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She uses nanotech to make herbal products – The Hindu

§ October 5th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotech Comments Off on She uses nanotech to make herbal products – The Hindu

It has been raining on and off and as one enters Subashree Vijays house in south Chennai, a mixture of pleasant scents waft through the doors. The 200-odd herbal plants on her terrace give the feel of being transported to a mini forest. Last week, Prime Minister Narendra Modi mentioned her as a woman entrepreneur who was working with herbal products in his Mann Ki Bath.

I had taken an online entrepreneurship course on medical plants from the Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants under the Indian Council for Agricultural Research. And as part of the course, I had to submit a product idea, which was selected for incubation. It was a herbal deodoriser, a substitute for naphthalene balls. I gave an improved version and with their guidance I am doing research on that, explained Ms. Subashree, who is currently using her learnings from her M.Sc. Physics in her research. She is now working on the application of nanotechnology in herbal products.

I got married as soon as I finished college and then my family became my priority. But a chance meeting with a traditional siddha practitioner, Nellai Nayakam, changed all that. I started out to assist him and he introduced me to the texts and soon herbs became my passion. I kept attending training programmes, learning about herbs from botanists, traditional practitioners and from tribals. In 2011, I started Atri, my company with three verticals, selling food products, herbal cosmetics and herbal plants, she explained.

Apart from her work with the herbal deodoriser, she also helps set up thematic herbal gardens for schools and colleges, runs a seed bank and sells medicinal plants. Every home should have at least 10 basic medicinal plants for respiratory and digestive issues. Tulsi, Aloevera, Manathakkali, lemon grass and thoothuvalai are some that can be easily grown. Apartment complexes can have community herbal gardens, she said.


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MMAT Stock: 9 Things to Know About the Latest Meta Materials Merger – InvestorPlace

§ October 5th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotech Comments Off on MMAT Stock: 9 Things to Know About the Latest Meta Materials Merger – InvestorPlace

Meta Materials (NASDAQ:MMAT) is a company on the radar of many a retail trader. The companys interesting business model has brought attention to it, especially as broader interest shifts toward scientific ventures in space. Investors have also taken notice of Metas short squeeze potential, with institutions continuing to short MMAT stock even with retail interest. Its aggressive M&A strategy, above all else, serves to create stepping stones toward growing its increasingly popular business. And news of its most recent merger is making investors quite optimistic today.


The Canadian-based Meta Materials seeks to push the boundaries of what we can do with light. Its focus is in creating smart materials ones that can use light and physics in ways which we traditionally dont think of. Its a very open-ended business operation since its pushing into spaces untouched by others; investors might not know what to expect next.

Metas newest merger exemplifies its mission wonderfully, pairing metamaterials and nanotechnologies. Heres everything you need to know about the news.

On the date of publication, Brenden Rearick did not have (either directly or indirectly) any positions in the securities mentioned in this article. The opinions expressed in this article are those of the writer, subject to the InvestorPlace.comPublishing Guidelines.

Article printed from InvestorPlace Media,

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Global Double Side Polished (DSP) Wafers Market Potential Growth, Share, Demand and Analysis of Key Players- Research Forecasts to 2026 – Northwest…

§ October 5th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotech Comments Off on Global Double Side Polished (DSP) Wafers Market Potential Growth, Share, Demand and Analysis of Key Players- Research Forecasts to 2026 – Northwest…

The Global Double Side Polished (DSP) Wafers Market research includes market forecast information such as market revenue, manufacturer size, production and consumption ratios, as well as a CAGR value. The research discusses the most important market influencing variables, such as market growth, development status, and other industry-specific challenges. The Double Side Polished (DSP) Wafers market covers entire study patterns of the future market, as well as major driving elements. It also includes a detailed study of the top major players, as well as sector analyses.

The up-to-date research report on Double Side Polished (DSP) Wafers market highlights all the crucial aspects impacting the industry dynamics such as prevailing trends, primary growth drivers, restraints, and lucrative prospects so as to guide businesses and other stakeholders in making appropriate decisions for the upcoming years. Moreover, it recommends various practices to tackle the existing and upcoming obstacles in the vertical.

Further, the document provides a detailed account of each market segment and recognizes all the important factors that will contribute to their growth. It also compares the past and current industry scenario to decode the growth trajectory to be followed by the market and sub-markets over the analysis timeframe (2021-2027).

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Moving ahead, the report hosts a separate section that describes the competitive hierarchy of this marketplace, along with details about emerging players and new participants. It presents in-depth business profiles as well as strategic plans undertaken by the listed organizations.

Key pointers from the Double Side Polished (DSP) Wafers market report table of contents:

Product type

Application spectrum

Regional terrain

Competitive arena

To review, the report offers a meticulous analysis of Double Side Polished (DSP) Wafers market by methodically examining the growth potential of its various segments. It further performs an inspection of the industry supply chain in accordance with the leading distribution channels, downstream clients, and upstream suppliers, to aid businesses in successfully executing new product/service introduction plans.

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How Vietnams NanoDragon Nanosatellite is Helping to Level the Aerospace Playing Field – AZoNano

§ October 5th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotech Comments Off on How Vietnams NanoDragon Nanosatellite is Helping to Level the Aerospace Playing Field – AZoNano

The launch of Vietnam's new nano-layer CubeSat satellite, NanoDragon, marks the accelerating pace of the county's aerospace industry. Experts believe that Vietnam will make a significant step toward safeguarding its national security by expanding its aerospace sector. It is a model to other smaller countries, demonstrating the possibilities of how becoming established in the aerospace industry can aid economic, social, and technological development.

Image Credit:Freedom_Marussia/

Spacecraft is put under extreme stress due to the harsh environment of space and the strains of entering and exiting atmospheres. Due to this challenging environment, the aerospace industry has a significant demand for new materials and electronics that can enhance the properties of these spacecraft structures and allow them to manage extreme conditions better.

Engineers and scientists have focussed their efforts on exploring the realm of nanoparticles, a relatively new field of science concerning nano-sized particles that have unique properties to their bulk-sized counterparts. Often, nanoparticles are incredibly lightweight while having high strength and durability; they are also highly efficient electrical conductors. In combination, these characteristics give nanoparticles great potential to develop next-generation aerospace systems.

As the field of nanomaterials begins to mature, the way spacecraft are engineered will feel a profound shift. Advances in nanotechnology are likely to be influential in helping to overcome the current limitations of space travel.

Under the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, the Vietnam National Space Centre (VNSC) has developed a nano-layer CubeSat satellite known as NanoDragon. The satellite is due to be launchedfrom the Uchinoura Space Center in Japan.

Weighing just 3.8 kg, the satellite is comparable in weight to its predecessor, the 1kg microsatellite PicoDragon. It is also just a fraction of the weight of the 50kg MicroDragon satellite previously launched. These two previous satellites were also developed by the VNSC and launched in 2013 and 2019, respectively. Following the launch of the NanoDragon, the VNCS plan to launch the earth observation satellite, the LOTUSat-1, in 2023.

The NanoDragon is not only a feat of technology in that it leverages nanotechnology into CubeSat technology; it is also part of a more comprehensive space program launched by Vietnam, marking a profound step forward for the country in the field of aerospace.

Traditional satellites are launched into orbit and then powered by the sun's radiation as well as the sun's rays that reflect off the Earth. Cubesats, on the other hand, also transmit heat back out into space or towards the surface of the Earth, which are cooler than that of the satellite. The development of CubeSats began in 1999 at Stanford University, with the goal of overcoming industry-related challenges. During this period, satellite technology was expensive, and the heavy-weight space technologies required significant power. The cube shape of CubeSats provides large surface areas sufficient to absorb enough solar energy to power them while also providing better space-thermal ability.

The team in Vietnam has improved on this technology further by incorporating nano-layers into its design. Nanoparticles have unique properties that are bestowed on them by their tiny size. They are lightweight but strong and are also excellent thermal and electrical conductors.

What Is A CubeSat?Play

Video Credit:NASA's Kennedy Space Center/

To date, many Cubesats have been launched with varying levels of success by agencies based in a wide range of countries around the globe, including Australia, Colombia, Denmark, France, Germany, India, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland, Turkey, and the USA.

Currently, there are multiple projects in progress, with plans to launch satellites in the future. Some of these projects are also utilizing nanotechnology. For example, a team of researchers at the University of Southern California and the University of Utah, with funding from the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) program, is exploring how the use of advanced nanotechnology will enhance CubeSat missions and facilitate a "new class of low-cost alternatives to small-body exploration."

Additionally, the Aerospace Corporation recently developed its AeroCube-14 CubeSats, which were launched in November 2019. These CubeSats were loaded with "nanotechnology payloads" to carry out modular experiments.

The development of nano-layer CubeSat satellites presents an excellent opportunity for Vietnam to boost its aerospace sector. However, the only drawback is that nanotechnology research is expensive and often requires collaboration from many of the field's established professionals. As Vietnam's aerospace industry is still developing, its gravity to attract such funds and talent could threaten its potential to rapidly grow in the space sector.

There is potential, however, for the project to develop into different applications. It may be useful for the advancement of other space technologies such as remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS).

Levchenko, I.,et al.(2018)Space micropropulsion systems for Cubesats and small satellites: From proximate targets to furthermost frontiers. Applied Physics Reviews, 5(1), p.011104. Available at:

SGGP. (2021)Vietnam enjoying great achievement in satellite development. [Online]. Saigon Online. Available at:

VNA. (2021)Satellite rollouts mark major steps forward for Vietnam's aerospace industry [Online]. Vietnam Plus. Available at:

Disclaimer: The views expressed here are those of the author expressed in their private capacity and do not necessarily represent the views of Limited T/A AZoNetwork the owner and operator of this website. This disclaimer forms part of the Terms and conditions of use of this website.

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Scope of Nanometals Industry 2021-2027: Market Analysis with Trends and Opportunities | Reinste, Eprui Nanomaterials & Microspheres, Baikowski,…

§ October 5th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotech Comments Off on Scope of Nanometals Industry 2021-2027: Market Analysis with Trends and Opportunities | Reinste, Eprui Nanomaterials & Microspheres, Baikowski,…

The report provides an in-depth analysis of the Global Market of Nanometals. It presents the latest data of the market value, consumption, domestic production, exports and imports, and price dynamics. The Nanometals market report shows the sales data, allowing you to identify the key drivers and restraints. You can find here a strategic analysis of key factors influencing the market. Forecasts illustrate how the market will be transformed in the medium term. Profiles of the leading players like Reinste, Eprui Nanomaterials & Microspheres, Baikowski, ABC Nanotech, Amag Pharmaceuticals, Nanoamor, etc. are also included.

Data Coverage in Nanometals Market Report are:

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The Key Players Covered in Nanometals Market Study are:

Segmentation Analysis:

Nanometals market is split by Type and by Application. For the period 2016-2026, the growth among segments provides accurate calculations and forecasts for sales by Type and by Application in terms of volume and value. This analysis can help you expand your business by targeting qualified niche markets.

Market Segmentation by Type:

Market Segmentation by Applications:

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The report offers valuable insight into the Nanometals market progress and approaches related to the Nanometals market with an analysis of each region. The report goes on to talk about the dominant aspects of the market and examine each segment.

The Nanometals market report gives CAGR value, Industry Chains, Upstream, Geography, End-user, Application, Competitor analysis, SWOT Analysis, Sales, Revenue, Price, Gross Margin, Market Share, Import-Export, Trends, and Forecast. The report also gives insight into the entry and exit barriers of the industry.

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The report offers a complete company profiling of leading players competing in the global Nanometals market with a high focus on the share, gross margin, net profit, sales, product portfolio, new applications, recent developments, and several other factors. It also throws light on the vendor landscape to help players become aware of future competitive changes in the global Nanometals market.

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Nanotechnology in Medical Equipment Market to Witness Rapid Growth by 2028 | Stryker Corporation, 3M, Abbott Bulk Solids Handling – Bulk Solids…

§ October 5th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotech Comments Off on Nanotechnology in Medical Equipment Market to Witness Rapid Growth by 2028 | Stryker Corporation, 3M, Abbott Bulk Solids Handling – Bulk Solids…

Nanotechnology in Medical Equipment Market report focused on the comprehensive analysis of current and future prospects of the Nanotechnology in Medical Equipment industry. It describes the optimal or favourable fit for the vendors to adopt successive merger and acquisition strategies, geography expansion, research & development, and new product introduction strategies to execute further business expansion and growth during a forecast period. An in-depth analysis of past trends, future trends, demographics, technological advancements, and regulatory requirements for the Nanotechnology in Medical Equipment market has been done in order to calculate the growth rates for each segment and sub-segments.

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Top Key Vendors of this Market are:

Stryker Corporation, 3M, Abbott, Thermo Fisher Scientific, PerkinElmer, Inc., Starkey Hearing Technologies, Smith + Nephew, Dentsply International, Mitsui Chemicals, Inc., AAP Implantate AG.

Global Nanotechnology in Medical Equipment Market Segmentation:

Product Type Segmentation:

Active Implantable Medical Equipments Biochip Portable Material

Industry Segmentation:

Treatment Using Diagnostic Using Research Using

Various factors are responsible for the markets growth trajectory, which are studied at length in the report. In addition, the report lists down the restraints that are posing threat to the global Nanotechnology in Medical Equipment market. This report is a consolidation of primary and secondary research, which provides market size, share, dynamics, and forecast for various segments and sub-segments considering the macro and micro environmental factors. It also gauges the bargaining power of suppliers and buyers, threat from new entrants and product substitute, and the degree of competition prevailing in the market.

The influence of the latest government guidelines is also analysed in detail in the report. It studies the Nanotechnology in Medical Equipment markets trajectory between forecast periods. The cost analysis of the Global Nanotechnology in Medical Equipment Market has been performed while keeping in view manufacturing expenses, labour cost, and raw materials and their market concentration rate, suppliers, and price trend.

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Market Penetration: Comprehensive information on the product portfolios of the top players in the Nanotechnology in Medical Equipment market.

Competitive Assessment: In-depth assessment of the market strategies, geographic and business segments of the leading players in the market.

Product Development/Innovation: Detailed insights on the upcoming technologies, R&D activities, and product launches in the market.

Market Development: Comprehensive information about emerging markets. This report analyzes the market for various segments across geographies.

Market Diversification: Exhaustive information about new products, untapped geographies, recent developments, and investments in the Nanotechnology in Medical Equipment market.

Regions Covered in the Global Nanotechnology in Medical Equipment Market Report 2021: The Middle East and Africa (GCC Countries and Egypt) North America (the United States, Mexico, and Canada) South America (Brazil etc.) Europe (Turkey, Germany, Russia UK, Italy, France, etc.) Asia-Pacific (Vietnam, China, Malaysia, Japan, Philippines, Korea, Thailand, India, Indonesia, and Australia)

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Table of Contents

Global Nanotechnology in Medical Equipment Market Research Report 2021 2027

Chapter 1 Nanotechnology in Medical Equipment Market Overview

Chapter 2 Global Economic Impact on Industry

Chapter 3 Global Market Competition by Manufacturers

Chapter 4 Global Production, Revenue (Value) by Region

Chapter 5 Global Supply (Production), Consumption, Export, Import by Regions

Chapter 6 Global Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type

Chapter 7 Global Market Analysis by Application

Chapter 8 Manufacturing Cost Analysis

Chapter 9 Industrial Chain, Sourcing Strategy and Downstream Buyers

Chapter 10 Marketing Strategy Analysis, Distributors/Traders

Chapter 11 Market Effect Factors Analysis

Chapter 12 Global Nanotechnology in Medical Equipment Market Forecast

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SnakePit Round Table: Into the post-season – AZ Snake Pit

§ October 5th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotech Comments Off on SnakePit Round Table: Into the post-season – AZ Snake Pit

Who do you think WILL win the World Series, and why?

Turambar: Cardinals. Ive seen this movie before: Cards get hot at end of season and proceed to own the postseason. This is the way.

DBacksEurope: This is before knowing who will clinch the Wild Cards in the AL...I am betting on the San Francisco Giants. I think they have a very balanced team. Sufficient starting rotation, good bullpen and a good hitting lineup. I like their odds and they will avoid the NL Wild Card game (they are up 9-1 vs the Padres at the moment), which is a plus. It will be either Dodgers or Giants. Play-offs are weird and surprising, but I honestly believe that the NL West teams are better than the others. I am heavily leaning towards an NL team winning the World Series. I am a very proud NL fan and I always think that our league is better than theirs.

Dano: Im thinking the Giants as well, mainly because there dont seem to be any weak parts of their team. Their records are basically identical whether theyre playing at home or away. Theyre the team that has won 107 games in the regular season, and their performance hasnt seemed like it has fallen off in the last month. Theyre good in all facets of their game, theyre clearly not gassed, and its theirs to lose.

ISH95: New decade, new rules. Going to be Odd Year bull$#!+ this time around. Giants veteran savvy is going to be even more helpful than it has been already to hold the Dodgers off. And as hot as the Cardinals have been, the Giants have been nearly as hot.

Makakilo: Giants. They outplayed the Dodgers to win the NL West. With recent injuries, the Dodgers may be eliminated in their Wildcard game against the Cardinals.

Jack: Rays. I think they figure out how to manage their pitching staff in the post season.

Steven: I think the Dodgers will win. That midseason trade for Turner and Scherzer covers up any injuries they may have with elite talent. How often can you say that?

James: I kind of expect a Dodgers/Rays series. If thats the case, I think the Rays pull it out this time.

Turambar: Cardinals. Goldy has put in his time as a major leaguer; time for the baseball gods to pay up. Id kill to see him win, though obviously it would have been better as a Dback.

DBacksEurope: I want the Diamondbacks to win the World Series! Oh, you mean this season? I hope the Atlanta Braves win. Ever since watching MLB for the first time in the 90s I like that team. If not the Braves, then give it to the Chicago White Sox. I dont mind the Yankees either.

