namely; North America, Europe, APAC, MEA and South & Central America after evaluating political, economic, social and technological factors effecting the bioactive materials market in these regions.

The report also includes the profiles of key bioactive materials manufacturing companies along with their SWOT analysis and market strategies. In addition, the report focuses on leading industry players with information such as company profiles, components and services offered, financial information of last 3 years, key development in past five years. Some of the key players operating in the bioactive materials market include, Medtronic, Zimmer Biomet, Stryker, C.I. TAKIRON Corporation, Arthrex, Inc., DePuy Synthes, Biomatlante, BBS-Bioactive Bone Substitutes Plc, LASAK s.r.o., and PULPDENT Corporation among others.

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Bioactive Materials Market Forecast to 2027 Covid-19 Impact and Global Analysis - Cole of Duty

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Beware of Harsh Chemicals: Common Household Cleaners May Cause More Harm Than Good According to Dr. Tom O’Bryan, Founder of TheDr.com and Author of -…

§ May 1st, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Beware of Harsh Chemicals: Common Household Cleaners May Cause More Harm Than Good According to Dr. Tom O’Bryan, Founder of TheDr.com and Author of -…

The recent CDC study, "Cleaning and Disinfectant Chemical Exposures and Temporal Associations with COVID-19, National Poison Data System," warns Americans using harsh cleaning products, sprays, wipes and hand sanitizers to be vigilant, citing a dramatic increase in accidental poisonings compared to the last two years. With non-stop use of harsh chemicals suggested to kill SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and other dangerous viruses, bacteria and microbes, unfortunately, those same chemicals also kill the good bacteria that helps one fight infections and protects immune systems making it critical to replenish.

"In times of crisis, the school of thought is that we need big gun chemicals' to protect and address an invader, however, these chemicals can cause more harm than good in the long run," says Dr. Tom O'Bryan, DC, CCN, DACBN, founder of TheDr.com, global leader in functional medicine and author of The Autoimmune Fix. "Our environment, just like our body, has a biome, an immune system that prevents too many bad guys' from accumulating in our homes. Equally important, this immune system plays a key role in our overall health. If we do not protect and support good bacterial growth in our environment, we are likely to see more virulent strains of superbug, mold, fungus, and viruses than ever before. Microbes ALWAYS have the last word. Think mold in the shower."

The best way to boost and balance the environmental immune system is to introduce probiotics to create a stronger defense barrier than antibacterial products, disinfectants, and bleach can provide. External probiotics replenish the correct balance of good bacteria on surfaces, in the air, on skin, in the mouth and in/on pets, making a positive contribution to good health and to the environmental health of our planet.

Bleach, disinfectants, anti-bacterial products, and natural all-purpose cleaners do not remove the microscopic plaque that bad guy bacteria hide out in. Worse, many green' or natural/chemical-free' cleaners contribute to plaque formation while killing off both the good bacteria along with bad. Without adding probiotics back into the environment, the bad bacteria can wreak havoc and make people and animals sick.

"Just as we've learned to take probiotics to support our gut and immunity health. Probiotic technology has now proven its value in supporting our home, office and hospital environments," adds O'Bryan.

Superbugs contribute to life-threatening viral and bacterial infections or sepsis, causing death for over 250,000 Americans every year. Hospital studies show that using environmental probiotics significantly' reduces the dangerous viruses and bacteria causing the Super Infections' that feed sepsis.

P2 Probiotic Power cleaning products create a stronger defense barrier than antibacterial products, disinfectants, and bleach can provide. These products specifically clean and form a protective barrier against microscopic plaque (biofilm) which harbors the most harmful bacteria.

"The time has come to add environmental probiotics to our cleaning regimens at home, in office buildings, and public places," says O'Bryan. "The science has caught up and we now know that the microbiome is all around us contributing to our overall health. Reconsider using harsh chemicals to prevent a virus from getting into your body, by using probiotic cleaning products to minimize the side-effects of those harsh chemicals, so you can keep those good and bad bacteria in natural balance for optimum health and safety."

Considered a Sherlock Holmes' for chronic disease and metabolic disorders, Dr. Tom O'Bryan is an internationally recognized speaker focused on food sensitivities, environmental toxins, and the development of autoimmune diseases.

View source version on businesswire.com: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20200430005218/en/

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Remdesivir drug trials show patients are recovering from COVID-19 – Mountain View Voice

§ May 1st, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Remdesivir drug trials show patients are recovering from COVID-19 – Mountain View Voice

Patients are recovering from COVID-19 when they are given the experimental drug remdesivir, according to an announcement Wednesday about two separate studies by the Peninsula company that makes the drug and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

Preliminary data from NIAID's study shows the antiviral drug, developed by Foster City-based Gilead Sciences Inc., helped hospitalized patients with advanced COVID-19 affecting their lungs recover faster than similar patients who received a placebo. The randomized, controlled study involved 1,063 patients, the institute said.

NIAID's Adaptive COVID-19 Treatment Trial, which began on Feb. 21, found that remdesivir was better than a placebo from the time of recovery, which is a metric often used in influenza trials. Recovery in the study was defined as being well enough for hospital discharge or returning to normal activity.

Patients who received remdesivir had a 31% faster recovery time than those who received the placebo. Patients treated with remdesivir had a median recovery time of 11 days compared to 15 days for those who received the placebo. Results also suggested a lower death rate among those who received the drug, with a mortality rate of 8% for the group receiving remdesivir versus 11.6% for the placebo group, NIAID said.

The first participant was an American who was repatriated after being quarantined on a Diamond Princess cruise ship that docked in Yokohama, Japan. The patient volunteered to participate in the trial at the first study site, the University of Nebraska Medical Center/Nebraska Medicine, in February. A total of 68 sites ultimately joined the study 47 in the United States and 21 in countries in Europe and Asia, NIAID said.

More detailed information about the trial results, including more comprehensive data, will be available in a forthcoming report. NIAID also will provide an update on the plans for the trial at a later date.

NIAID Director Dr. Anthony Fauci said during a press conference on Wednesday, April 29, that the diminished death rate from the treatment has not yet reached statistical significance, but the data needs to be further analyzed. An independent data and safety board monitoring the study notified him last Friday and again on Monday that the trial data showed a "clear-cut, positive effect in diminishing time to recover," he said. "It's highly significant," he said.

"Although a 31% improvement doesn't seem like a knock-out 100%, it is a very important proof of concept, because what it has proven is a drug can block this virus," he said.

"All of the other trials that are taking place now have a new standard of care," he added.

Fauci said the remdesivir trial is reminiscent of research conducted 34 years ago when he and others were looking at the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). At the time, there were no treatments. They performed the first drug tests with the antiretroviral drug azidothymidine (AZT), which had a modest effect on HIV and were able to build on it to create more effective drugs, he said. Fauci thinks the same will be true with remdesivir.

Researchers will now compare a combination of remdesivir with an anti-inflammatory drug, a monoclonal antibody, he said.

Gilead also announced the results of the first of its two clinical trials in a separate statement Wednesday. The company initiated two randomized Phase 3 clinical trials for remdesivir, the Simple studies, in countries with a high prevalence of COVID-19 infection.

In Gilead's first trial, researchers gave five-day and 10-day doses of remdesivir intravenously to 397 hospitalized patients who had severe cases of the disease. Both treatments had similar results and neither study group showed any new safety concerns from the medication, the company said.

Gilead said it plans to submit the full data for publication in a peer-reviewed journal in coming weeks.

"Unlike traditional drug development, we are attempting to evaluate an investigational agent alongside an evolving global pandemic. Multiple concurrent studies are helping inform whether remdesivir is a safe and effective treatment for COVID-19 and how to best utilize the drug," Dr. Merdad Parsey, Gilead Sciences' chief medical officer, said in the company statement.

"These study results complement data from a placebo-controlled study of remdesivir conducted by the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases and help to determine the optimal duration of treatment with remdesivir. The study demonstrates the potential for some patients to be treated with a 5-day regimen, which could significantly expand the number of patients who could be treated with our current supply of remdesivir. This is particularly important in the setting of a pandemic, to help hospitals and health care workers treat more patients in urgent need of care."

Remdesivir isn't licensed or approved and has not yet been demonstrated to be safe or effective for the treatment of COVID-19, the statement noted. The study sought to determine whether a shorter, five-day course of remdesivir would be as effective as a 10-day treatment regimen used in multiple ongoing studies of the drug. It included rates of adverse events and other measures of clinical response in both treatment groups.

All of the patients had pneumonia and reduced oxygen levels, but they did not require mechanical ventilation when they entered the study. The patients achieved clinical recovery if they no longer required oxygen support and medical care or were discharged from the hospital.

Clinical improvement was defined as a positive change of two or more points from the patient's baseline on a seven-point scale, which ranged from hospital discharge to increasing levels of oxygen support.

Fifty percent of patients who received treatment showed improvement in 10 days among the five-day treatment group and 11 days in the 10-day treatment group. More than half of patients in both treatment groups were discharged from the hospital by day 14, with 64.5% of patients in the five-day treatment group and 53.8% of patients in the 10-day treatment group achieving clinical recovery.

Patients who were given remdesivir earlier also had improved outcomes. Participants who received the drug within 10 days of the onset of symptoms fared better than those treated more than 10 days into the disease. By day 14, 62% of patients who treated early in their illness were cleared for hospital discharge. Of patients who were treated later in their illness, only 49% were cleared to leave the hospital.

Remdesivir was generally well-tolerated in both the five-day and 10-day treatment groups, the company said. The most common adverse events that occurred in more than 10% of patients in either group were nausea and acute respiratory failure. Elevated liver enzymes occurred in 7.3% of patients, with 3% exiting the trial due to the increased liver enzymes.

An expansion phase of this study will enroll an additional 5,600 patients, including patients on mechanical ventilation. The study is being conducted at 180 trial sites around the world, including in the United States, China, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan and the United Kingdom, the company said.

A second trial study is evaluating the safety and effectiveness of five-day and 10-day remdesivir dosing in patients with moderate COVID-19 symptoms compared with the standard of care. The results from the first 600 patients of this study are expected at the end of May.

Palo Alto resident Monica Yeung-Arima, who was one of the patients in Gilead's first remdesivir trial, said on Wednesday that she is gratified by the trial results. Yeung-Arima was given a five-day treatment with remdesivir starting March 13. She began to recover three days into her treatment.

"I am so glad that I'm one of the guinea pigs. I am getting better every day. I am thankful," Yeung-Arima said in a text message to this news organization.

"I'm so glad that there's positive news on remdesivir and the drug can possibly be used by many patients soon. It would be nice if the drug can treat more than one virus so it could do good for the near future. It also can put many people at ease to have a solution, even if it's not a 100% cure," she said.

Find comprehensive coverage on the Midpeninsula's response to the new coronavirus by Palo Alto Online, the Mountain View Voice and the Almanac here.

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Remdesivir drug trials show patients are recovering from COVID-19 - Mountain View Voice

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From the Publisher: Balancing Act – Saratoga TODAY Newspaper

§ May 1st, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on From the Publisher: Balancing Act – Saratoga TODAY Newspaper

GREETINGSLOYAL READERS,

I hope you are healthy and staying safe. I never thought we would be living through a global pandemic and economic meltdown, yet here we are.

Today I want to explore a polarizing subject of great importance: When should the regional economy be reopened? For all the elected officials reading this, I feel for you. You are in a no-win situation. There are plenty of Monday morning quarterbacks who consider themselves experts in epidemiology, economics, and virology, but the consequences of their opinions and platitudes are meaningless. Your decisions however, impact lives and economies. May God grant you wisdom to make prudent decisions.

Now I will do what I always do and share my personal views of this situation. By the end of the article you may agree or disagree, but hopefully we will all leave this with a little more information, a little more insight, and a lot more understanding.

THE ONGOING BATTLE

Our current pandemic is not unique to this generation; humans and viruses have been battling for global supremacy since the beginning of time. Shaped by evolution to ensure their own replication and survival, viruses are a daunting opponent.

Thankfully, humans have been blessed with an equally ingenious group of epidemiologists who have managed to outsmart and outwork those microscopic enemies. From Hippocrates to Larry Brilliant, epidemiologists have kept the human race moving forward.

Relative to prior pandemics, the mortality rate of COVID-19 is rather low, but the transmission rate is rather high; these are both important facts needed for any decisions. Lets take a quick look at pandemics from the past 100 years:

AIDS PANDEMIC (1981-present)Death Toll: 35 million

FLU PANDEMIC (1968)Death Toll: 1 million

ASIAN FLU (1956-1958)Death Toll: 2 million

Spanish Flu (1918)Death Toll: 2050 million

SIXTH CHOLERA PANDEMIC(1910-1911) Death Toll: 800,000+

And while it didnt take place in recent history, I think it is important to mention the Bubonic Plague,(346-1353). Death Toll: 75200 million

After an extensive search I was unable to find any consensual global death toll estimates for Covid-19, but it appears the range of global estimates are well below the prior pandemics mentioned above.

MORTALITY RATE

Regarding the mortality rate of COVID-19: It seems to be changing daily as randomized test results come in, but it appears a generally accepted figure is 1.5%. A sobering figure but not relatively high when compared to the mortality rates of other epidemics such as Ebola (50%), Smallpox (50-90%), SARS (9.6%) or MERS (35%). *Both SARS and MERS are coronaviruses. Recent data from the randomized testing is showing that the infection rate of COVID-19 is potentially 25-50% higher than reported. This would mean the mortality rate could be substantially lower than the 1.5% figure.

