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Trial of Scientist Accused of Hiding China Work Goes to Jury – The Wall Street Journal

§ June 20th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Trial of Scientist Accused of Hiding China Work Goes to Jury – The Wall Street Journal

KNOXVILLE, TENN.The trial of a former University of Tennessee scientist accused of concealing his work in China is highlighting the difficulties federal agents have had relying on universities to police international collaborations.

The case against Anming Hu went to the jury Monday. As the trial unfolded last week in federal court here, testimony showed university employees fumbling with unclear disclosure policies and struggling to explain to Mr. Hu the required paperwork and what constituted a conflict of interest.

Mr. Hu, who specializes in nanotechnology, is charged with wire fraud and lying to the government about his work in China when he sought and received two grants from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

A 52-year-old China-born naturalized Canadian, Mr. Hu took the stand on Friday to testify in his own defense. He told the court that he didnt deliberately try to hide his China work, answered all questions he was asked about it and was confused about what the university actually wanted him to report.

The Federal Bureau of Investigation began an effort around three years ago to root out U.S.-based researchers receiving government grants who it saw as possibly transferring cutting-edge know-how to China, wittingly or otherwise. Universities have struggled to treat China as the national security threat the U.S. says it is and with putting in place safeguards.

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An Overview of Nanobots and the Most Recent Developments – AZoNano

§ June 20th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on An Overview of Nanobots and the Most Recent Developments – AZoNano

Nanotechnology has exploded in recent years, with research growing and the establishment of new and exciting applications that exploit the unique properties of nanoparticles, particularly in medicine, electronics, and materials science.

Nanobots are currently disrupting the biomedicine sector, with developments in cancer diagnosis and drug delivery. Image Credit: Corona Borealis Studio/Shutterstock.com

Nanoparticles, measuring just 1-100 nanometers, are unique to their bulk material counterpart, with their small scale gifting them properties that can be leveraged into new applications, making technologies possible that previously had been out of reach.

Nanotechnology continues to gain traction, with estimations that it will reach a global net worth of over $8.6 billion by 2025.

While many nanotechnology projects are still in the research and development phase, significant advancements are being made continuously as scientists discover more about how nanoparticles can be used in different scientific fields.

Here, we discuss the latest developments in the segment of nanobots. These tiny, nano-sized robots are currently disrupting the field of biomedicine, with particular advancements occurring in applications such as cancer diagnosis and drug delivery.

Recent research has helped to establish xenobots, tiny robots that are less than 1 mm in length and constructed of 500-1000 living cells. They have been created in a variety of basic shapes, including some with legs. Studies have shown they can effectively move linearly or circularly, join with other xenobots to act collectively, move tiny objects, and live for around 10 days.

Scientists believe that these xenobots could be developed in numerous ways that could positively impact human, animal, and environmental health, although their status as "programmable living robots made from living, organic tissue raises ethical concerns.

While there is some uncertainty about the future of xenobots due to ethics, scientists working in this field are excited about their potential applications in cleaning up microplastics from the ocean, scavenging toxins and radioactive materials from dangerous places, the more efficient and effective targeted delivery of drugs, and the repair of cells and tissues.

Early diagnosis is a key strategy in the fight against cancer. However, due to the nature of cancer, current diagnostic techniques have their limitations. For example, recent years have seen the development of techniques that measure various biomarkers as a method of early diagnosis, although these techniques are limited due to the new concentrations of such biomarkers in body fluids.

Nanotechnology offers a route to highly sensitive and specific early diagnostics for cancer. Scientists have worked on developing nanobots that can precisely measure key cancer biomarkers at low concentration levels, enabling the early detection of multiple types of cancer and overcoming the limitations of currently available methods.

Studies have shown how the efficacy of biosensors can be enhanced with the addition of nanoparticles. These tiny molecules help to provide specific targeting and improve the sensitivity of the sensors via their increased surface-to-volume ratio.

Scientists are exploring the efficacy of DNA robots at destroying cancer cells. Scientists have successfully programmed strands of DNA to move through the blood to deliver blood-clotting drugs to the site of the tumor, cutting off their blood supply and preventing growth.

Many recent studies have highlighted the potential future use of nanobots in drug delivery. The current results are promising, suggesting that nanobots could soon be used in humans to deliver drugs with increased levels of efficacy and accuracy. This more efficient delivery may also help to reduce the harmful side effects associated with current therapeutics.

A team of researchers recently carried out in vitro experiments with nanobots, visualizing their movements with a combination of optical microscopy and Positron Emission Tomography (PET).

After learning how the nanoparticles were capable of migrating, the team tested the nanobots in a murine model, injecting the nanobots intravenously to mice. They coated the nanobots with urease, an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea, and found that the nanobots swam instantly to the bladder, resulting in induced fluid flows. The data was evidence of the collective movements of nanobots that resemble those found in nature.

The researchers described the collective movement of nanobots and Nanobot swarms and indicated that they could be particularly useful in viscous media, helping to deliver drugs with greater levels of precision.

It is theorized that nanobots could be used to deliver drugs to the eye, gastrointestinal tract, and joints. Scientists foresee that nanobots could be developed so that they are tailored to deliver drugs to specific parts of the body by adapting the nanobot to the fuel that exists in the environment where they are intended to deliver the therapeutics, (e.g. in the case of urease to direct them to the liver).

A final interesting development in nanobot research is using nanotechnology to establish a global superbrain where human thought, theoretically, could be transferred to an artificial interface, establishing a human brain-cloud interface.

Scientists theorize that nanobots may be used in the future to wirelessly transmit information stored in the brain to a cloud-based supercomputer network, allowing real-time data extraction and brain-state monitoring. However, before this application of nanotechnology can become a reality, it must go under a significant phase of research and design as well as overcome the ethical and moral implications of the technology.

Observed in vivo the collective movement of nanorobots. EurekAlert!. Available at: https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2021-03/ef-oiv031521.php

Nanobots/Nanorobots Market Worth 8,685.7 Million By 2025 at 11.73% CAGR. Global Newswire. Available at: https://www.globenewswire.com/news-release/2021/02/23/2180785/0/en/Nanobots-Nanorobots-Market-Worth-8-685-7-Million-By-2025-at-11-73-CAGR-Investment-in-R-D-of-Nanorobotics-to-Influence-Growth-of-Global-Market-Says-Market-Research-Future-MRFR.html

Zhang, Y., Li, M., Gao, X., Chen, Y. and Liu, T., 2019. Nanotechnology in cancer diagnosis: progress, challenges and opportunities. Journal of Hematology & Oncology, 12(1). https://jhoonline.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13045-019-0833-3

Disclaimer: The views expressed here are those of the author expressed in their private capacity and do not necessarily represent the views of AZoM.com Limited T/A AZoNetwork the owner and operator of this website. This disclaimer forms part of the Terms and conditions of use of this website.

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India’s first anti-microbial roll-on ‘CoviRaksha’ launched for treatment of COVID-19: All you need to know – Free Press Journal

§ June 20th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on India’s first anti-microbial roll-on ‘CoviRaksha’ launched for treatment of COVID-19: All you need to know – Free Press Journal

The medicine comes as a roll-on bottle with 10ml as the quantity. The silver colloid based liquid that has can be used for both prophylaxis and treatment of Covid-19 and Black Fungus. According to the lab, the bottle can help protect from the virus for a minimum of 3 hours.

Management consultant Venu Sharma said, We have already made arrangements for production and in need of an investment partner for scaling up. We want this product series to be reaching the globe ASAP. Covid will stay with us for more time with different forms and maybe in new virus variants.

Developed by Nuthan Labs in collaboration with the Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, the product has received a nod from the Ayush Department of Karnataka, while it is still awaiting a nod from the central department.

Speaking about the costing of the product, Venu Sharma said, "for a small minimum quantity, the costing becomes high, with an 18% GST and distribution model in hand the MRP will be near Rs.300-350/- as of now. But by mass production and better cost of a fund - CoviRaksha will be 20 to 30% cheaper."

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Novel Way to Boost the Performance of Solid-State Batteries – AZoM

§ May 24th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Novel Way to Boost the Performance of Solid-State Batteries – AZoM

Written by AZoMMay 21 2021

Although solid-state batteries can pack plenty of energy into a compact space, their electrodes are not that good at making a contact with their electrolytes.

Liquid electrolytes spark energy by reaching all nooks and corners of an electrode, but liquids also tend to take up a lot of space without preserving energy and also fail in due time.

Now, scientists have identified a new way to allow solid electrolytes to make contact with electrodes that are composed of strategically arranged materialsat the atomic leveland the outcomes are supporting the drive toward more improved solid-state battery technologies.

A new research work, headed by Paul Braun, materials science and engineering professor from the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign; Beniamin Zahiri, a postdoctoral research associate; and John Cook, director of research and development from Xerion Advanced Battery Corp., has revealed that if the atomic alignment of solid materials is suitably controlled, it can enhance the stability and cathode-solid electrolyte interface of solid-state batteries.

The study results have been published in the Nature Materials journal.

With batteries, its not just materials that are important, but also how the atoms on the surfaces of those materials are arranged. Currently, solid-state battery electrodes contain materials with a large diversity of surface atom arrangements. This leads to a seemingly infinite number of electrode-solid electrolyte contact interface possibilities, all with different levels of chemical reactivity.

Beniamin Zahiri, Postdoctoral Research Associate, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, News Bureau

We are interested in finding which arrangements lead to practical improvements in battery cycle life, energy density, and power, added Zahiri.

According to the researchers, the stability of an electrolyte controls the number of charge and discharge cycles that can be handled by a battery before it begins to lose power. Due to this aspect, investigators are rushing to identify the most stable electrolyte materials.