Dano: Had the Mariners or the Blue Jays won a Wild Card spot, Id totally be rooting for one of them. Sadly, however, that was not to be. Id be okay with the Cardinals, because like Turambar I would like to see Goldy get a WS ring, and Id be cool with Milwaukee, because hey, Craig Counsell. Primarily, though, Ill be rooting for Tampa. They impress every year with the way they field a contending team on a shoestring budget, and they won the AL East easily in what was probably the toughest division in baseball this year. They totally deserve it.

ISH95: I want Goldy to win. I want him to beat up on the Dodgers and Giants like he has for so many years, and I want one of the most deserving players in sports to get his ring.

Makakilo: In the 6 September round table, I predicted the Rays. Then they were in a 3-way tie for the best record in baseball; now they stand alone as the third best record in baseball. Their Elo rating is the second highest in baseball ( The Dodgers have the highest Elo rating, but they might be eliminated in their 1-game wild card play-in. The Rays bullpen is very strong, which makes an impact in the playoffs.

Jack: I am good with either the Milwaukee Escobars/Counsels or the St. Louis Goldschmidts.

Steven: Im leaning the Rays. At some point luck needs to flip their way and give them a good stretch of play when it matters most.

James: Either the Rays, so they can get their first and also because they are an example of a well-run organization, or the Brewers, for sentimental reasons.

Turambar: Dodgers, there can be no other answer. They are a blight upon baseball and to have them fail would be wondrous.

DBacksEurope: If I have to pick a team, Id pick the Astros. Not because of the 2017 scandal, but in general I dont have anything with that team. But in all honesty, I dont really care that much about who wins or not, after such a long season the team that wins deserves it and I can live with that.

Dano: I want none of the big payroll teams to win, and/or the ones whose arrogance and entitlement sicken me. So no Yankees, no Red Sox, and definitely no Dodgers. I want to see all the best teams money can buy fall flat on their faces.

ISH95: Its the Dodgers because if they get booted in the WC this year it makes the asterisk on their ring last season even bigger.

Makakilo: They are a big market team building a dynasty, making nearly every other team an underdog; I cheer for the underdogs! For additional reasons, see this SB Nation article, Giants Fans Arent Alone in Hating the Dodgers.

Jack: Dodgers need to faceplant. That is priority number 1. I dont consider 2020 a legit title. So for me, they are still stuck in 1988 purgatory.

Steven: Yep, gotta be the Dodgers. Its putting a huge spotlight on the issues baseball is having when a single team can pay more money.

James: FTD

Turambar: Meh, theyve earned it. Sadly they pick almost always means nothing compared to basketball or football; ultimately its just another chance to fill our farm system. Whether that person sticks or not is another matter entirely.

DBacksEurope: either pick #1 or pick #2 is a great pick. At #1 we might pick the next Chipper Jones, Joe Mauer, Stephen Strasburg, Carlos Correa or Bryce Harper. At #2 you could get Reggie Jackson, Justin Verlander or Alex Bregman. Those are great players too. With such a great opportunity also comes big pressure and great responsibility. The pressure is on for Mike Hazen and his scouting and drafting team. What will be the strategy? The Pirates opted to spread out their picks in the 2021 MLB draft and were praised for their strategy and the picks they got. But in the end only time will tell if you were smart or dumb. So, yeah, I am excited about such a high draft pick that can be franchise altering, but I am realistic enough to say that we can easily blow it with the pick because of bad luck or a bad assessment.

Dano: At least theres some compensation for such an egregiously bad season as ours has been in 2021. I would have felt quite good if wed managed the #1 overall pick, but of course the 2021 Diamondbacks found yet another way to lose something of value in an unlikely (though, for me, entirely expected) way this afternoon. It was the most 2021 Diamondbacks way they could have possibly wrapped things up, so of course thats what they did. In any case, though, #2 is pretty good, and as DBE and Turambar both point out, it could wind up being a bust. I think I trust Hazens draft judgment, though. So heres hoping.

ISH95: Ask me again in five years when we actually have a clear picture of what this draft has in store.

Makakilo: I have mixed feelings.

One feeling is a self-centered and greedy feeling of just missing the number 1 draft pick. Attached to that feeling is the sour grapes feeling that it would not have been worth the price paid. Other associated feeling were:

Jack: Ive never rooted for the team to lose. Ever. But I found myself rooting for the team to fail in their comeback attempt today. It was a strange feeling. The players and coaches want to win. They were never going to tank on purpose. But it sure did seem like the ultimate poop sandwich to finish off this season to lose that #1 pick and the pool dollars that come with it.

Steven: I want to give Mike Hazen every opportunity to succeed going forward. Having the first pick allows you to either pick the player you like the most, or get more bullets in the chamber to put talent on the field. Most of the players on the field today have no business being on the D-backs roster next year unless they want the same results as this year.

James: I am more upset about losing the extra bonus pool money and the higher picks in later rounds than I am about losing the first overall pick. There is not a generational talent sitting atop the draft board that everyone is waiting to pounce on. There will be a premium, impact talent available at #2. It is simply up to the front office to correctly identify that talent, which is the same job as they would have had at #1. I do think the loss of that extra pool money probably results in some slightly less impressive later round talent, but that wont matter nearly as much if they get their first pick right.

DBacksEurope: No, I do not. Now that Torey is around for yet another year I expect the D-Backs to make few changes, probably only the necessary ones because one or other coach chooses to leave or whatever. I dont trust our pitching coaches though. Like I said in another round table, ever since that remark from Herges about Rays success I have my doubts about the pitching coaches. Other than that every pitcher who has come up lately seems to suck.

Dano: I would love to see Matt Herges receive a one-way ticket to Greenland, along with whomever is responsible for strength and conditioning practices with the Major League roster. Per DBEs point, jettisoning all our pitching coaches might very well be a great thing to do, given how just about all of our pitchers seem to suck recently. But will it happen? I kinda doubt it.

ISH95: Yes. Lovullo dodged the ax, but Id be genuinely shocked if anyone else besides maybe McKay avoiding it. Too much all around failure.

Makakilo: One big need is to increase pitchers performance to their full potential. The way forward is to create a new position (pitching development coach), and fill it with a coach who has a proven ability to recognize potential and develop pitchers to their full potential.

I was shocked to see the better performance of Robbie Ray and Andrew Chafin after they were traded away by the Diamondbacks. (I tip my hat to DBacksEurope for his talk about Robbie Rays success in the 27 September Round Table). Details follow:

Robbie Ray

Andrew Chafin

Jack: The only coach Im 100% sure will be retained, assuming he doesnt retire, is Dave McKay. All bets are off on any other coach.

Steven: This team needs to pillage coaching from organizations that squeeze everything they can out of young players, because thats exactly who will be on the roster next year.

James: I do expect there to be changes to the coaching staff. I think Urueta is probably safe. Dave McKay is safe. The rest should likely begin packing their offices. While I dont expect the team to go through and gut the entire system, they need to come pretty damn close.

DBacksEurope: I got a nights sleep over this, because I had no clue on what to answer. And I still have no idea. Lets say baseball will be a niche sport and its all about urban sports with simple rules. Baseball5 is the new sport that everybody plays and national championships will not matter anymore but only city or regional championships.

Dano: Localized time-distortion field generators will have been deployed at all major league ballparks, resolving the pace of play issue by allowing the players within the distortion field to play the game at a normal pace, whereas from the audience perspective, the game will take place in half an hour or forty-five minutes, tops. Also, bodily repair nanotech will be injected into every players body, so that even serious injuries will be repaired by the time the training robots reach the affected player.

Of course, some teams (looking at you, Astros, for instance) will maybe tweak their nanotech bots to do maybe a little bit more, and build and increase muscle mass and so on even when a player is not, strictly speaking, injured, which will lead to performance disparities, or at least the perception of performance disparities, and (undoubtedly valid, in some cases) claims of cheating will emerge. Its gonna be the new PED thang, I guarantee. Tra la.

Or maybe not. For at least some of the above, okay, probably not. But if nothing else, for the love of all that is right and just, at least let there be robot umpires!

ISH95: Honestly, I wouldnt count on it being around. 100 years is a long time. If it is around, it probably will be nearly the same game as today, much like it was 100 years ago, but it will be subtle changes that make it seem unrecognizable. Strategies will change, locations will change, and the pitches thrown will be drastically different. But the game will be basically the same.

If you want some specific changes we might see, I have a feeling that performance enhancers of some sort will become the norm. Its becoming clear that pitchers are not as close to the upper bounds of human ability as we thought, so those fastballs are still going to get faster. Eventually the human eye wont be able to keep up, so some form of cybernetic allowing hitters and fielders to track the ball will be needed. The tech behind bats, gloves, and other equipment will continue to improve, as we have seen even in the last 20 years. And stadiums will be more like TV studios, allowing the sport to be consumed by the global audience it will have to have to survive 100 years.

Makakilo: Eventually the use of artificial intelligence and greater computing power will create the need to add unpredictable factors to the game. Perhaps before the 6th inning starts, the umpires pick a random rule that applies only to the 6th and 7th innings, and the teams dont learn which rule applies to those innings until 2 minutes before the 6th inning starts. .

Jack: 100 years from now all the teams are going to be midwest teams or teams in flyover states. The coastal cities will be uninhabitable.

Steven: Baseball will be a long lost memory as attention spans dwindle and esports become more mainstream.

James: As a professional sports league MLB will be washed up. Im honestly not sure it takes more than 60 years for that to happen.But, 100 years from now, I expect that baseball, at least in its current iteration, is done for long enough that there are adults who dont remember the days of baseball.

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SnakePit Round Table: Into the post-season - AZ Snake Pit

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Kriya Materials Calls For New EU Legislation To Support Technical Innovation With The Goal Of Reducing Global CO2 Emissions By 3% – Pollution Online

§ October 5th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotech Comments Off on Kriya Materials Calls For New EU Legislation To Support Technical Innovation With The Goal Of Reducing Global CO2 Emissions By 3% – Pollution Online

Geleen /PRNewswire/ - Kriya Materials, a leading developer and manufacturer of coating liquids and masterbatches, today called for EU legislation to support its new products within the building and automotive industries.

These products will have a direct and positive impact, lowering the energy usage in buildings by up to 35%, and in cars by up to 10%. The potential reduction in overall global CO2 emissions is 0.5 Gigatons, or 3% of the world's current annual CO2 emissions.

Validated by independent research institutes, the coating products are applied to building glass resulting in a 35% reduction in energy usage depending on local climate conditions. This is significant, as buildings consume up to 40% of global energy.

The same products applied to car glazing directly impact the CO2 emissions of combustion engines by reducing air conditioning usage and therefore fuel consumption. In electric vehicles, this will significantly increase the potential range as cooling systems currently account for a large amount of a car's power.

Kriya Materials CEO, Roel Huis in 't Veld, says that support from EU legislators would make a big difference: "Currently, the EU's WLTP test, which is obligatory to determine a new car model's CO2 emissions, demands that the air-conditioning is switched off! So, the EU acts as if it is not there! This is strange as air-conditioning units are responsible for roughly 10% of an average vehicle's CO2 emissions.

"Changing legislation would provide an immediate incentive for the automotive industry to implement products such as ours so they are not penalised for their CO2 emissions.

"It only costs a few Euros per car, and, alongside a significantly lower CO2 footprint, it greatly improves passenger comfort, so it's a win-win!"

The same applies to buildings. Changing legislation around national building codes would reduce the adoption and overuse of air-conditioning, which is currently growing at an unprecedented rate. As well as increased CO2 emissions, this has led to energy poverty for many households due to increased bills.

Kriya Materials is a backward integrated nanotech coating company. Central in its strategy is to develop low cost, easy to implement products which when applied lower CO2 emissions.

For further information, visit

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What Is Nanotechnology And How Is It Impacting Neuroscience? – Forbes

§ August 27th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotech Comments Off on What Is Nanotechnology And How Is It Impacting Neuroscience? – Forbes

Hand holding magnifying glass looking for new ideas

Nanotechnology is one of those buzz words that can seem kind of difficult to pin down. So what exactly is it? For example, how does it differ from traditional chemistry and physics? And in particular, what does it offer the study of the brain and neuroscience? The answer, in fact, is quite a lot.

The original ideas and concepts of nanotechnology are usually attributed to Richard Feynmans famous Theres plenty of room at the bottom talk in 1959, the Nobel Prize winning physicist from the California Institute of Technology. Fifteen years later in 1974, Norio Taniguchi from Tokyo University coined the actual term nanotechnology. Over the last twenty years or so, it has had significant impact on how scientists study and interface with the brain, including offering new approaches to treat neurological disorders.

Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary area of science and engineering that focuses on technologies and methods capable of manipulating and controlling materials and devices at a molecular scale using physical or chemical methods, or both. Typically, this takes place within a range of about 1100 nanometers (nm).

One nanometer is a billionth of a meter. Thats nine orders of magnitude smaller than a meter. Or 1/1,000,000,000. Thats just under 0.00000004 inches. In contrast, one centimeter is 1/100th of a meter, or two orders of magnitude smaller, i.e. the inverse of two times ten. A millimeter is three orders of magnitude smaller than a meter, or 1/1000. It is difficult to intuitively grasp how small of a unit of measurement a nanometer is.

Heres an example that will give you an appreciation of the size difference, not in spatial scales, but in temporal scales: Normally, you wouldnt attempt to walk from New York City to San Diego. It would just take too long. But a one order of magnitude change, in other words, being able go walk 10x faster, would be the equivalent of going from walking to driving. For example, say you can walk at 3 miles per hour. Driving takes you to 60 or 70 miles per hour. Now youd be able to get across the country in a few days. A two order of magnitude increase in speed is the equivalent of going from walking to flying. Itll get you across the country in a matter of hours. Three orders of magnitude is not technologically possible. It would get you from New York to San Diego in minutes. And thats just three orders of magnitude, or a 1000-fold difference - like going from meters to millimeters. Imagine how long it would take you if you increased your speed by a billionth-fold! Now take that intuition and work backwards: Think of a meter, which is just under a yard, and try to imagine shrinking down by a billion times.

The goal of nanotechnology is to engineer functional properties at these extremely small scales - properties that are not present in the constituent molecular building blocks that make up the nanotechnology itself. An important distinguishing characteristic about nanotechnologies is that they can be defined on the basis of functional engineered properties rather than the chemistry or physics that enable those properties. Although this may seem rather nuanced, its this functional, or engineering, definition that makes nanotechnology distinct from the natural sciences.

As such, nanotechnology in a way is not a new area of science per se, but rather the interdisciplinary convergence of basic fields (such as chemistry, physics, mathematics and biology) and applied fields (such as materials science and the various other areas of engineering). Within this framework, nanotechnology can be regarded as an interdisciplinary pursuit that involves the design, synthesis and characterization of nanomaterials and devices that have engineered properties at nanoscales.

Like other applications of nanotechnology to biology and medicine, in general, nanotechnology and nanoengineering research targeting the brain and neuroscience are focused on two general types of approaches: platform nanotechnologies that can be adapted and used to do experiments that answer a wide range of neuroscience questions; and tailored nanotechnologies that are specifically designed to address a specific problem or challenge.

Platform nanotechnologies are materials or devices with unique engineered physical and chemical properties that can potentially have wide-ranging applications in different areas of neuroscience. Tailored nanotechnologies begin with a well-defined biological or clinical question, and are developed to specifically address that issue. Much effort has gone into the development of new nanomaterials capable of serving as building blocks for such applications, for example.

Owing to the inherent complexity of biological systems in general, and the nervous system in particular, the tailored approach often results in highly specialized technologies that are designed to interact with their target systems - such as a specific cell type in a particular type of the brain - in sophisticated and well-defined ways, and so are better suited to tackle the particular problem than a generic platform technology. However, because tailored nanotechnologies are highly specialized, their broader application to other parts of the brain or other problems can be limited, or may require further development before they can be used.

Clinically, applications of nanotechnology to neurological disorders have the potential to significantly contribute to novel approaches for treating traumatic and degenerative disorders, as well as cancers, that may be clinically difficult to manage. The clinical challenges imposed by the brain and nervous system and the obstacles faced by anything designed to target and interface with it them are, to a large degree, a result of the unique anatomy and physiology. In particular, the brain is computationally and physiologically very complex, and has a highly restricted anatomical access.

Consider, for example, whats asked of a typical drug developed to treat some neurological disorder. The drug is first delivered systemically, say taken orally, or injected into the blood stream. It needs to reach the bloodbrain barrier, a functionally protective barrier that covers the brain, while producing minimal systemic side effects along the way. It then needs to successfully cross the bloodbrain barrier with minimal disruption to the barrier so as not to affect the brains normal physiology - or make an existing neurological condition worse. Once beyond the barrier, it needs to selectively target its intended cells, for example a particular subtype of neuron in a specific part of the brain. Only then can it carry out its primary active clinical function, whatever that might be. It could be modifying the action of an enzyme, producing a new protein, or blocking or augmenting a particular class of cell receptor. But it cant do that if it cant reach its intended cells safely, in enough quantities, and without causing negative side effects along the way. It is difficult for any single drug to accomplish all of this on its own.

But if you pair a drug with a nanoengineered molecular carrier, for example, together they become well suited to addressing these challenges, because they can be designed to perform multiple functions in a coordinated way. Within this framework of a nanoengineered carrier, the drug that performs the primary therapeutic function becomes one element of the system - just one part of the equation, with other parts of the nanoengineered carrier designed for the other list of requirements discussed above that need to occur in order to get the drug to its target cells. For example, biomimetic strategies incorporated into the design of nanoparticles can enable efficient delivery of drugs to the brain.

In fact, the prevalence of nanotechnology to neuroscience has been so significant over the last number of years that there are now large organized research efforts where the role and contribution of nanotechnology and nanoengineering isnt a novelty, but rather, a critical implied component of the effort. The Brain Research Through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) initiative, launched at the White House in 2013, aims to revolutionize how scientists measure, study, and interface with the brain. Most of the focus to date has been on the development of ground-breaking neurotechnologies capable of performing experiments and measurements on the brain that exceed any technological capabilities that have come before them. From an engineering perspective, many, if not most, of the neurotechnologies that have emerged from the BRAIN initiative involve some aspect of engineering and technology development at the nanoscale. Nanoengineering methods and approaches are the technical enablers of the neurotechnologies that have emerged from this initiative.