A recent Stanford University antibody study now estimates that the fatality rate of infected individuals is likely as low as 0.1 to 0.2%, far lower than previous WHO estimates that were 20-30 times higher.

We need to treat this pandemic for what it is: A high transmission, low mortality virus. This is not a death sentence.

TO OPEN OR NOT TO OPEN

This simple question is as powerful as Hamlets famous soliloquy To be or not to be, in which he is questioning the value of life.

It appears the general argument to remain in lockdown hinges on two specific facts:

1. A full quarantine will reduce deaths from COVID-19.

2. Ending the quarantine will increase deaths due to COVID-19.

While both statements seem to be 100% accurate, there is a fatal flaw in relying solely on that logic to defend an ongoing shutdown because it neglects to mention non-COVID-19 deaths which may occur due to the shutdown.

As anyone who has raised a family, run a business, or paid rent can attest, finances and health are not mutually exclusive. Money may not buy happiness, but financial insecurity can certainly impact your health (physical & psychological.)

Some of the risks associated with financial worries include, but are not limited to: heart disease, overdose, depression, domestic abuse, addiction, anxiety, molestation, stroke, relapse, suicide, migraines, diabetes, sleep problems, etc.

Additionally, there is a psychological effect from being locked down in your home. Police calls related to domestic abuse have increased substantially over the past month and local organizations which deal with domestic situations have seen a troubling increase. These are personal traumas that will last a lifetime, not a season.

As addressed in the article on page 9, people are putting themselves at undue risk due to COVID-19 fears. They are neglecting needed medical care for fear of contracting the virus at hospitals or Doctor offices.

Also, the high mortality rate is isolated to a very small segment of the population, the elderly and those with underlying health conditions, allowing us to better control outcomes among age groups. Those in the high-risk categories can remain self-isolated with regular monitoring.

Is a life saved from COVID-19 more valuable than a life lost due to the shutdown? I would say no.

Companies and individuals make decisions every day that effect life expectancy.

Insurance companies decide what procedures and medicines they will or will not cover. Automobile companies decide the trade-off of safety vs. expense. The boxer steps into the ring accepting the possibility of catastrophic injury, mountaineers hike Everest knowing they may not return, and large swaths of society smoke, drink, and shovel unhealthy food down their gullet despite the warnings.

THE CONSTITUTION

Quarantines were a normal occurrence throughout early American history. But the creation of the U.S. Constitution, as well as ongoing legal and procedural developments and the advent of modern medicine have helped shape current views on this topic.

While the First Amendment guarantees among other things, the Freedom of Assembly, what rights does the government have to abridge these freedoms for the greater public good? And, for that matter, who should oversee these powers, the federal Government or the state government?

This topic is far too in-depth to address in this editorial, but I will make two simple statements.

The Tenth Amendment says: The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

James Madison pointed out in The Federalist, No. 10 that if a state adopts a disastrous new policy, at least it would not be a catastrophe for everyone. On the other hand, if a states new programs work well, other states can adopt their ideas and adjust them to their own needs.

Therefore, I would say the main power to address this issue lies in the states, with the Federal government acting as the facilitator and addressing specific national issues such as borders, travel bans and critical supply logistics.

FINAL THOUGHTS

This is not a black and white issue with a simple solution, but we have plenty of data to point us in the correct direction. This shutdown could eventually (soon) create an economic meltdown like we have never experienced, with the fallout rippling through every aspect of society.

When I hear people nonchalantly say Saratoga Springs should just shut down until next summer it makes my blood boil. You are talking about families losing everything they have; dreams shattered; life savings gone; home foreclosures all around; college savings evaporated; businesses shuttered; not to mention the countless health issues addressed earlier in this editorial which will destroy families.

And lets not forget that the tax revenue generated during our summer months is what helps to pay for many of our essential services such as police, fire, schools, sewer maintenance and roads.

Currently the date set by Governor Cuomo for the potential reopening of businesses in upstate NY is May 15. That is only 2 weeks away. Things may look a little different in the beginning and we may need to wear masks and continue to social distance, but that is certainly an acceptable inconvenience for a short period of time. This cannot last through the summer.

We need businesses open.

We need normalcy.

We need money flowing through the system.

We need to be paying our bills.

We need to navigate our way through phase 1 and enter phases 2 & 3 as soon as possible.

*For those individuals who are considered at risk, your self-quarantining may need to last until a vaccine has been developed or the virus has run its course.

THE NEW NORMAL

We are a nation of survivors. Life WILL get back to normal.We have made it through world wars, pandemics, presidential assassinations and 9-11. We have crossed oceans, explored the unknown and put men on the moon. We will overcome this. We will get back to normal. We will forge on and once again experience the American dream of Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness.

God Bless !

-Chad

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From the Publisher: Balancing Act - Saratoga TODAY Newspaper

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COVID Diaries Colorado: A Day in the Pandemic – Glenwood Springs Post Independent

§ May 1st, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on COVID Diaries Colorado: A Day in the Pandemic – Glenwood Springs Post Independent

A teacher greets her students. An imam counsels his congregants. A firefighter reports for duty. New parents take their baby home from the hospital.

These are routine moments in the lives of Coloradans. But the coronavirus has transformed the routine into the remarkable, upending how we live and interact with each other.

As a heavy spring snow blanketed the state on Thursday, April 16, journalists from news organizations across Colorado set out to chronicle a day in the life of the states residents during this extraordinary time.

It happened that this day was the deadliest to date in the U.S. for the COVID-19 pandemic. More than 4,500 people died. Colorados state health department reported 17 more deaths, and that the death toll had hit 374 a figure that the state would later determine was more than 560 as more reports of COVID-19 victims surfaced.

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The statewide order to shut down non-essential businesses issued a month before to the day had taken a toll. In that month-long period, more than 231,000 people filed for unemployment, just short of the 285,000 unemployment claims filed in all of 2009 during the height of the great recession.

The Colorado stories of April 16 show how much has changed in such a short amount of time. Teachers now instruct students over screens. Doctors speak to patients through masks and face shields. Newborn babies are quarantined from sick parents.

But the journalists also chronicled how, even as Colorado stares down uncertainty, death and illness, life goes on. Birthdays are celebrated. Prayers are said.

And in what feels like a dark hour, there are moments of hope.

Dressed in purple scrub pants and a coordinated print top, Catherine Scott started her work day with a spray bottle of bleach solution, wiping down door handles, tables and a laptop keyboard.

Scott is not a health care worker, but a preschool teacher often tasked with opening the child care center where she works in Denvers Montbello neighborhood.

When children began arriving with their parents, Scott met them at the front door, thermometer in hand. After temperature checks, parents logged their childs arrival on the laptop, and everybody washed their hands in the sink up front.

Scott, who the youngsters call Miss Cathy or Miss Cappy, had just three children in her classroom a 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old two of them new to the center. It was a far cry from the usual 15 she would have on a day without coronavirus.

After many child care providers closed last month, state officials made a recommendation that caught some by surprise: Stay open, with precautions, to care for the children of working parents.

Scott and her co-teacher recorded morning circle time so the video could be posted to a private YouTube channel for children whose parents kept them home. They sang their good morning song in English and Spanish and read the book Pete the Cat and his Four Groovy Buttons.

One of the biggest challenges of preschool in the coronavirus era is social distancing. Instead of the usual snuggles and hugs, Scott has switched to distance hugs, air high fives, and pats on the back. One student spontaneously jumped into her lap, then quickly realized her mistake.

I sorry, the girl said. Air high five.

Dr. Peter Stubenrauch reviewed patients charts with his medical team during morning rounds and once again weighed the tradeoffs of long-term ventilator use.

Patients getting high levels of oxygen usually are placed on their stomach to ease pressure on the lungs. But that leaves them vulnerable to skin damage as they rest on tubes and equipment.

Unfortunately, it comes down to an intellectual discussion between how sick are their lungs and how worried are you about the skin, said Stubenrauch, a critical care pulmonologist with National Jewish Health, which staffs and manages the ICU. But ultimately the skin wounds should recover (and) we need people oxygenating well enough that theyll hopefully recover from this from a lung standpoint, too.

Nearly every patient in the unit was on a ventilator, that precious piece of equipment that can be the difference between life and death during the coronavirus crisis.

The medical guidance on COVID-19 is evolving fast. Stubenrauch said doctors use the tried and true approaches to respiratory illness and are eyeing experimental treatments being developed. He recommended that one of his patients be added to a promising drug study. If shes accepted, she could get the drug or a placebo the research requires. He cant know.

Consultations with families are done by phone. Discussing life and death matters but not face to-face, with family members who cant even be together with their loved one, is heartbreaking. And the uncertainty about COVID-19 means preparing families for the worst.

You by no means have any interest in giving up on a patient, particularly someone who came into the intensive care unit relatively recently, Stubenrauch said. But he must also set the expectation that were observing a lot of patients who remain on mechanical ventilation for prolonged periods of time and can quite suddenly take turns for the worse and pass away.

By his shifts end, the news in the unit was brighter. There were no new admissions for the day.

The president of the United States was on the line again.

U.S. Sen. Cory Gardner, elected in 2014 as a rising star in the Republican party, joined other senators on a conference call with President Trump, Vice President Mike Pence and Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin. The subject: How to begin reopening Americas economy.

Gardner took the call from a private office in a coworking space carved from the elementary school he attended, and his parents attended before him, in this Eastern Plains town.

Its close enough to his house that he can get there for lunch and, on this day, make chili for dinner.

Later in the day, Gardner spoke to Gov. Jared Polis about a letter they and Democratic Sen. Michael Bennet were sending to Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell informing him of Colorados needs. He spoke to banking leaders about nagging problems with the federal Paycheck Protection Program. He conducted a pair of TV interviews.

Constant calls, Gardner said. There are constant calls, scheduled and unscheduled.

Gardner is up for reelection in November and his seat is considered one of the most vulnerable for Republicans in 2020. His relationship with Trump is central to the campaign, and in recent months the pair have been closely aligned and supportive of each other.

Gardner has been speaking regularly with Trump throughout the crisis. He said the president recently called late at night to pick his brain about trying to bring America back to normalcy.

I talk to him about what Im hearing, Gardner said of the conversations. Hes asking, How do you think we should reopen the economy, get out of where were at right now?

Speaking in a basement room of a mostly quiet City and County building, Denver Mayor Michael Hancock told a dozen Emergency Operations Center staff gathered before him and others watching online that citizens need the safety and security only they can provide.

Hancocks days are filled with meetings. Questions and concerns pile up with each one.

More residents are ignoring the stay-at-home order he put in place through the end of April to control the spread of the virus. How can Denver ease restrictions equitably? Will businesses hurt more if they open at half capacity? Should there be a curfew?

Hancocks rollout of the stay-at-home order was not smooth. He initially announced that liquor stores and recreational marijuana shops would be closed before reversing course after long lines formed outside of both across the city, undermining social distancing guidance.

The city government, like public agencies across Colorado, faces a dire loss of tax revenue from virus-prompted shutdowns. Hancock, on a conference call with other metro area city leaders, heard of planned furloughs and open positions left dark, which Denver is considering, too.

In every challenge, the people are looking for that group of people who are going to stand up and fight on their behalf, Hancock said. Were the people. Were the ones.

The vehicles pulled into the parking lot on the west side of the school.

Michelle Cunningham was there in a surgical mask and gloves, greeting parents and students by name and giving them thumbs-up signs and smiles in lieu of high-fives and hugs.

The school counselor has been struck by the volume of families showing up for free meals. Though nearly one-third of the school districts roughly 1,100 students are eligible for government-subsidized lunches, a measure of poverty, only about 40 children a day typically take advantage, she said. Now the district is handing out 400 meals a day, she said.

As counselors, we know brains work best when physiological needs are met, Cunningham said. Its benefits go beyond food. Im out where I connect with families. We give them a warm smile, a How are things going? Its a highlight of the kids day a daily field trip to go get your lunch! This check-in connection can make it easier for them to ask for help.

In communities across the country, school buildings closed for learning remain open for meal distribution, extending a social safety net during the crisis. That holds true in Buena Vista, a tourism-dependent community set amid the majestic Collegiate Peaks.

With retailers, restaurants, and other small businesses closed, hundreds of families are out of work. Many just received their last paychecks. The virus caused the cancellation of a summer whitewater festival in nearby Salida, part of a $75 million rafting season for the local economy.

Even so, Cunningham said she is proud of how the community has rallied.

The school board, the business owners, the community leaders, the churches, the schools lunch ladies Everyone is stepping up in so many ways to support each other.

A DAY IN COLORADONews organizations from around the state submitted coverage of coronavirus stories from what was happening on April 16, 2020. To read more, click on each pin to open the more than 50 stories that were a part of this project.

Fabiola Grajales waited for the nose swab that would tell her whether she was finally free of the coronavirus and able to be near her family again.

In one of Colorados COVID-19 hotspots, a coalition of Eagle County Public Health, MidValley Family Practice and the Mobile Intercultural Resource Alliance has set up this free mobile testing site. Most patients waiting at the open-sided tent were screened in advance and recommended for the tests after showing symptoms consistent with the coronavirus.