In the rush to find stable solid electrolyte materials, developers have sort of lost sight of the importance of what is happening in that very thin interface between electrolyte and electrode. But the stability of the electrolyte will not matter if the connection between it and the electrodes cannot be evaluated in an efficient way.

Beniamin Zahiri, Postdoctoral Research Associate, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

In laboratory settings, the researchers constructed electrodes comprising lithium and sodium ions that have particular atomic arrangements.

They discovered certain correlations between the interface atomic arrangement and battery performance in both the sodium- and lithium-based solid-state batteries.

They also observed that controlling the atomic alignment of electrodes and reducing the interface surface area are crucial to both interpret the nature of interface instabilities and enhance the performance of cells.

This is a new paradigm for how to evaluate all the important solid electrolytes available today. Before this, we were largely just guessing what electrode-solid electrolyte interface structures gave the best performance, but now we can test this and find the best combination of materials and atomic orientations.

John Cook, Director of Research and Development, Xerion Advanced Battery Corp.

As revealed by Elif Ertekin, the study co-author and mechanical science and engineering professor, and her research team, having this amount of control gave the investigators the required data to run atomic simulations which according to them will result in much better electrolyte materials in the days to come, added the researchers.

We think this will teach us a lot about how to investigate emerging solid electronics. We are not trying to invent new solid electrolytes; the materials world is doing a great job with that already. Our methodology will allow others to precisely measure the interfacial properties of their new materials, something that has otherwise been very difficult to determine, stated Braun.

Braun is also the Materials Research Laboratory director and an affiliate of mechanical science and engineering, chemistry, the Beckman Institute of Advanced Science and Technology, and the Holonyak Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign.

Ertekin is the director of mechanics programs in mechanical sciences and engineering and is also affiliated with the Materials Research Laboratory and the National Center for Supercomputing Applications.

The study was funded by the United States Army, the Department of Defense, and the Army Corps of Engineers.

Zahiri, B., et al. (2021) Revealing the role of the cathode-electrolyte interface on solid-state batteries. Nature Materials. doi.org/10.1038/s41563-021-01016-0.

Source: https://news.illinois.edu/

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Regenerative Medicine Market Size to Reach USD 23.57 Billion by 2027; CAGR of 15.6% | Global Analysis, Statistics, Revenue, Demand and Trend Analysis…

§ May 24th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Regenerative Medicine Market Size to Reach USD 23.57 Billion by 2027; CAGR of 15.6% | Global Analysis, Statistics, Revenue, Demand and Trend Analysis…

Increased incidence of genetic disorders and chronic diseases is projected to drive demand for regenerative medicine during the forecast period.

The globalregenerative medicine marketis forecasted to reach a market size of USD 23.57 Billion by 2027, and register a significantly rapid revenue growth rate, according to a new report by Reports and Data. The market for regenerative medicine is witnessing increased demand owing to the emergence of stem cell technology, increase in prevalence of chronic diseases, and advancements in surgical technologies. However, stringent regulations and high cost of treatment are factors expected to hamper growth of the market.

Untapped potential of nanotechnology is also contributing to market development. Nanotechnology is a powerful tool in regenerating tissues for recreating the nanoscale features. Nanotechnology is widely employed in the biomedical field to control the proliferation and preservation of stem cells.

Increased investment in research and development of regenerative medicines to combat growing genetic and chronic diseases is also contributing to the market revenue. Public as well as private organizations, are investing majorly in research to bring about new development in the field of regenerative medicine. Various strong pipeline projects by research institutes are expected to propel market growth over the near future.

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Leading Players Profiled in the Report Include:

MiMedx Group, Inc., Merck & Co., Inc., Integra LifeSciences Corporation, Pfizer Inc., F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., AstraZeneca, Smith & Nephew Plc, Stryker Corporation, Amgen, Inc., and 3M Group, among others.

The COVID-19 impact:

The market for regenerative medicine has witnessed increased demand during the COVID-19 pandemic. Research is being conducted to use regenerative medicine for the development of vaccines to combat COVID-19. Public and private companies are investing in research and development of regenerative medicine to help with the growing demand for advanced therapies to treat new complex diseases.

Further key findings from the report suggest

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For the purpose of this report, Reports and Data has segmented the global regenerative medicine market on the basis of product, application, material, and region:

Product Outlook (Revenue, USD Billion; 2017-2027)

Application Outlook (Revenue, USD Billion; 2017-2027)

Material Outlook (Revenue, USD Billion; 2017-2027)

Regional Outlook (Revenue, USD Billion; 2017-2027)

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Table of contents

Chapter 1. Market Synopsis

1.1. Market Definition

1.2. Research Scope & Premise

1.3. Methodology

1.4. Market Estimation Technique

Chapter 2. Executive Summary

2.1. Summary Snapshot, 2019-2027

Chapter 3. Indicative Metrics

Chapter 4. Regenerative Medicine Market Segmentation & Impact Analysis

4.1. Regenerative Medicine Market Material Segmentation Analysis

4.2. Industrial Outlook

4.2.1. Market indicators analysis

4.2.2. Market drivers analysis

4.2.2.1. Rising prevalence of chronic diseases, genetic disorders, and cancer

4.2.2.2. Increasing investments in regenerative medicine research

4.2.2.3. Growing pipeline of regenerative medicine products

4.2.3. Market restraints analysis

4.2.3.1. High cost of cell and gene therapies

4.3. Technological Insights

4.4. Regulatory Framework

4.5. ETOP Analysis

4.6. Porters Five Forces Analysis

4.7. Competitive Metric Space Analysis

4.8. Price trend Analysis

4.9. Customer Mapping

4.10. Covid-19 Impact Analysis

4.11. Global Recession Influence

Continued.

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About Reports and Data

Reports and Data is a market research and consulting company that provides syndicated research reports, customized research reports, and consulting services. Our solutions purely focus on your purpose to locate, target, and analyze consumer behavior shifts across demographics, across industries, and help clients make a smarter business decision. We offer market intelligence studies ensuring relevant and fact-based research across multiple industries, including Healthcare, Touch Points, Chemicals, Products, and Energy. We consistently update our research offerings to ensure our clients are aware of the latest trends existent in the market. Reports and Data has a strong base of experienced analysts from varied areas of expertise. Our industry experience and ability to develop a concrete solution to any research problems provides our clients with the ability to secure an edge over their respective competitors.

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Diamond enters the blockchain – High Horology Journal

§ May 11th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Diamond enters the blockchain – High Horology Journal

As the boom in cryptocurrencies continues, blockchain is making deep inroads in the luxury industry. The surge in digital transactions by shoppers confined at home during national lockdowns is certainly part of the reason, but not the only explanation. Consumer demand for transparency, longer product lifecycles and the expanding pre-owned market where fakes are rife have also created the conditions for new solutions, and blockchain technology is without doubt one of the most promising. Arianees platform, for example, has won over a number of watch brands including Audemars Piguet, Breitling, MB&F, Roger Dubuis and Vacheron Constantin. According to Arianee, its role is to build a new type of trust-based relationship between luxury brands and their customers by giving luxury products an authentic, secure and augmented digital identity, which it describes as a digital twin. These non-fungible tokens assign a digital value to each product.

Now another solution is joining Arianee in the luxury industry, and specifically the watch segment. Early May, the Richemont group (via Cartier), LVMH and Prada announced the creation of the #AuraBlockchain consortium. Described as the first global blockchain solution, it is open to all luxury brands with the aim of providing consumers with a high level of transparency and traceability. The projects initiators say it will meet the challenges of authenticity, responsible sourcing and sustainability in a secure digital format. Consumers will have access to a products history and proof of its authenticity at every step of the value chain, from raw materials to the point of sale. This will enable them to follow the entire lifecycle of a product with trusted data throughout. Whereas Arianee is based on published code and an open-source protocol that lets brands build their own interface, Aura is a private platform developed, among others, with Microsoft, that gives greater control over processes and data. We need to make sure we do not put important client data in the hands of a third party, says Timothy Iwata Durie, global innovation officer at Cartier. Weve existed for hundreds of years, not five. Its important to protect the integrity of our client information.

In a fast-expanding jewellery market, slated to be worth $500 billion by2025, the stakes are high.

Traceability has been a thorn in the diamond industrys side for a long time. The presence in supply chains of conflict diamonds prompted the launch, in2003, of the Kimberley Process. However, experts agree that the problem has yet to be fully eradicated. Given the giant steps made since2003, digital technology is emerging as the way forward for tracking diamonds from mine to retail. The major mining companies are already working on a blockchain-enabled solution to identify each stone with a digital code that will stay with it throughout its lifetime (logically hundreds of years). In a fast-expanding jewellery market, slated to be worth close to $500billion by2025, the stakes are high. De Beers has been joined on its Tracr blockchain platform by Alrosa. The South African and the Russian are the worlds two biggest diamond producers.

At this stage, the biggest sticking point is to convince players across the entire supply chain to onboard these new solutions, particularly in developing countries. The technology used to identify the stones is also changing. After testing robotised scanning solutions, the industry is looking to benefit from progress in nanotechnologies. In February, after three years of research and development, the New-York-based Nano Innovator Holdings unveiled the prototype for an end-to-end system that identifies both rough and polished stones, including lab-grown diamonds. The solution encompasses cloud-based storage, smartphone optics and a proprietary smartphone app. The consumer uses the app to detect and read a nano tag that has been placed under the diamonds surface by laser technology, with no incidence on the stones grading or quality. Opsydia, a spinout from the University of Oxford, is also in the starting blocks. Its laser technology writes an identifying mark, with a line width of less than one-thousandth of a millimetre, 0.15millimetre below the diamonds surface in one trillionth of a second!