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Smoltek Nanotech : Ellinor Ehrnberg appointed as new President of the group company Smoltek Innovation AB –

§ August 27th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotech Comments Off on Smoltek Nanotech : Ellinor Ehrnberg appointed as new President of the group company Smoltek Innovation AB –

This press release is an English version of the previously published Swedish version, which has interpretive precedence.

Smoltek Nanotech Holding AB ("Smoltek") announces that the company has appointed Ellinor Ehrnberg as President of Smoltek Innovation AB, and she will assume this position on October 1. During the past year, Ellinor has held the position of business area manager of Smoltek Innovation, but she will now take on the role as President of the wholly owned group company.

During the past year, Ellinor has held the position of business area manager and Head of the wholly owned subsidiary Smoltek Innovation AB, and she has also been a part of Smoltek's management team. From October 1 2021, Ellinor will also fully assume the role as President of the group company. Smoltek thus secures valuable knowledge and experience within its continued efforts to create new technology innovations based on the company's patent-protected nanotechnology platform, where the development of completely new technology for electrolyzers is one of the leading areas for the company when it comes to interacting with the market.

"Ellinor has very broad experience from our type of processes, i.e. going from idea generation to development of new products and services in technology-intensive companies. The Board and I are therefore very pleased about the opportunity to hire her as President of Smoltek Innovation, thus securing her knowledge on a continuous basis, which will hopefully generate business for us in the electrolyzer area, as well as in other application areas", says Smoltek's interim CEO Marie Landfors.

"I am very pleased to be able to lead the exciting work of trying to take Smoltek's technology to new application areas. We see great potential in the hydrogen area, but as always in these early stages, we expect to encounter unknown technical challenges. It is therefore of great importance that we manage to build collaborations with strong partners, and it is in this dynamic that my experience will be essential for upcoming business agreements", says Ellinor Ehrnberg, incoming President of Smoltek Innovation AB.

About Ellinor Ehrnberg Ellinor has over 30 years of experience from various global roles in innovation, business development, strategy, company acquisitions, research, sales and business management - mainly with a focus on growth and new technology. She has a background from leading roles mainly within SKF, but also from Husqvarna, Mlnlycke Health Care, RISE and Arthur D Little. Ellinor holds a M.Sc. in Industrial Management Engineering from Chalmers. She also holds a M.Sc. in Robotics & Automation from Imperial College in London as well as a Ph.D. in Technology and Corporate Strategy from Chalmers.

About Smoltek Innovation Smoltek Innovation AB is a wholly owned subsidiary to Smoltek Nanotech Holding AB, focusing on further development, collaborations, financing, and licensing of application areas in industry sectors where Smoltek's patented nanotechnology platform can form the basis of new and improved material technology solutions. The first identified areas where Smoltek sees potential are energy storage systems, electrolyzers for hydrogen-based systems and bioelectrodes. Smoltek's carbon nanofiber-based technology platform could for example form the basis for new membrane-based applications in energy storage and energy conversion, with enhanced performance compared to current technology. In the area of electrolyzers, the company's technology has the potential to contribute to more area efficient electrodes, which would provide more efficient production in hydrogen production plants, as it would become possible to produce hydrogen at a lower cost or reducing the size of the plant.

For additional information, please contact: Marie Landfors, tf CEO of Smoltek Nanotech Holding AB (publ) E-mail: Phone: +46 760-52 00 53 Website:

Smoltek is a global company that develops process technology and concepts for applications based on carbon nanotechnology to solve advanced materials engineering problems in several industrial sectors. The company protects its unique technology through an extensive and expanding patent portfolio consisting of around 100 applied for patents, of which today 68 have been granted. Smoltek's share is listed on the Spotlight Stock Market in Stockholm, Sweden under the short name SMOL.,c3403728,c2947854

(c) 2021 Cision. All rights reserved., source Press Releases - English

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Could Nanotechnology Help to End the Fight Against COVID-19? | IJN – Dove Medical Press

§ August 27th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotech Comments Off on Could Nanotechnology Help to End the Fight Against COVID-19? | IJN – Dove Medical Press


The end of 2019 came with a serious viral infectious disease which was seen primarily from China, but spread worldwide and was declared as a pandemic in a few months. The outbreak officially became a pandemic in March 2020.1,2 The World Health Organization (WHO) termed this novel and vastly spreading disease as coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), and the viral agent as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since then, it has been a massively challenging global epidemic with combined health-related and economic destitution worldwide.3,4 SARS-CoV-2 seriously affects the respiratory system by triggering an acute immunological response which is the main cause of death with a fatality rate per country of 0.0519.4%. The SARS-CoV-2 results in an increased mucous secretion, which then clogs the alveoli and prevents blood oxygenation. Its endocytosis and replication in the lungs generates an acute immune response and tissue inflammation by triggering the signal cascade through cytokine storms. The virus can also spread to the digestive system and other major organs like the kidney and liver. It has the potential to access every tissue that expresses angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor.57 Structural analyses of SARS-CoV-2 showed that it has spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M), and nucleocapsid (N) proteins which are responsible for its cell attachment and entry mechanisms. Management strategies are based on these structural features. More than 80% of SARS-CoV-2 and host cell membrane interactions occur due to the presence of the S protein that is a special characteristic of the pathogenic cell for treatment strategies.8,9 Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are among the top 10 fatal viruses. SARS-CoV, one of the HCoVs, has a mortality rate of up to 10%. Currently, there are approximately 176 million confirmed cases and about 3,811,561 SARS-CoV-2 related deaths worldwide.10

Fever (85.6%), cough (68.7%), and fatigue (39.4%) are among the major reported symptoms. Dyspnea, headache, loss of appetite, loss of taste and smell, panting, sore throat, vomiting, diarrhea, rhinorrhea, and abdominal pain are the less common symptoms of the disease. The presence of comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, and coronary heart disease may further complicate the problem.11 There may be a two-week incubation period with mild to moderate symptoms followed by a high infection rate. Reports showed that there are also asymptomatic transmissions. Currently, the viral outbreak has created a global crisis related to disastrous live losses and financial collapses.1,12

The two main ways of COVID-19 transmission are direct air-to-air transmission during sneezing, talking, and coughing; and direct contact with contaminated surface/object.13,14 Personal hygiene, personal protective equipment (PPE), sanitizers, and surface disinfectants such as ethanol (6271%), hydrogen peroxide (0.5%), and sodium hypochlorite (0.1%) are the main ways of prevention.1517 Moreover, vaccine and drug development is the most eye-catching option to completely fight COVID-19. There is a continuous global effort to explore and decode the exact genome structure, identify the way of infection and transmission, draw effective prevention and immunomodulation approaches, and develop the most effective therapeutics.18 However, accurate prevention, early detection, and effective treatment strategies are not yet outlined. There is no approved drug and a free access vaccine to counter its worldwide spread. The various claims on the therapeutic and vaccine development, under various clinical trial phases, did not reach the market yet.19 At present, the health care and clinical research approaches are being negatively impacted by the pandemic through restrictions in funding and mobility which necessitate innovative life-saving ideas and alternative funding sources.20

The laboratory diagnosis of this viral infection is based on the techniques like polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing (smears taken from the oral cavity and throat); computer tomography, which reveals ground-glass opacity in the lungs, indicating viral pneumonia; plain chest radiography which investigates inflammatory foci caused by the virus, fibrosis, and connective tissue occlusions in the lungs that may develop after the disease; ultrasound investigation of the lungs for the visualization of pulmonary and pleural conditions in patients with suspected COVID-19; immunoassays which reveal the substances of protein nature including viruses, and general and biochemical blood test detecting changes in blood parameters related to the infection.9 Three main steps for an effective management approach considering the interaction of the virus when invading the host cells: cell attachment and entry, replication and protein expression, then finally, assembly, maturation, and exocytosis.21 Based on this concept, there are four medical approaches: vaccination, cell entry (cell cycle) inhibition, immune response modulation, and prophylactic treatment.22

There are two major drug therapy strategies against the virus: drug repurposing and novel drug discovery. Drug repurposing is trying to combat the pandemic with primarily discovered drugs for other known therapeutic purposes. This is a feasible strategy since it shortens the drug discovery time. In this regard, lividomycin, quisinostat, spirofylline, burixafor, pemetrexed, edotecarin, diniprofylline, fluprofylline, chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), remdesivir, tocilizumab, lopinavir/ritonavir, ivermectin, and azithromicin demonstrated potential anti-COVID effects. In addition, combined zinc supplements with CQ, drugs like silibinin and doxepin, and some glucocorticoids (betamethasone, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, fludrocortisone, ciclesonide, and triamcinolone) showed promising effects.2325 Figure 1 demonstrates their mechanism of action and interaction at different stages of the viral cell cycle.26 Repurposed drugs have previously established safety profiles which facilitate their clinical transition, and result in less risky and more rapid applications. Different insilico tools can be combined with large drug databases for selecting possible candidates from the available pharmaceutical and pharmacological substances.27,28 Molecular dynamics simulations of HCQ and azithromycin dual therapy demonstrated a promising effectiveness with different potential mechanisms of action against the open and closed viral protein forms.2931 HCQ-azithromycin combination approach showed a better clinical outcome in terms of mortality rates among elderly patients, intensive care unit transfers, length of hospital stay, and duration of viral shedding.30 A systematic review, meta-analysis, and trial sequential analysis of ivermectin indicated that, using ivermectin for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 is an equitable, acceptable, and feasible approach. The study strongly suggested that thehealth professional should consider its use both in therapeutic and prophylaxis approaches.32 Remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir with interferon beta-1 and CQ or HCQ are being assessed in clinical trials. However, these are associated with statistically insignificant clinical outcomes, complicated mortality/morbidity data reports, and unconfirmed clinical effects which prohibited the trustful use of those drugs.33,34 In contrast, the new drug discovery approach is more complicated and time-consuming. However, it has the highest potential to find new pharmaceuticals which have unique advantageous properties for unique viral pandemic events.25

Figure 1 COVID-19 entry point and possible target point of repurposed drug. Copied from Ahmad MZ, Ahmad J, Aslam M, Khan MA, Alasmary MY, Abdel-WAHAB BA. Repurpuse drugs against COVID-19: nanomedicine aas an approach for finding new hope in old medicines. Nano Express. 2021;2:022007. doi:10.1088/2632-959X/abffed.26

Biomaterials can endorse the fight against COVID-19 by enhancing immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory effects. Monoclonal antibodies can cross-react with SARS-CoV-2, block the viral attachment by disrupting the receptor-binding interface, and inactivate the virus by binding to S proteins.35,36 Tocilizumab (monoclonal antibody against interleukin (IL)-6), sarilumab (IL-6 receptor antagonist), HCQ, and CQ (blockers of pro-inflammatory cytokines) can be used as immunomodulators to counteract the systemic hyperinflammation.3739 Biologicals are the foremost approaches in COVID-19 management. Convalescent plasma therapy (CPT) can neutralize SARS-CoV-2 in newly infected patients.40 Different inactivated and recombinant vaccines are now being developed from viral DNA fragments and they are being evaluated in different phases of many clinical trials.41

Scientists are still searching for the most appropriate, efficient, and effective diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive strategies, including the use of new nano-based technologies. Nanotechnology-based research and development now appears to be essential to end the pandemic effectively and shortly.34 Nano-based detection with nanowire biosensor chips, graphene derivatives, and other types of nanostructures have been developed.9 Nano-based systems are effective for inhibiting pathogens and minimizing drug resistance profiles.42 Carbon nanotubes that demonstrated a noble nanocarrier property and enhanced drug release towards target cells in cancer therapy can be potential therapeutic alternatives against SARS-COV-2.43,44 Currently, many pharmaceutical research and manufacturing companies are turning to the use of nanotechnology for vaccine and drug development. Nanoparticles (NPs) are being increasingly investigated and used as new anti-SARS-CoV agents, vaccine carriers or adjuvants, and nanoscale biorecognition elements with a promising indication of nanomedicine as a potentially suitable option to end the fight against this pandemic.34,45

Nanostructured material is a type of material with at least one nanometric dimension (usually less than 100 nm). They can be organic, inorganic, biomaterial-based, and carbon-based46 as shown in Figure 2. Their physicochemical properties such as, chemical reactivity, size-dependent transport, biocompatibility, and reduced toxicity attracted scientists in many fields. Medicine is one such fields with rising attention in applying nanotechnology.42 Nanostructure-based delivery systems demonstrated improved specificity and bioavailability over the traditional system. Much of the added value is related to NP physicochemical properties which include controllable size, great surface area to mass ratio, and easily functionalizable structure. They can stabilize the drug in the systemic circulation for targeted, controlled, and sustained delivery, which, as a result, can increase the therapeutic advantage.47 Multiple targeting, in vivo imaging, and combined drug delivery are also their potential advantages.48 All these principles can be applied to fighting the COVID-19 pandemic.

Figure 2 Different nanomaterials used against COVID-19.

As the pandemic continues to cause an enormous global crisis, there is still an unmet need to discern a favorable, safe, and typically effective approach for diagnosis, treatment, vaccination, and prevention to prohibit super-spreading of the virus and a mortality crisis.49 Diverse nanotechnological strategies have shown a promising capacity to address many of those unmet needs in the fight against the pandemic as stated in the next sections.

COVID-19 exposed the world for too many discrepancies including an absence of effective vaccines and therapeutics, lack of rapid or real-time detection methods, shortage of protective equipment, and limitation in accessibility of support for infected patients. These biosafety problems arise mainly from limited research and considerations in materials science. A variety of nanostructured materials, such as polymers, inorganic-organic frameworks, biomaterials, graphene derivatives, and carbon nanotubes are radically transforming the way of countering biosafety challenges.50

Time-consuming detection processes like quantitative real-time PCR can be eradicated by applying NP-mediated sensing alternatives which can provide a rapid diagnosis.51 Limitations in antibody tests like technical production and identification problems, lack of suitability, and false positive or negative findings are reported from the conventional tests. Early stage detection, no or minimized contamination, and protected risk of error are also questions to be answered with more appropriate advances of testing.52

Recently, the application of NPs has emerged as groundbreaking in the medical field that allows accurate diagnosis and specific treatment of a disease at once (theranostic approach). Nanotheranostics involve virus detection and simultaneous neutralization by using nanodrugs that target diagnostics and therapy.53 This approach helps to fill the existing gap between diagnostics and therapy. It has been widely demonstrated in cancer chemotherapeutic investigations and there have been substantial struggles to extend this advantage to other areas of medicine including infectious diseases.54

Even though drug repurposing is a time-saving approach, the benefits of the repurposed drugs could not be fully supported with clinical outcomes and respective authorities. Unsatisfactory results from CQ and CQ, hepatotoxicity of remdesivir, unestablished harm or benefits of ACEIs, challenging safety/efficacy issues from the nonspecific mechanism of CPT, and safety concerns on corticosteroid use were reported. Application of nanostructures to the repurposed drugs can help develop efficient therapeutic strategies with minimal safety/efficacy concerns.52

SARS-CoV-2 mainly affects the respiratory tract, especially the lungs, with expanded effects on other organs such as the gut, kidney, and vasculatures.55 Therefore, the lungs are the most important organ for COVID-19 drug delivery. Targeting such sites and controlling drug release at target organs with conventional approaches is very difficult. Advances in inhalable NPs overwhelm such disadvantages, such as side effects from high serum drug concentrations and target inaccessibility. Nanotechnology-based intranasal drug delivery systems can overcome various limitations of mucosal administration.34 More accurate and controlled crossing of the bloodbrain barrier (BBB) can be achieved with nanobiomaterials that can improve cell retention, survival, differentiation, and integration inside the CNS.56 Nanodelivery through the nasal cavity is not only simple and inexpensive, but also noninvasive and rapidly absorptive.57 In addition, biocompatible nanomaterials such as boron nitride oxide nanosheets can improve the adsorption of drugs towards different parts of the viral protein; help the drug diffuse rapidly to the viral protein, and improve drugvirus interaction.31

Conventional vaccines have limited efficacy against novel pathogens due to their low blood stability as well as short and insufficient immune response that drives the need for higher doses.58 In addition, they are associated with short half-life, poor immunogenicity, non-targeting, slow absorption, and high storage and delivery requirements. Nanobiomaterials can be used as adjuvants for vaccines with special characteristics of reduced systemic toxicity and better targeting.59 There are also associated challenging issues, such as high pathogenic variety, high viral mutation rate, and complex host-related failures, resulting in an inappropriate immune response.52 Nanovaccinology comes with an effective alternative that results in strong immunostimulatory effects, manageable size and surface properties, controllable drug release, and strong stimulation of humoral and cellular responses.60

Disinfecting all surfaces and objects all the time is practically impossible, and one cannot be sure that the surface/object will not be contaminated again. Surface coating with nanomaterials that can inactivate the viral cell can be an advantageous advance for designing contamination-free equipment. Self-disinfecting surfaces can be prepared using nanomaterials with intrinsic antipathogenic effects.9,61 Surfaces with inherent virucidity, antimicrobial releasing self-sanitizing surfaces, and surface topologies with viral self-deactivation are some among the novel surface nanodisinfecting applications.62

As PPE plays the greatest role in combating the pandemic, it is equally essential to critically consider their sufficient supply, storage, waste management, and appropriate use.63 Actually, the current trend of applying the PPE could not eliminate the viral transmission as expected which necessitates a modification for their production and use.64 Environmental safety and waste management related to PPE is another complicated issue during the pandemic season as it becomes burdensome, resulting in a health compromising situation including carcinogenic health impacts. Therefore, it is recommended to use available alternative technologies for the production of biomedical equipment and treatment of COVID-19-related waste.65,66 Moreover, disposable PPE becomes one of the major factors in environmental pollution and source of biohazards creating critical environmental issues globally. If this remains unsolved, it may be a long-term threat to human and aquatic organisms.6769 This can be potential long-term physical, physiological, and pathophysiological effects.70 Nanostructures can improve PPE efficacy and safety by providing reusable, self-cleaning, high efficiency, and effective products with antimicrobial and antiviral properties. Intrinsic antiviral NPs, nanofibers and NP-coatings that can provide super-hydrophobicity, water-repelling, synergistic, and self-cleaning effects are some of the applicable nanostructures.71,72 Nanotechnology can generally convey advanced therapeutic, diagnostic, and prevention options than conventional as summarized in Table 1.