Grajales, 27, a medical assistant at a Glenwood Springs clinic, said she started feeling sick March 2 and tested positive for the virus March 6. Over the next week, her cough worsened and she experienced shortness of breath.

You know when you step on dry leaves? I could hear that sound coming from my lungs.

You get really bad headaches, Grajales continued. You feel like your eyes, theyre going to pop out. I couldnt smell or taste anything.

Doctors at Grand River Hospital in Rifle confirmed she had pneumonia, which is common among COVID-19 patients, and treated her there but didnt admit her, she said.

She self-isolated for 10 days before symptoms disappeared. But a follow-up test showed she still had coronavirus. After more rest, Grajales felt 90% better, maybe 95, she said.

Waiting her turn for yet another test, Grajales said the knowledge and contacts shes gained working in health care helped her acquire tests and treatment, with some effort.

It was hard for me, she said. I cant imagine how hard it would be for other people.

She would need to wait a bit longer to learn whether she was finally well.

It was another quiet day in the E.R., and the nurses gathered as they do every afternoon to discuss adjusting their schedules. This is a ripple effect of the pandemic: While parts of the health care system are stretched to the limit, emergency rooms are less busy.

Not gonna lie, said Dr. Ramnik Dhaliwal, who started his shift at 8. A little bit bored today.

More people than ever before are staying home, which means fewer accidents and injuries, Dhaliwal said. He had a patient who suffered a heart attack at home and didnt go to the ER for three days. He said its part messaging people heeding calls to avoid the hospital unless its a true emergency but also fear of contracting the virus at the hospital.

Like all health care professionals, Dhaliwal wears personal protective equipment, or PPE. That means scrubs, a mask, protective glasses and a scrub hat. He understands the need, but hes bothered that it takes away from the personal nature of his interactions with patients.

Hopefully this doesnt stay like this forever, he said. Just waiting for that vaccine.

The slower traffic to the E.R. compounds the financial pressures facing health-care providers. To make sure resources are adequate to battle the virus, hospitals in Colorado and nationwide have postponed elective medicine including non-emergency surgeries and procedures.

The meeting of the nursing staff ended with the decision to send some home early.

The self-storage yard was empty when Dawna Numbers arrived.

The rain had paused, so the 48-year-old moved quickly to load her clothes in plastic bags into the back of her red Kia for the long journey on a mostly empty interstate.

With no money for rent, Numbers was headed for her mothers house on the Front Range.

Numbers has been out of work since March 25, when the coronavirus outbreak eliminated her night shift job at a fishing-line factory in Grand Junction. Like many Americans, she had tried fruitlessly to file for unemployment benefits. The state unemployment office had been slammed with more than 231,,000 new claims in the last month, slowing services to a crawl.

Numbers had taken the night job so she could attend physical therapy appointments during the day. Shes worked in the past as a utility locator, a caregiver, and a Lyft driver. She had few options in Grand Junction. Many employers are shut down because of the virus.

Ive never just felt so alone, she said. Maybe this crisis would bring out something better in people, she hoped. Maybe shed have better luck in Denver.

We just need to do the best we can and hopefully this ends soon and somehow we can go back to some kind of normal life, she said. Or hopefully better than it was before.

Nolan Christopher Drehers parents tucked him into his car seat in the back of their Toyota Highlander and drove snowy roads from Steamboat Springs to their home in Oak Creek. Nolan, cozy in a white onesie with bears on it, was two days old and on his way to meet his brothers.

Lauren Dreher was hoping she had been careful enough, that the nurses and doctors and the woman who came in her hospital room to take out the trash were not infected with the virus.

At the end of the day you have to know that you did everything you could do, she said. Im just hoping that thats enough. I was trying so hard not to touch my face. Youre in labor and you brush your hair out of your face and wipe your brow.

What a weird time to bring a new human into the world, she thought. Will Nolan get a vaccine to protect him against the new coronavirus? What if social norms change so much that her third son never knows a world where people shake hands?

Dreher, who had a complicated second pregnancy, planned to give birth to Nolan in Denver with an at-risk pregnancy specialist. She changed her mind as she watched the number of COVID-19 cases climb in the city. Plus, UCHealth Yampa Valley Medical Center isnt nearly as busy.

It was just kind of eerie how quiet it was, Dreher said. Adding to that surreal feeling was the fact that everyone you came into contact with was wearing a mask, from the security guard to the nurses and doctors. Drehers delivery team wore N95 masks and face shields.

She was allowed one visitor: her husband, Christopher.

The Drehers are both furloughed. Lauren works for an orthodontist, and Christopher works at a French restaurant in Steamboat. They are trying to look at the bright side more time with their new baby and sons Calvin, 6, and Landon, 4.

By late afternoon all were back in their warm home with a fresh blanket of snow outside, the first time together as a family of five.

Arapahoe County coroner Dr. Kelly Lear was at home, in jeans and a turtleneck instead of her usual scrubs, handling the administrative tasks that go along with the job since she and her fellow pathologist must stagger days in the office to maintain social distancing.

But she was thinking about a case from early February: The death of a man in his 40s who had been seemingly healthy with no serious pre-existing medical conditions before falling ill with a cough a few weeks earlier. When she examined him then in the sterile autopsy room at the coroners office, she discovered lungs ravaged by an infection.

More than two months later, Lear was still searching for answers to why the man died.

The forensic pathologist suspected a virus and had ordered tests to prove it. The results came in mid-March. No flu. No other viruses. Nothing pinpointing what attacked his lungs.

I was basically ready to sign his death certificate as severe lung disease unknown infection, she said.

But emerging news of the novel coronavirus got her thinking.

He showed all the symptoms and had very severe lung disease and it looked at autopsy like what we are hearing, you know, COVID-19 lungs look like, Lear said.

A week later, Lear got the results of specimens she sent to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The mans test was negative.

In a building that can hold up to 200 praying together, Imam Muhammad Kolila was alone as he prayed the Salat al-asr, one of Islams five daily prayers.

One of the things I really miss about community, before coronavirus, is that sense of belonging and that sense of human, physical interactions, he said afterward. If we have good intentions, and we lack all the resources and we do our best to pray and make sure we pray in a group, we get the same reward as we would as if we pray in the mosque. And thats one of the things Im trying to highlight.

Kolila has highlighted such teachings online. Like religious leaders of all faith traditions, Kolila has been streaming services in his case, since March 16 to provide spiritual direction at a trying time and keep his congregation connected as best he can.

One of the main objectives and one of the main missions of this mosque is to provide a safe space for people to come and pray, and connect with God, but right now we cannot create that safe spacephysically, he said. This is why our biggest challenge is to create the space virtually.

In addition to providing spiritual guidance digitally, Kolila has helped members in need. He regularly delivers food, supplies and money to members. The Muslim holy month of Ramadan was about to begin, providing another test for the imam and his temporarily virtual congregation.

The easing of stay-at-home orders will raise additional questions for Masjid Al-Shuhada and other places of worship: What does praying together look like in the new normal of 2020?

Capt. Colin Brunt climbed into Brighton Fire Rescue Tower 51, a 46-foot long fire truck with a ladder. Trailed by his colleagues in Engine 52, Brunt traveled to Bason Kramers house to wish the 5-year-old a happy birthday. When they arrived, the crews switched on their lights and honked their horns while a firefighter stepped out to hand the boy a certificate.

This was not a typical day for the Brighton Fire Department, but it was a welcome one.

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Opinion – Virus has driven home what’s really important – Independent Online

§ May 1st, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Opinion – Virus has driven home what’s really important – Independent Online

By Yogin Devan 18h ago

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If my culinary coup was for a school test, the teachers comment would have been: a good attempt but more practise is required.

Personally, I was satisfied in parts. Some rotis were nicely round. And then some were shaped like Africa. Some were soft and flaky. A few were so hard that with hardware shops closed during the lockdown, my roti would have worked well as an angle grinder disc.

I have realised that making perfectly circular rotis comes with lots of practise.

Google tells me that some of my rotis became hard because they were left too long to cook on one side before turning. Also, the rotis should have been covered as they were being made because the steam helps to keep the rotis soft.

The previous time I tried my hands at making rotis was about 20 years ago. I dont think I need to grasp all the tips for making soft, flaky rotis. Who knows where I will be in another 20 years?

And in any case, when the lockdown is over, Pushkar Maharaj and his son, Ravi, of Indian Delights in Overport will resume supplying me with fresh, soft rotis every week, saving me being pilloried and ridiculed by the senior and junior master chefs in my household for making, what they call, frisbees.

This is the fourth-consecutive column being written during the coronavirus scourge in this country. And with the media devoting wall-to-wall coverage to Covid-19, it would be remiss of me to buck the trend and take my mind away from the upshots of the deadly disease.

I am tired of soaking up at least 16 hours of the facts and figures around the virus on television. In between, I am bombarded with medical misinformation and fake cures on WhatsApp. Often the misinformation is purportedly from a prominent doctor or a friend of a friend who works in the government.

With people not leaving home during the lockdown, concerns about bread shortages through panic buying and even bakeries being shut after workers tested positive for the coronavirus, is it any wonder then that everybody has been baking bread over the past few weeks? Or that even I tried to make my own rotis?

Flour - of every type and packaging size - has been selling like hotcakes (pun unintended). My supermarket shelves have been cleared of hundreds of sachets of dry baking yeast daily. I will be surprised if even one sachet a week was being bought in the years BC (Before Covid-19).

Undoubtedly, we will see new consumption trends in the future, even after all restrictions have been lifted. The unexpected outbreak has changed grocery-buying habits. Whereas online buying was more the preserve of well-heeled, lazy housewives who did not want to be seen mixing with the proletariat, I can see many more people opting to continue using online platforms to maintain social distancing.

Nobody can say when the virus will be eradicated.

While plans for recovery are being laid out, with a focus on the financial stimulus needed to help economies recuperate, there is a concomitant change to recalibrate societal values and provide a more sustainable underpinning for the future.

The crisis offers the opportunity to set the world on a more sustainable and equal path. The lockdown has shown we can live without cigarettes, alcohol, gambling, fast foods and other non-essentials.

Staying home has forced many people to reignite their love for cooking and gardening. New vistas have been unveiled, waiting to be captured on the canvas of life.

With churches, mosques and temples being closed, we learnt we can pray just as devotedly from home. While greedy, money-grabbing temple priests are feeling the pinch as gullible congregants are under house arrest, we learnt that the real priests are those in white coats in hospitals, working to save lives.

A minute virus running amok has reminded us of who we really are. It has taught us humility and that everything will come to an end. And by doing so, it teaches us to be grateful for all the living moments we have and all the things we can enjoy.

During the lockdown, I have had to miss attending several funerals. People I had known for a long time and with whom I enjoyed a close relationship had passed away. The lockdown rules forbid large numbers of mourners.

Is it not time we reassess the meaning we place on funerals that have been related to non-event status? And at the same time shouldnt we also revisit the needless splurging? I am chronically critical of the obscene amounts spent on funerals - solid oak American-style caskets, hearses with gullwing doors, bagpipers, dcor artists, white doves, high-priced singers and lavish after-tears catering.

Until mid-March, the Clare Estate Crematorium was prone to taking on a carnival atmosphere over weekends when thousands converged for funerals, with each one trying to outdo the next. The microscopic coronavirus put a stop to all the tamasha by ensuring that only a handful of mourners can attend each simple funeral lasting no more than 30 minutes.

With the stripping of all the pomp and ceremony that traditionally attended funerals, it is opportune to consider that quality time spent with a person while alive is far more important than the last rites when he or she is no more.

Working from home during the past month has been a beautiful thing for me, promoting greater work-life balance. I have been more productive - even while keeping an ear on the TV. There has been no running from appointment to appointment. And I managed to put in a solid eight to 10 hours of work daily, in between breaking for hot home-cooked lunches and snacks.

While the coronavirus outbreak is not something we should be acclaiming, an unexpected beneficiary has been Mother Earth. For too long we have been cruel and callous, causing the extinction of thousands of species of animals and plants. Think climate change. Now, a tiny virus is giving us a taste of our own medicine.

Major cities across the world have registered significant drops in air pollution during lockdown. Nature has been renewing and rejuvenating itself. Hopefully, going forward, we will be kinder to the planet we live on. Lets not see this virus only for the negative. We must look beyond that - value systems have been readjusted; relationships have strengthened, and crass materialism has been exposed for the sham it is.

This too shall pass. There is no rainbow without the rain. And after rain comes sunshine. But remember, we will not get back to normal - because normal was the problem in the first place.

Devan is a media consultant and social commentator. Share your comments with him at [emailprotected]

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Global Nuclear Medicine Market with Coronavirus (Covid-19) Impact Examination | similarly Industry is Blasting Globaly with Top manufacture GE…

§ May 1st, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Global Nuclear Medicine Market with Coronavirus (Covid-19) Impact Examination | similarly Industry is Blasting Globaly with Top manufacture GE…

TheNuclear Medicine marketreport will give you every microscopic details about the Nuclear Medicine market. It consists of the current trends and the futuristic scope of the market. The details about the Nuclear Medicine market includes the impact of the COVID-19 on the market economics. The lockdown in several regions has severely impacted the business around the world. The Nuclear Medicine research study includes aspects such as the growth factors, limitations of the market, future and current challenges of the market along with the opportunities that will open up for the market based on the current scenario of COVID-19.