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How Nanotechnology is Leading the Way in Pollution Control – AZoNano

§ April 26th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on How Nanotechnology is Leading the Way in Pollution Control – AZoNano

Image Credit:Merkushev Vasiliy/Shutterstock.com

Scientists at Oxford University have developed a new process based on nanotechnology to simplify and reduce the cost of testing water for chemical pollution and toxicity levels.

Across the EU, including the UK, some common chemicals, such as mercury, nickel, zinc, cadmium, lead, nitrate, phosphates, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, have degraded water quality at levels that are harmful to health and the environment (European Environment Agency, 2018).

Chemical pollution is understood to be one of the heavy contributors to water pollution, affecting the already limited water supply. The WHO states that approximately 785 million people lack a basic drinking water service worldwide (The World Health Organization, 2019). The improper sanitation service and inefficient wastewater treatment services need immediate attention.

The technology developed by Oxford University shows a promising approach to help protect human health and the environment against chemical pollution. As the spin-out company of the University, Nanolyse Technologies takes the lead to proceed to the next level of development.

The fossil fuels burned by vehicles and industries and the pesticides and fertilizers that contain nitrates and phosphates are the primary cause of chemical pollution. Many toxic chemicals from households and industries leak into the groundwater and mix into lakes or rivers, posing short-term and long-term impacts on human health and the environment.

Emissions from vehicles produce excessive levels of NO2, and the overuse of fertilizers and burning of coal heavily produces sulfur dioxide (SCIENCING, 2017). As the polluted water contains a mixture of different toxic chemicals, the treatment requires state-of-the-art technology to detect them. The newly developed process provides bioavailability-based accurate techniques to distinguish highly toxic ions from less toxic ones in a single step (NTSE, 2021).

This hampers effective and streamlined pollution control when what we need are bioavailability-based environmental regulations which restrict the types of toxic metal pollution most likely to be absorbed in the body. Therefore, Nanolyse has now developed and patented a bioavailability-based testing technology for monitoring heavy metals, which takes us a step closer to enabling on-the-spot, field testing for water toxicity in real time on-site.

Dr Imad Ahmed, Founder and Chief Executive of Nanolyse

Wastewater treatment technologies treat secondary water before being reused in other divisions or safely disposed of to avoid a heavy burden on the environment. These processes can be categorized into three main types:

The current options for wastewater treatment are high in cost, complex, less efficient, and time-consuming.

Wastewater treatment is a popular process in controlling pollutants from wastewater through a physical, chemical, or biological process, although the efficiency has to be compromised with the cost and process time. However, before adopting different options for pollution control, it is crucial to understand the origin of the problem. For example, with 25% of human-induced CO2 emissions being absorbed by oceans, air pollution directly and indirectly impacts water degradation (Science on a Sphere, n.d.) . In this case, preventing air pollution is a valid option and the urgent need to stop its contribution to water pollution.

Another major problem of pollution control is the mixture of pollutants that require expensive tailor-fitted treatment for different chemicals and compounds. Nanolyse Technologies' analytical methods for pollution control come with a fitted sensor device and works by selecting and capturing different chemicals and compounds present in water. The prospect of this method will be revolutionary in terms of cost and usability of water analysis.

For the last two decades, nanotechnology, defined by the particle size 1-100 nm, has provided prospective solutions to the problems in many fields.

Nanotechnology helps develop better techniques for pollution control on a molecular level that can separate specific elements and molecules from a mixture of atoms and molecules.

A nanofiber catalyst made of manganese oxide is used to speed up chemical reactions and remove volatile organic compounds from industrial smokestacks (UnderstandingNano, 2007) .

The University of Queensland experimented with another popular nanomaterial, carbon nanotubes (CNT), to trap greenhouse gas emissions caused by coal mining and power generation (The University of Queensland, 2007) . CNT traps gases up to a hundred times faster than other methods, allowing promising integration into the large-scale industry.

The deionization method of using nano-sized fibers as electrodes is considered a cheaper and energy-efficient option with excellent performance (Wang, et al., 2015) . Inserting nanomaterials into underground water sources is cost-effective and more straightforward than pumping water for treatment (Dartmouth Undergraduate Journal of Science, 2009) .

The technology offered by Nanolyse Technologies will eliminate the need to transport samples to a laboratory for analysis using complex machines and highly qualified operators.

With new funding from the UKs Science and Technology Facilities Council, part of UK Research and Innovation (UKRI), the prototype will offer portable, cost-efficient, and effective miniaturized sensor devices capable of analyzing a wide range of chemical species and toxicity accurately for many applications.

Dartmouth Undergraduate Journal of Science. (2009). Turning to Nanotechnology for Pollution Control: Applications of Nanoparticles. [Online] Dartmouth Undergraduate Journal of Science: https://sites.dartmouth.edu/dujs/2009/02/22/turning-to-nanotechnology-for-pollution-control-applications-of-nanoparticles (Accessed on 20 April, 2021)

European Environment Agency. (2018). Chemicals in European waters.

NTSE. (2021). In the Press: Nanolyse Technology Featured in Water & Wastewater Treatment Magazine. [Online] Nanolyse Technologies: https://nanolyse.com/featured/in-the-press/in-the-press-nanolyse-technology-featured-in-water-wastewater-treatment-magazine/ (Accessed on 20 April, 2021)

OAS. (n.d.). Wastewater treatment technologies. [Online] OAS: https://www.oas.org/dsd/publications/unit/oea59e/ch25.htm (Accessed on 20 April, 2021)

Science on a Sphere. (n.d.). Ocean-Atmosphere CO2 Exchange. [Online] Science on a Sphere. https://sos.noaa.gov/datasets/ocean-atmosphere-co2-exchange/ (Accessed on 20 April, 2021)

SCIENCING. (2017). Define Chemical Pollution. [Online] SCIENCING: https://sciencing.com/prevent-land-pollution-23063.html (Accessed on 20 April, 2021)

The University of Queensland. (2007). New technology to reduce large-scale emissions. [Online] The University of Queensland: https://www.uq.edu.au/news/article/2007/09/new-technology-reduce-large-scale-emissions (Accessed on 20 April, 2021)

The World Health Organization. (2019). Drinking-water. [Online] The World Health Organization: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/drinking-water (Accessed on 20 April, 2021)

UnderstandingNano. (2007). Air Pollution and Nanotechnology. [Online] UnderstandingNano: http://www.understandingnano.com/air.html (Accessed on 20 April, 2021)

Wang, Y., El-Deen, A. G., Li, P., Oh, B. H., Guo, Z., Khin, M. M., & Vikhe, Y. S. (2015). High-Performance Capacitive Deionization Disinfection of Water with Graphene Oxide-graft-Quaternized Chitosan Nanohybrid Electrode Coating. ACS Nano. doi:10.1021/acsnano.5b03763

Disclaimer: The views expressed here are those of the author expressed in their private capacity and do not necessarily represent the views of AZoM.com Limited T/A AZoNetwork the owner and operator of this website. This disclaimer forms part of the Terms and conditions of use of this website.

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Clarkson Professor Named Fellow of the International Society of Electrochemistry – Clarkson University News

§ April 26th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Clarkson Professor Named Fellow of the International Society of Electrochemistry – Clarkson University News

Evgeny Katz, the Milton Kerker Chair in Colloid Science in the Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Science at Clarkson University has been named a Fellow of the International Society of Electrochemistry (ISE). This is the highest international recognition in the area of electrochemistry. Dr. Katz received the ISE Fellow appointment in recognition of his outstanding scientific contributions to the field of electrochemistry.

Katz received his PhD in Chemistry from Frumkin Institute of Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia in 1983. He was a senior researcher at the Institute of Photosynthesis, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Russia, 1983-1991. During 1992 and 1993 he performed research at Mnchen Technische Universitt in Germany as a Humboldt fellow. Later, from 1993 to 2006, Dr. Katz was a Research Associate Professor at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. In 2006 he joined the Department of Chemistry & Biomolecular Science, Clarkson University, as the Milton Kerker Chaired Professor of Chemistry.

He has (co)authored over 490 papers in peer-reviewed journals/books with total citations of more than 40,000 (Hirsch-index 92) and holds more than 20 international patents. He has edited or wrote ten books on different topics, including electrochemistry, molecular and biomolecular computing, implantable bioelectronics, nanotechnology, biosensors and forensic science. He was an Editor-in-Chief for IEEE Sensors Journal (2009-2012) and he is a member of the editorial boards of many other journals. Presently, he is an Associate Editor of Electrochemical Science Advances (a new international journal published by Wiley-VCH).

His scientific interests are in the broad areas of bioelectronics, biosensors, biofuel cells, bionanotechnology and biomolecular information processing (bio-computing). In 2011, Thomson Reuters released data identifying the worlds top 100 chemists over the past 10 years as ranked by the impact of their published research. He was included in that list as # 63 from an approximate total of a million chemists indexed by Thomson Reuters. Katz was also included in the list of top-cited chemists, with a worldwide rank of 384 based on his H-index.

He has received many awards in his long career, among them, the international award Katsumi Niki Prize for Bioelectrochemistry by ISE in 2019, Clarksons Lifetime Research Achievement Award in 2014, he won the Kaye Awards for Scientific Innovations from the Hebrew University in Israel in 1995 and 2004, and the State Medal of Inventor, USSR in 1989. Dr. Katz has been inducted into Clarkson's Million Dollar Club for the significant amount (over 1 million) of external funding that his research activities have garnered.

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Four Illinois faculty members elected to American Academy of Arts and Sciences – University of Illinois News

§ April 26th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Four Illinois faculty members elected to American Academy of Arts and Sciences – University of Illinois News

CHAMPAIGN, Ill. University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign College of Education Dean James Anderson, physics professor Nadya Mason and chemistry professors Nancy Makri and Kenneth Schweizer have been elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, one of the oldest honor societies in the nation.