Table 1 Comparison Between the Conventional and Nanobased COVID-19 Management Approaches

Nanotechnology has huge potential for fighting the COVID-19 pandemic, since it enables targeted drug or vaccine delivery to physiologically inaccessible targets; increases drug loading and transport, and provides intrinsic/synergistic virucidal activity.73,74 It can also possess simple, fast, and cost-effective alternative disinfection methods; provide targeted pulmonary drug delivery, and offer ways for designing better immunomodulating materials. It can generally contribute to antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, diagnostic, theranostic, therapeutic, biosensing, preventive/protective equipments, immunomodulation, and vaccination approaches against the pandemic.61,75 The different application of nanotechnology during the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic is summarized in Figure 3.76 NPs possess a comparable size and structure with the virus as they both act at the same nanoscale, that makes their use paramount and suitable for the development of vaccine and immune engineering. This also allows the NPs to bind, encapsulate and passivate the virus, permitting easily detection, treatment, and prevention.77,78 Generally, nanomaterials can induce an external stimulus that is responsible for killing the virus or directly interact with the virus with their surface properties to act as antiviral agents.25 Nanodiagnostics, surveillance and monitoring, nanotherapeutics, and nanovaccination can provide the next generation of fighting approaches against the outbreak.53,79

Figure 3 Potential nanotechnology applications for combating SARS-COV-2. Copied from Rai M, Bonde S, Yadav A, et al. Nanotechnology as a shield against COVID-19: Current advancement and limitations. Viruses. 2021;13:1224. doi: 10.3390/v13071224.76

Nanotechnology, in SARS-CoV-2 detection, can be applied in the form of nucleic acid testing (amplification of nucleic acid with NPs under isothermal conditions); point-of-care testing (POCT) (diagnose infected individuals, without the need of sending patient samples to laboratories via simple color changes after applying nanostructures); electrochemical sensors (high sensitivity and possibility of miniaturization with metallic NPs); chiral biosensors (NPs conjugated with coronavirus specific antibodies), etc.80,81

Since the infection is easily transmissible from human to human, the diagnostics should better be at POC without the need for experienced labor, complex time-taking procedures, and sophisticated laboratories.82 POCD provides a diagnostic outcome with improved laboratory quality in real-time, within minutes and not hours. Nanotechnology can further advance the POCD approach by adding nanoensor technology, microfluidic channel devices, bio-analytical platforms, assay formats, lab-on-a-chip technologies, and complementary advances.83 NPs can assist the immunochromatographic test (ICT), also known as lateral flow immunoassays (LFIA), for detecting the antigens or antibodies rapidly with a POC. The advantages of this system includes; detection of both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, not requiring trained staff, triage of patients avoiding further spreading, diagnosis when laboratory facilities are unavailable, easy of use, small sample amount, and timely detection in less than 20 min.84,85

The principle of rapid diagnostic kits works by direct isolation of RNA from a patient sample. Metallic and magnetic NPs, such as gold and iron oxide NPs, have been widely investigated so far and demonstrated improved testing accuracy, specificity, time, and reliability.86,87 Gold NPs coupled to complementary DNA sequences demonstrated a color change from red to blue indicating the formation of a tertiary complex with the viral antigen after the immobilization and agglomeration of the NPs.88 Metal oxide NPs in complement with a silicon-on-insulator nanowire sensor showed a rapid and very sensitive SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection in 515 min. Magnetic NPs (MNPs), especially iron oxide NPs, can easily separate the viral RNA from sample solution with their high magnetic efficiency to prepare analyte preconcentration, signal amplification, and biosensing.8,89 Silica-coated super-paramagnetic NPs improved the selectivity of the detection during PCR-based assays by forming magnetic-conjugated DNA complexes, which then can be magnetically separated and amplified through PCR.90 Field-effect transistors based on graphene demonstrated the most rapid SARS-CoV-2 detection in less than a minute.91,92 The precision of PCR can also be enhanced by using graphene NPs.93

NP-based biosensors can minimize the conventional time-consuming steps, like in the case of quantitative real-time PCR, and provide pronounced advances in rapid diagnosis.51 The SARS-CoV-2 biosensor using thiol-modified antisense oligonucleotide-capped glyconanoparticles can diagnose positive COVID-19 cases visible with the naked eye through color change within 10 min.84 The glyconanoparticle platform with a lateral flow diagnostic device demonstrated a low-cost and rapid detection in less than 30 min.94 Nanobiosensors integrated with bio-informatics can provide individualized approaches by correlating infection progression with sociodemographic parameters like race, gender, age, and region that can further optimize targeted testing, tracing of asymptomatic patients (carries), and detection of discharged patients for re-infection.95 Different nanostructured biosensor applications are presented in Figure 4.96

Figure 4 Application of biorecognition elements of a biosensor to develop a sensing platform against SARS-CoV-2. Copied from Gupta R, Sagar P, Priyadarshi N, et al. Nanotechnlogy-based approaches for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. Front. Nanotechnol. 2020;2:589832. doi: 10.3389/fnano.2020.589832.96

Abbreviations: FRET, Frster resonance energy transfer; GO, graphene oxide; SERS, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy; QD, quantum dot.

Nanopapers and nanochannels are nanomaterial-based sensors that advance the lateral-flow devices to detect at observation level with smartphones or the naked eye. They offer cost-efficient options for viral detection. Battery-operated and smartphone camera-based amplifications with inorganic quantum dots are coming to be the next generations for SARS-CoV-2 detection.97 Smartphone-based sensing systems are semi-automated, personally accessible, user-friendly, and applicable with less training. The sensing system is connected to the smartphones; NPs are employed peripherally; analysis is conducted by the sensing system, and finally, the smartphone itself will interpret the results. It is individualized and takes less time than PCR.98 Some examples of nanomaterials investigated for diagnosis of COVID-19 are listed in Table 2.

Table 2 Some Nanobased Novel Diagnostic Tools for COVID-19 Detection

In recent times, nanostructured systems have brought a groundbreaking advance in medicine, in which accurate detection and specific therapeutics of disease conditions can be conducted at once (theranostic approach). Theranostics can provide detection and neutralize the viruses using NP-based approaches which will possess a great prospective in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic as NPs can amplify the detection, inhibit viral replication, and disrupt all possible virushost interactions. Thus, nanotheranostics can fill the existing gap between diagnostics and therapy.53,54 Nanotheranostics is a new field in medicine that combines NP-based targeted therapy based on diagnostic tools to efficiently and selectively deliver drugs, vaccines, and biologicals to the target sites of infection. It has the ability to monitor infectious sides, deliver treatments, and assess therapeutic responses with noninvasive imaging approaches.105,106

Several approaches are being investigated for smart nanotheranostic application by combining bioactive targeting and nanodiagnostics to deliver therapeutics with concomitant real-time response monitoring; minimized probability of over- or under-dosing, and noninvasive imaging techniques. Nuclear imaging with radiolabeled nanomaterials, inorganic NPs, organic NPs like polymers, carbon-based nanomaterials, and vesicular nanostructures like nanosomes, are some of the multifunctional nanotheranostics.107 The application of quantum dots in fluorescence imaging technology enables in vivo visualization of individual cellular behaviors, and simultaneous treatment according to the observed behavior at the same time.108 Nanorobots can outline a roadmap for nanotheranostics against a variety of diseases including the recent pandemic. Artificial intelligence can help this advance with multivariate data analysis regarding the disease pathophysiology and design of its more efficient therapeutics. Patient-specific models and nucleic acid-based nanorobots with more advanced nanoplatforms and multivalent nanostructures are being considered as promising theranostics against the pandemic.50

Therapeutic nanostructures can block viral entry, inhibit its replication, deliver drugs as nanocarriers into the target organ, and assist vaccine formulation and delivery as summarized in Figure 5. In general, they target the SARS-CoV-2 entry and life-cycle with a special emphasis on the S protein as it is the most important factor for viral entry and host cell interactions.45,80 Nanomodification of repurposed drugs like dexamethasone and CQ demonstrated promising anti-edema, antifibrotic, and anti-inflammatory mechanism predicting NP-uptake in cells.109,110 Nanostructure-based drug delivery can be either passive (drugs loaded and transported with nanocarriers) or active self-delivery (drug molecules themselves are nanosized).111 Since SARS-CoV-2 initiates its infection on the nasal cavity, nasal cavity-based nanodelivery is very important and promising for targeted COVID-19 management with simple, inexpensive, noninvasive, and rapidly absorbable approach.57 These systems are believed to improve therapeutic efficacy without compromising safety. Several nanodeliveries with enhanced antiviral activities against SARS-CoV-2 have been investigated, reported, and it is claimed that they can synergize the global fight against the pandemic.112 Some examples from these investigations are described in Table 3.

Table 3 Potential Nanobased Formulations for COVID-19 Treatment

Figure 5 Summary of cellular parts of SARS-CoV-2, their functions and interactions with nanodelivery management mechanisms.

Organic NPs such as liposomes, dendrimers, micelles, and polymers can have nanovirucidal effects and inactivate viral cells including SARS-CoV-2. They can be formed in combination with each other or with inorganic NPs to form hybrid nanosystems based on specific use at the targeted site.74 Inhalable organic and inorganic NPs (Figure 6)121 can be used for targeting the lung to overcome side effects from high serum concentrations of conventional administrations.122 Nano-drug co-deliveries can reduce particle size-dependent safety issues in lung and respiratory systems.123 Corticosteroid-loaded PLGA NPs, solid lipid NPs, N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate, and butyl methacrylate monomers can be used for effective and safe pulmonary delivery to prevent systemic immunosuppression effects of the drugs.124 Inorganic NPs like transition metal NPs (Ag, Cu, Zn), metal oxides (Fe2O3, TiO2, ZnO2,), and carbon-based NPs have intrinsic antipathogenic effects by interfering one or more viral life-cycle stages.125 Mesoporous silica NPs provide drug co-delivery which can further be functionalized with ligands for active targeting of the viral cell.8 AgNPs are better drug carriers for nucleic acid-based delivery with increased stability, protection from degradation, and controlled intracellular delivery.126 AuNPs, carbon-based NPs, polymeric NPs, and vesicular nanocarriers have the potential to induce cytokine and antibody responses which are dependent on their size, shape, and surface chemistry. By modifying these properties with respect to different targeting moieties, they can be promising strategies for targeted antigen delivery.127,128

Figure 6 Intranasal nanodelivery for treating SARS-CoV2 infection. Copied from Nair SC, Joseph SK, Arya MK, Thomas S. State-of-the art nanotechnology-based drug delivery strategies to combat COVID-19. Int J App Pharm. 2021;13(3):18-29. doi: 10.22159/ijap.2021.v13i3.40865.121

Biomaterials are substances that are either formed by living organisms or extremely compatible by their nature. Novel biomaterials at their nanoscale level possess precise and effective drug delivery functions.129,130 Biomaterials are reported for reducing mortality in COVID-19 patients. Investigations are being made with remarkable efforts to apply them in controlled delivery, for minimizing systemic administration complications, and alleviating disease severity.131 Bioengineered platforms of airway models are used to elucidate the pathophysiological processes of COVID-19 which is a rate-limiting step for management procedures and recommendations.132 Their biologic and physicochemical properties can be operated as to the different needs for therapeutic applications including the current pandemic.133 Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are now providing promising solutions to viral outbreaks in diagnostics, treatment, vaccination, and surface disinfection which can be implied for their application toward COVID-19.134 Organoids (clusters of organ-specific cells) were formed as effective models for COVID-19 viral examination. In addition, microfluidic organ-on-chip (OoC) systems have recapitulated host physiology, viral pathology, and therapeutic responses with high accuracy.135,136

Biomaterials have the potential to modulate the immune response, advance drug repurposing, and prevent or treat complications of COVID-19.137,138 Moreover, the nano-forms of biomaterials can improve quality of life by reducing the adverse effects of conventional therapeutics. Therefore, highly efficient, reliable, compatible, and recyclable biomaterial-based applications can support the fight against the current pandemic.46 Nanobiomaterial therapeutics can be used to deliver cargo directly to the respiratory targets (lungs) to avoid nontarget effects as they can be synthesized according to the ideal size range and controllable release for cellular targeting.139 Furthermore, many nanobiomaterials have intrinsic low cytotoxicity and high biocompatibility which are the currently needed essential attributes for COVID-19 management. Nanobiomaterials in conjugation with Ag and mesoporous silica NPs could be used for the delivery of anti-inflammatory cytokines to counter the inflammation associated with COVID-19.138

Nanobiomaterial forms, such as gum-based hydrogels, nanogels, multilayered polyelectrolyte films, DNA aptamers, and nanocarriers like nanocapsules, nanospheres, and polymers demonstrated a potential effect that can add to the fight against COVID-19.22,126 Biomaterials in the form of nanoemulsions, nanodecoys, virus-like NPs (VLNPs) and self-assembly systems are being investigated and suggested for use against COVID-19. Nanoemulsions can easily transcytose lipophilic antigens across the intestinal cells. In addition, they can be synthesized with low cost and easy procedures; require easy storage conditions; demonstrate increased absorption rate and bioavailability; possess thermodynamic stability; provide solubility of lyophilic drugs, and improve the antiviral activity of the drug.140 Nanodecoys are cell membrane nanovesicles formulated to display high levels of ACE2 and cytokine receptors with the aim of competing for viral and cytokine binding. They can significantly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication and neutralize inflammatory cytokines.141 VLNPs are sphere-shaped NPs formed from several nanosized molecules and the self-assembly of viral proteins. They do not have genetic material content but structurally mimic the real virus enabling them to highly attract antigen-presenting cells and stimulate the immune response.105 Self-assembling NPs are excellent in carrying the drug, easily crossing the cell membranes, releasing drugs in a controllable manner at the target site, and synergistically activating the immune system.121

Nanobodies are other types of nanobiomaterials that can identify the pathogens, envelop the virus, and neutralize its functions. Hence, they can be diagnostic or therapeutic tools against the SARS-CoV-2 virus.79 Researchers have isolated high stability nanobodies that can bind to spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, detect at an atomic level, and block the virus very specifically.142 The worlds first humanized antibody against the SARS-CoV-2 inflammatory storm was discovered which can specifically damage the viral critical stage in the lungs. With little modification by using drug-loaded NPs, it can provide easy access for air sacs and blood vessels for free delivery of oxygen and blood.143 Cellular nanosponges made of the human plasma membrane epithelial type II cells or macrophages are reported as an effective countermeasure to SARS-CoV-2 since they display the same protein receptors required by SARS-CoV-2 for cellular entry. Therefore, they will neutralize and mutate SARS-CoV-2 making it unable to infect.117,136

Nanofibrous hybrids are active antiviral and antibacterial membranes that are formed embedded with AgNPs by an electrospinning process. They have subsequent screening with potential antiviral activities against different viruses, including SARS-Cov-2. They can also be applied in PPE and surface disinfection developments.144 Eco-friendly nonspherical nanocellulose nanofiber is synthesized which is a sustainable, nontoxic, low-cost, and biocompatible carrier with antimicrobial effects.145 Antibodies conjugated to biomaterial-based NP surfaces allow efficient and effective inflammatory marker removal caused by the cytokine storm. Chitosan, hyaluronic acid, PLGA, and mesoporous silica NPs can be used for surface conjugation to reduce the burden of SARS-CoV-2 cytokine storms. Ligand-based nanoparticulate biomaterials possess sequestration of cytokines and active-targeting for viral inactivation. The immune modulation effect of these systems can be assisted by co-delivery of anti-inflammatory drugs.138

Nano-sized herbal medicines have been developed as nanophytomedicines based on their unique nature. Various nanotechnology-based systems such as polymeric NPs, solid lipid NPs, magnetic NPs, metal and inorganic NPs, nanospheres, nanocapsules, quantum dots, nanoemulsions, polymeric micelles, liposomes, and dendrimers have been tried for the successful delivery of natural products from traditional medicine. This brings potential herbal drug-loaded pharmaceutical carriers for alternative and complementary medicine to the modern system which can push the fight against many chronic and pandemic global issues like COVID-19 one step forward.146,147 Since the occurrence of COVID-19, diverse traditional medicines have been used alone or in combination with the conventional management systems. These herbal extracts may possess anti-SARS-CoV-2 actions by disrupting the viral life-cycle that can be a promising preventive and therapeutic alternative to the pandemic.148 In addition, their favorable oral stability and ease of scaling up make them ideal contenders for prophylactic and prevention strategies including vaccine development.149 Reports indicated that Chinese, Indonesian, and Nepalese people increased the use of medicinal plants during the COVID-19 pandemic claiming that they can prevent or cure the disease and it is believed to have shown good results in fighting SARS-CoV-2 empirically.45,150152 Adeleye et al, identified 15 potential ethnomedicinal herbs from different African countries for the discovery and development of therapeutic agents for COVID-19 applications.153 Phytotherapeutics has been recognized for its better therapeutics with fewer adverse effects than modern medicines. However, it needs a novel scientific approach for modified, sustained, and controlled delivery to enhance patient compliance and avoid repeated administrations. This can be achieved by designing nanostructured delivery systems and integrating them with nanocarrier approaches that can enhance its therapeutic activity while overcoming associated problems, such as bulk dosing and lower bioavailability.144