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The major regional segmentation mentioned within the report includes North America, Asia Pacific, Europe, Latin America, and the Middle East and Africa. The major countries that are included within the Nuclear Medicine market report are US, Mexico, Australia, India, Germany, Brazil, and others. The major industrial players mentioned within the report includeGE Healthcare, Bracco Imaging, Mallinckrodt, Lantheus Medical Imaging, Bayer, Triad Isotopes, Nordion, Jubilant Pharma, Eli Lilly, SIEMENS, China Isotope & Radiation, Dongcheng. Every company operating in the Nuclear Medicine market is profiled with precision for better understanding of the current market scenario.

The Nuclear Medicine market report has made use of several research methodologies for market analysis. The research tools aided in obtaining precise and accurate data about the Nuclear Medicine market. Some of the mentioned research tools are Porters Five force analysis, SWOT analysis, PESTLE analysis, and top down approach/ bottom up approach. Exhaustive primary and secondary researches were conducted for acquiring data for Nuclear Medicine market. The obtained data were further analyzed by our research analysts with the help of market experts and thus data provided in the dossier is highly reliable.

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In Nuclear Medicine report starts with market overview and definition, market scope, and then the target audience for the market. In the later section, the Nuclear Medicine markets growth factors, limitations, and the market opportunities / challenges is included. The Nuclear Medicine market is segmented into{Tc-99, I-123/131, In-111, Xe-133, Th-201, Ga-67 }; {Diagnostic, Therapeutic}along with this major segmentation the report also includes sub-segments of the market to understand the market on a deeper level. The report highlights the futuristic scopes and the alterations needed for the market development amid situation such as COVID-19.

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Global Nuclear Medicine Market with Coronavirus (Covid-19) Impact Examination | similarly Industry is Blasting Globaly with Top manufacture GE...

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Triple Negative Breast Cancer Treatment Market to Grow at Stellar CAGR Double In% During the Forecast Period 2026 – Cole of Duty

§ May 1st, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Triple Negative Breast Cancer Treatment Market to Grow at Stellar CAGR Double In% During the Forecast Period 2026 – Cole of Duty

Ongoing advancements in cancer research continue to lead to the introduction of newer and better treatment options including drug therapies. The provision of newer drugs and treatments is expected to improve the diagnostic and treatment rate for triple-negative breast cancer.

Some of the recent clinical efforts are being targeted at the molecular level characterization of triple-negative breast cancer across emerging therapeutic targets such as epigenetic proteins, PARP1, androgen receptors, receptor and non-receptor tyrosine kinases, and immune checkpoints.

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Company Profiles

These initiatives are anticipated to boost revenue growth of the triple-negative breast cancer treatment market. In a new research study, Persistence Market Research estimates the globaltriple-negative breast cancer treatment marketrevenue to cross US$ 720 Mn by 2026 from an estimated valuation of just under US$ 505 Mn in 2018. This is indicative of a CAGR of 4.7% during the period 2018 to 2026.

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Development of generics is another key opportunity area in the triple-negative breast cancer treatment market. With the rapidly expanding number of cancer cases across the world, there is a need for effective cancer management, including the provision of better and more efficient drugs.

Developing economies are faced with challenges on several fronts including paucity of funds and lack of proper treatment options, calling for more innovative approaches to affordable healthcare. The availability of biosimilars and affordable generic anti-cancer drugs in developing regions is expected to significantly reduce the burden of cancer care.

A projected cost reduction to the tune of more than 30% 40% and extended use of generic drugs is expected to reduce overall cancer treatment costs, thereby increasing the treatment rate for triple-negative breast cancer. This is further anticipated to create lucrative growth opportunities in the global triple-negative breast cancer treatment market.

Advances in Cancer Treatment and Introduction of Innovative Cancer Treatment Drugs to Boost Revenue Growth of the Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Treatment Market

Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in women, and over the years, pharmaceutical and life sciences companies have been conducting advanced research and development activities to devise newer treatment options and drugs to treat breast cancer.

Several new drug formulations are currently in the pipeline in different stages of clinical development and this is expected to bode well for the triple-negative breast cancer treatment market. Innovation in oncology therapeutics has shifted focus towards an outcome based approach to cancer care, with an increasing emphasis on combination drugs and newer therapeutic modalities.

This is further likely to put the global triple-negative breast cancer treatment market on a positive growth trajectory in the coming years.

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Combination Therapy and Advancements in Nano Medicine Research Trending the Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Treatment Market

One of the biggest trends being observed in the global market for triple-negative breast cancer treatment is the shift towards combination therapy. Companies in the global triple-negative breast cancer treatment market are conducting clinical trials for combination therapies by collaborating with other players in the market.

Combination therapies are the latest innovation in the field of oncology and the combination of therapeutic drugs with chemotherapy is said to be an effective protocol for the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer.

Another huge trend in the triple-negative breast cancer treatment market is the emergence of nanotechnology as an efficient tool in the clinical management of critical diseases such as triple-negative breast cancer. It has been observed that the combination of gold nanoparticles and folic acid results in higher cell entry rate in both in-vitro and in-vivo models, indicative of the fact that folate receptors are effective targeted therapies for the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer.

Nanoparticles facilitate systematic and efficient delivery of drugs and agents to the site of the tumor. Advanced R&D in nanotechnology and nano medicine is one of the top trends likely to impact the global triple-negative breast cancer treatment market in the years to come.

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Triple Negative Breast Cancer Treatment Market to Grow at Stellar CAGR Double In% During the Forecast Period 2026 - Cole of Duty

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Wireless smart contact lens for diabetic diagnosis and therapy – Science Advances

§ April 29th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Wireless smart contact lens for diabetic diagnosis and therapy – Science Advances

Abstract

A smart contact lens can be used as an excellent interface between the human body and an electronic device for wearable healthcare applications. Despite wide investigations of smart contact lenses for diagnostic applications, there has been no report on electrically controlled drug delivery in combination with real-time biometric analysis. Here, we developed smart contact lenses for both continuous glucose monitoring and treatment of diabetic retinopathy. The smart contact lens device, built on a biocompatible polymer, contains ultrathin, flexible electrical circuits and a microcontroller chip for real-time electrochemical biosensing, on-demand controlled drug delivery, wireless power management, and data communication. In diabetic rabbit models, we could measure tear glucose levels to be validated by the conventional invasive blood glucose tests and trigger drugs to be released from reservoirs for treating diabetic retinopathy. Together, we successfully demonstrated the feasibility of smart contact lenses for noninvasive and continuous diabetic diagnosis and diabetic retinopathy therapy.

Recently, soft bioelectronics has been widely investigated to take advantage of its inherent polymer properties and organic electronics for wearable and implantable health care devices (1, 2). On the basis of this innovation, many kinds of medical devices have been developed for diagnostic (3), therapeutic (4), and theranostic applications (5). Wearable devices have been successfully applied in continuous glucose monitoring (5), electrocardiography (6), electromyography (7), photoplethysmography, and pulse oximetry (8). They can provide important medical information for health care monitoring and the diagnosis of various relevant diseases. In addition, a pioneering semiconductor implantable drug delivery device was developed for applications in the subcutaneous fluid (9) and triggered the development of on-demand implantable drug delivery systems (10). Combining these technologies together, many kinds of health care devices have been developed for theranostic applications at the interface of biological, nanoscale, and electronic technologies (5, 1113).

Among various wearable health care devices, smart contact lenses have attracted great commercial attention for health care applications (14, 15). The surface of the cornea uniquely presents a convenient and noninvasive interface to physiological conditions in the human body. The eyes are directly connected to the brain, liver, heart, lung, and kidney and can serve as a window to the body (16). In this context, Sensimed released a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)approved product, Triggerfish, to monitor the intraocular pressure of glaucoma patients in 2016 (14, 15). In addition, Google developed the Google lens for the diagnosis of diabetic patients in collaboration with Novartis (15). These smart contact lenses are especially important because they make noninvasive and continuous monitoring of glaucoma and diabetes, respectively, possible. Furthermore, smart wearable sensor systems integrated on soft contact lenses have been developed to measure the resistance change of graphene sensors upon glucose binding for the remote monitoring of diabetes (17, 18). However, the electrical current and the color changes in the sensors were proportional in log scale to the glucose concentrations, which might not be adequate to measure the real glucose concentration for accurate diabetic diagnosis.

Here, we developed a remotely controllable smart contact lens for noninvasive glucose monitoring and controlled drug delivery to treat diabetic retinopathy. The multifunctional smart contact lens consists of five main parts: a real-time electrochemical biosensor, an on-demand flexible drug delivery system (f-DDS), a resonant inductive wireless energy transfer system, a complementary integrated circuit (IC)based microcontroller chip with a power management unit (PMU), and a remote radio frequency (RF) communication system (Fig. 1). The real-time amperometric biosensor is designed to detect glucose in tears, replacing the need for invasive blood tests. Drugs can be released from the self-regulated pulsatile f-DDS by remote communication. The resonant inductive coupling to a copper (Cu) receiver coil allows wireless powering from an external power source with a transmitter coil. The device communicates with an external controller by RF communication. We assessed and discussed the feasibility of this smart contact lens for diabetic diagnosis and diabetic retinopathy therapy.

The smart contact lens is embedded with a biosensor, an f-DDS, a wireless power transmission system from a transmitter coil to a receiver coil, an ASIC chip, and a remote communication system as a ubiquitous platform for various diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

Silicone contact lens hydrogels were prepared with a chemical structure as schematically shown in fig. S1A. The silicone hydrogels were fabricated in the form of a contact lens with a diameter of 14 mm, a thickness of 200 m, and a radius curvature of 8.0 mm. Attenuated total reflectanceFourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) showed clear peaks corresponding to the chemical attachment of added monomers (fig. S1B). The wavelengths of five peaks were well matched with those of a commercial silicone hydrogel contact lens of lotrafilcon A. The silicone hydrogel contact lens exhibited nearly comparable transmittance to that of the poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) hydrogel contact lens as a control in the visible wavelength range (fig. S1C). The equilibrium water content (EWC) of the silicone hydrogel contact lens was 33.6%, which was higher than those of the PHEMA hydrogel contact lens (21.3%) and lotrafilcon A (24%) (fig. S1D) owing to the high ratio of hydrophilic silicone-containing monomers. The diameter of the silicone hydrogel lens increased by only 1 to 15 mm, whereas that of the PHEMA hydrogel lens increased by 2 to 16 mm. The surface hydrophilicity of the silicone hydrogel contact lens was controlled by the ozone plasma treatment. The surface-treated silicone hydrogel contact lens showed a lower water contact angle than the PHEMA hydrogel contact lens in every time point (fig. S1E), and the water droplet was rapidly absorbed into the silicone hydrogel contact lens (fig. S1F).

An ocular glucose sensor was designed with three electrodes to have a low electrical resistance for the facilitated electrochemical glucose reaction (Fig. 2A). The working electrode (WE) and the counter electrode (CE) were prepared with platinum (Pt) for the efficient electrochemical reaction. To enhance the adhesion between polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and Pt, a Cr layer was deposited on the PET substrate as an adhesive layer before Pt layer deposition. The reference electrode (RE) coated with silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) increased the accuracy of amperometric electrochemical glucose sensor in the fluidic environment by providing a constant voltage to the WE during the glucose measurement. To monitor the tear glucose content with high sensitivity and stability, we coated a mixed solution of glucose oxidase (GOx), bovine serum albumin (BSA), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and chitosan on the WE. After drying, glutaraldehyde was added to cross-link chitosan and PVA for the immobilization of GOx with BSA. To confirm the strong correlation between blood and tear glucose levels, their glucose concentrations in normal and diabetic rabbits were measured before and after three times feeding and fasting. The diabetic rabbits showed higher glucose concentrations both in tear and in blood than those of normal rabbits (Fig. 2B). These blood and tear glucose levels seem to be in the reasonable range, because the normal blood glucose level for nondiabetics while fasting is between 70 and 130 mg dl1 (19). Because of the big sampling time interval, we could not observe the lag time in the increase of glucose concentrations between the blood and the tear as reported elsewhere (19). However, we made clear the repetitive strong correlation between the blood and the tear glucose levels. These results indicated the feasibility of measuring a tear glucose level as an alternative to the blood glucose measurement for the diagnosis of diabetic diseases.

(A) Schematic illustration of an ocular glucose sensor with three electrodes (WE, working electrode; RE, reference electrode; CE, counter electrode) and the mechanism of glucose measurement in tear. (B) Correlation between blood and tear glucose levels in normal and diabetic rabbit models. (C) Real-time electrical detection of glucose concentrations compared with that of PBS. (D) Current change of the glucose sensor showing the selectivity to 0.35 and 0.7 mg dl1 ascorbic acid (AA), 22.5 and 45 mg dl1 lactate, 18 and 36 mg dl1 urea, and 5 mg dl1 glucose. (E) The long-term stability of the glucose sensor after storage for 0, 21, 42, and 63 days (n = 3).