They are among 252 new members elected to the academy this year, including artists, scholars, scientists and leaders in the public, nonprofit and private sectors.

Anderson is recognized as a groundbreaking scholar on the history of U.S. and African American education and achievement. His seminal book, The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860-1935, won the American Educational Research Associations outstanding book award in 1990. He also received the AERAs highest honor, a Presidential Citation, in 2020.

A member of the National Academy of Education and the former senior editor of the journal History of Education Quarterly, Anderson served as an expert witness in a series of federal desegregation and affirmative action cases. He also was an adviser for and participant in several PBS documentaries, including The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow and Tell Them We Are Rising: The Story of Black Colleges and Universities.

During his distinguished 47-year career at Illinois, Anderson has served in a variety of leadership roles and received several of its highest honors including selection as a Presidential Fellow, a Center for Advanced Study Professor of Education and the Edward William and Jane Marr Gutgsell Professor of Education.

Mason is the Rosalyn Sussman Yalow Professor in Physics at Illinois and the founding director of the Illinois Materials Research Science and Engineering Center. As a condensed matter experimentalist, she works on quantum electronics and materials. Mason is a fellow and former general councilor for the American Physical Society, former chair of the APS Committee on Minorities and has been a regular Whys Guys science presenter on local TV. In 2019, she delivered the TED Talk How to spark your creativity, scientifically.

During her career at Illinois, Mason has demonstrated the surface states in topological materials and individual superconducting bound states in graphene-based systems. In 2014 Mason was appointed a John Bardeen Faculty Scholar in Physics at Illinois. She is the recipient of numerous awards, including the Maria Goeppert Mayer Award, the Edward Bouchet Award, the Deans Award for Excellence in Research at Illinois and the Denice Denton Emerging Leader Award. Mason also is affiliated with the Materials Research Laboratory and the Holonyak Micro and Nanotechnology Lab at Illinois.

Makri is recognized for her work in theoretical quantum dynamics and numerical path integral simulations of quantum mechanical processes. She is the Edward William and Jane Marr Gutgsell Chair, a professor in chemistry and physics, a member of the Illinois Quantum Information Science and Technology Institute and an affiliate of the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology. She has developed real-time path integral algorithms that address the computational limitations of the Schrodinger equation and is currently studying the effects of electron-vibration interaction on charge and energy transfer.

Makri is the recipient of many awards, including the Beckman Research Award, the Sloan Research Fellowship, the Packard Fellowship for Science and Engineering, and the Bodossaki Academic Prize in Physical Sciences. She is a medalist and a member of the International Academy for Quantum Molecular Science and a fellow American Physical Society fellow.

Schweizer is the Morris Professor of Materials Science and Engineering and a professor of chemistry and chemical and biomolecular engineering at Illinois. He also is affiliated with the Materials Research Lab and the Beckman Institute, and earned a Ph.D. in physics at Illinois. The overarching goal of his research is to develop novel molecular-scale statistical mechanical theories of the equilibrium and dynamic properties of polymers, colloids, nanocomposites, elastomers, gels, glasses and other forms of soft matter, and apply them to understand experiments and assist in the design of new soft materials.

Schweizer has been the chair of the American Physical Society Division of Polymer Physics and associate director of the National Science Foundation Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center for Directed Assembly. Among his numerous awards are the American Physical Society Polymer Physics Prize, John H. Dillon Medal and Fellowship, Hildebrand Award in the Theoretical and Experimental Chemistry of Liquids of the American Chemical Society, the Everitt Award for Teaching Excellence, the Drucker Eminent Faculty Award and the Department of Energy Award for Outstanding Scientific Achievement in Materials Chemistry.

The American Academy of Arts and Sciences was founded in 1780 by John Adams, John Hancock and others who believed the new republic should honor exceptionally accomplished individuals and engage them in advancing the public good.

We are honoring the excellence of these individuals, celebrating what they have achieved so far and imagining what they will continue to accomplish, said David Oxtoby, the president of the American Academy. The past year has been replete with evidence of how things can get worse; this is an opportunity to illuminate the importance of art, ideas, knowledge and leadership that can make a better world.

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Will Quantum Computing Ever Live Up to Its Hype? – Scientific American

§ April 26th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Will Quantum Computing Ever Live Up to Its Hype? – Scientific American

Quantum computers have been on my mind a lot lately. A friend who likes investing in tech, and who knows about my attempt to learn quantum mechanics, has been sending me articles on how quantum computers might help solve some of the biggest and most complex challenges we face as humans, as a Forbes commentator declared recently. My friend asks, What do you think, Mr. Science Writer? Are quantum computers really the next big thing?

Ive also had exchanges with two quantum-computing experts with distinct perspectives on the technologys prospects. One is computer scientist Scott Aaronson, who has, as I once put it, one of the highest intelligence/pretension ratios Ive ever encountered. Not to embarrass him further, but I see Aaronson as the conscience of quantum computing, someone who helps keep the field honest.

The other expert is physicist Terry Rudolph. He is a co-author, the R, of the PBR theorem, which, along with its better-known predecessor, Bells theorem, lays bare the peculiarities of quantum behavior. In 2011 Nature described the PBR Theorem as the most important general theorem relating to the foundations of quantum mechanics since Bells theorem was published in 1964. Rudolph is also the author of Q Is for Quantum and co-founder of the quantum-computing startup PsiQuantum. Aaronson and Rudolph are on friendly terms; they co-authored a paper in 2007, and Rudolph wrote about Q Is for Quantum on Aaronsons blog. In this column, Ill summarize their views and try to reach a coherent conclusion.

First, a little background. Quantum computers exploit superposition (a particle inhabits two or more mutually exclusive states at the same time) and entanglement (a special form of superposition, in which two or more particles influence each other in spooky ways) to do things that ordinary computers cant. A bit, the basic unit of information of a conventional computer, can be in one of two states, representing a one or zero. Quantum computers, in contrast, traffic in qubits, which are constructed out of superposed particles that embody numerous states simultaneously.

For decades, quantum computing has been little more than a hypothesis, or laboratory curiosity, as researchers wrestled with the technical complexities of maintaining superposition and entanglement for long enough to perform useful calculations. (Remember that as soon as you look at an electron or cat, its superposition vanishes.) Now, tech giants like IBM, Amazon, Microsoft and Google have invested in quantum computing, as have many smaller companies, 193 by one count. In March, the startup IonQ announced a $2 billion deal that would make it the first publicly traded firm dedicated to quantum computers.

The Wall Street Journal reports that IonQ plans to produce a device roughly the size of an Xbox videogame console by 2023. Quantum computing, the Journal states, could speed up calculations related to finance, drug and materials discovery, artificial intelligence and others, andcrack many of the defensesused to secure the internet. According to Business Insider, quantum machines could help us cure cancer, and even take steps to reverse climate change.

This is the sort of hype that bugs Scott Aaronson. He became a computer scientist because he believes in the potential of quantum computing and wants to help develop it. Hed love to see someone build a machine that proves the naysayers wrong. But he worries that researchers are making promises they cant keep. Last month, Aaronson fretted on his blog Shtetl-Optimized that the hype, which he has been countering for years, has gotten especially egregious lately.

Whats new, Aaronson wrote, is that millions of dollars are now potentially available to quantum computing researchers, along with equity, stock options, and whatever else causes ka-ching sound effects and bulging eyes with dollar signs. And in many cases, to have a shot at such riches, all an expert needs to do is profess optimism that quantum computing will have revolutionary, world-changing applications and have themsoon. Or at least, not object too strongly when others say that. Aaronson elaborated on his concerns in a two-hour discussion on the media platform Clubhouse. Below I summarize a few of his points.

Quantum-computing enthusiasts have declared that the technology will supercharge machine learning. It will revolutionize the simulation of complex phenomena in chemistry, neuroscience, medicine, economics and other fields. It will solve the traveling-salesman problem and other conundrums that resist solution by conventional computers. Its still not clear whether quantum computing will achieve these goals, Aaronson says, adding that optimists might be in for a rude awakening.

Popular accounts often imply that quantum computers, because superposition and entanglement allow them to carry out multiple computations at the same time, are simply faster versions of conventional computers. Those accounts are misleading, Aaronson says. Compared to conventional computers, quantum computers are unnatural devices that might be best suited to a relatively narrow range of applications, notably simulating systems dominated by quantum effects.

The ability of a quantum computer to surpass the fastest conventional machine is known as quantum supremacy, a phrase coined by physicist John Preskill in 2012. Demonstrating quantum supremacy is extremely difficult. Even in conventional computing, proving that your algorithm beats mine isnt straightforward. You must pick a task that represents a fair test and choose valid methods of measuring speed and accuracy. The outcomes of tests are also prone to misinterpretation and confirmation bias. Testing creates an enormous space for mischief, Aaronson says.

Moreover, the hardware and software of conventional computers keeps improving. By the time quantum computers are ready for the marketplace, they might lose potential customersif, for example, classical computers become powerful enough to simulate the quantum systems that chemists and materials scientists actually care about in real life, Aaronson says. Although quantum computers would retain their theoretical advantage, their practical impact would be less.

As quantum computing attracts more attention and funding, Aaronson says, researchers may mislead investors, government agencies, journalists, the public and, worst of all, themselves about their works potential. If researchers cant keep their promises, excitement might give way to doubt, disappointment and anger, Aaronson warns. The field might lose funding and talent and lapse into a quantum-computer winter like those that have plagued artificial intelligence.