The sole combination between traditional medicine and nanomedicine will accompany a new era of affordable, safe, and effective medicinal systems that can be very supportive for a pandemic crisis like COVID-19.154 Plant metabolites and body parts of microorganisms can be delivered by spherical NPs as a potential strategy for antiviral therapies.145 Glycyrrhizic acid, a common ingredient in the Chinese herb licorice, has a known anti-SARS-CoV effect, but its application is limited due to cytotoxicity, poor water and bio-fluid solubility, and low bioavailability. Synthesizing highly biocompatible glycyrrhizic acid NPs demonstrated a significantly enhanced antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo.152 A typical Indonesian natural product administration culture, called jamu, is commonly practiced to relieve pain and inflammation from acute and chronic disorders. The efficacy and the value of jamu have been improved using various nanotechnology approaches such as nanosuspension, nanoemulsion, nanoencapsulation, and nanofiber fabrication.151 Researchers at Alfaisal University combined AgNPs with a black tea extract (theaflavin) and attained a potent viral replication inhibition effect that can assist in the fight against COVID-19 by slowing the viral reproduction rate in a host and reducing the severity of symptoms.155

Nanostructures can also be used in the prevention of major organ complications, co-infections and postrecovery syndromes of COVID-19 infected patients. Antiviral nanobiomaterials, in the form of external vesicles, exosomes and artificial nerve conduits can cross the BBB; promote synaptic plasticity; modulate immunity for poststroke pain and inflammation; facilitate neural regeneration, and treat neuropathies associated with COVID-19.56 Nanotargeting of cytokine receptors using lipid nanoemulsions demonstrated a promising application for minimizing dementia and brain inflammatory neurodegeneration which is a risk factor for Alzheimers disease.156,157 The alarming rate of antimicrobial resistance with the upsetting emergence of new pathogens like SARS-CoV-2 will challenge the therapeutic approaches to many infectious diseases, which as a result, demand an accurate, fast, sensitive, specific, simple, and inexpensive diagnostics and therapeutics strategy.158 Ag, Au, iron oxide, and titanium dioxide can be valuable NPs to combat secondary microbial infections and multidrug resistance in critically ill patients during COVID-19 infection which is known as a silent risk.42,159 Furthermore, nanotechnology can help to address COVID-19-associated pneumonia by delivering anti-inflammatory nanodrugs and nano-antioxidants; providing inhalation methods; and utilizing oxygen-generation nanomaterials.160 Niclosamide-loaded albumin NPs, chitosan nanocarriers, biopolymer-derived nanocarriers, and lipid NPs demonstrated a highly viral entry inhibitory effect against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and showed an extended circulating drug exposure in vivo, with a new, cheap, and scalable preparation process.161 In sum, all these nanotherapeutic strategies can provide timely solutions for combating the pandemic and open the door for future explorations.

Vaccines appear to be the preeminent solution in combating the pandemic even though their development, clinical trial processing, approval, and scale-up are time-consuming. But, investigations are being undertaken as quickly as possible. SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development is an the most astonishing one in history by getting into clinical trial phases within only three-to-six months which makes it the fastest of all the epidemics and pandemics.162 The application of nanomaterials in vaccine development and delivery has led to the birth of the concept of nanovaccinology. NP-based vaccines with organic, inorganic, hollow polymeric, and biologic NPs possess potential benefits such as high payloads, tailorable size and surface properties, controllable and targeted release kinetics, improved stability, easy antigen uptake, and strong response induction.60,163 Nanobiomaterials can be vaccine adjuvants to enhance vaccine efficacy due to their lower systemic toxicity, stronger targeting, higher specific surface area, and lower immune titer.58,59

Subunit vaccines with NPs, such as virus-like proteins (VLPs) and protein NPs, are under active consideration in development processing. The receptor-binding domain (RBD)-based SARS-CoV vaccines are also considered as effective strategies.164 VLNPs are desirable NPs that stand out to cells that produce antigens; easily detect them, and stimulate an immune response.121 They can better be delivered through the lymph and capillaries, easily entering into the cell; reducing the systemic inflammatory response; increasing vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy; improving patient safety; and boosting the immune system.165,166 Nucleic acid-based vaccines demonstrated an enhanced delivery efficacy and stability when they are applied with cationic liposomes, dendrimers, and solid lipid NPs.167 Vaccines formulated with exosomal S protein of SARS-CoV resulted in induced and accelerated antibody neutralizing effect.168

NP-based inhalational vaccines provide high mucosal immunity in the lungs which are the main targets in respiratory infections like SARS-CoV-2.138 Intranasal vaccine delivery offers admirable safety, better convenience, both systemic and local immune response for controlling respiratory infections like SARS-CoV-2.169 PLGA NPs functionalized with ACE2 receptor proteins from alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages can neutralize viral infectivity.117 Extracellular vesicles containing ACE2 as decoys and ACE2 mRNA packaged with lipid NPs achieved a critical host mimicry to distract the host-binding ability of SARS-CoV-2.170,171 Silica NPs coupled with polyethyleneimine showed easy trapping, protection, and delivery of DNA/RNA antigens into cells with potential adjuvant effect, great loading capacity, robust bonding, and enhanced cellular uptake.136 Quantum dots (QDs), with much smaller sizes than the known NPs, have also shown a promising utilization for COVID-19 vaccine designing.172 Lipid-based NPs (LNPs) opened the way forward to COVID-19 and they are now considered as the frontrunner in nanoscale vaccine development and delivery. They promised for the potential success of mRNA-LNP vaccines and, therefore, a long journey of optimizing LNPs for nucleic acid-based delivery has been passed.173,174

NP-based vaccine development is now on the way in various pharmaceutical companies and research institutes.175177 Table 4 demonstrates some of the WHO-listed nanovaccines which are in clinical and preclinical phases.177

Table 4 Novel Nanostructured Vaccines for COVID-19 in Clinical and Preclinical Phases

Most NPs for use in nanovaccines are known to be biodegradable, biocompatible, and less toxic and, therefore, they can be safe and effective alternatives to the conventional vaccines. However, nanovaccine-related side effects and safety concerns still remain to be investigated.178 Severe allergy-like reactions were reported from Pfizer and BioNTech novel vaccine products which is proposed to be due to nanopackaging compounds of the messenger RNA (mRNA). Polyethylene glycol (PEG) in vaccines may occasionally trigger anaphylaxis that causes a potentially life-threatening reaction with complicated respiratory and cardiovascular disorders.179 LNPs in the Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna vaccines human trials demonstrated inflammation-like side effects such as pain, fever, swelling, and sleepiness.180,181 Oxidative stress, genotoxicity, hypercytokinemia, injection site inflammation, distribution, and persistence are also linked with nanovaccine toxicology. These side effects are probably associated with the antigen-NP, NP-antigen presenting cell, NP-biosystem, and adjuvant-NP interactions. In the case of a pandemic crisis like the current one, risk is weighed against potential benefit for any new advance.182,183

Nanomaterials can ultimately improve the COVID-19 prevention approaches by enhancing the surface disinfection, sanitization, and protective equipment efficiency and effectiveness as demonstrated by some investigation reports in Table 5. The use of nanomaterials in the production of PPE brings them new and improved properties in terms of resistance, efficacy, comfort and safety as summarized in Figure 7.129 The principles for the application of nanotechnology in COVID-19 prevention strategies are presented in the sections below.

Table 5 Nanobased Protective Equipment for COVID-19 Prevention

Figure 7 Nanotechnology applications for production of PPE against COVID-19. Copied from Campos EVR, Pereira EAS, de Oliveira JJ, et al. How can nanotechnology help to combat COVID-19? Opportunities and current need. J Nanobiotechnol. 2020;18:125. doi: 10.1186/s12951-020-00685-4.129

Various chemical disinfectants are being applied widely in personal, household, and medical facilities for exhaustive sterilization during the pandemic. These include alcohols, phenol-based disinfectants, quaternary ammonium compounds, chlorine-releasing agents, iodophores, and high-level disinfectants like formaldehyde.190 However, it is practically impossible to sanitize surfaces all the time, and there is no guarantee for the surface not to be re-contaminated.9,191 Investigation is underway for smart surface coatings with inherent virucidal materials and self-disinfecting abilities by the application of nanostructured techniques to surface disinfectants.68,69 These techniques include addition of intrinsic antiviral NPs, polymerization with intrinsically pathogen-resistant nanomaterials, metallic surface coatings, and nanotexturing.192

Various metal and metal oxide NPs such as AuNPs, AgNPs, ZnONPs, CuONPs, SiONPs, nanosized copper (I) iodide NPs (CuINPs), and quaternary ammonium cations commonly (QUATs) are capable of inactivating virus from surfaces.9 Metallic NP-based disinfectants have interesting features in terms of fabrication process and cost, safety and toxicity, life-span, antiviral activity, eco-friendliness, nonirritating, and nonfoaming properties to protect the pandemic viral transmission.19 They can be synthesized using the green synthesis approach from natural resources such as plant parts, insects, and animals. They provide an adsorbent property by their larger effective surface area, and a controlled release of the disinfectant molecules.193,194 They can be used for coating surfaces to oxidize and release ions with antimicrobial properties for disinfection. Controlled and sustained ion diffusion from metals like Cu modulates antiviral characteristics of surfaces.195 In addition; they are dermatologically safe and excellent in keeping public places safer from COVID-19 risks.15 Surfaces can be coated by nanopolymers in different ways. First, with a simple drop-casting method, a polymer solution will be dropped to coat the surfaces and then allowed to evaporate. In the second method, a dip coating technique can be done by immersing a substrate in the polymer solution, with consequent withdrawing, evaporation and drying. In a cast-coating technique, the polymeric solution will be cast onto the surface followed by solvent evaporation.196

Surfactant-coated NPs provide special antistatic, stabilizing, antiviral coating properties for surface disinfection.108 Apart from coatings, NPs like AgNPs demonstrated antiviral effects including SARS-CoV-2 when applied in their nanopowder forms, which can also be applicable for face masks and air filters.197,198 Copper NPs had been proven for theirs antiviral effect against HCoVs by degrading and inactivating the viral genome which may be projected for use against the current pandemic, SARS-CoV-2.199 Recent studies also reported that CuNP-loaded surfaces can easily deactivate SARS-CoV-2 and be developed with less economy than AgNPs and with excellent stability.200,201 Furthermore, conjugation of CuNPs with quaternary ammonium structures exhibited enhanced antiviral activity.202 Replacing plastic and stainless steel materials with Cu alloy can limit COVID-19 spreading on surfaces.203 In another way, photothermal inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 from surfaces can be done by illuminating Ag and Au NPs and nanorods at an optimal wavelength to induce heating for viral inactivation.204 Encapsulating objects with photoactive nanomaterials and using electromagnetic radiation to disrupt SARS-CoV-2 cells are other methods for surface disinfection.205

A study done by Abo-zeid et al showed that iron oxide NPs, both Fe2O3 and Fe3O4, can interact with viral spike protein destroying its ability of host cell attachment. In addition, they produced reactive oxygen specious (ROS) that inactivates SARS-CoV-2 in surfaces.206 Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocoating is the other alternative for sanitizing public utilities and mass gathering areas. Due to its UV induced photocatalytic properties, it has an effective multidimensional application for decontaminating and minimizing the COVID-19 transmission. It is a convenient and cost-effect disinfecting approach, even for remote locations, through TiO2-doped paints, air filtration aerosolized filters, TiO2-impregnated ventilation systems, and Cu and Ag-loaded TiO2 nanowires. Surfaces coated with aluminum alloy NPs also demonstrated an effective SARS-CoV-2 disinfection within six hours.207,208

Physicochemical properties of graphene nanomaterials can be used to control the transmission of the COVID-19 pandemic by deactivating the virus from surfaces. Graphene and its derivatives inactivate the virus by exerting photothermal activities and binding to the viral S protein that results in inhibition of cellular interactions to the host cell receptors.25,209 Water treatment using nanostructures of light-activated, layered graphitic carbon nitride disables the contaminating ability of viruses including SARS-CoV-2.79 Nanostructured anionic polymers showed pH adjusted, rapid and continuous disinfecting ability which can be a good alternative to inactivate the virus in a self-disinfecting manner.210 In recent times, nanobased air ionizers and surface purifiers that can be applied for decontaminating buildings and public offices are being studied and developed.211 Polymers can be awarded an antimicrobial effectiveness by covalent conjugation of biocidal agents such as quaternary ammoniums, phosphonium groups, chlorine dioxide, alcohols, and sulfonates to produce permanently coated, nonleaching sterile surfaces.125 Ventilator units can also be coated with the same principles to reduce the likelihood of COVID-19 infection and cross-infections.19

PPE includes textile materials such as headgear, goggles, masks, gloves, facial protection, and dresses or gowns. They are critical elements for protection from COVID-19 transmission. Nanostructures used in PPE modification are responsible to adsorb viral particles for viral inactivation and filtration efficiency which is the main principle for their application of COVID-19 prevention.212 The main challenges encountered by conventional PPE are associated with their poor antitoxicity, difficulty in breathability, heat dissipation, and reusability.176 Uncertainties are also rising on which, how, and how much they permit COVID-19 transmitability, especially in workplace settings and densely populated gathering areas which necessitates more trustworthy, cost-effective, efficient, and reusable PPE development.213 Appropriate understanding of the role and the usage of PPE by the health staff and the public and ensuring an adequate supply system are considerable factors for imminent prevention of the pandemic. That is why their application worldwide has not been enough to stop the transmission.63,64

Environmental safety and waste management is another complicated issue during the pandemic season. It puts a substantial burden and results in a health compromising situation including carcinogenic health impacts questioning for other alternative technologies for the production of biomedical equipments and treatment of COVID-19 related wastes.65,66 Moreover, single-use PPE types become factors in environmental pollution and sources of biohazards. Not only the discarded PPEs, but also their derived decomposition products are threatening the aquatic organisms and human life that may persist for many years in the future.6769 Hasan et al revealed the potential long-term effects of these environmental impacts on aquatic ecosystems and human health as: physical effects (changes in microbiome, water quality deterioration, ecosystem alteration), physiological effects (reproduction hamper, oxidative stress, decreased survival, metabolic damages), long-term effects (immunosuppression, carcinogenicity, geno-toxicity, neurotoxicity).70 This indicates that advanced technologies for the development of eco-design approaches for PPE production are needed.71

Nanostructures can impart their role by reducing single-use PPE by replacing them with novel reusable, self-cleaning, effective, and efficient antiviral products to minimize environmental challenges. This can be brought about by the application of antiviral NPs, nanofibers, and NP-coatings to acquire super-hydrophobicity, synergistic effects, self-cleaning functionalities with photothermal and photocatalytic sterilization.72,214 For these purposes, nanomaterials with intrinsic antiviral activity, such as AgNPs, graphene oxide (GO), CuO NPs, two-dimensional carbides, and nitrides that can capture and inactivate viruses are being investigated.176,215 Furthermore, a fluorescent NP penetrant inspection can be used for the detection of inner defects in used masks, to provide necessary data for the development of reusable masks, structural optimization, and evaluation standards.216 Less material consumption and reduced supply problems, efficient filtration due to large surface areas, cost-effective transmission control, and virus neutralization due to functionalization with chemically active groups are the main features of PPE modifications by using nanomaterials and nanotechnology.217

Size- and time-dependent particle removal efficiency is reported from different protective respiratory masks which can be optimized by nanostructured systems.218 Ag nanocluster/silica composite nanocoating impregnated in facial masks possessed a promising virucidal property, reduced the SARS-CoV-2 titer, and provided great safety to be used in crowded areas.178 In addition, SiO2 and Al2O3 NPs coated with polypropylene or polyethylene demonstrated super water repellent effects; TiO2 and MgO NP coatings provided self-sterilizing activity; indium-tin oxide NPs produced an electromagnetic/infrared protective clothing and ceramic NPs resulted in an increased abrasion resistance.219,220 Generally, the mechanisms in these NP coating effects are reported to be surface oxidation, releasing free radicals or toxic ions, ROS generation, photoreaction, inhibition of viral interaction, entry and binding.221 Nanotechnology can also increase the filtration efficiency through improving viral particle capturing and retention, enabling rapid viral inactivation after capturing them, minimizing exhaled humidity effects on particle redistribution, and providing a very thin, high-efficiency reusable filtration media.61

The application of nanofiber technology for face masks can reduce breathing resistance, maximize comfort by minimizing pressure, and provide enhanced filtration efficiency against very small viral particles (<50 nm).22 The Egyptians discovered a novel, reusable, recyclable, customizable, antimicrobial, and antiviral respirator facial mask feasible for mass production. The novel design is based on the filtration system composed of a nanofibrous matrix of polylactic acid and cellulose acetate containing CuO NPs and GO nanosheets produced by electrospinning technique.222 Nanofiber filter incorporated surgical masks showed a decrease in air-flow resistance, improved filtration efficiency, enhanced contaminant deactivation, and reduced risk of inhaling pathogens.223 Similarly, other PPE like gowns, facial shields, gloves, boots, and goggles can be advanced with the aid of efficient and multifunctional nanostructures.61,79

In the clinical trial of the COVID-19 vaccine, the two lipid mRNA-based vaccines, BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273, exhibited more than 95% efficacy, owing to their unique nanocarrier characteristics.224 Even though such effectiveness with reduced medicine intake and adverse effects can be achieved with nanomedicine, there is still a substantial concern on their toxicity. Moreover, the development of these nanostructured systems should be regulated as all marketing items must follow regulatory requirements.225,226 There is an international debate on the risk regulation of NPs. To resolve this controversy, uniform definitions of NPs are required for the identification and application of legal provisions to them and facilitate the marketing of nanotechnology-derived products. There should also be a validated method of analysis, detection, characterization, and complete information regarding the impact of nanomaterials as well as the assessment of nanomaterial exposure.227,228 The use of nanotechnology may result in significant problems, causing irreversible damage to the environment and humans, if adequate rules and legislation are not in place.229 The legal framework of nanotechnology was investigated to see if new regulatory action was necessary to address the hazards associated with nanomaterials. To take advantage from the benefits of nanoproducts, especially in severe pandemics like COVID-19, the public, customers, and employees need flexible and balanced regulatory actions based on scientific data. In addition, development of standards and guidelines on their preparation and use should be outlined to ensure safety and reduce the risk of liability.230