As shown in Fig. 2C, we could measure the real-time glucose concentration from the electrical current change in vitro using a potentiostat. The current increased from 0.41 to 3.12 A with increasing glucose concentrations from 5 to 50 mg dl1. This range of current change might be suitable for the remote monitoring of physiological glucose levels. To assess the selectivity toward glucose, we applied potentially interfering molecules of ascorbic acid (A), lactate (L), and urea (U) in the tear (Fig. 2D). The concentrations of ALU are reported to be around 0.70 mg dl1 for A (20), 18 to 45 mg dl1 for L (21), and 36 mg dl1 for U (20) in the tear. When the corresponding concentrations of interfering molecules (A, L, and U) were added in the glucose sensing system, only a little noise was observed with a negligible current change. Unlike A, L, and U, addition of 5 mg dl1 of glucose rapidly increased the current up to 0.42 A. In addition, we assessed the long-term stability of glucose sensors (Fig. 2E). After fabrication, smart contact lenses were stored in sterilized phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 20 to 25C, which was similar to the actual contact lens storage environment, for 21, 42, and 63 days. The performance of glucose sensors was maintained stably with less than 2% deviation for up to 63 days (n = 3).

The f-DDS was fabricated with dimensions of 1.5 mm by 3 mm by 130 m (Fig. 3, A and B). An exfoliation layer and a buffer silicone oxide (SiO2) layer were deposited on a glass substrate, and the drug reservoir was covered with a defect-free Au anode electrode. The laser lift-off (LLO) process using an excimer laser locally melted and dissociated the exfoliation layer. A buffer SiO2 layer supported the upper device layer during the LLO process and blocked the heat flow generated during the laser-induced exfoliation. In addition to controlling the duration time of the laser shot, the thickness of the buffer SiO2 layer was an important factor for minimizing thermal damage to the device during the LLO process. We used two different photoresists of SU8-5 and SU8-50. SU8-5 has lower viscosity and strength than SU8-50. Accordingly, SU8-5 was used to insulate the electrode except that the drug release site for the stable operation of f-DDS and SU8-50 was used to build the DDS. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the electrodes and the insulated layers of the reservoir (fig. S2). The mechanical bending test was performed to evaluate the mechanical reliability of f-DDS on a flexible substrate (fig. S3, A and B). The operating current of f-DDS was maintained without any notable changes during the mechanical durability test up to 1000 cycles (fig. S3C).

(A) Schematic illustration for the fabrication of f-DDS. (i) Growing the buffer silicone dioxide (SiO2) layer on a glass substrate; (ii) deposition of Ti, Au, and Ti metals for anode and cathode electrodes; (iii) patterning SU8 drug reservoirs; (iv) drug loading; (v) attaching PET and laser scanning of the device; (vi) detaching f-DDS; and (vii) Ti etching with SU8 insulation. (B) Photograph of f-DDS. Photo credit: Beom Ho Mun, KAIST. (C) SEM images of f-DDS before and after gold electrochemistry test. Scale bar, 250 m. (D) Confocal fluorescence microscopic images of rhodamine B dye released from drug reservoirs. Scale bars, 300 m (left) and 500 m (right). (E) Current change of the f-DDS. (F) Released concentration of genistein in a pulsatile manner. (G) Normalized content of genistein released from the reservoirs (n = 6) in comparison with the initial loading content.

The loaded drugs were selectively released from the drug reservoir by the on/off control of voltage. As shown on the SEM image of the Au anode electrode, a thin Au membrane covered the whole area of drug-loaded reservoirs without any leakage of drugs (Fig. 3C, left). After applying an electrical voltage of 1.8 V, the Au membrane was dissolved within 40 s (Fig. 3C, right). The Au layer was melted in PBS under constant voltage in the form of AuCl4. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed the red rhodamine dye released from a reservoir by applying the electrical potential (Fig. 3D). The current between anode and cathode electrodes increased up to 6.08 0.16 A, and Au anodes were slowly dissolved under a slight current decrease from 6.08 0.16 A to 4.35 0.11 A (Fig. 3E). Genistein was released in a pulsatile manner from three different drug reservoirs (Fig. 3F). The anode was slowly dissolved by the current in microscale, and the drug was almost completely released after the current was recovered to the initial state. We could detect 89.97 37.10% of loaded genistein in PBS, confirming that a therapeutic amount of drug might be released from f-DDS (Fig. 3G). In addition, a diabetic therapeutic amount of metformin could be released from the smart contact lens by the synchronized feedback for the point-of-care therapy and further theranostic applications (fig. S3D).

A wireless power transmission system was developed via resonant inductive coupling. The receiver coil embedded in the smart contact lens received a different electrical power from the transmitter coil depending on the distance (fig. S4A). The efficiency of wireless power transmission between two coils was measured with a network analyzer, which was inversely proportional to the distance (fig. S4A). The required power consumption of PMU, the sensor readout block, and the remote communication unit (RCU) on the smart contact lens was 43, 34.4, and 2.3 mW, respectively (fig. S4B). The RCU transmitted data at a rate of 445 kbitss1 in the 433-MHz industry-science-medical (ISM) frequency band using on-off keying modulation and could be controlled to turn off for power saving when data were not transmitted. Using resonant inductive coupling, the application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chip connected to an additional capacitor for energy storage successfully received electromagnetic power at a 1-cm distance from the transmitter coil with an efficiency of 2%. The efficiency was sufficient to maintain the basic operation and the remote communication of the smart contact lens. The average output code of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) from the ASIC chip was proportional to the input current (fig. S5, A and B). The total input conversion was available up to 4.1 A with a resolvable input of 150 pA, which was suitable for the electrical detection of glucose using the ocular glucose sensor. The ocular glucose sensor and the f-DDS were operated under the control of the ASIC chip by applying the corresponding bias voltages (fig. S5, B and C). The converted data of the biosensor were serialized by the ASIC chip and successfully transmitted to an external device of the personal computer (PC) using the wireless power and remote communication systems (fig. S5D).

On the basis of preliminary experimental results, a smart contact lens was fabricated by the chemical cross-linking of silicone hydrogel precursor solution containing a PET film, which was embedded with a glucose biosensor, an f-DDS, an ASIC chip, a Cu power receiver, and RF communication coils and passivated with Parylene C (fig. S6A). The reader coil, which was connected to a commercial power amplifier, wirelessly transferred enough electrical power to the smart contact lens for the real-time sensing of glucose in tear and the remote control of f-DDS (fig. S6B). A constant potential was applied on the RE of the electrochemical glucose sensor, enabling high sensitivity and stability. The output data of the biosensor were wirelessly transmitted by the remote communication using a custom-made amplitude shift keying (ASK) receiver module, an Alf Vergard Risc (AVR), and a PC. The remotely transferred data showed that the current change of glucose sensor was proportional to the applied glucose level in vitro, confirming the feasibility for real-time wireless electrical glucose detection using the smart contact lens (fig. S6C). The output current change values of 0.40 to 3.13 A were similar to those of the glucose measurement using a potentiostat in vitro in Fig. 2C. In addition, on-demand drug delivery was demonstrated by the remote control of the ASIC chip to apply a constant voltage of 1.8 V to the f-DDS (fig. S6C). The silicone hydrogel contact lens with a high water content did not cause any substantial damage to the biosensor, f-DDS, and other micro-sized components.

Before in vivo applications, the safety of the integrated smart contact lens was evaluated in the eyes of New Zealand white rabbits for a period of 5 days (fig. S7). Histological analysis of extracted rabbits eyes with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining did not show any notable damage on the corneal epithelia, stroma, and endothelia of rabbits after wearing smart contact lenses for 3 and 5 days in comparison with the normal cornea of rabbits. Although our smart contact lens induced some degree of corneal swelling, it did not incite an inflammatory reaction after 5 days. The corneal swelling was likely caused by the poor oxygen transfer through the closed eyelid during sleep while wearing the contact lens, which leads to the accumulation of lactic acid and water inside the cornea as a result of osmotic shift. No infections or serious adverse ocular surface reactions or changes were observed with the lens in place. Overall, our results demonstrated the preliminary safety of the smart contact lens while placed on the eye.

After that, we carried out the assessment of the integrated smart contact lens on diabetic rabbit eyes for biosensing and drug delivery applications as schematically shown in Fig. 4A. The integrated wireless smart contact lens for glucose sensing only (fig. S8A) or that for both glucose sensing and drug delivery (fig. S8B) was worn on the rabbit eye and operated by wireless power transfer between an external transmitter coil and a receiver coil on the smart contact lens (fig. S8C). The portable power transmission system can be ultimately installed on smart glasses or smart phones as schematically shown in Fig. 4A. Diabetic rabbits were injected with insulin, anesthetized with ketamine, and fitted with our smart contact lens (movie S1). After wearing the smart contact lens, the ocular glucose sensor indicated the increase of glucose concentration up to 30.53 mg dl1 by contacting the tear glucose and then the decrease down to 16.72 mg dl1 by the insulin effect on the glucose metabolism, which was well matched with the blood glucose concentration profile determined by a glucometer (Fig. 4B). The real tear glucose level measured by glucose assay was well matched with the converted glucose level from the output current values. Parvizs group previously developed a contact lens sensor system and performed wireless glucose monitoring using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) eye model (20, 22). While the online sensor output current was in the range of 0 to 400 nA for the glucose concentration of 0 to 10.81 mg dl1 (20), the wireless sensor output current was in the range of 0 to 80 nA for the glucose concentration of 0 to 36.03 mg dl1 (22). In contrast, we wirelessly measure the real tear glucose level in a wide physiologically meaningful range of 0 to 49.9 mg dl1 in vitro and in vivo with the improved sensitivity (Figs. 2C and 4B and fig. S6C).

(A) Schematic illustration for in vivo diabetic diagnosis and therapy of the smart contact lens. (B) In vivo real-time wireless measurement of tear glucose levels with the smart contact lens. The blood and tear glucose levels were measured (i) after injection of insulin and anesthesia for wearing the smart contact lens in PBS. (ii) The tear glucose level increased due to the glucose in tears and decreased, reflecting the blood glucose level decrease due to the injected insulin. The blood glucose level was measured every 5 min with a commercial glucometer. (C) Fluorescence microscopic images of drugs absorbed in cornea, sclera, and retina of rabbits wearing the smart contact lens loaded with (top row) and without (bottom row) genistein. Scale bar, 0.1 mm. (D) Infrared thermal camera analysis for the temperature of the eye, smart contact lens, and transmitting coil after operating for 0, 15, and 30 min.

Furthermore, we could remotely trigger the release of antiangiogenic genistein from f-DDS on the smart contact lens by applying the electrical potential on-demand. Figure 4C shows the fluorescence microscopic images of cryo-sectioned cornea, sclera, and retina. The genistein released from the smart contact lens appeared to be effectively delivered through the cornea to the retina. The weak fluorescence in sclera revealed that genistein had passed through the sclera with little absorption. In the case of the control, no fluorescence was observed in the cryo-sectioned tissues of rabbits wearing the smart contact lens without genistein or the smart contact lens with genistein without electrical triggering for its release (Fig. 4C, below). From the results, we could confirm the feasibility of the smart contact lens for electrically controlled on-demand ocular therapeutic drug delivery (Table 1).

An infrared thermal camera showed no notable temperature change in the body of the smart contact lens on rabbit eyes (Fig. 4D). In the beginning, the temperature of the smart contact lens was 32.4C, that of the ocular surface was 34.4C, and that of the external coil was 32.0C. After 30 min of operation, the temperature of the smart contact lens was 33.8C with a temperature increase of 1.4C, that of the ocular surface was 34.8C with a temperature increase of 0.4C, and that of the external coil was 29.7C with a temperature decrease of 2.3C. The slight temperature increase revealed the thermal safety of our smart contact lens.

New Zealand white rabbits were divided into five groups to assess the therapeutic effect of genistein released from the smart contact lens on diabetic retinopathy compared to a series of control and comparator groups. The left eyes of rabbits were treated with a topical eye drop of PBS as a negative control in group 1, a topical eye drop of genistein in group 2, intravitreal injection of genistein in group 3, and intravitreal injection of Avastin as a positive control in group 4. The right eyes of all groups were treated with smart contact lenses containing genistein (which collectively comprised group 5). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) visualized the inhibitory effect of genistein released from the smart contact lens on the deformation of retinal vascular structure (Fig. 5A). The diabetic retinal vessels in Fig. 5A(iv) (left eye of group 4) and Fig. 5A(v) had a round shape surrounded by the thick vascular endothelial cell (EC) layers, which were comparable to that of the healthy rabbit (23). However, the vascular basement membrane appeared to be irregular and folded without the clear vascular EC layer in Fig. 5A(i) (left eye of group 1), reflecting increased vascular permeability and the blood-retinal barrier breakdown. In Fig. 5A(ii) (left eye of group 2) and Fig. 5A(iii) (left eye of group 3), the vessels had a round shape, but the surrounding vascular EC layers were not as thick as those in Fig. 5A(iv and v).