Lots of other technologiesgenetic engineering, high-temperature superconductors, nanotechnology and fusion energy come to mindhave gone through phases of irrational exuberance. But something about quantum computing makes it especially prone to hype, Aaronson suggests, perhaps because quantum stands for something cool you shouldnt be able to understand.

And that brings me back to Terry Rudolph. In January, after reading about my struggle to understand the Schrdinger equation, Rudolph emailed me to suggest that I read Q Is for Quantum. The 153-page book explains quantum mechanics with a little arithmetic and algebra and lots of diagrams of black-and-white balls going in and out of boxes. Q Is for Quantum has given me more insight into quantum mechanics, and quantum computing, than anything Ive ever read.

Rudolph begins by outlining simple rules underlying conventional computing, which allow for the manipulation of bits. He then shifts to the odd rules of quantum computing, which stem from superposition and entanglement. He details how quantum computing can solve a specific problemone involving thieves stealing code-protected gold bars from a vault--much more readily than conventional computing. But he emphasizes, like Aaronson, that the technology has limits; it cannot compute the uncomputable.

After I read Q Is for Quantum, Rudolph patiently answered my questions about it. You can find our exchange (which assumes familiarity with the book) here. He also answered my questions about PsiQuantum, the firm he co-founded in 2016, which until recently has avoided publicity. Although he is wittily modest about his talents as a physicist (which adds to the charm of Q Is for Quantum), Rudolph is boosterish about PsiQuantum. He shares Aaronsons concerns about hype, and the difficulties of establishing quantum supremacy, but he says those concerns do not apply to PsiQuantum.

The company, he says, is closer than any other firm by a very large margin to building a useful quantum computer, one that solves an impactful problem that we would not have been able to solve otherwise (e.g., something from quantum chemistry which has real-world uses). He adds, Obviously, I have biases, and people will naturally discount my opinions. But I have spent a lot oftime quantitatively comparing what we are doing to others.

Rudolph and other experts contend that a useful quantum computer with robust error-correction will require millions of qubits. PsiQuantum, which constructs qubits out of light, expects by the middle of the decade to be building fault-tolerant quantum computers with fully manufactured components capable of scaling to a million or morequbits, Rudolph says. PsiQuantum has partnered with the semiconductor manufacturer GlobalFoundries to achieve its goal. The machines will be room-sized, comparable to supercomputers or data centers. Most users will access the computers remotely.

Could PsiQuantum really be leading all the competition by a wide margin, as Rudolph claims? Can it really produce a commercially viable machine by 2025? I dont know. Quantum mechanics and quantum computing still baffle me. Im certainly not going to advise my friend or anyone else to invest in quantum computers. But I trust Rudolph, just as I trust Aaronson.

Way back in 1994, I wrote a brief report for Scientific American on quantum computers, noting that they could, in principle, perform tasks beyond the range of any classical device. Ive been intrigued by quantum computing ever since. If this technology gives scientists more powerful tools for simulating complex phenomena, and especially the quantum weirdness at the heart of things, maybe it will give science the jump start it badly needs. Who knows? I hope PsiQuantum helps quantum computing live up to the hype.

This is an opinion and analysis article.

Further Reading:

Will Artificial Intelligence Ever Live Up to Its Hype?

Is the Schrdinger Equation True?

Quantum Mechanics, the Chinese Room Experiment and the Limits of Understanding

Quantum Mechanics, the Mind-Body Problem and Negative Theology

For more ruminations on quantum mechanics, see my new bookPay Attention: Sex, Death, and Science and Tragedy and Telepathy, a chapter in my free online bookMind-Body Problems.

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Breakthrough Could Result in Faster and Cheaper Energy to Power Electronics – SciTechDaily

§ April 26th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Breakthrough Could Result in Faster and Cheaper Energy to Power Electronics – SciTechDaily

From left, Pan Adhikari, Lawrence Coleman and Kanishka Kobbekaduwa align the ultrafast laser in the Department of Physics and Astronomys UPQD lab. Credit: Clemson University

By using laser spectroscopy in a photophysics experiment, Clemson University researchers have broken new ground that could result in faster and cheaper energy to power electronics.

This novel approach, using solution-processed perovskite, is intended to revolutionize a variety of everyday objects such as solar cells, LEDs, photodetectors for smartphones and computer chips. Solution-processed perovskites are the next generation materials for solar cell panels on rooftops, X-ray detectors for medical diagnosis, and LEDs for daily-life lighting.

The research team included a pair of graduate students and one undergraduate student who are mentored by Jianbo Gao, group leader of Ultrafast Photophysics of Quantum Devices (UPQD) group in the College of Sciences Department of Physics and Astronomy.

The collaborative research was published March 12 in the high-impact journal Nature Communications. The article is titled In-situ Observation of Trapped Carriers in Organic Metal Halide Perovskite Films with Ultra-fast Temporal and Ultra-high Energetic Resolutions.

The principal investigator was Gao, who is an assistant professor of condensed matter physics. The co-authors included graduate students Kanishka Kobbekaduwa (first author) and Pan Adhikari of the UPQD group, as well as undergraduate Lawrence Coleman, a senior in the physics department.

Other authors from Clemson were Apparao Rao, the R.A. Bowen Professor of Physics, and Exian Liu, a visiting student from China who works under Gao.

Perovskite materials are designed for optical applications such as solar cells and LEDs, said Kobbekaduwa, a graduate student and first author of the research article. It is important because it is much easier to synthesize compared to current silicon-based solar cells. This can be done by solution processing whereas in silicon, you have to have different methods that are more expensive and time-consuming.

The goal of the research is to make materials that are more efficient, cheaper and easier to produce.

The unique method used by Gaos team employing ultrafast photocurrent spectroscopy allowed for a much higher time resolution than most methods, in order to define the physics of the trapped carriers. Here, the effort is measured in picoseconds, which are one trillionth of a second.

We make devices using this (perovskite) material and we use a laser to shine light on it and excite the electrons within the material, Kobbekaduwa said. And then by using an external electric field, we generate a photocurrent. By measuring that photocurrent, we can actually tell people the characteristics of this material. In our case, we defined the trapped states, which are defects in the material that will affect the current that we get.

Once the physics are defined, researchers can identify the defects which ultimately create inefficiency in the materials. When the defects are reduced or passivated, this can result in increased efficiency, which is critical for solar cells and other devices.

As materials are created through solution processes such as spin coating or inkjet printing, the likelihood of introducing defects increases. These low temperature processes are cheaper than ultra-high temperature methods that result in a pure material. But the tradeoff is more defects in the material. Striking a balance between the two techniques can mean higher-quality and more efficient devices at lower costs.

The substrate samples were tested by shooting a laser at the material to determine how the signal propagates through it. Using a laser to illuminate the samples and collect the current made the work possible and differentiated it from other experiments that do not employ the use of an electric field.

By analyzing that current, we are able to see how the electrons moved and how they come out of a defect, said Adhikari of the UPQD group. It is possible only because our technique involves ultrafast time scale and in-situ devices under an electrical field. Once the electron falls into the defect, those who experiment using other techniques cannot take that out. But we can take it out because we have the electric field. Electrons have charge under the electric field, and they can move from one place to another. We are able to analyze their transport from one point to another inside the material.

That transport and the effect of material defects upon it can impact the performance of those materials and the devices in which they are used. It is all part of the important discoveries that students are making under the guidance of their mentor, creating ripples that will lead to the next great breakthrough.

The students are not only learning; they are actually doing the work, Gao said. I am fortunate to have talented students who when inspired by challenges and ideas will become influential researchers. This is all part of the important discoveries that students are making under the guidance of their mentors, creating ripples that will lead to the next great breakthrough. We are also very grateful for the strong collaborations with Shreetu Shrestha and Wanyi Nie, who are top materials scientists from Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Reference: In-situ observation of trapped carriers in organic metal halide perovskite films with ultra-fast temporal and ultra-high energetic resolutions by Kanishka Kobbekaduwa, Shreetu Shrestha, Pan Adhikari, Exian Liu, Lawrence Coleman, Jianbing Zhang, Ying Shi, Yuanyuan Zhou, Yehonadav Bekenstein, Feng Yan, Apparao M. Rao, Hsinhan Tsai, Matthew C. Beard, Wanyi Nie and Jianbo Gao, 12 March 2021, Nature Communications. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-21946-2

Support for this project was provided by the Center for Integrated Nanotechnology at Los Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, as well as the South Carolina Research Authority.

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List of Nanotechnology journals – ResearchGate

§ March 10th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on List of Nanotechnology journals – ResearchGate

List of major Nanotechnology and related journals

1. Nature Nanotechnology

2. Nano Letters

3. Advanced Materials

4. Nano Today

5. ACS Nano

6. Advanced Functional Materials

7. Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters

8. Biomaterials

9. Small

10. Nano Research

11. Scripta Materialia

12. Nanoscale

13. Lab on a Chip - Miniaturisation for Chemistry and Biology

14. Materials Science & Engineering A: Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructure and Processing

15. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces

16. Biosensors and Bioelectronics

17. Journal of Physical Chemistry C

18. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine

19. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology

20. Nanotoxicology

21. Precision Engineering

22. Nanomedicine

23. Nanotechnology

24. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials

25. International Journal of Nanomedicine

26. Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology

27. Journal of Bionanoscience

28. Nanotechnology, Science and Applications

29. Journal of Nanobiotechnology

30. Plasmonics

31. Biomedical Microdevices

32. Biomicrofluidics

33. IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology

34. Microfluidics and Nanofluidics

35. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering

36. IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience

37. Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology

38. Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications

39. Physica E: Low-Dimensional Systems and Nanostructures

40. Nanoscale Research Letters

41. Microelectronics and Reliability

42. Journal of Nanoparticle Research

43. AIP Advances

44. Microscale Thermophysical Engineering

45. Microelectronic Engineering

46. Nano Biomedicine and Engineering

47. Nano-Micro Letters

48. ACM Journal on Emerging Technologies in Computing Systems

49. Science of Advanced Materials

50. Journal of Nanophotonics

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Puerto Rico Hopes to Join the Space Race – The Weekly Journal

§ March 10th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Puerto Rico Hopes to Join the Space Race – The Weekly Journal

The island already has a healthy and robust aerospace industry and now wants an even bigger slice of the space-race sector.