Authorization of substances and ingredients, qualification of hazardous waste, reinforcing conformity assessment methods, and restrictions on the entry of chemical substances and preparations to the market as well as their usage are all part of the nanomaterials regulation.227,230 Current regulatory frameworks cover a wide range of products and processes, including nanotechnologies, which implies that a separate regulator or regulatory framework may be unnecessary. However, some case studies suggest that the present framework should be modified because of the strange and uniqueness of NPs.230232 Recent discoveries such as the NP-based COVID-19 vaccines, diagnostic, and therapeutic agents as well as PPE are now coming to support the globes fight against the pandemic. However, current regulations may not be sufficient to solve their risk management, production challenges, and market issues which necessitate working more on the nanoregulatory issues parallel to nanoproduct discoveries.228 Lack of understanding and communication about the science, use, and regulation of nanotechnology among all stakeholders hurts society perceptions and regulatory decision-making.233 Even though the risks posed by nanomaterials to the environment and humans have become a global concern, it is recommended for all relevant regulatory bodies to consider the impact of NPs in protecting humans from current and future pandemics such as COVID-19.234

Regarding the pharmacoeconomic aspects, there is a debate on the economic influence of nanotechnology. Reports are indicating that its short-term effect is minor, but it will provide a substantial economic impact in the long-term. Its prospective economic effects will be fully beneficial across the society and the spectrum of developed and developing countries. There was no evidence that nanotechnologies generate economic challenges that were notably different from those raised by other technological advancements.230,235 However, certain studies predicted that nanotechnologies can offer economic benefits, including the ability to create jobs, wealth, and well-being.236 These technologies are also shown to be a cost-effective option for many challenging medicine approaches.229 A pharmacoeconomic study would allow for the most efficient use of monetary resources and the maximum health return at the lowest possible cost. The high failure rate for innovative therapeutic compounds in the drug development cycle is mostly attributable to economic considerations to save resources.237 Such cost-based approaches have a significant impact on the development of nanotechnology-derived products and management strategies against the COVID-19 pandemic.224

Nanomedicines have the potential to make a significant contribution to inexpensive health care, but a rigorous evaluation through updated cost-effectiveness evaluations is required first. In global pandemic challenges, like the current COVID-19 pandemic, the success of introducing highly-priced and efficacious, yet costly, nanotherapies to market with their affordability can be considerably improved by using specific decision-making frameworks. The implementation of comprehensive, standardized cost-effectiveness studies can shift the focus to reducing health-care costs while maintaining care quality. One major flaw in current cost-effectiveness research in the field of nanomedicine is that, practically all studies focus solely on direct treatment costs, completely ignoring indirect costs.238240 This concern may highly challenge the applicability of nanomaterials and their support on combating COVID-19 by the time the conventional approaches and repurposing strategies are unable to retard and resist its drastic global transmission. Conversely, nanomedicine has the potential to save health-care expenses by reducing treatment costs through focused therapy, reducing hospital stays, promoting healthy aging, and focusing on chronic diseases.241 This confirmed that the importance of nanotechnology in the COVID-19 vaccination and treatment will be uncountable, as COVID-19 is associated with various organ complications, needs targeted therapies, and results in chronic postinfection syndromes.242

Advanced vaccines, PPE, disinfectants, surface coatings, nanobased sensors, and therapeutic agents that will improve treatment success rates are now coming forward to the laboratories, clinical trials, and are even in the market.140,243 Simple, low-cost procedures for low-resourced medical infrastructures and less-developed nations will be the main benefiting outcomes from these nano-advanced products.88,92 Broad-spectrum antiviral nanodrug or functionalized biocompatible NPs have been synthesized which irreversibly and permanently inhibit the virion preventing the re-replication inside the host.244 Antiviral drugs and nanovaccines with lung targeting, superior circulation and retention time, remote loading, decreased systemic immunotoxicity, prodrug forms of controlled and localized release, reduced dosage, combination therapeutics, lowered dose and toxicity, and augmented cellular uptake are also reported positive outcomes.245

Connecting the biomaterial science, nanotechnology, and medicine offered novel and smart nanodelivery systems with effective prevention, efficient diagnostics, and higher efficacy therapeutics. These systems can potentially counter challenges related to site-specific delivery, controlled release and maintenance of stability which will be extremely vital in fighting the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak.95 A nanobased vaccine (mRNA-LNP) for SARS-CoV-2 is being developed and found to be successful. The utilization of nanobiomaterials for COVID-19 vaccine and therapeutics development promised more potent and versatile applications.246

Despite persisting for a very short time, there are many new investigations and patents related to COVID-19. From these patents, more than 10% are associated with nano topics including the use of different nanostructured systems for diagnostic, therapeutics, vaccination, and preventive approaches as nanocarriers, vectors, markers, filters, adjuvants, and intrinsic antimicrobials.125,247 Research and development is still underway on the effective application of nanomedicine with industrial implications to enhance safety, high sterilization capability with a low dosage, reusability, and eco- and user-friendly properties.19,188 Efficiently targeting antiviral nanocarriers and personalized therapy with precision nanomedicine are the near future perspectives of such investigations.9

In summary, COVID-19 management can benefit from nanostructured delivery systems in that it can potentiate immune response modulations which may otherwise be difficult conventionally, possess precise targeting, reduce nontarget accumulation and associated toxicities, protect drugs and vaccines from degradation and inactivation in body environment, offer alternative vaccine delivery routes, and possess promising biodegradability and biocompatibility that can be controlled.248

With those vast advantageous outcomes, clinical translation of the nanoproducts has not yet been achieved. Unpredictable side effects, safety, and toxicity concerns, long-term fate, cost and complexity of NP preparations, need for pure study designs with acceptable sample sizes and validated methods are the persisting challenges.138,139 In contrast there are also probable limitations of the promising advantages of nanoformulations including difficulty to sterilize parenteral formulations suitably, biomolecule denaturation risks, low entrapment efficiencies, biodistribution profile characterization, off-target accumulations, and uncontrollable burst release effects.22

The other vital issue is the lack of deepest understanding of the cellular, pathogenic and pathophysiologic aspects of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 with the particular nanobiointerfaces involved in drug/vaccine development and delivery.8 SARS-CoV-2 also revealed different behaviors in different hosts which entails the need for the design of highly efficient nanosystems such as biomimetic organoids and organ-on-chips that can specifically assess and evaluate these behavioral variabilities.135 Even though the lungs are the best targets in COVID-19 management, direct and targeted intranasal and pulmonary nanodeliveries are associated with severe impairment in respiratory sites and lung function. Further proof is needed to assure nanomaterial safety related to intolerable inflammation, cellular damage, fibrosis, small granulomatous lesions, geno-immunotoxicity, and oxidative stress due to abnormal NP accumulation in the alveoli which results in alveolar cell damage, blood vessel penetration, and then translocation to other organs.249251 The design of such nanocarriers in such a way that the nanoformulation can escape the recognition by scavenger cells is also challenging and needs considerable effort before clinical translation.61

Scaling up, complicated fabrication process and only limited information on how and how much the NPs exert their impact on organisms with peoples reluctance to accept new technologies are other reported challenges.111

Patent and intellectual property right issues remained challenging through this global pandemic era. The Open COVID Pledge requests patent and intellectual proprietors to voluntarily sacrifice the rights in helping the free fight during the crisis, but it is still being debated as it is dependent on the willingness of the patent holders.219 Moreover, regulatory issues are still far-away for the confidential application of nanomedicine with its full potentials. Ethical, scientific, biosafety and acceptance issues by regulatory agencies hinder nanomedicine to produce safe and high-quality nanodrugs including antivirals of this pandemic.9,135

Having the opportunities and the challenges from nanotechnology, nanomedicine, and biotechnology in mind, the pharmaceutical society must put endless effort on investigating nanotherapies to manage COVID-19. Here, from the pharmaceutical point of view, searching for better antimicrobial/antiviral therapeutic agents with better efficacy and minimized adverse effects, optimizing dosages, and delivery systems for carriers and targets, investigating biocompatible, bio-functionalized, nanodrug loading systems; designing stimuli-responsive, immunosupportive, and immunomodulating agents by using nanopharmacology concepts, and developing personalized nanotherapeutics are based on variations of the effects of SARS-CoV-2 and patient-specific disease profiles.82

The current pandemic crisis can be taken as a golden opportunity for the transformation of nanomedicine by intensifying the safety to risk ratio of nanostructures. For this to be true, in-depth investigational study, experience-sharing, and exchange of knowledge among different countries, different departments, and different companies including regulatory agencies are essential.9,176 Early stage regulatory guidelines with a mid and long-term research on positive opportunities and about factors that limit their applicability are needed. This can enable the global medical practice against the current and future pandemics.46

Nanomedicine is now trying to combine the advance from machine learning, artificial intelligence (AI), and internet of medical things (IoMT) for modeling, encoding and interpreting cell-nanomaterial interactions which is crucial to forecast biosafety, predict efficacy, and formulate quantitative nanostructure activity-relationship (nano-QSAR). These combined applications can support the global struggle against COVID-19 by providing simplified data collection, mobile-sensing, as well as self-sampling of COVID-19 tests. Other related technologies such as robotics, telemedicine and 3D-printing can further complement the effective application of nanomedicine in fighting the pandemic.108,252

Even though the COVID pandemic is accelerating globally, there are still no approved drugs and internationally accepted free-access vaccines to counter its worldwide spread. Accurate prevention, rapid and early detection, effective immunomodulation, and definitive treatment strategies are not yet outlined. Nanostructured drug development and delivery-based research and development is now promising the world to end the pandemic effectively and shortly with radically modified therapeutic, diagnostic and prevention options. Should all regulatory, scale-up, and safety issues be settled, nanotechnology can guarantee the world for the current and the next unpredictable pandemic crisis. Extensive scientific research and collaborative multidisciplinary efforts are needed for its practically extrapolatable outcome.

ACE2, angiotensin converting enzyme-2; BBB, bloodbrain barrier; CNS, central nervous system; COVID-19, coronavirus disease-2019; CPT, convalescent plasma therapy; CQ, chloroquine; DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid; HCoV, human corona viruses; HCQ, hydroxychloroquine; IL, interleukin; LNP, lipid nanoparticle; NP, nanoparticle; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; PLGA, poly lactic-co-glycolic acid; POC(D/T), point-of-care (diagnosis/testing); PPE, personal protective equipment; RBD, receptor-binding domain; ROS, reactive oxygen specious; RNA, ribonucleic acid; S, spike; SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; VLNP, virus-like nanoparticle; VLP, virus-like protein; WHO, World Health Organization.

Addis Ababa University and Bahir Dar University are thankfully acknowledged for giving us internet access.

All authors made a significant contribution to the work reported, whether that is in the conception, execution, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation, or in all these areas; took part in drafting, revising or critically reviewing the article; gave final approval of the version to be published; have agreed on the journal to which the article has been submitted; and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work.

The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work.

1. Wang C, Horby PW, Hayden FG, Gao GF. A novel coronavirus outbreak of global health concern. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):470473. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30185-92

2. Perlman S. Another decade, another coronavirus. New Engl J Med. 2020;382(8):760762. doi:10.1056/NEJMe2001126

3. Gorbalenya AE, Baker SC, Baric RS, et al. The species severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: classifying 2019-nCoV and naming it SARS-CoV-2. Nat Microbiol. 2020;5(4):536544.4.

4. Wu JT, Leung K, Leung GM. Nowcasting and forecasting the potential domestic and international spread of the 2019-nCoV outbreak originating in Wuhan, China: a modelling study. Lancet. 2020;395:689. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30260-9

5. Gavriatopoulou M, Korompoki E, Fotiou D, et al. Organ-specific manifestations of COVID-19 infection. Clin Exp Med. 2020;7:114.

6. Glebov OO. Understanding SARS-CoV-2 endocytosis for COVID-19 drug repurposing. FEBS J. 2020;287:36643671. doi:10.1111/febs.15369

7. Ullah MA, Araf Y, Sarkar B, Moin AT, Reshad RA, Hasanur MD. Pathogenesis, diagnosis and possible therapeutic options for COVID-19. J Clin Exp Invest. 2020;11:em00755. doi:10.29333/jcei/8564

8. Cardoso VMO, Moreira BJ, Comparetti EJ, et al. Is nanotechnology helping in the fight against COVID-19? Front Nanotechnol. 2020;2:588915. doi:10.3389/fnano.2020.588915

9. Rai M, Bonde S, Yadav A, et al. Nanotechnology-based promising strategies for the management of COVID-19: current development and constraints. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2020:110. doi:10.1080/14787210.2021.1836961

10. WHO. COVID-19 dashboard. Available from: Accessed June 15, 2021.

11. Lovato A, de Filippis C. Clinical presentation of COVID-19: a systematic review focusing on upper airway symptoms. Ear Nose Throat J. 2020;99(9):569576.

12. Mizumoto K, Kagaya K, Zarebski A, Chowell G. Estimating the asymptomatic proportion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases on board the Diamond Princess cruise ship, Yokohama, Japan, 2020. Euro Surveill. 2020;25(10). doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.10.2000180

13. Shereen MA, Khan S, Kazmi A, Bashir N, Siddique R. COVID-19 infection: origin, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses. J Adv Res. 2020;24:9198. doi:10.1016/j.jare.2020.03.005

14. Cai J, Sun W, Huang J, Gamber M, Wu J, He G. Indirect virus transmission in cluster of COVID-19 cases, Wenzhou, China, 2020. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(6):13431345. doi:10.3201/eid2606.200412

15. Chhantyal P. Cicadas antimicrobial nanotechnology solution for COVID free surfaces; 2020. Available from: Accessed June 12, 2021.

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Global Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials Market Report (2021 to 2031) – Profiles of Over 1500 Nanotechnology Nanomaterials Producers and Product…

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DUBLIN--(BUSINESS WIRE)--The "The Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials Global Market Report 2021-2031" report has been added to's offering.

Nanotechnology and nanomaterials are key enablers for a whole new generation of products and processes. New products with enhanced properties are on the market from a broad range of players in consumer electronics, packaging, composites, biomedicine, healthcare and coatings.

At over 1000 pages, The Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials Global Market Report 2021-2031 is the most comprehensive assessment of the opportunities afforded by these remarkable materials and technologies. The report offers full market forecasts for nanomaterials and industrial sectors impacted by nanotechnology to 2031.

Report contents include:

Key Topics Covered:



2.1 Aims and objectives of the study

2.2 Market definition

2.2.1 Properties of nanomaterials

2.3 Categorization of nanomaterials


3.1 Production of nanomaterials

3.2 Global consumption of nanomaterials






























4.1.1 Market drivers

4.1.2 Markets and applications Properties End user markets Nanomaterials in adhesives

4.1.3 Technology Readiness Level (TRL)

4.1.4 Global revenues to 2031

4.1.5 Product developers























4.24 SOLAR







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Global Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials Market Report (2021 to 2031) - Profiles of Over 1500 Nanotechnology Nanomaterials Producers and Product...

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Nanotechnology Based Medical Device Market Latest Industry Size, Growth, Share, Emerging Demands, Current Trends and Competitive Landscape Forecast …

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As per the research conducted by DBMR, the report titled Global Nanotechnology Based Medical Device Market Size, Share, Growth, Industry Trends and Forecast to 2028 presents an estimation of the past, current, and projection size of the market. The report contains current and future analysis of the market by evaluation Nanotechnology Based Medical Device the major applications, advantages, trends, and challenges. The report offers an in-depth analysis of the market size, growth, and share of the global Nanotechnology Based Medical Device market as well as an in-depth segment analysis of the market, and various prominent players in the market with a competitive scenario. The report embraces industrial outlook, current methods, revenue, and latest trends of the market from 2021-2027.

Nanotechnology Based Medical Device Market is estimated to grow at 11.65% with factors such as growing support and funds from the government is increasing the growth of the market.

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Increasing in geriatric population globally is another factor which is likely to accelerate the growth of the nanotechnology based medical device market in the forecast period of 2020-2027.

The more time consumption taken by the product and high prices of nanotechnology based medical devices is likely to hamper the growth of the nanotechnology based medical device market in the above mentioned forecast period.

Nanotechnology based medical devices in North-America dominates the market with highly equipped healthcare facilities and with advanced technologies.

Global Nanotechnology Based Medical Device Market Scope and Market Size

Based on product the nanotechnology based medical device market is segmented into active implantable devices, biochips, implantable materials medical textiles and wound dressings and others. Active implantable devices are further sub-segmented into cardiac rhythm management devices, hearing aid devices, retinal implants. Biochips is further sub-segmented into DNA microarrays, lab-on-chip. Implantable materials are further sub-segmented into dental restorative materials, bone substitute materials.

The application in nanotechnology based medical device market is segmented into therapeutic, diagnostic and research.

The range of the top notch Nanotechnology Based Medical Device market report can be extended from market scenarios to virtual pricing between major players, cost and profit of the specified market regions. This market research report is prepared in such a way that it turns complex market insights into simpler version with the help of well established tools and techniques. This industry analysis report reflects high quality and transparency which makes it more reliable for the customers. The most relevant, unique, and praiseworthy Nanotechnology Based Medical Device market research report is delivered to the valuable customers and clients depending upon their specific business needs.

The Global Nanotechnology Based Medical Device market SWOT is provided for the international markets including progress trends, competitive landscape breakdown, and key in regions development status. Development policies and plans are discussed as well as manufacturing processes and cost structures are also analyzed.