The eyes of diabetic rabbits were treated with (i) an eye drop of PBS (control), (ii) an eye drop of genistein, (iii) intravitreal injection of genistein, (iv) intravitreal injection of Avastin, and (v) genistein released from the smart contact lens. (A) Electron micrographs of the retinal vessels. L, lumen of vessel; EC, endothelial cell; RBC, red blood cell. Scale bar, 1 m. (B) Fluorescence angiograms of the retina (arrowheads, retinal vessels). Scale bar, 0.2 mm. (C) Histological analysis for the damage to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroidal vessels (CVs) (arrowheads, damage in CV). Scale bar, 0.1 mm. (D) Apoptosis detection in retina by TUNEL assay. Scale bar, 0.1 mm. (E) Merged images of immunohistochemistry staining for collagen type 4 (red) and PECAM-1 (green) with nuclear staining by 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (blue). Scale bar, 0.1 mm. (F) Fluorescence intensity of retinal choroidal neovascularization lesion quantified from the images of (B). (G) Fluorescence intensity of TUNEL assay quantified from the images of (D). (H) Immunochemical fluorescence intensity (E) of collagen type 4 (filled box) quantified from the images in fig. S9A (red) and PECAM-1 (dashed box) quantified from the images in fig. S9B (green) [n = 3, *P < 0.05 and **P < 0.01 versus the control sample of (i)].

Figure 5B shows fluorescence angiograms for the morphology of retinal vessels. While no clear morphology of vessels was observed in Fig. 5B(i and ii), retinal vessels (arrowheads) with clear morphology were observed with the notably decreased retinal vascular permeability in Fig. 5B(iv and v). Fluorescence was observed throughout the retinal parenchyma owing to the increased vascular leakage after blood-retinal barrier breakdown, as quantified in Fig. 5F. In Fig. 5B(iii), little fluorescence was observed with only a scant vasculature. The results of histological H&E analysis were consistent with those of TEM images and fluorescence angiograms (Fig. 5C). In addition, retinal cell death was validated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferasemediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay in retinal cross-sectioned images (Fig. 5D). Fluorescence of TUNEL assay was quantified by ImageJ program. When the mean fluorescence intensity in Fig. 5D(i) was set to be 100%, the mean percentage of fluorescence intensity was 76.0% in Fig. 5D(ii), 69.0% in Fig. 5D(iii), 37.0% in Fig. 5D(iv), and 45.1% in Fig. 5D(v) (Fig. 5G). Furthermore, the immunohistochemical staining for collagen type 4 and platelet EC adhesion molecule1 (PECAM-1) revealed the therapeutic effect of genistein released from the smart contact lens (Fig. 5E). The expression degree of collagen type 4 and PECAM-1 was lower in fig. S9(iv and v) than in fig. S9(i to iii) (Fig. 5H).

Smart electronic contact lens devices have been widely investigated for diagnostic applications, especially for continuous glucose monitoring and intraocular pressure monitoring. In addition, there have been many reports on the electrical and optical glucose sensing with improved sensitivity using various nanomaterials (2426). To improve the sensitivity, stability, and reproducibility, we immobilized GOx in the chitosan and PVA hydrogels together with BSA. PVA appeared to mitigate the problem of uneven coating and cracking by increasing the viscosity of the GOx mixture solution with the increased loss modulus (27). PVA was also reported to have a substantial effect on the sensitivity of glucose sensors (28, 29). As shown in Fig. 2, the glucose concentrations could be accurately measured from the electrical current change using our glucose sensor, showing the stability for the repeated glucose sensing even after storage for more than 63 days (Fig. 2E) and enabling the real-time continuous tear glucose monitoring in live rabbit eyes in comparison with the blood glucose sensing by a glucometer (Fig. 4B). In contrast, Parvizs group used a model eye and Parks group dropped glucose samples directly onto the rabbit eyes after wearing the smart contact lens for the assessment of their electrochemical glucose sensors, and there is no scientific journal report on in vivo glucose sensing of the Google lens (Table 1).

Despite the intensive effort for the commercial development of Google lens, they recently reported that there was insufficient consistency in their measurements of the correlation between tear glucose and blood glucose concentrations to support the requirements of a medical device. The disappointing clinical results might be associated with the challenges of obtaining reliable tear glucose readings in the complex on-eye environment. Although the correlation between tear and blood glucose concentrations remains controversial, there are many reports supporting the strong correlation between them (15, 1719). As shown in Fig. 4B, we could perform real-time continuous tear glucose monitoring in live rabbit eyes, which was strongly correlated with the blood glucose concentrations. We believe that with proper calibration and baseline monitoring, the changes in glucose concentrations can be measured reliably for each patient using the smart contact lens. This is similar to that of the FDA-approved Triggerfish lens that measures changes in intraocular pressure rather than an absolute intraocular pressure.

On top of that, our smart contact lens has a unique function of ocular drug delivery. To date, a variety of drug-eluting contact lenses have been developed using biodegradable polymer nanoparticles and micelles to improve the efficiency of ocular drug delivery. However, there has been no report on smart contact lenses with an electrically controlled on-demand DDS, possibly due to the difficulty in the miniaturization of all these electronic components onto the small contact lens. Antiangiogenic genistein and the glucose levelcontrolling metformin could be delivered from the f-DDS on the smart contact lens (Figs. 3 and 4 and fig. S3). The released genistein could be delivered through the cornea to the retina as shown in Fig. 4, exhibiting the therapeutic effect on diabetic retinopathy. This smart contact lens for wireless biosensing and therapeutic drug delivery might pave a new avenue to ubiquitous health care for further theranostic applications. Although metformin has been commercialized as an oral drug, its therapeutic effects through various other delivery routes have been well documented, such as transdermal delivery (25) and ocular delivery (30, 31). Berstein (31) reported that metformin is not simply an oral drug and that it influences many reactions and processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and oxidative stress in cell lines and, given these findings, stated that it is very reasonable to target metformin for topical and ocular delivery applications.

Concerning the safety issue of the smart contact lens, the wireless energy transfer system should be carefully investigated because of the possible ocular damage by the generated heat of the smart contact lens. In this context, we measured the heat from operating the contact lens using an infrared thermal camera, which showed no notable temperature change in the smart contact lens on rabbit eyes (Fig. 4D). The only slight temperature increase revealed the thermal safety of our smart contact lens. Optical images and histological analyses of corneas in the eyes of New Zealand white rabbits also confirmed the safety of our smart contact lens (fig. S7). From all these results, we could confirm the preliminary safety of our smart contact lens for further applications. Moreover, the FDA approval for the clinical use of Triggerfish is an important supporting information on the safety of smart contact lenses.

In summary, a smart electrochemical contact lens has been successfully developed with a glucose biosensor and an f-DDS controlled by wireless power and remote communication systems for both diabetic diagnosis and therapy. We demonstrated the real-time biosensing of glucose concentrations in the tear and on-demand therapeutic drug delivery of genistein for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy in diabetic rabbit eyes. The ocular glucose biosensor uniformly coated with GOx immobilized in the cross-linked hydrogels of chitosan and PVA with BSA showed high sensitivity, linearity, and stability for the repeated applications after long-time storage for 63 days. The genistein delivered from the smart contact lens through the cornea to the retina showed a comparable therapeutic effect to that by the intravitreal injection of Avastin on diabetic retinopathy. This smart theranostic contact lens will be investigated further as a next-generation wearable device to achieve the real-time biosensing of ocular biomarkers and on-demand medication for ubiquitous health care applications to various ocular and other diseases.

Silicone contact lens hydrogels were prepared under nitrogen by the photocrosslinking of 2-hydroethylmethacrylate (HEMA), silicone-containing monomers of 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate, 3-[tris(trimethylsiloxy)silyl]propyl methacrylate, and a cross-linker of ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) for 15 min using a photoinitiator of Darocur TPO, diphenyl(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phosphine oxide. As a control, PHEMA contact lens hydrogels were prepared by mixing HEMA and EGDMA with the photoinitiator. To form a contact lens shape, the precursor solution was loaded on a polypyrrole mold under ultraviolet (UV) light at a wavelength of 254 nm for 8 min. Silicone and PHEMA hydrogel contact lenses were detached from the mold and surface-treated under oxygen plasma (OptiGlow ACE, Glow Research). The prepared contact lens was completely submerged in PBS at 37C for a day before use.

ATR-FTIR (Tensor 27, Bruker) of dehydrated silicone hydrogel contact lens and lotrafilcon A was recorded over the 400 to 4000 cm1 range. The transmittance of silicone and PHEMA hydrogel contact lenses was measured using a UV-visible spectrometer (SD-1000, Scinco) after soaking in PBS for 24 hours. Both samples were placed in quartz plates, and the transmittance was measured at the wavelength range of 250 to 1000 nm. The EWC was determined by weighing the dried contact lens (Wdry) and the hydrated contact lens with soaking in PBS for 24 hours (Wwet). The value of EWC was calculated as the percentage of the weight gain during hydration and dehydration using the following equation: EWC = (Wwet Wdry)/Wdry 100 (32). The water contact angles on dried silicone and PHEMA contact lenses were measured in static mode by dropping 5 l of water every 2 min (SmartDrop, FemtoFAB).

Three WE, CE, and RE in the glucose sensor were patterned with 20-nm-thick chromium (Cr) and 80-nm-thick Pt on a 0.23-m-thick PET substrate using an electron beam evaporator. RE was additionally treated to form a 200-nm-thick silver (Ag) layer. For the long-term stability, all parts of the glucose sensor except WE, CE, and RE were passivated with Parylene C. For chlorination, the Ag layer was dipped in FeCl3 (1 M, Sigma-Aldrich) solution for 1 min. Then, PVA [2 weight % (wt %), 100,000 g mol1, Sigma-Aldrich] was dissolved in deionized water and chitosan (0.5 wt %, mid molecular weight, Sigma-Aldrich) was dissolved in acetic acid (1 M, Sigma-Aldrich) with vigorous stirring at 80C for 12 hours. BSA (10 mg ml1, Sigma-Aldrich) and GOx (50 mg ml1, Sigma-Aldrich) were dissolved in 2 wt % of PVA solution, which was mixed with the chitosan solution. The mixed solution was stored in a desiccator to remove bubbles. To uniformly fabricate a GOx layer only on the WE, all areas of the sensor except WE were passivated with PDMS. Then, glucose sensors were treated with UV in the presence of ozone for 10 min. After removing PDMS, 1.8 l of the prepared GOx mixture solution was dropped onto WE and dried in a desiccator. Last, 1.8 l of glutaraldehyde (2 wt %, Sigma-Aldrich) was dropped on the GOx layer and dried slowly at 4C.

In vitro electrical glucose measurements were conducted using a potentiostat (Ivium Tech. Co., AJ Eindhoven, The Netherlands) and a computer-controlled ADC (6030E, National Instruments). A 50-ml beaker was filled with 10 ml of PBS (1 M, pH 7.4). The glucose sensor was put into the beaker to dip the sensing area sufficiently in PBS. The glucose sensor detected the change of electrical current under a constant potential of 0.7 V versus Ag/AgCl for steady-state amperometric current responses. After stabilizing the glucose sensor, a high concentration of glucose solution (10,000 mg dl1, Wako) was added in PBS to slowly change the glucose concentration in the beaker from 5 to 50 mg dl1, and the change of current was monitored for the glucose quantification. To investigate the selectivity and specificity of the glucose sensor, the change of current was measured after adding the potentially interfering molecules such as A (0.1 M, Sigma-Aldrich), L (10 M, Sigma-Aldrich), and U (10 M, Sigma-Aldrich) in PBS. The long-term storage stability and the repeated usability of the glucose sensor were assessed at days 0, 21, 42, and 63 after fabricating the glucose sensors. The glucose sensors were stored at 20 to 25C in 5 ml of sterilized PBS (1 M, pH 7.4), similar to the conventional contact lens storage condition.

On-demand f-DDS was prepared by the LLO process. First, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) exfoliation and SiO2 buffer layers were grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Anode and cathode electrodes of the f-DDS were covered with 10-nm-thick Ti, 80-nm-thick Au, and 10-nm-thick Ti by e-beam evaporation and lithography. The reservoirs were patterned with 100-m-thick negative photoresists (SU8-5 and SU8-50) with dimensions of 500 m by 500 m. As a model drug, 25 nl of genistein (3 M, Sigma-Aldrich) or metformin (2 M) with rhodamine B (Sigma-Aldrich) dye was loaded in the reservoirs. Subsequently, drug-loaded reservoirs were sealed with a flexible PET film. The XeCl excimer laser was exposed on the back side of the glass substrate to separate the SU-8 drug reservoir on the PET film from the glass substrate. For the mechanical bending test, the entire f-DDS was bent with a bending radius in the range of 5 to 30 mm and the electrical current was measured with a probe station. The durability of the f-DDS was assessed by applying 1000 bending cycles at a fixed bending radius of 5 mm.

The drug release in response to applied voltage was investigated by connecting anode and cathode electrodes with the probe station. The constant electrical potential of 1.8 V was applied between anode and cathode electrodes for 1 min. Rhodamine dye released from the reservoir was visualized by confocal microscopy (Leica) using the corresponding imaging software (FluoView). The excitation wavelength was 543 nm and the emission wavelength was in the range of 560 to 610 nm. The concentration of released genistein and metformin in PBS was quantified with a spectrofluorometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific) at excitation/emission wavelengths of 355/460 nm and 485/538 nm, respectively.