The Puerto Rico Ports Authority has released a request for information (RFI) for companies that may be interested in developing a space port at the Jos Aponte de la Torre (JAT) regional airport in Ceiba, located just a few miles from the former Roosevelt Roads Naval Station, which the central government has been trying to fully develop for years.

The JAT property is truly a unique and rare resource, having been isolated from normal redevelopment trends since the early part of the last century and situated at the foothills of El Yunque National Rainforest one of the worlds greatest natural wonders. Its location at the eastern tip of Puerto Rico, centrally situated between the continents of North and South America and with viable trajectories to a large range of desirable low-earth orbit launch inclinations make the location highly desirable for satellite operators to use to place their satellites into orbit, said Ports in its RFI.

The government is seeking input for JAT to be an option for experts and innovative members of the aerospace industry to consider rental space for manufacture, storage, processing or any other aerospace-related activities and how their operations can be considered to be located in Puerto Rico.

The JAT airport currently offers scheduled passenger service via three commercial airlines to the islands of Vieques and Culebra. The airport covers an area of 1,646 acres at an elevation of 38 feet above mean sea level. The facility has one operating runway and a closed runway.

Recent studies, analyses and waivers show significant potential economic benefit through the development of a potential commercial space launch facility. The geographic location and configuration of JAT as a commercial launch site offers a significant range of safe launch inclinations from polar and sun synchronous orbit to equatorial orbits for three launch vehicle types that take off and land horizontally, according to the RFI.

Interested companies have until May 26 to submit their responses.

If the envisioned project is successful, it could help jumpstart the local economy in Ceiba, since Roosevelt Roads was closed in 2008.

The aerospace industry is one of the economic sectors that is experiencing the fastest growth. In fact, in the midst of the pandemic, it was one of the few sectors that did not receive much impact, said Joel A. Piz Batiz, executive director of the Ports Authority.

What we did was an RFI, a Request for Information, which is to knock on the doors of all aerospace companies, both launch, manufacturing and satellite, and let them know that Puerto Rico has these conditions There is a great opportunity for economic development for our youth and the island in the space market, he added.

The Aerospace Industry in Puerto Rico

The island has long been a magnet for the aerospace industry. Some of the aerospace companies with facilities in Puerto Ricomany of them concentrated in the northwest region of the islandinclude Honeywell Aerospace, Collins Aerospace, Pratt and Whitney, Lufthansa Technik, Lockheed Martin, DXC Technologies, El-COM Systems, OPTI Manufacturing, Global Tek Manufacturing, CNC 2000, Multi-Axis Manufacturing and Jet Aviation San Juan FBO.

The aerospace ecosystem is also complemented by a number of educational, scientific and research institutions such as the University of Puerto Ricos (UPR) Nanotechnology Laboratory; Inter American Universitys Aviation School; the Aeronautical and Aerospace Institute of Puerto Rico (a subsidiary of the UPRs Aguadilla Campus); and various related programs at the Polytechnic University, Sistema Ana G. Mndez and Caribbean University. UPR Mayagezs engineering program also offers a pipeline of trained professionals to many companies in the aerospace-related industry.

Sadly, the famous Arecibo telescopes 900-ton receiver platform and the Gregorian dome collapsed last year. The National Science Foundation said that it could cost up to $50 million just to clean up the debris at a renowned radio telescope that collapsed last year in Puerto Rico, adding that investigations into what caused its cables to fail are still ongoing.

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Is There an Invisible Killer Lurking in Some Consumer Products? – Technology Networks

§ February 11th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Is There an Invisible Killer Lurking in Some Consumer Products? – Technology Networks

Our consumer products can be filled with nanomaterials, but they do not show up in lists of ingredients. Credit: MostPhotos/Tatiana Mihailova.

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The consumer products we use, such as food, cosmetics and clothing, may unknowingly be full of nanomaterials. The use of nanomaterials is not regulated and does not need to be stated in the product information. The phenomenon is worrying, as nanomaterials can be even more dangerous than the coronavirus in the long term: they are difficult to measure, they end up in our food chain and, most worryingly, they penetrate cells and accumulate in organs.

Nanotechnology is everywhere today. Thanks to its applications, we are able to treat many diseases so effectively that they are almost gone. We also have materials that are a hundred times stronger than steel, batteries that last ten times longer than before, solar panels that provide twice as much energy, and skin care products that keep us looking youthful. And dont forget to self-clean cars, windows and clothes. These things, previously seen mainly in science fiction and Hollywood movies, have become part of our daily lives.

Nanotechnology has the potential to start the next industrial revolution. The global market for nanomaterials is growing: currently, a market of around 11 million tonnes is worth 20 billion. The direct employment impact of the nanomaterials sector is between 300,000 and 400,000 people in Europe alone.

However, nanomaterials and their use in consumer products are not without problems. A new study published in the journal Nature Communications looked at the potential harm of nanomaterials and their effects on organisms. The researchers used a new, more sensitive method to study nanomaterials and their passage in blood and tissues. The subject of the study was the food chain of the aquatic ecosystem from microorganisms to fish, which in turn is one of the most important sources of human food in several different countries.

- We found that nanomaterials adhere tightly to microorganisms that are used by other organisms for food. This is how nanomaterials end up in our food chain. Nanomaterials can also change shape and size within organisms and can form dangerous compounds that can penetrate cells and spread to other organs. We also found that nanomaterials tend to accumulate especially in the brain, says Fazel A. Monikh , postdoctoral researcher at the University of Eastern Finland.

Researchers say nanomaterials are also difficult to measure: their amount in an organism cannot be measured solely on the basis of mass, which is otherwise a commonly used method for measuring the amount of chemicals. The results of the study highlight the importance of risk assessment of nanomaterials before they are widely used in consumer products. A better understanding of the risks of nanomaterials will also help policy-makers to develop stricter regulations for their use and labeling.

- The products we use, such as food, clothing and cosmetics, may well contain nanomaterials, but they are not mentioned in the product label. This is possible because nanomaterials are not regulated and their measurement from the finished product is impossible due to their small size, says postdoctoral researcher Monikh.

- People have the right to know what kind of products they use and buy for their loved ones. This is a global problem that needs a global solution. Many questions about nanomaterials await one answer: for example, we dont know if they are safe for us and the environment, where they end up after use, and how we can assess their risks, Monikh notes.

ReferenceAbdolahpur Monikh F, Chupani L, Arenas-Lago D, et al. Particle number-based trophic transfer of gold nanomaterials in an aquatic food chain. Nature Communications. 2021;12(1):899. doi:10.1038/s41467-021-21164-w

This article has been republished from the following materials. Note: material may have been edited for length and content. For further information, please contact the cited source.

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5 Side Effects of Taking CBD, According to Science | Eat This Not That – Eat This, Not That

§ January 30th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on 5 Side Effects of Taking CBD, According to Science | Eat This Not That – Eat This, Not That

There is a lot of skepticism around CBD, not to mention it often comes at a premium price. Have you noticed a latte enhanced with the natural plant-based oil can cost you an additional $4 to $5? Still, there are a few positive side effects of taking CBD that may interest you.

There are also many ways you can get your daily fix of CBD. For example, Muscle MX's CBD Cooling Balm, can help muscles to recover faster after a grueling workout. Or, if you need assistance falling asleep at night, Elixinol's Good Night CBD Capsules (which include melatonin) could do just the trick for you. A traditional tincture, such as Nuleaf's Full Spectrum CBD Oil, is also a good route to go, as it easily allows you to add droplets into beverages.

If you decide to take CBD supplements, Vince Sanders, founder and president of CBD American Shaman, advises only taking ones that are treated with nanotechnology.

"This allows for a 90% or higher bioavailability, which means most of what you consume is actually being absorbed into the body," he says. "More absorption means you'll get more of the benefits associated with regular CBD consumption."

Below, you'll see five side effects of taking CBD. And after, don't miss The One Vitamin Doctors Are Urging Everyone to Take Right Now.

When taking CBD, you may

According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), taking CBD has been shown to reduce stress in rats. In addition, a 2010 study published in the Journal of Psychopharmacologyfound a positive association between CBD and people with a social anxiety disorder (SAD). Those who took 400 milligrams of CBD experienced a significant decrease in anxiety in comparison with those who took a placebo.

As Sanders notes, CBD works with the body's endocannabinoid system (ECS) which helps to create a calming effect. In fact, a 2019 study published in the journal Frontiers in Psychiatry suggests that CBD's effects on ECS may be an effective treatment for substance use disorder.

"It calms the brain by binding with receptors associated with fearfulness and anxiousness, and it soothes the body by reducing the physiologic stress responses associated with negative feelings," he says.

Here's more information on CBD for anxiety.

Research has shown that taking CBD capsules, tinctures, or even applying topical creams may help to alleviate chronic pain. For example, a small 2018 study published in the journal Transplantation Proceedingsfound that CBD was successful in improving pain levels in six out of seven participants who experienced chronic pain after having kidney transplants.

"When it comes to pain management, the body already produces anandamide, and CBD works with this compound to reduce the perception of pain," says Sanders.