A collective analysis on Nanotechnology Based Medical Device offers an exhaustive study supported current trends influencing this vertical throughout assorted geographies. Key information regarding market size, market share, statistics, application, and revenue is within the research to develop an ensemble prediction. Additionally, this research offers an in-depth competitive analysis that specializes in business outlook emphasizing expansion strategies accepted by market majors.

The facts and data are represented in the report using diagrams, graps, pie charts, and other pictorial representations. This enhances the visual representation and also helps in understanding the facts much better.

Top Key Players of Nanotechnology Based Medical Device Market Report are

Starkey Smith & Nephew Abbott PerkinElmer Inc aap Implantate AG Stryker Mitsui Chemicals, Inc Dentsply Sirona, 3M Acusphere, Inc, AMAG Pharmaceuticals Ferro Corporation Merck KGaA

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The report also focuses on global major leading industry players of Global Nanotechnology Based Medical Device market providing information such as company profiles, product picture and specification, price, capacity, cost, production, revenue and contact information. Upstream raw materials and equipment and downstream demand analysis is also carried out. With tables and figures helping analyze worldwide Global Nanotechnology Based Medical Device market, this research provides key statistics on the state of the industry and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the market. The Global Nanotechnology Based Medical Device market development trends and marketing channels are analyzed. Finally, the feasibility of new investment projects is assessed and overall research conclusions offered.

Key Segmentation of Nanotechnology Based Medical Device Market:

By Products (Active Implantable Devices, Biochips, Implantable Materials, Medical Textiles and Wound Dressings, Others)

By Application (Therapeutic, Diagnostic, Research)

Nanotechnology Based Medical Device Market Segments by Geography

North America Europe Asia Pacific Latin America Middle East & Africa

Strategic Points Covered in Table of Content of Global Nanotechnology Based Medical Device Market:

Chapter 1: Introduction, market driving force product Objective of Study and Research Scope the Nanotechnology Based Medical Device market

Chapter 2: Exclusive Summary the basic information of the Nanotechnology Based Medical Device Market.

Chapter 3: Displaying the Market Dynamics- Drivers, Trends and Challenges of the Nanotechnology Based Medical Device

Chapter 4: Presenting the Nanotechnology Based Medical Device Market Factor Analysis Porters Five Forces, Supply/Value Chain, PESTEL analysis, Market Entropy, Patent/Trademark Analysis.

Chapter 5: Displaying market size by Type, End User and Region 2010-2019

Chapter 6: Evaluating the leading manufacturers of the Nanotechnology Based Medical Device market which consists of its Competitive Landscape, Peer Group Analysis, BCG Matrix & Company Profile

Chapter 7: To evaluate the market by segments, by countries and by manufacturers with revenue share and sales by key countries (2020-2027).

Chapter 8 & 9: Displaying the Appendix, Methodology and Data Source

Finally, Nanotechnology Based Medical Device Market is a valuable source of guidance for individuals and companies in decision framework.

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Global Nanotechnology Market Technological Advancements To Watch Out For Near Future Global Industry Analysis 2028 UNLV The Rebel Yell – UNLV The…

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Nanotechnology Marketresearch report, comprehensive analysis of the market structure along with forecasts of the various segments and sub-segments of the industry can be obtained. The report comprises all the market shares and approaches of key players in the market. It also includes detailed profiles for the markets major manufacturers and importers who are influencing the market. A range of key factors is analyzed in the report, which will help the buyer in studying the industry. Competitive landscape analysis is performed based on the prime manufacturers, trends, opportunities, marketing strategies analysis, market effect factor analysis, and consumer needs by major regions, types, applications in this market considering the past, present, and future state of the industry.

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Major Market Key Competitors:

North America(United States, Canada, and Mexico)

Europe(Germany, France, UK, Russia, and Italy)

Asia-Pacific(China, Japan, Korea, India, and Southeast Asia)

South America(Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, etc.)

The Middle East and Africa(Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria, and South Africa)

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The market analysis report includes competitive study, production analysis, applications, and region-wise analysis, competitor landscape, consumption and revenue study, cost structure analysis, price evaluation, and revenue analysis up to 2027. To flourish in the global marketplace, choosing a global market research report which includes market analysis based on a regional and global level is imperative. With the comprehensive analysis of the market

Key Topics Covered: 1. Introduction 2. Research Methodology 3. Executive Summary 4. Market Dynamics 4.1 Growth Drivers 4.2 Challenges 5. Access Control Industry Insights 5.1 Industry segmentation 5.2 Industry landscape 5.3 Vendor matrix 5.4 Technological and innovation landscape 6. Access Control Market, By Region 6.1 North America 6.2 Market & Forecast 6.3 Volume & Forecast 6.4 Western Europe 6.5 Japan 6.6 China 6.7 Other Countries 7. Method / Technology 7.1 Traditional Microbiology 7.2 Market & Forecast 7.3 Volume & Forecast 7.4 Molecular Diagnostics 7.5 Immunodiagnostics 8.Company Profile 8.1 Business Overview 8.2 Financial Data 8.3 Product Landscape 8.4 Strategic Outlook 8.5 SWOT Analysis

A portion of the Major Highlights of TOC covers:

Philosophy and Scope Chief Summary Access Control Industry Insights Access Control Market, By Region Organization Profile

Thanks for reading this article, you can also get individual chapter-wise sections or region-wise report versions like North America, Europe, or Asia.

Key Offerings:

Market Size and Forecast by Revenue | 20212028 Market Dynamics Leading patterns, development drivers, limitations, and venture openings Market Segmentation An itemized examination by item, by types, end-client, applications, fragments, and geology Competitive Landscape Top key sellers and other conspicuous vendorsInquire

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The atomic force microscopy market is expected to grow from USD 489 million in 2021 and is projected to reach USD 631 million by 2026; it is expected…

§ August 27th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotech Comments Off on The atomic force microscopy market is expected to grow from USD 489 million in 2021 and is projected to reach USD 631 million by 2026; it is expected…

during the forecast period. Atomic force microscopy is an imaging technique for studying samples by generating images at an ultra-high resolution. It is an empowered technology that is vital for the measurements of minute samples with a substantial degree of accuracy.

New York, Aug. 26, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- announces the release of the report "Atomic Force Microscopy Market with COVID-19 Impact Analysis, Offering, Grade, Application And Region - Global Forecast to 2026" - Currently, a collaboration between government-sponsored researchers and private firms is becoming vitally important for the commercialization of nanotechnology. Most nanotechnology labs use atomic force microscopes because they are easy to use and enable manufacturing of improved materials and reliable products, thereby augmenting the growth of the atomic force microscopy market.

Market for AFMs to grow at highest CAGR during the forecast period An atomic force microscope is one of the most versatile and dominant equipment for studying samples beyond nanoscales.It is versatile because it can obtain three-dimensional topography, and it also meets the requirements of scientists and engineers by offering measurements for several types of surfaces.

It can generate images at atomic resolution with angstrom scale resolution height information, with the least sample preparation. Also, it can be employed to determine numerous material properties that include friction, electrical force, capacitance, magnetic force, conductivity, viscoelasticity, surface potential, and resistance.

Market for industrial grade AFMs to grow at higher CAGR during the forecast period The industrial grade atomic force microscopy market is expected to grow at a higher CAGR during the forecast period.This is because industrial grade AFM are more in demand owing to their high precision in detecting and visualizing even the smallest surface structures compared to research grade AFM.

Industrial grade AFM can detect and visualize even the smallest surface structures that elevate the product analysis to the next level. One of the best examples of this is the utilization of AFM in quality control and imaging for silicon-integrated circuits in the semiconductor industry.

Market for electronics and semiconductors segment to grow at highest CAGR during the forecast period The semiconductors and electronics segment is expected to grow at the highest CAGR during the forecast period.Atomic force microscopy can assist in the nanometer-scale characterization of semiconductor materials and devices.

It also provides feedback for both electrical failure analysis and physical failure analysis, as well as tribological, mechanical, and interfacial analysis of devices, which is becoming an important metric for quality control.

Market in APAC to grow at highest CAGR during the forecast period The atomic force microscopy market in APAC, particularly in China, Japan, and India, is expected to witness high growth in the next 5 years. Growing R&D funding for the development of microscopes, increasing nanotechnology research, and growing expertise and academic excellence, along with the availability of nanomaterials at a lower cost, are other factors supporting the market growth in APAC.

In the process of determining and verifying the market size for several segments and subsegments gathered through secondary research, extensive primary interviews have been conducted with key industry experts in the atomic force microscopy marketspace. The break-up of primary participants for the report has been shown below: By Company Type: Tier 1 55%, Tier 2 25%, and Tier 3 20% By Designation: Directors 50%, Managers 20%, Vice-Presidents 25%, and Others 5% By Region: North America 40%, APAC 35%, Europe 15%, and RoW 10% The report profiles key players in the atomic force microscopy market with their respective market ranking analysis. Prominent players profiled in this report are Bruker (US), Park Systems (South Korea), Oxford Instruments (UK), Horiba (Japan), Hitachi High-Tech (Japan), Nanosurf (Switzerland), WITec (Germany), NT-MDT Spectrum Instruments (Russia), NanoMagnetics Instruments (UK), Nanonics Imaging (Israel), AFM Workshop (US), Attocube Systems (Germany), Anton Paar (Austria), Semilab (Budapest), Concept Scientific Instruments (France), Nano Scan Technologies (Russia), RHK Technologies (US), GETec Microscopy (Austria), Advanced Technologies Center (Russia), Nanoscience Instruments (US), Anfatec Instruments (Germany), Integrated Circuit Scanning Probe Instruments Corporation (Canada), Tokyo Instruments (Japan), and Molecular Vista (US).

Research Coverage: This research report categorizes the atomic force microscopy market on the basis of offering, grade, application, and geography.The report describes the major drivers, restraints, challenges, and opportunities pertaining to the atomic force microscopy market and forecasts the same till 2026 (including analysis of COVID-19 impact on the market).

Apart from these, the report also consists of leadership mapping and analysis of all the companies included in the AFM ecosystem.

Key Benefits of Buying the Report

The report would help leaders/new entrants in this market in the following ways: 1. This report segments the AFM market comprehensively and provides the closest market size projection for all subsegments across different regions. 2. The report helps stakeholders understand the pulse of the market and provides them with information on key drivers, restraints, challenges, and opportunities for market growth. 3. This report would help stakeholders understand their competitors better and gain more insights to improve their position in the business. The competitive landscape section includes competitor ecosystem, product launches, deals, and expansions. 4. The analysis of the top 25 companies, based on the strength of the market rank as well as the product footprint will help stakeholders visualize the market positioning of these key players. Read the full report:

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The atomic force microscopy market is expected to grow from USD 489 million in 2021 and is projected to reach USD 631 million by 2026; it is expected...

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Global Nanotechnology in Healthcare Market 2021 Insights Business Opportunities: Sanofi, Merck & Co, Biogen, Stryker, Gilead Sciences, Pfizer, 3M…

§ August 27th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotech Comments Off on Global Nanotechnology in Healthcare Market 2021 Insights Business Opportunities: Sanofi, Merck & Co, Biogen, Stryker, Gilead Sciences, Pfizer, 3M…

RW has added the multiple recent analysis report Global Nanotechnology in Healthcare Market this report serves with breaking down top creators, communities, and in like manner covers Industry contracts channel, wholesalers, intermediaries, merchants, Research Findings, and Completion.

As indicated by the most recent market examination report Global Nanotechnology in Healthcare Market inside and out investigation and complete data about the market size, market offers and market elements. Worldwide Global Nanotechnology in Healthcare Market gives various segments and sub-segments dependent on separation by type, application, key vendors, and end-client, sections, improvements, geographical regions of this market. This broad report likewise features key bits of knowledge on the variables that drive the development of the market just as key difficulties that are needed to Nanotechnology in Healthcare development in the projection time frame. The report is additionally a state-of-the-art benchmark of all significant improvements in the Global Nanotechnology in Healthcare Market as far as significant mergers and acquisitions, geographic extension activities, new portfolio broadening activities, and such. The Global Nanotechnology in Healthcare Market Report incorporates a thorough investigation of different factors, for example, drivers, requirements, difficulties, and openings that will influence the development of the worldwide market in the coming years.

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Top Companies which drives Nanotechnology in Healthcare Market Are:

Amgen Teva Pharmaceuticals Abbott UCB Roche Celgene Sanofi Merck & Co Biogen Stryker Gilead Sciences Pfizer 3M Company Johnson & Johnson Smith & Nephew Leadiant Biosciences Kyowa Hakko Kirin Shire Ipsen Endo International

Prominent Points in Nanotechnology in Healthcare Market Businesses Segmentation:


Nanomedicine Nano Medical Devices Nano Diagnosis Others


Anticancer CNS Product Anti-infective Others

Global Nanotechnology in Healthcare Market Report provides detailed regional segmentation analysis. The article is divided into the following regions:

The Global Nanotechnology in Healthcare Market Report covers data on different crucial parts of the market. The Nanotechnology in Healthcare report gives a summary study of different elements driving business sector development, for example, makers, market size, types, applications, and locales. Additionally, to evaluate the market size, this investigation gives an exact examination of the seller scene, just as a relating point by point investigation of makers working in the Nanotechnology in Healthcare Market. Moreover, as of late, on account of new advancements and key thoughts, the market for Nanotechnology in Healthcare has gone through huge turn of events and is relied upon to increment further during the conjecture time frame. In like manner, the data additionally incorporates the various areas where the worldwide market Nanotechnology in Healthcare has effectively taken the position.

List of chapters Discuss in report:

Chapter 1 Scope of the Report

Chapter 2 Executive Summary

Chapter 3 Global Nanotechnology in Healthcare by Company

Chapter 4 Nanotechnology in Healthcare by Region


Chapter 9 Market Drivers, Challenges and Trends

Chapter 10 Marketing, Distributors and Customer

Chapter 11Global Nanotechnology in Healthcare Market Forecast

Chapter 12 Key Players Analysis

Chapter 13 Research Findings and Conclusion

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Discovery Park District partners with Purdue SMART Consortium to advance Internet of Things technology and use cases – Purdue News Service

§ August 27th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotech Comments Off on Discovery Park District partners with Purdue SMART Consortium to advance Internet of Things technology and use cases – Purdue News Service

WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. Discovery Park District continues to build one of the most connected communities in the world, announcing on Monday (Aug. 23) a partnership with Purdue University SMART Consortium to advance Internet of Things (IoT) technology and study how this technology will be used.

According to a report by McKinsey & Co., the number of connected devices will grow exponentially over the coming decade. Although IoT is in its infancy, connected devices such as video-enabled doorbells and internet-connected thermostats in our homes, and other IoT applications, are poised to reshape the world much like the internet reshaped the world over the previous 25 years.

IoT represents a constellation of capabilities and technologies. It includes data acquisition from traditional and developing technologies, such as chemical, electrical and biologic sensors, and data transmission from the sensor to the processing engine such as Wi-Fi, LoRa, BLE, CBRS, or 5G. Another aspect of IoT is data processing, which includes machine learning and artificial intelligence, as well as where the data is processed: at the sensor, at the edge, which is in real time on the device, or in the cloud. Finally, IoT capabilities include data use to drive a decision or an action, for example using data visualization to provide insight on power grid management, trigger alerts for a patients cardiac rhythm, or automate actions such as traffic signals for better traffic flow.

The SMART Consortium is a multidisciplinary research center located in the $90 million Birck Nanotechnology Center at Purdue University. The SMART Consortium engages industry and technology partners in research to explore innovation across the IoT spectrum, from artificial intelligence-enabled manufacturing, materials and devices, hybrid integration, and high-performance electronics to low power communication, networking, and advanced machine-learning to obtain accurate data from low-cost sensors in harsh outdoor or noisy environments.

The SMART Consortium represents a foundry for IoT development, said Ali Shakouri, the Mary Jo and Robert L. Kirk Director of Birck Nanotechnology Center and professor of electrical and computer engineering. A foundry is a shared developmental manufacturing facility, and they were vital to the rapid growth of Silicon Valley. At the district, we envision a foundry dedicated to supporting the fast development of low-cost, high-volume IoT devices and use cases generating faster product development pilot runs and lower cost per unit making innovation much more accessible and affordable.

In addition to the Foundry, the SMART Consortium also operates a LoRa-based network across the district. Together, the Foundry and LoRa network allow end-to-end IoT device and use case development and testing in a real-world environment.

The district is being built and curated to provide a unique digital experience for its residence, tenants and visitors. It is the front door for the outside world to engage and collaborate with a world-class academic institution focused on research and education. However, the district also serves as an at-scale living laboratory that allows scientific discovery to be applied and advanced outside of the controlled laboratory environment.

The districts partnership with Purdue Universitys SMART Consortium is a natural connection that helps bring innovation to the district and bridges research with partners through applied application.

The SMART Consortium is another piece of equipment weve curated for our digital playground and joins our other collaborators Tilson, SBA Communications, US Ignite, the Innovation Partners Institute, and the Indiana 5GZone in our growing innovation ecosystem, said Troy Hege, vice president of innovation and technology at Purdue Research Foundation.

About Discovery Park District

TheDiscovery Park Districtis a 400-acre, $1 billion-plus purpose-driven community adjacent to campus that will include laboratories, advanced manufacturing facilities, offices, retail shops, restaurants, housing, green space, trails, and an airport with a 7,000-foot runway. The district, which is a designatedopportunity zone, houses theConvergence Center for Innovation and Collaboration, a facility designed to serve as a front door to companies that seek to collaborate with Purdue. Companies interested in locating in the Discovery Park District or Convergence Center should contact David Broecker, the foundations chief innovation and collaboration officer,


Troy Hege:

Ali Shakouri:

Media inquiries: Christy Denault, 317/417-6322

Purdue Research Foundation contact: Steve Martin,

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Discovery Park District partners with Purdue SMART Consortium to advance Internet of Things technology and use cases - Purdue News Service

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Nanotechnology Enabled Coatings for Aircraft Market to witness Explosive Rise by 2027 | Anti-corrosion & Abrasion Nano Coatings, Anti-icing Nano…

§ August 13th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotech Comments Off on Nanotechnology Enabled Coatings for Aircraft Market to witness Explosive Rise by 2027 | Anti-corrosion & Abrasion Nano Coatings, Anti-icing Nano…

A2Z Market Research announces the release of the Nanotechnology Enabled Coatings for Aircraft Market research report. The market is predicted to grow at a healthy pace in the coming years. Nanotechnology Enabled Coatings for Aircraft Market 2021 research report presents an analysis of market size, share, and growth, trends, cost structure, statistical and comprehensive data of the global market. The Market report offers remarkable data regarding the industrys growth parameters, the current state of the market in terms of analysis of possible economic situations, and macroeconomic analysis.