To fit into a contact lens, a wireless power receiver composed of a copper (Cu) coil was prepared with a thickness of 0.1 mm and an outer diameter of 1.2 mm. PDMS was spin-coated on a glass substrate, attaching 0.1 mm of Cu foil (Sigma-Aldrich). After polymerization of PDMS in an oven at 70C for 1 hour, the Cu foil was patterned by photolithography. The foil was wet-etched in 5 ml of ammonium persulfate solution (12 mg ml1) for 6 hours and detached from the PDMS. Then, the Cu coil was rinsed with acetone, ethanol, and distilled water for 10 min with sonication, respectively. The power transmitting coil was fabricated using four-turned Cu wire (Sigma-Aldrich) with a thickness of 1 mm and an outer diameter of 5 cm.

The wireless power transmission system consisted of a Cu power transmitter coil, a Cu power receiver coil in a contact lens, a function generator (AFG 3101, Tektronix), a commercial power amplifier module (MAX 7060), and an ASIC chip. The power amplifier module was used to supply sufficient power to the ASIC chip. The transmitter coil transferred the power to the receiver coil by resonant inductive coupling. The receiver coil embedded in the contact lens was aligned in parallel to the transmitter coil with a distance from 0 to 4 cm to measure its efficiency. The efficiency of wireless power transmission between two coils was measured by using a network analyzer (N5230A, Agilent).

The ASIC chip is custom-built by multiwafer process fabrication. The ASIC chip was fabricated by Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company using a 180-nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The PMU rectified incoming alternating current (ac) energy from the coil to direct current (dc) supply voltage and generated various regulated voltages for other subunits. An RCU transmitted data through 433-MHz on-off keying modulation. A reference clock generator (CLKREF) was implemented with a relaxation oscillator for the system timing. A potentiostat with three nodes (WE, RE, and CE) was integrated into the ASIC chip by Au flip-chip bonding. The potentiostat applied a voltage bias of 1.2 V on the RE and 1.85 V on the WE using an operational amplifier with negative feedback. The change of electrical current was monitored in real time by dropping the glucose sample solution. An integrated ADC received the current input from the potentiostat and converted it to a 15-bit digital output code (33). The output codes were then externally transmitted through the ISM frequency band of 433 MHz using the RCU. The current sensing performance of ADC was measured by applying current input from a current supplier (B2961A, Agilent). To suppress the effect of large noise from the equipment, software-based filtering was applied to the measured digital codes. The RF receiver module passed the received data to the AVR, and the AVR communicated with a PC using an RS-232 protocol. The software decoded the data packets and displayed the raw data to the PC.

The PMU wirelessly received AC power and converted it into DC with a MOS-based rectifier, generating the external rectified voltage (VEXT). A bandgap reference circuit generated a reference voltage of 1.2 V, which was up-converted to 1.85 V and buffered with a regulator to provide an internal supply voltage (VINT), driving overall control logic blocks of the ASIC chip. For controlled drug delivery, anode and cathode electrodes in the f-DDS were connected to the PMU that selectively operated the f-DDS according to control commands received from the external reader.

The RCU consisted of a 433-MHz tuned inductor-capacitor (LC) transmitter and its control logics. Control logics serialized the ADC output and patched a predefined header to define the packet boundary. The carrier frequency was determined by internal capacitors with an external loop antenna (L). Data modulation was performed by controlling the impedance change of the LC transmitter that could be observed by the external reader. An ASK receiver in the reader demodulated the impedance change, recovering transmitted data from the ASIC chip. The remote telemetry was formed with the ASIC chip, a receiver module, an AVR (Atmega-128), and data processing software written in Java.

Because of the restriction to the ocular field of vision, a power receiver coil, a biosensor, and an f-DDS were fabricated on the peripheral area of a contact lens. The Cu power receiver coil was attached onto the ultrathin PET film (25 m) with f-DDS using adhesive PDMS. The ASIC chip was implemented through the standard 0.18-m CMOS process and diced into dimensions of 1.5 mm by 1.5 mm by 0.2 mm by chemical polishing and mechanical sawing. Afterward, the diced ASIC chip was attached, and WE, CE, and RE of the biosensor were deposited on the PET substrate. The power receiver coil, electrodes of the biosensor, and f-DDS were electrically connected with the ASIC chip using Au flip-chip bonding. For insulation and waterproofing, all devices on the PET substrate were coated with Parylene C and PDMS except for the sensing channel of the biosensor and the exposed electrodes of the f-DDS. Last, the integrated devices were molded into silicone hydrogels to fabricate a smart contact lens.

For in vivo glucose monitoring and diabetic retinopathy treatment, streptozotocin (STZ)induced diabetic rabbit models were prepared by single injection of STZ (65 mgkg1) (1% STZ solution, diluted with 0.1 M citrate buffer, pH 4.4) to New Zealand white rabbits (2.0 kg) via the ear vein after fasting for 12 hours. After STZ injection, the rabbits with a plasma glucose concentration higher than 140 mg dl1 were considered diabetic.

For in vivo real-time glucose monitoring, smart contact lenses were worn on each diabetic rabbits eye, and the power transmitter coil was placed outside the eyes to transfer the wireless power to the receiver coil on the smart contact lens. The voltage was applied onto the glucose sensor in a pulsed manner, and the electrical measurement of glucose concentration was performed in real time with remote data transmission. Before 15 min of wireless tear glucose sensing, 2 U of insulin was injected to decrease the blood glucose level. After 5 min, ketamine was injected into diabetic rabbits for anesthetization. PBS was dropped onto the diabetic rabbits eyes, and the smart contact lens was worn on the eye to start the wireless tear glucose monitoring.

The penetration of genistein released from smart contact lenses into eyes was investigated after positioning of the genistein-loaded smart contact lens onto rabbit eyes with wireless powering to operate the f-DDS. After 1 hour, the penetration of genistein was confirmed by fluorescence microscopic analysis in cryo-sectioned tissue of cornea, sclera, and retina using a fluorescence microscope (Fluoroskan Ascent, Thermo Fisher Scientific) at an excitation wavelength of 355 nm and an emission wavelength of 460 nm.

For the electron microscopic analysis of retinal blood vessels, the retinas were enucleated and fixed in 4 wt % glutaraldehyde and 1 wt % osmium tetroxide solution. The samples were dehydrated with ethanol and sectioned to observe the cross section of retinal blood vessels by TEM (JEM-1010, JEOL). Histological analysis was performed with H&E staining of retinas fixed in 4% (w/v) paraformaldehyde for 24 hours.

The treatment of diabetic retinopathy using the smart contact lens was performed for 5 days on the right eyes of rabbits in five groups. The electrical power was wirelessly transmitted at a frequency of about 433 MHz using a power transmission coil to operate the f-DDS. As a control, an eye drop of PBS (0.05 ml, group 1), an eye drop of genistein (0.4 mM, 0.05 ml, group 2), and intravitreal injection of genistein (0.4 mM, 0.05 ml, group 3) were performed on the left eyes of each rabbit at the same time with the smart contact lens treatment. In addition, intravitreal injection of Avastin (0.05 ml, group 4) was performed on the left eye of rabbits. The right eyes of all groups were treated with smart contact lenses containing genistein (group 5).

The rabbit eyes were placed in 4% paraformaldehyde for 45 min. After fixation, retinas were dissected and flattened by applying curve-relieving cuts. The retinas were then fixed for an additional 1 hour. The retinas were washed twice with PBS and incubated with a 0.2% solution of Triton X-100 in PBS at room temperature for 1 hour. Last, vessels were stained with fluorescein isothiocyanatelabeled lectin from Bandeiraea simplicifolia (1:100, Sigma-Aldrich).

TUNEL assay was performed following the standard protocol. The immunostaining of collagen type IV and PECAM-1 was performed according to the manufacturers protocols. The following antibodies were used: PECAM-1 antibody (sc-18916, Santa Cruz Biotechnology) and collagen type IV antibody (ab6586, Abcam). Nuclei were counterstained with 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. The images of vasculature were obtained at 10 magnification. All fluorescence intensity was quantified by ImageJ program.

All experiments were performed in accordance with the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology Statement for the Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research. The animal protocol was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at the College of Medicine, the Catholic University of Korea.

We performed one-sided statistical analyses using Students t tests or one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni posttest. P < 0.05 was considered statistically notable. The quantification of fluorescence images was performed using ImageJ program. All data points were derived from three or more biological or technical replicates, as indicated for each experiment.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, so long as the resultant use is not for commercial advantage and provided the original work is properly cited.

Acknowledgments: Funding: This work was financially supported by Samsung Science & Technology Foundation (SRFC-IT1401-03) in Korea. This research was supported by the Center for Advanced Soft-Electronics (Global Frontier Project, CASE-2015M3A6A5072945) and the Basic Science Research Program (2017R1E1A1A03070458 and 2020R1A2C3014070) of the National Research Foundation (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT, Korea. This work was also supported by the World Class 300 Project (S2482887) of the Small and Medium Business Administration (SMBA), Korea. D.M. was supported by the National Eye Institute (K08EY028176 and P30-EY026877) and the Research to Prevent Blindness Foundation. Author contributions: S.K.H. conceived and supervised the project, designed experiments, interpreted data, and wrote the manuscript. D.H.K. and S.-K.K. performed experiments, collected samples, analyzed and interpreted data, and wrote the manuscript. J.K., C.J., B.H.M., K.J.L., E.K., and S.H.Y. contributed to preparing and designing the smart contact lens. G.-H.L., S.S., J.-Y.S., and Z.B. contributed to designing and performing the electrical experiments. J.W.M. and C.J. contributed to designing and performing the animal experiments. D.M. contributed to analyzing and interpreting the data and revising the manuscript. All authors contributed to critical reading and revision of this manuscript. Competing interests: S.H.Y., E.K., K.J.L., D.H.K., C.-K.J., and S.K.H. are inventors on a patent related to this work filed by Harvard Medical School and PHI Biomed Co. (no. US 2016/0223842A1, filed 4 August 2016). K.J.L., B.H.M., D.H.K., and S.K.H. are inventors of a patent related to this work filed by POSTECH and PHI Biomed Co. [no. US 10,399,291B2, filed 3 September 2019, registered in the United States and Korea (10-2016-0050139), and applied in Japan (2018-507476) and Europe (16783461.3)]. The authors declare that they have no other competing interests. Data and materials availability: All data needed to evaluate the conclusions in the paper are present in the paper and/or the Supplementary Materials. Additional data related to this paper may be requested from the authors.

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What is true and not true about the new Coronavirus? – The European Sting

§ April 29th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on What is true and not true about the new Coronavirus? – The European Sting

(Credit: Unsplash)

This article was exclusively written forThe European Sting by Mr. Florea Danut-George, a second year medical student at Gr. T. Popa Iasi, Romania. He is affiliated to the International Federation of Medical Students Associations (IFMSA), cordial partner of The Sting. The opinions expressed in this piece belong strictly to the writer and do not necessarily reflect IFMSAs view on the topic, nor The European Stings one.

As we know, in all its history, humanity has had different notable fights with different microscopic infectious agents from the Classic Antiquity, with the Antonine Plague, all way though Middle Ages, with the Black Death, and up to the 20th centenary, with the Spanish flu, and even nowadays, with the HIV/SIDA. At this moment people grant their attention to a new global health matter, the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCov). But what do we actually know about this new virus? Is it that dangerous as we tend to believe?

What we know so far about coronaviruses in general?

By the end of the last year, China alerted the World Heath Organization about several cases of human respiratory infections, produced by 2019 Novel Coronavirus.[1] The 2019-nCov is a member of the family Coronaviridae, that is organized in 4 major groups. Even though only 2 of these groups are known to infect humans, the most of coronaviruses affect exclusive different animal species, for example cats, dogs, rats, cattle, pigs. The epidemiologic researches show that these viruses are the second etiological factor of the common cold, after rhinoviruses, being responsible for 10-30% of colds worldwide. From its discover, in 1937, coronaviruses have rarely produced sever infection, such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome[2].

How does it spread?

Typically of the most of respiratory viruses, it spreads in a person-to-person manner via respiratory droplets produced by an infected person who sneezes or coughs. These droplets can land on peoples mouth or nose who are nearby causing the infection. Other ways of spreading are not clearly noticed yet.[3]

What are the symptoms?

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of USA, after the first exposure, the first symptoms of infection may appear in 2 to 14 days. The signs of a possible contact of the virus are fever, cough, shortness of breath.[4]

Can it be prevented?

Although we do not have an vaccine for 2019-nCov yet, we can prevent the transmission by following a couple of easy-doing rules:

What is not true about this virus?

According to the World Health Organization, the most common myths about the 2019-nCov are:

References:

[1] https://www.elsevier.com/connect/coronavirus-information-center?dgcid=_FB_P_Connect&fbclid=IwAR1DqHFDKroPtn5GM9IZxJ4x2x-aJWC4Vk90NCsq7VlwRBpxTSQt18gqed0

[2] https://asm.org/Articles/2020/January/2019-Novel-Coronavirus-2019-nCoV-Update-Uncoating

[3] https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/transmission.html

[4] https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/symptoms.html

[5] https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/advice-for-public

[6] https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/advice-for-public/myth-busters

About the author

Florea Danut-George is a second year medical student at Gr. T. Popa Iasi, Romania. He is spending most of his spear time volunteering for the medical students association from his university. Though his activity as volunteer, he is trying to make a change in his community. He participats at awareness campaigns about public health, sexual and reproductive heath and human rights matters, also he dedicates himself to improving the students experiences in his university through organizing different activities with medical education as theme.