Anandamide, which translates to "internal bliss" in Sanskrit, is an endogenous cannabinoid the body releases when it first senses pain. Anandamide binds to a receptor concentrated in both the brain the central nervous system called CB1 and effectively suppresses the feeling of pain by blocking the signaling.

CBD doesn't bind to the CB1 receptorinstead, it changes the shape of the receptor. Some experts believe that CBD may prevent this receptor, as well as another receptor called CB2, from being broken down, which ultimately allows them to have a greater effect on the body.

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"CBD can block chemical reactions in the body that trigger inflammatory responses," says Sanders.

It's trueCBD binds to what's called the TRPV1 receptors, which are known to mediate pain perception, inflammation, and even body temperature. According to Harvard Medical School, chronic inflammation is associated with heart disease, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, and Chron's disease.

Anandamide plays a role in mood regulation. As we know, anandamide binds to the CB1 receptor, and since CBD can stop the breakdown of that receptor that also means it stops the breakdown of anandamide. When we retain more anandamide, we maintain a blissful feeling.

"CBD interacts with the body's endocannabinoid system to help regulate the central nervous system, which can have a positive impact and help stabilize people's moods," says Sanders.

Be sure to check out17 Therapeutic Foods to Help Cope With Stress and Improve Your Mood for more tips.

While CBD, as of now, hasn't been shown to treat epilepsy, it has been shown to help people with the condition manage their symptomsparticularly seizures.

"CBD has been shown to help with balance and homeostasis in the body making it a good resource for those who suffer from epilepsy," says Sanders. "To achieve homeostasis, the majority of people consume 10 to 20 milligrams per day."

More research is needed to identify a stronger association, however, strict government regulationsaround cannabis tend to interfere with this progress.

For more, be sure to readWhat Happens to Your Body on CBD.

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5 Side Effects of Taking CBD, According to Science | Eat This Not That - Eat This, Not That

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University of Tyumen: University of Tyumen Honorary Doctor Bharat Bhushan awarded Tribology Gold Medal – India Education Diary

§ January 27th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on University of Tyumen: University of Tyumen Honorary Doctor Bharat Bhushan awarded Tribology Gold Medal – India Education Diary

In 2019, Professor Bhushan received the title of Honorary Doctor of the University of Tyumen for his outstanding achievements and fruitful cooperation with the University.

Bharat Bhushan is a leading world expert in nanotechnology, nanomaterials, nanotribology, and biomimetics. Professor Bhushan is an author of 10 textbooks and over a thousand scientific articles, with an H-index> 100.

Professor Bhushan and UTMN researchers collaborated on several projects and participated in numerous international scientific events. The First International Conference on Nature-Inspired Engineering was one of them. It was held in September 2019 in Italy, where the Head of Photonics and Microfluidics Laboratory of the UTMN X-BIO Institute, Natalia Ivanova, delivered a 40-minute plenary report.

Professor Bhushan was an editor of special issues of one of the worlds oldest scientific journals Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. Due to the Professor it was possible to include the research on droplet clusters in the journal. An international research team led by the Head of Microhydrodynamics Laboratory Aleksandr Fedorets, prepared the paper. The journal also included an overview of the research in the field of biomimetic optics, presented by the Head of Photonics and Microfluidics Laboratory, Natalia Ivanova.

Training of future researchers-physicists always was a great concern for Professor Bhushan. Professor donated the latest authors textbooks on biomimetics, tribology, research methods in materials science to the University.

The new state program of strategic academic leadership Priority-2030, which made this collaboration possible, opens up new opportunities for cooperation between research teams of the University of Tyumen and the outstanding scientist.

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University of Tyumen: University of Tyumen Honorary Doctor Bharat Bhushan awarded Tribology Gold Medal - India Education Diary

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Carbon Nanotubes: Properties and Applications – AZoNano

§ January 24th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Carbon Nanotubes: Properties and Applications – AZoNano

Sponsored by MerckJan 21 2021

Fortuitously discovered by Japanese physicist Sumio Iijima while he was studying the surface of graphite electrodes in an electric arc discharge, Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), simply known as 'nanotubes,'are cylindrical carbon allotrope nanostructures.1 Since Iijimas revelation, CNTs have retained a key role in the field of nanotechnology due to their particular electronic, mechanical, and structural properties.1-3

CNTs possess great conductivity and high aspect ratio which enables the formation of a network of conductive tubes. Their exceptional mechanical properties derive from an amalgamation of strength, stiffness and tenacity.4 Integrated into a polymer, CNTs shift their mechanical load to the polymer matrix at a weight percentage significantly lower than those of carbon black or carbon fibers, promoting applications with greater efficiency.

CNTs have also been used for thermal protection as thermal interface materials. Their unique electronic and mechanical properties can be utilized across a diverse range of applications, such as nanocomposite materials,5 nanosensors,6 field-emission displays7, and logic elements.8

The utility of CNTs has been studied in great detail ranging from applications in pioneering electronic fabrication extending to pharmaceutical fields for treatment of many different types of disease.9

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) (Product No. 755710) are smooth ordered cylinders consisting of a layer of graphene. They have exceptional electronic properties which can differ considerably with the chiral vector, C = (n, m), the parameter that specifies how the graphene sheet is rolled to produce a carbon nanotube.10

The electrical conductivity of SWNTs relies on the (n, m) values as illustrated in Table 1. Accordingly, how they are rolled directs the SWNTs' bandgap which can vary from 0 to 2 eV while electrical conductivity can demonstrate metallic or semiconducting behavior.

Table 1. The theoretical electronic conductivity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) depending on roll orientation of the graphene sheet (n, m).10Source:Merck Millipore Sigma

Thermal and electrical conductivities of carbon nanotubes are exceptionally high and comparable to other conductive materials as displayed in Table 2.11

Table 2. Transport properties of carbon nanotubes and other conductive materials.11Source:Merck Millipore Sigma

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) (Product No. 755133) are comprised of numerous layers of graphene that have been rolled-up. Due to their structural complexity and variety in comparison to SWNTs, MWNTs have not yet been well-defined. However, MWNTs demonstrate some advantages over SWNTs, such as scalability due to simplified mass production, improved thermal and chemical stability, and low production cost per unit.

Generally, when functionalized the electrical and mechanical properties of SWNTs can fluctuate, this is due to the structural defects when C=C bond breakages occur during chemical processes. However, the innate properties of carbon nanotubes can be retained by the surface modification of MWNTs: exposure of the outer wall of MWNTs to chemical modifiers.

Surface modification of CNTs is conducted to establish new properties in carbon nanotubes for distinctive applications that necessitate enhancement of functionality, organic solvent or water-solubilization, dispersion, and compatibility or reducing the toxicity of CNTs.12 Figure 1 exhibits several ways to chemically modify the surface of CNTs.

Common functionalized CNTs, such as MWNT-COOH (Product No. 755125), are acquired via oxidation using a variety of acids, ozone, or plasma, which produces other oxygen functional groups (e.g., -OH, -C=O). The existence of oxygen-containing groups encourages the exfoliation of CNT bundles and improves the solubility in polar media and the chemical affinity with compounds containing ester, such as polyesters.

COOH groups on nanotube surfaces are beneficial sites for advanced modification. Different molecules, such as synthetic and natural polymers can be grafted through the production of amide and ester bonds.13

Figure 1. Schematic examples of surface functionalization of CNTs. (Illustration from Zhao et al.12)

Double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) (Product No. 755168, 755141) are a synthetic combination of both single-walled and multi-walled nanotubes, exhibiting properties intermediate between the two types. DWNTs are made up of precisely two concentric nanotubes separated by 0.35 0.40 nm, with band gaps appropriate for use in field-effect transistors.14 The inner and outer walls of DWNTs have the optical and Raman scattering attributes of each wall.15

Theoretically, if each wall acts like an SWNT and according to (n, m) values of their inner and outer walls, DWNTs can hold four combinations based on the electronic type (metallic or semiconducting) e.g., metallic-metallic (inner-outer), metallic-semiconducting, semiconducting-metallic, and semiconducting-semiconducting.

Several innovative studies discovered that DWNTs may behave as a metal even though both walls are semiconducting.16 This particular snag concerning their overall electrical behavior has restricted the utility of DWNTs to applications such as thin-film electronics.

Yet, DWNTs also demonstrate a range of advantageous properties observed from MWNTs, such as enhanced lifetimes and current densities for field emission and great stability under hostile chemical, mechanical and thermal treatments along with the flexibility observed with SWNTs.17

Selective functionalization of the DWNTs outer wall has promoted their use as core-shell systems made of a clean carbon nanotube core and chemically-functionalized nanotube shells, which are appropriate as imaging and therapeutic agents in biological systems.18

DWNTs can be employed in gas sensors19 as sensitive materials for the detection of gases such as H2, O2, NO2 or NH3, dielectrics,20 and technically challenging applications, such as photovoltaics and field-emission displays.21

Merck offers premium quality SWNTs, MWNTs, and DWNTs, among which are some of the most electrically conductive additives on the market today, ready for your creative and advanced materials research needs. Where indicated, these nanotubes are developed via the catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) technique, a well-known industrial process with a proven reliability and scalability factor.

Mercks nanotubes are also purified or functionalized to enhance the performance for research applications where particular chemical properties like high field emission characteristics, large surface area, or transparency are required.

Carbon nanotubes can be utilized across a broad range of new and existing applications including those listed below:

Detailed descriptions of available carbon nanotubes are exhibited in Table 3. The presented specification details will help guide you in selecting the appropriate material for your application.

Table 3. Specification details for carbon nanotubes.Source:Merck Millipore Sigma

*TEM images with reprints permission granted by Nanocyl SA.

This information has been sourced, reviewed and adapted from materials provided by Merck.

For more information on this source, please visit Merck.