The global Nanotechnology Enabled Coatings for Aircraft market was valued at 2.86 Million USD in 2020 and will grow with a CAGR of 9.78% from 2020 to 2027.

Top Key Players Profiled in this report are PPG, MDS Coating Technologies, Powdermet, ZKJN, FlightShield, Luna Innovtions, Kimetsan, Applied Thin Films, ToughGuard, EnvAerospace, Ceramic Pro.

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Note In order to provide more accurate market forecast, all our reports will be updated before delivery by considering the impact of COVID-19.

This report provides an effective business outlook, different case studies from various top-level industry experts, business owners, and policymakers have been included to get a clear vision about business methodologies to the readers. SWOT and Porters Five model have been used for analyzing the Nanotechnology Enabled Coatings for Aircraft market on the basis of strengths, challenges and global opportunities in front of the businesses.

The global Nanotechnology Enabled Coatings for Aircraft market is analyzed in terms of its competitive landscape. For this, the report encapsulates data on each of the key players in the market according to their current company profile, gross margins, sale price, sales revenue, sales volume, product specifications along with pictures, and the latest contact information. The reports conclusion leads into the overall scope of the global market with respect to feasibility of investments in various segments of the market, along with a descriptive passage that outlines the feasibility of new projects that might succeed in the global Nanotechnology Enabled Coatings for Aircraft market in the near future.

Global Nanotechnology Enabled Coatings for Aircraft market Segmentation:

Market by Type: Anti-corrosion & Abrasion Nano Coatings, Anti-icing Nano Coatings, Nano Thermal Coatings

Market by Application: Commercial Aircraft, Military Aircraft

The report provides insights on the following pointers:

Market Penetration: Comprehensive information on the product portfolios of the top players in the Nanotechnology Enabled Coatings for Aircraft market.

Product Development/Innovation: Detailed insights on the upcoming technologies, R&D activities, and product launches in the market.

Competitive Assessment: In-depth assessment of the market strategies, geographic and business segments of the leading players in the market.

Market Development: Comprehensive information about emerging markets. This report analyzes the market for various segments across geographies.

Market Diversification: Exhaustive information about new products, untapped geographies, recent developments, and investments in the Nanotechnology Enabled Coatings for Aircraft market.

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The cost analysis of the Global Nanotechnology Enabled Coatings for Aircraft Market has been performed while keeping in view manufacturing expenses, labor cost, and raw materials and their market concentration rate, suppliers, and price trend. Other factors such as Supply chain, downstream buyers, and sourcing strategy have been assessed to provide a complete and in-depth view of the market. Buyers of the report will also be exposed to a study on market positioning with factors such as target client, brand strategy, and price strategy taken into consideration.

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Table of Contents

Global Nanotechnology Enabled Coatings for Aircraft Market Research Report 2021 2027

Chapter 1 Nanotechnology Enabled Coatings for Aircraft Market Overview

Chapter 2 Global Economic Impact on Industry

Chapter 3 Global Market Competition by Manufacturers

Chapter 4 Global Production, Revenue (Value) by Region

Chapter 5 Global Supply (Production), Consumption, Export, Import by Regions

Chapter 6 Global Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type

Chapter 7 Global Market Analysis by Application

Chapter 8 Manufacturing Cost Analysis

Chapter 9 Industrial Chain, Sourcing Strategy and Downstream Buyers

Chapter 10 Marketing Strategy Analysis, Distributors/Traders

Chapter 11 Market Effect Factors Analysis

Chapter 12 Global Nanotechnology Enabled Coatings for Aircraft Market Forecast

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Global Environmental Monitoring Markets 2021-2028: Opportunities in the Use of IoT and Nanotechnology in Environmental Monitoring Products and UAVs…

§ August 13th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotech Comments Off on Global Environmental Monitoring Markets 2021-2028: Opportunities in the Use of IoT and Nanotechnology in Environmental Monitoring Products and UAVs…

DUBLIN, Aug. 9, 2021 /PRNewswire/ -- The "Environmental Monitoring Market by Product, Sampling, Application - Forecast to 2028" report has been added to's offering.

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The global environmental monitoring market is expected to grow at a CAGR of ~7.0% from 2021 to 2028 to reach ~$25.95 billion by 2028.

The growth in the environmental monitoring market is mainly attributed to increasing government funding towards environmental sustainability, developing policies and initiatives to reduce environmental pollution levels, rising installations of environmental monitoring stations, and increased adoption of environmental monitoring strategies by the public and private companies. Moreover, the use of internet of things (IoT) technology and nanotechnology offer significant growth opportunities for the growth of this market.

Based on product, the environmental sensors segment is expected to show the highest growth during the forecast period. Increasing adoption of sensors due to the ease of device handling and their advantages such as operational flexibility, versatility, small equipment size, low maintenance cost, and low space requirement are some of the key factors driving the growth in the environmental monitoring sensors market. Further, the integration of microfluidics and nanofluidic technology is propelling the segment growth.

Based on application, the air pollution monitoring segment is expected to account for the largest share in 2021. The rising levels of air pollution, growing pressure on governing bodies to put forth strict guidelines and regulations to control air pollution is supporting the growth in this segment. In addition, increasing funding and technology developments for air quality monitoring are some of the other factors driving the growth of the air quality monitoring segment.

An in-depth analysis of the geographical scenario of the environmental monitoring market provides detailed qualitative and quantitative insights about the five major geographies along with the coverage of major countries in each region. North America is expected to account for the largest share of the environmental monitoring market in 2021, followed by Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, and the Middle East & Africa.

The key players operating in the global environmental monitoring market are

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Danaher Corporation

Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.

Merck KGaA

Agilent Technologies Inc.

TE Connectivity Ltd.

Siemens AG

Emerson Electric Co.

Honeywell International Inc.

Teledyne Technologies Incorporated

Horiba Ltd

Shimadzu Corporation

Testo SE & Co. KGaA


Key Topics Covered:

1 Introduction

2 Research Methodology 2.1. Research Process 2.2. Data Collection & Validation 2.3. Market Assessment 2.4. Assumptions for the Study 2.5. Limitations for the Study

3 Executive Summary

4 Market Insights 4.1. Introduction 4.2. Market Dynamics 4.2.1. Drivers Rising Government Funding Towards Environmental Sustainability Development of Policies and Initiatives to Reduce Environmental Pollution Rising Installation of Environmental Monitoring Stations Growing Importance of Environmental Monitoring Solutions in Public-Private Organizations 4.2.2. Restraints Trade Barriers on Environmental Technologies in Emerging Economies Slow Adoption and Implementation of Pollution Control Policies 4.2.3. Opportunities Use of IoT and Nanotechnology in Environmental Monitoring Products Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Environmental Monitoring 4.2.4. Challenges High Costs Associated with Environmental Monitoring Solutions 4.3. Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on the Environmental Monitoring Market

5 Global Environmental Monitoring Market, By Product 5.1. Introduction 5.2. Environmental Monitoring Sensors 5.2.1. Global Environmental Monitoring Sensors Market, by Type Analog Environmental Monitoring Sensors Digital Environmental Monitoring Sensors 5.2.2. Global Environmental Monitoring Sensors Market, by Function Particulate Detection Chemical Detection Pressure Detection Humidity/Moisture Detection Temperature Sensing Noise Measurement Other Functions 5.3. Environmental Monitors 5.3.1. Fixed Environmental Monitors 5.3.2. Portable Environmental Monitors 5.4. Environmental Monitoring Software 5.5. Other Environmental Monitoring Products

6 Global Environmental Monitoring Market, By Sampling 6.1. Introduction 6.2. Continuous Monitoring 6.3. Intermittent Monitoring 6.4. Passive Monitoring 6.5. Active Monitoring

7 Global Environmental Monitoring Market, By Application 7.1. Introduction 7.2. Air Pollution Monitoring 7.3. Water Pollution Monitoring 7.4. Soil Pollution Monitoring 7.5. Noise Pollution Monitoring

8 Global Environmental Monitoring Market, By Geography 8.1. Introduction 8.2. North America 8.2.1. U.S. 8.2.2. Canada 8.3. Europe 8.3.1. Germany 8.3.2. France 8.3.3. U.K. 8.3.4. Italy 8.3.5. Spain 8.3.6. Rest of Europe (RoE) 8.4. Asia-Pacific 8.4.1. Japan 8.4.2. China 8.4.3. India 8.4.4. Rest of Asia-Pacific (RoAPAC) 8.5. Latin America 8.6. Middle East & Africa

9 Competitive Landscape 9.1. Introduction 9.2. Key Growth Strategies 9.3. Market Share Analysis (2020) 9.3.1. Honeywell International Inc. (U.S.) 9.3.2. TE Connectivity Ltd. (Switzerland) 9.3.3. Testo SE & Co. KGaA (Germany)

10 Company Profiles 10.1. Business Overview 10.2. Financial Overview 10.3. Product Portfolio 10.4. Strategic Developments

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Global Environmental Monitoring Markets 2021-2028: Opportunities in the Use of IoT and Nanotechnology in Environmental Monitoring Products and UAVs...

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Nanotechnology Market Share, Industry Size, Leading Companies Outlook, Upcoming Challenges and Opportunities till 2028 – The Market Writeuo – The…

§ August 13th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotech Comments Off on Nanotechnology Market Share, Industry Size, Leading Companies Outlook, Upcoming Challenges and Opportunities till 2028 – The Market Writeuo – The…

The Latest research study released by DBMR Global Nanotechnology Market with 350+ pages of analysis on business Strategy taken up by key and emerging industry players and delivers know how of the current market development, landscape, technologies, drivers, opportunities, market viewpoint and status. Understanding the segments helps in identifying the importance of different factors that aid the market growth. The report shows market share, size, trends, growth, trends, applications, competition analysis, development patterns, and the correlations between the market dynamics and forecasts for 2020 to 2027 time-frames. The report aims to provide an overview of global Nanotechnology Market with detailed market segmentation by product/application and geography. The report provides key statistics on the Market status of the players and offers key trends and opportunities in the market. Research report has been compiled by studying the market in-depth along with drivers, opportunities, restraints & other strategies as well as new-developments that can help a reader to understand the exact situation of the market along with the factors that can limit or hamper the market growth and the report also has been updated with Impacts & effects of Coronavirus pandemic and how it has influenced consumer behavior& the growth of the market as well as industries.

The Global Nanotechnology Market is expected to reach USD 24.56 billion by 2025, from USD 7.24 billion in 2017 growing at a CAGR of 16.5% during the forecast period of 2020 to 2025

Download Free Sample (350 Pages PDF) Report: To Know the Impact of COVID-19 on this [emailprotected]

Nanoscience is the study of extremely small things. The development of nanotechnology is being growing in many fields, as it has various applications, such as in chemistry, biology, physics, materials science and engineering. Nanotechnology deals with the use of nanoparticle of size of 1 to 100 nm to be used in all major field of medical. Materials designed from nanotechnology are lighter, stronger and more durable. In oncology research, nanotechnology assists in cancer eradication. Nanotechnology based device are also used in fitness monitoring. Smartphone apps and bracelets are developed based on nanotechnology concept. A nano based device is used to sense the body temperature, heartbeat and others which are sent back to the reader. After analysing the temperature and heartbeat, medical staff monitors the condition. All these nano based devices helps to drive the market. For elder people, battery-free printed graphene sensors are also developed which helps in gathering the health condition of the elder population, enables remote healthcare and improves the quality of life. In diagnostic and prevention, nanotechnology plays a vital role in cancer diagnostics. Nanotechnology based devices can detects the biomarker produced by the circulating tumor cells (CTCs) on the onset of cancer. Based on nanotechnology, two main methods of circulating tumor cells (CTC) isolations are magnetic and microfluidic methods. In clinical development fluorescent nano sensors are used for in-vivo monitoring of biomarkers. Another application of nanotechnology is nanomedicine which has potential application in diagnosis and therapy medicine for regeneration of tissues and organs.

This Nanotechnology Market 2020 Reportencompasses an infinite knowledge and information on what the markets definition, classifications, applications, and engagements are and also explains the drivers and restraints of the market which is obtained from SWOT analysis. By applying market intelligence for this Nanotechnology Market report, industry expert measure strategic options, summarize successful action plans and support companies with critical bottom-line decisions. Additionally, the data, facts and figures collected to generate this market report are obtained forms the trustworthy sources such as websites, journals, mergers, newspapers and other authentic sources. Development policies and plans are discussed as well as manufacturing processes and cost structures are also analyzed. This report also states import/export consumption, supply and demand Figures, price, cost, revenue and gross margins.

According to this reportGlobal Nanotechnology Marketwill rise from Covid-19 crisis at moderate growth rate during 2020 to 2027. Nanotechnology Market includes comprehensive information derived from depth study on Nanotechnology Industry historical and forecast market data. Global Nanotechnology Market Size To Expand moderately as the new developments in Nanotechnology and Impact of COVID19 over the forecast period 2020 to 2027.


Nanotechnology Market report provides depth analysis of the market impact and new opportunities created by theCOVID19/CORONAVirus pandemic. Report covers Nanotechnology Market report is helpful for strategists, marketers and senior management, And Key Players in Nanotechnology Industry.

List of Companies Profiled in the Nanotechnology Market Report are:

Complete Report is Available (Including Full TOC, List of Tables & Figures, Graphs, and Chart) @

Nanotechnology Reportdisplays data on key players, majorcollaborations, merger & acquisitions along with trending innovation and business policies. The report highlights current and future market trends and carries out analysis of the effect of buyers, substitutes, new entrants, competitors, and suppliers on the market. The key topics that have been explained in this Nanotechnology market report include market definition, market segmentation, key developments, competitive analysis and research methodology. To accomplish maximum return on investment (ROI), its very essential to be acquainted with market parameters such as brand awareness, market landscape, possible future issues, industry trends and customer behavior where this Nanotechnology report comes into play.

The Segments and Sub-Section of Nanotechnology Market are shown below:

By Type (Nano composites, Nano materials, Nano tools, Nano devices, Others)

By Applications (Healthcare, Environment, Energy, Food & Agriculture, Information & Technology, Others)

By Industry (Electronics, Cosmetics, Pharmaceutical, Biotechnology, Others

Market Size Segmentation by Region & Countries (Customizable):

Key questions answered

What impact does COVID-19 have made on Global Nanotechnology Market Growth & Sizing?

Who are the Leading key players and what are their Key Business plans in the Global Nanotechnology market?

What are the key concerns of the five forces analysis of the Global Nanotechnology market?

What are different prospects and threats faced by the dealers in the Global Nanotechnology market?

What are the strengths and weaknesses of the key vendors?

Market Segmentation: Global Nanotechnology Market

The global nanotechnology market is segmented based on product type, application, industry and geographical segments.

By Product Type (Nano Composites, Nano Materials, Nano Tools, Nano Devices, Others), By Applications (Healthcare, Environment, Energy, Food & Agriculture, Information & Technology, Others), By Industry (Electronics, Cosmetics, Pharmaceutical, Biotechnology, Others), By Geography (North America, South America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Middle East and Africa)

Based on product type , the market is segmented into nano-composites and nano materials, nano tools, nano devices, and others. Nano-composites are further sub segmented into nanoparticles, nanotubes and nano clays. Nano materials are further sub-segmented into nano fibers, nano ceramic products and nano magnetics. Nano tools are further sub-segmented into nanolithography tools and scanning probe microscopes. Nanodevices are further sub-segmented into nanosensors and nanoelectronics.

On the basis of application, the market is further segmented into healthcare, environment, energy, food & agriculture, information & technology and others.

Based on industries, the market is segmented into electronics, cosmetics, pharmaceutical, biotechnology and others.

Based on geography, the market report covers data points for 28 countries across multiple geographies namely North America & South America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and, Middle East & Africa. Some of the major countries covered in this report are U.S., Canada, Germany, France, U.K., Netherlands, Switzerland, Turkey, Russia, China, India, South Korea, Japan, Australia, Singapore, Saudi Arabia, South Africa and, Brazil among others.

Strategic Points Covered in Table of Content of Global Nanotechnology Market:

Chapter 1: Introduction, market driving force product Objective of Study and Research Scope the Nanotechnology market

Chapter 2: Exclusive Summary the basic information of the Nanotechnology Market.

Chapter 3: Displaying the Market Dynamics- Drivers, Trends and Challenges of the Nanotechnology

Chapter 4: Presenting the Nanotechnology Market Factor Analysis Porters Five Forces, Supply/Value Chain, PESTEL analysis, Market Entropy, Patent/Trademark Analysis.

Chapter 5: Displaying market size by Type, End User and Region 2010-2019

Chapter 6: Evaluating the leading manufacturers of the Nanotechnology market which consists of its Competitive Landscape, Peer Group Analysis, BCG Matrix & Company Profile

Chapter 7: To evaluate the market by segments, by countries and by manufacturers with revenue share and sales by key countries (2020-2027).

Chapter 8 & 9: Displaying the Appendix, Methodology and Data Source

Finally, Nanotechnology Market is a valuable source of guidance for individuals and companies in decision framework.

Thanks for reading this article; you can also get individual chapter wise section or region wise report version like North America, Europe or Asia.

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