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What is true and not true about the new Coronavirus? - The European Sting

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BARBARA LEEDOM: Some people will believe the most laughable nonsense – Wicked Local

§ April 29th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on BARBARA LEEDOM: Some people will believe the most laughable nonsense – Wicked Local

"The humourless (sic) has no idea what is going on and cant make sense of anything at all." Martin Amis

Last Sunday, rain and chill and continued hunkering. Theres nothing humorous about the venomous virus that continues to infect people. What is humorous are some of the absurdities surrounding this bunch of microbes not yet understood. How people can believe junk science (an oxymoron that has no meaning) and conspiracy theories and beliefs that border on the ridiculous?

An otherwise astute woman reasoned this: If disinfectants can rid our sinks of germs, why cant disinfectants rid our bodies of the corona virus?

Because, otherwise astute woman, our bodies are alive and our sinks are not. This seems to be a natural sentence, but not for her. She shakes her head in defiance. You want to tell her what shes saying is, well, humorous, but shrug and glad to be six feet away from astute woman who you now think isnt so astute.

A Randy Rainbow song parody makes fun with the ditty with the tune of A Spoonful of Sugar Makes the Medicine Go down with this: A spoonful of Clorox makes the temperature go down in the most delightful way Yes, we see humor in the absurd.

Last week, former NYC once-esteemed Mayor Rudy Giuliani said in an interview on Fox News: We should trace everybody for cancer, and heart disease. And obesity. I mean, a lot of things kill you more than COVID-19. So, we should be traced for all those things. I mean, life possesses a certain degree of risk. Why would he have made such an absurd statement? Cancer and obesity and heart disease are contagious? No, Mayor. We and you know they are not. What a funny thing to say, but, in this case, Mr. Mayor didnt intend to be humorous.

Last weeks Saturday Night Live, Brad Pitt as Dr. Anthony Fauci. He was humorous, looked like the nations esteemed Doc, talked like our now beloved doctor-in-charge. Then he removed his disguise, stared into the sterile camera, and gave Dr. Fauci his and all of our thanks. Brad Pitt, pitter-patter, was in a most sincere moment.

Some people will believe the most laughable nonsense. Why is that? Heres sick humor at its most extreme: Bill Gates, yes, that Bill Gates of Microsoft fame, wants to depopulate earth. He is doing this by injecting people with microdots. Gates has pledged a quarter of a billion dollars to the effort to develop a COVID-19 vaccine. A version of this theory is on a YouTube video. It was posted by the Law of Liberty Baptist Church. Another is featured in social-media posts by Diamond and Silk, two women bloggers and social media pundits, who profess the rise in COVID-19 deaths to American media that want to make Trump look bad. (The Wrap, retrieved March 31)

Heres another doozy: The United States engineered and spread the virus using a bicycling G.I. who attended the Military World Games in Wuhan last October.

On Monday this week, MSN reported Maatje Benassi, a U.S. Army reservist and mother of two, is the newest target of the lie that she brought the disease to China. Chinas social media is all over this one. "It's like waking up from a bad dream going into a nightmare day after day," Maatje Benassi told CNN Business.

Social media abounds with hilarious and outrageous theories, proclamations, announcements, advice and admonitions about that blossom-like microscopic thing that infects and kills. Thats not humorous. What is, though, is what people in times of crises come to believe. Scientists question every theory and encourage conversations among their colleagues. Peer reviews of articles and papers are what new theories are all about. But, no matter how many theories prove to be true, there are people who still believe the earth is flat and humans and dinosaurs lived at the same time.

Unbelievable.

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Colon Infection: The reason behind the death of actor Irrfan Khan – Primetime

§ April 29th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Colon Infection: The reason behind the death of actor Irrfan Khan – Primetime

Inflammation of the inner lining of the colon is called colitis.There are many types of this.Infection is caused by infection, poor blood supply, or parasites. In all these conditions, inflammation, irritation, and cramps occur in the colon. Many times symptoms like abdominal pain, diarrhea, and torsion emerge in this disease.

Colitis infection is usually caused by viruses, bacteria, and parasites. Sometimes it can also be caused by dirty water, food poisoning, or hydrogen.

Inflammatory bowel syndrome (IBD) IBD is a group of chronic disease that causes inflammation of the digestive system.Two main types of IBD Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis.

Ischemic colitis When the blood flow in one part of the colon decreases, it can cause ischemic colitis.

Allergic reaction Allergic colitis is found in children more than adults.Especially in newborn babies.This disease affects about two-three percent of infants.

Microscopic colitis Microscopic colitis is caused by an increase in lymphocytes.This colitis can only be seen through a microscope.

Sometimes medicines cause colon infection.

Sometimes, some anti-inflammatory medicines also cause inflammation in the colon.Most of the doctors consider NSAIDS medicine as the condition.Thismedicine is used for along timein many people, especially in the elderly.Because of this also there is a risk of colitis infection.

Symptoms There are many reasons behind colon infection.If the causes of infection are different, the symptoms will also be different.Some symptoms are common.Symptoms such as fever, uncontrollable loose motion, nausea, dizziness, sickness, weight loss, and constant tiredness are prominent among them. Many times a terrible stomach ache is felt during diarrhea.In such conditions, one should immediately go to the doctor.

Treatment Doctors say that the treatment depends on the type of colitis.Treatment includes anti-inflammatory medications, antibiotics, supplements, surgery and some changes in daily lifestyle.

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Good Weather to Kill a Bad Virus | David Nabhan – The Times of Israel

§ April 29th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Good Weather to Kill a Bad Virus | David Nabhan – The Times of Israel

The world has certainly learned some terribly costly lessons in having been stampeded hither and yon over the last months concerning the COVID-19 outbreak. If common sense can be brought to bear before any irreparable damage is done, many of them will be positive though.

Its seen now, for example, that the World Health Organization (WHO), an adjunct of a United Nations that has spent the last few decades ceaselessly pillorying the state of Israel, is first dedicated to shilling for the political agenda of the enemies of the West and only secondarily concerned with the health of any citizen anywhere. The United States, stunned to find that the leadership of WHO has been dissembling from the very start of this crisis, lying in order to protect China while shockingly leaving the other two hundred nations of the world to whatever fate that may cause, has quite appropriately suspended all funding to this organization. That action has been a long time in coming and hopefully Israel and every other country having been nefariously betrayed by WHO will consider also refraining from funding an agency that holds them in such utter contempt as to aid and abet the spread of viral infections throughout their populations.

Yet another painfully obvious lesson in all this is one that has been forgotten and learned over and over again since the dawn of modern science in the 1500s. Contemporary civilization adheres to something called the scientific method for a reason. Without it the world is lost. Its the only thing that stands between a sophisticated society and superstitions, trials by combat and fire, bloodletting, witch-hunting, miasmas and treatments by leeching.

The frenetic blundering and back-pedaling of politicians, scientists, doctors, and the media in recent weeks has been eye-opening and much of it hardly in concert with the scientific method or any otherfrom pronouncements that wearing a mask was useless to countermanding orders that wearing a mask is mandatory, from estimates that the virus was exponentially and disastrously more virulent than the flu to realizations that its potency is a full order of magnitude at least weaker than the fear-mongering scenario seemed to scream.

Those all-seeing alarmists, talking off the top of their heads and looking over their shoulders at their political handlers to make sure the powers that be were nodding in agreement, have seemed to take real glee in ripping the heart out of the economic, industrial, commercial and social fabric of the West. And weve seen enough of them and their charts, prophesies and nation-crushing lock-downs. Their cooked statistics and upside-down projections have mostly fallen flat. Prudent voices who arent apt to wildly predict and tend to err on the side of what we actually know arent looking to the talking heads in the press to bring an end to this bizarre episode in history. Theyre banking on something else, something real and tangible: the weather.

There is a season for all respiratory viruses, just like influenza. COVID-19 is no exception. Notwithstanding whether its more or less virulent than the flu, in spite of its shape, chemistry or any other factor, this virus must obey the ideal gas laws and Newtons gravitational constant. Even if it were from Mars it would be constrained to do so.

Respiratory viruses are expelled through the mouth from the lungs and throat and therefore are dispersed into the air jacketed within a microscopic droplet of moisture. In the cold, dry weather of winter that dollop of water immediately evaporates, freeing the viral unit from its heavy coating of water and allowing it to remain airborne, floating at the proper height to be inhaled by the next passerby.

In summer, on the other hand, the virus faces some daunting challenges in continuing to race through infected populations. Warm and humid weather doesnt favor the spread. In these conditions the relatively heavy water shell around the virus doesnt evaporate, clings to the viral unit, and gravity drags it down to the ground where its far less likely to be inhaled by the next potential victim.

Those eager to destroy the infrastructure of the West, however, arent interested in how this and every other virus should go away on its own as has been the case since Homo sapiens has been walking the planet. Their answer is to burn civilization down in order to stamp it out, and its incumbent on the rest of us to put an end to their self-destruction since their hoped-for mass die-off most certainly includes us.

Those peddling interminable quarantine suffer from the staggeringly blind delusion that the trillions of goods and services that keeps billions alive on this planet are all delivered by the food fairies. As it is, even if the world were to wake up and end its suicidal planetary lock-down immediately, there will still be quite a few people around the world who will die owing to the panic-mongering bungling of the last weekseven as we finally wake up and rush to resuscitate the planet.

Countless people are going to be doomed to expire not from the virus, but from the entire world taking a bizarre months-long global house-arrest. Anyone, for example, caught in one of the dozens of armed conflicts around the world and fleeing warlords bands, or struggling desperately against malaria, famine and other maladies, isnt going to receive any aid from anyone anywhere, obviously, and the result is going to be the only thing it can be: death. Electricity, food, shoes, coats, medicine, transportation and every other of the trillions of interconnected goods and services that make the uber-sophisticated world go around arent left under our pillows by winged deities waving wands.

That a supposedly modern population has become so pampered, gutless, intellectually weak and atrophied to have convinced themselves that without their own work they still wont perish is truly astounding.

David Nabhan is a science and science fiction writer. He is the author of "Earthquake Prediction: Dawn of the New Seismology" (2017) and three other books on seismic forecasting.

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FOOD HABITS Amid Corona Outbreak – NorthEast Today

§ April 29th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on FOOD HABITS Amid Corona Outbreak – NorthEast Today

Sisir

What to eat or not eat! That is the question hovering around everyones mind diring the outbreak of this deadly coronavirus.

One microscopic organism has brought the world to a standstill and the prime suspects for the same are the unhealthy food habits in a small region of a particular country.

As of now there is no established treatment for this disease so treatments are given according to the symptoms. But since its a virus, the best possible way is to maintain cleanliness and strengthen your immunity.

This writeup is about how you can naturally boost your immune system by adopting some simple food habits and protect yourself and your friends and family from this pandemic situation.

Water : Staying hydrated is the first step of staying healthy. Be it CoronaVirus or any othervirus, or any other health condition,

Indian Gooseberry and Grapes : Amla or Indian Gooseberry is one of the best sources of vitamin C and minerals which is essential for the human immune system and so are grapes. Both of them being seasonal fruits, must be consumed at this time.

Citrus Fruits : Primarily because of their high Vitamin C, fruits of the citrus family have long been considered as perfect immune boosters by traditional as well as scientific way of medicine. Vitamin C gives the human body the power to fight any form of infection, be it viral, bacterial, or any other source. Examples are oranges, lemons, pomella etc.

Green Leafy Vegetables : Rich in minerals and vitamins, green vegetables are essential parts of the human diet. These minerals and vitamins are necessary for the proper functioning of the human body. Spinach, coriander, mustard, ferns, cabbages. etc are must for a healthy meal.

Fruits : Fresh seasonal fruits like apples, beets, cucumbers, jackfruits, kiwis, mangoes, guava, strawberries, etc. are rich in minerals and antioxidants which are very essential for the human body. They are also rich in fibres which helps in cleaning up the human body. Wild berries are considered superfood because of its low sugar and high minerals and vitamins.

Iron rich food : Iron is essential fo

Fresh juice : Fresh fruit and vegetable juices not only keep you hydrated and also refill essential vitamins, minerals and antioxidants needed by man. It also has a very less amount of sugar compared to any packaged drink or aerated drink thus making them way healthier than the rest of the drinks.

Proper cooking : Any kind of non vegetarian item, be it fish, eggs or any variety of meat, should be properly cooked before consumption. Uncooked or semi cooked meat or fish can be a carrier of many types of infections, hence it should be avoided even in normal conditions.

Expert Opinion

Viral infection are self limiting. So, we need to eat well, sleep well and keep ourselves hydrated . Immunity plays an important role in fighting viral infections. Hence, high protein diets, vitamin C, vitamin B Complex are highly recommended. Lots of fluids to be taken. Loss of sleep is detrimental. So, people should eat well, stay well, sanitise themselves, wash the peripheral and exposed parts of the body frequently and should follow social distancing.

-Dr. Apurba Chanda Medical Officer

(The author is a food expert & Social Media Influencor)

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Addressing the potential impact of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on Growth of Innovations in Nanomedicine Market by Major Players, Size, Industry…

§ April 29th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Addressing the potential impact of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on Growth of Innovations in Nanomedicine Market by Major Players, Size, Industry…

Analysis Report on Nanomedicine Market

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