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Researchers Address Ways to Produce Tiny Batteries for Microelectronics – AZoNano

§ January 24th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Researchers Address Ways to Produce Tiny Batteries for Microelectronics – AZoNano

Written by AZoNanoJan 21 2021

Two researchers from the Chemnitz University of Technology and Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden have presented a commentary on the topic Tiny robots and sensors need tiny batteries heres how to do it in the latest issue of the scientific journal, Nature.

This commentary discusses the different types of techniques that can be currently used to produce tiny batteries for use in microelectronics, and also discusses the kind of issues that still need to be addressed, and what is actually significant.

Professor Dr Oliver G. Schmidt is one of the authors of the study. He leads the Institute for Integrative Nanoscience at the Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden and, as Professor of Materials for Nanoelectronics at the Chemnitz University of Technology, has established the Center for Materials, Architectures, and Integration of Nanomembranes (MAIN).

Dr Schmidt has also received the Leibniz Prizethe most significant research funding award in Germany.

Along with his research team, Dr Schmidt has been following the dream of batteries in dust grains for over a decade. For instance, the team produced ultra-thin layer systems that wind on their own into minute ultra-compact energy storage devices many times over.

As a matter of fact, the combination of layers can be selected almost randomly, making it possible to store different types of energy.

Using the magnetic origami technique, the researchers were also able to fold nanomembranes into 3D microelectronic devices and produced the smallest microelectronic robots in the world. These and other similar ways to reduce the battery size have been emphasized in theNaturearticle. But the article also states the problems that must be solved in the days to come.

Schmidt and Minshen Zhu, the co-author of the study from the Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden, already know that interdisciplinary teamwork will become more and more significant in the days to come.

Hence, according to them, interdisciplinary international conferences are meaningful, where they can design a standard roadmap for microbattery performance as well as target specifications.

Furthermore, interdisciplinary groups integrating the know-how from electrochemistry, microelectronics, and battery and materials sciences, amongt others, must progressively perform studies on solutions.

We are also calling on universities worldwide to train scientists with even more interdisciplinary research skills needed to build the next generation of microtechnologies.

Dr Oliver G. Schmidt, Professor and Head, Institute for Integrative Nanoscience, Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden

For instance, in Guangzhou, China, a new campus of the Hong Kong University of Science Technologya leading research institution in the worldis presently being constructed with an investment of two billion U.S. dollars, where expertise from microelectronics ad materials science is being brought together to enhance the incorporation of nano-devices and micro-devices into multifunctional constituents, Dr Schmidt added.

The Chemnitz University of Technology is following an analogous interdisciplinary educational approach in Germanyfor example, the English-language Micro and Nano Systems Masters program integrates the know-how from electronics, photonics, electronics, energy storage, microrobotics, and biotechnology to prepare students for the intricate microsystems technology of the future.

In this way, problem solvers of tomorrow can be trained who, among other things, will also help to develop and mass-produce high-performance microbatteries.

Dr Oliver G. Schmidt, Professor and Head, Institute for Integrative Nanoscience, Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden

With their article published in the Nature journal, Schmidt and Zhu also want to raise awareness for more interdisciplinarity work at other research and educational institutions.

Schmidt, O G & Zhu, M (2021) Tiny robots and sensors need tiny batteries heres how to do it. Nature. doi.org/10.1038/d41586-021-00021-2.

Source: https://www.tu-chemnitz.de/index.html.en

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Nanosatellite thruster emits pure ions – MIT News

§ January 24th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Nanosatellite thruster emits pure ions – MIT News

A 3D-printed thruster that emits a stream of pure ions could be a low-cost, extremely efficient propulsion source for miniature satellites.

The nanosatellite thruster created by MIT researchers is the first of its kind to be entirely additively manufactured, using a combination of 3D printing and hydrothermal growth of zinc oxide nanowires. It is also the first thruster of this type to produce pure ions from the ionic liquids used to generate propulsion.

The pure ions make the thruster more efficient than similar state-of-the-art devices, giving it more thrust per unit flow of propellant, says Luis Fernando Velsquez-Garca, principal research scientist at MITs Microsystems Technology Laboratories (MTL).

The thrust provided by the device, which is about the size of a dime, is minuscule. The force can be measured on the scale of a few tens of micronewtons, a thrust about equal to half the weight of one of the sesame seeds in a hamburger bun. But in the frictionless environment of orbit, a CubeSat or similarly small satellite could use these tiny thrusts to accelerate or maneuver with fine control.

Velsquez-Garca says additive manufacturings advantages offer new low-cost possibilities for powering satellites. If you want to be serious about developing high-performance hardware for space, you really need to look into optimizing the shapes, the materials, everything that composes these systems. 3D printing can help with all of these things, he says.

Velsquez-Garca and MTL postdoc Dulce Viridiana Melo Mximo describe the thruster in the December 2020 issue of the journal Additive Manufacturing. The work was sponsored by the MITTecnolgico de Monterrey Program in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology and the MIT Portugal program.

Electrospraying pure ions

The miniaturized thruster operates electrohydrodynamically, producing a fine spray of accelerated, charged particles that are emitted to produce a propulsive force. The particles come from a sort of liquid salt called ionic liquid.

In the MIT design, a 3D-printed body holds a reservoir of ionic liquid along with a miniature forest of emitter cones coated with zinc oxide nanowires hydrothermally grown on the cone surfaces. The nanowires act as wicks to transport the liquid from the reservoir to the emitter tips. By applying a voltage between the emitters and a 3D-printed extractor electrode, charged particles are ejected from the emitter tips. The researchers experimented with printing the emitters in a type of stainless steel as well as a polymer resin.

The researchers were able to detect the pure ion jet using a technique called mass spectrometry, which can identify the composition of particles based on their molecular mass. Typically, an electrospray produced from ionic liquids would contain ions plus other species made of ions mixed with neutral molecules.

The pure ion jet was a surprise, and the research team still isnt entirely sure how it was produced, although Velsquez-Garca and his colleagues think the zinc oxide nanowires are the secret sauce, he says. We believe it has something to do with the way the charge is injected and the way the fluid interacts with the wire material as it transports the fluid to the emission sites.

Producing a jet of pure ions means that the thruster can utilize more efficiently the propellant on board, and propellant efficiency is key for objects in orbit because refueling satellites is rarely an option, he explains. The hardware that you put into space, you want to get many, many years of use out of that, so I think its a good strategy to do it efficiently.

Advantages of additive manufacturing

Electrospray designs can have many applications beyond space, says Velsquez-Garca. The technique can emit not just ions, but also things like nanofibers and droplets. You could use the fibers to make filters, or electrodes for energy storage, or use the droplets to purify seawater by removing brine. You could also use electrospray designs in a combustor, to atomize fuel into very small and fine droplets.

The nanosatellite thruster is a good example how additive manufacturing can produce devices that are personalized, customized and made from finely featured, complex multi-material structures, he adds. Instead of using expensive laser machining or clean-room technologies for specialized industrial manufacturing, he and his colleagues made the thruster mostly on commercial printers using instructions that can be distributed widely.

And since the techniques are relatively inexpensive, fast, and easy to use, Velsquez-Garca says designs can be exquisitely iterated to improve features and explore surprising effects, such as the pure ion emission in the case of the new thruster.

The advantages of 3D printing microsystems include lower costs and shorter times for prototyping and development, along with the ease of assembling multimaterial structures, says Tomasz Grzebyk, a microsystems professor at Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, who was not involved with the study.

All these advantages can be seen also in the ion thrusters developed at MIT, Grzebyk says. And what more, since there has been a great progress in 3D printing in last few years, the parameters of devices fabricated using this method are becoming similar to these obtained by much more complex, expensive and restricted to specialized laboratories microengineering techniques.

3D printing technology is also constantly improving, potentially making it possible to implement in the near future even better systems that have smaller features and are made of better materials, he says. We are on track to producing the best possible hardware that a lot more people can afford.

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America Will Be Projecting Your World Through Akyumen Smartphones – Press Release – Digital Journal

§ December 31st, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on America Will Be Projecting Your World Through Akyumen Smartphones – Press Release – Digital Journal

GARY, Ind. - December 29, 2020 - (Newswire.com)

The United States is all set to project its success further globally as Akyumen introduces its hi-tech 5G. The launch of Akyumen smartphones will create a new wave of technology, tremendously revolutionizing all aspects of human existence. Be it education or entertainment, art or science, business or healthcare, this technological marvel will bring drastic changes to human civilization.

Akyumen smartphones are powered by nanotechnology to perform the most demanding tasks at an unparalleled speed. It also has a powerful built-in projector system, offering an intuitive video experience with the highest quality streaming in a smartphone that could be projected anywhere, anytime. With 60 lumens, this extra-ordinary feature will enable users to project shows, movies, presentations, and other video content onto a screen with just a single click of a button.

"What is more powerful than steel? What is stronger than steel? Nano Technology! We will bring nanotechnology to make Gary stronger and the most powerful city in the United States in manufacturing high tech."

- Aasim Saied, CEO Akyumen Industries.

Akyumen has been acing the innovation race at an accelerated pace and will now locate its headquarters in Gary to build 5G smartphones with built-in projectors. This ultra-modern technology is a big digital investment that is now expected to pave the way for America's technological leadership. The launch of this technological marvel will bring the world to the cusp of colossal changes. Now that Gary Mayor Jerome Prince has partnered with Aasim Saied, America awaits the greatest future ahead.

To learn more about how Aasim Saied's Akyumen smartphones will revolutionize the world of technology, visit Akyumen Industries' website.

Aasim Saied, Founder and CEO, Akyumen Industries.

Website: http://www.akyumen.com

Press Release Service by Newswire.com

Original Source: America Will Be Projecting Your World Through Akyumen Smartphones

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