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Masks matter: How we know face coverings slow the spread of COVID-19 – Las Vegas Sun

§ July 9th, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Masks matter: How we know face coverings slow the spread of COVID-19 – Las Vegas Sun

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By Emma Cauthorn

Thursday, July 9, 2020 | 2 a.m.

A simple cloth face mask can help prevent the spread of COVID-19, and in doing so, contribute to the safe reopening of our city and state while potentially saving lives

On June 24, Gov. Steve Sisolak issued a mandatory face-covering policy in public spaces for all Nevadans and visitorsin line with current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization guidelinesbut the directive has been met with some resistance. Heres what you need to know about the importance of wearing masks.

Why masks work

In the early months of the pandemic and before much was known about the novel coronavirus, public health officials stated that it wasnt necessary for the general population to wear cloth masks. The thought at the time was that medical-grade N95 respirators were the only effective face covering against the virusbut the PPE shortage meant those masks were not easily accessible and should be strictly reserved for health care professionals. The WHO suggested that cloth masks were only necessary for those who had symptoms of COVID-19 and their caregivers. By April, however, the CDC began recommending cloth masks for everyone, and in June, the WHO followed suit

What changed? We know more about how the disease is spread today than we did six months ago.

According to the CDC, recent studies indicate that a large portion of people with COVID-19 are asymptomaticresearchers at Stanford Medicine report that this might be true for up to 40% of those infected. This is an important thing to understand when considering mask usage, because a large portion of the population can spread COVID-19 and never show symptoms themselves.

While a cloth face covering might not protect the wearer like an N95 mask will, it may keep the wearer from spreading the virus to others. So if everyone is wearing masks, well be able to limit transmission rates.

Wearing a face mask helps to intercept particles and keep them out of the air, explains Dr. G. Rodney Buzzas, chief medical officer at Dignity Health-St. Rose Dominican, Siena and Rose de Lima Campuses. These particles are created and spread not only by coughing or sneezing, but also by talking, laughing and even breathing. The COVID virus is known to travel and be passed through these particles.

Because so many people might be infected with COVID-19 and never feel sickor may be pre-symptomaticseemingly innocuous and casual social interactions can spread the disease rapidly.

How we know masks work

Theres a growing body of evidence that demonstrates the efficacy of cloth face masks. A recent study published in peer-reviewed healthcare journal Health Affairs compared the growth rate of COVID-19 before and after mask mandates in 15 states and the District of Columbia. They found the disease growth rate slowed daily. During the first five days, the daily growth rate slowed 0.9 percentage points, and at three weeks, it had slowed a full 2 percentage points.

The CDC advises that N95 respirators and surgical masks are critical supplies that should be reserved for health care workers and first responders.

Researchers at Virginia Commonwealth University evaluated COVID-19 deaths across 198 different countries and found that those with cultural norms or government policies about wearing masks had lower death rates.

One study published in peer-reviewed medical journal Nature Medicine analyzed people who had the flu or the common cold and found that wearing a surgical mask significantly reduced the amount of respiratory viruses emitted in droplets.

An experiment published by the New England Journal of Medicine used a high-speed video camera to determine that hundreds of droplets, ranging from 20 to 500 micrometers, are generated when someone says a simple phrase, and nearly all of them were blocked when the mouth was covered with a damp washcloth.

And the University of California San Francisco analyzed a wide variety of different studies to conclude wearing masks was effective at protecting the general population.

As we continue to venture into the phases of reopening, its more important than ever to wear a mask in public spaces. Wearing a mask protects others from the person wearing the mask, says Dr. Clarence M. Dunagan, chairman of emergency services and facility medical director at MountainView Hospital. During this pandemic, making everyone wear masksespecially when inside or close togetherwill hopefully drastically decrease the spread of the virus. Id much rather be required to wear a mask in public for the protection of others instead of another stay-at-home quarantine order being issued, which no one wants.

Who shouldnt be wearing masks?

The CDC states that cloth face coverings should not be worn by children under the age of 2 or anyone who has trouble breathing, is unconscious, incapacitated or otherwise unable to remove the mask without assistance.

Tips for effective cloth masks

Researchers at Stanford Medicine, who conducted the study that helped shape WHO guidelines about mask wearing, recently published an article in peer-reviewed journal Nanotechnology Letters assessing the filtering and breathability of different fabrics often used to make masks. Here are some of their recommendations:

Masks are considered most effective at stopping the spread when combined with other healthy practices, such as frequent hand washing and social distancing.

Cloth masks should feature at least three layers of different materials.

The outer layer should be made of a fabric thats at least somewhat water resistant. (It can be a combination of cotton and polyester, nylon or rayon.)

The middle layer should either be polypropylene or three-ply disposable facial tissues.

The inner layer should be a wicking material, like 100% soft cotton, to draw moisture away from the face.

A mask should not fit so tightly that its too uncomfortable to wear, but it should sit against the skin all the way around from the middle of your nose to under your chin and almost to your ears. It should not gape when you move your head or speak.

Masks should be treated with care. Dont share them with others, and keep them in sealed plastic bags when not in use. Wash them regularly, and when you remove them, do so in a way that doesnt spread germs from the front of the mask to your face. Wash hands after touching the mask.

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Five Local High School Students Awarded 2020 HOPE for Youth Foundation Scholarships – River Journal Staff

§ July 2nd, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Five Local High School Students Awarded 2020 HOPE for Youth Foundation Scholarships – River Journal Staff

Lakeland, Peekskill, Putnam Valley, and Walter Panas High School Students Receive Awards

The HOPE for Youth Foundation awarded five local high school students with scholarships this year at their recent scholarship awards ceremony held via ZOOM for the first time ever. The scholarships are usually presented in person at an annual luncheon, but because of social distancing guidelines, the annual event could not take place.

Instead, HOPE for Youth arranged for the ZOOM call and for pizzas to be delivered to each recipients home at the end of the online presentationone delivery had to be made to North Carolina. More than 50 board members, parents, scholarship recipients and former scholarship winners participated.

I am so proud of this years scholarship recipients because they all have had their senior year cut short because of the Coronavirus, but they still exude optimism, resiliency and hope for the future. Every single one of these bright and community-minded students reminds me that no matter how bad things seem, there is always a bright side, said Jim Witt, HOPE for Youth.

Honored for their academic and civic accomplishments were:

Walter Panas High School Senior Amaavi Miriyagalla and Lakeland High School Senior Taylor Allen were awarded HOPE For Youth Scholarships; Putnam Valley High School Senior Sydney Goldberg was presented with the Thomas J. Witt Memorial Scholarship; Peekskill High School Senior Dejuan White was presented with the LaMarr Barnes Scholarship; and Lakeland High School Senior Maria Davino was presented with the Bill Sherry Memorial Scholarship.

HOPE for Youth established the scholarship program in 1998 for graduating seniors who demonstrated outstanding service to school and community. The scholarships are funded from the sales of Witts Long Range Weather Calendar and other fundraising efforts conducted by the foundation and its board of directors. To date, the foundation has distributed $4.3 million to childrens charities, including these scholarships.

Some of the 2019 scholarship winners also attended the call, including former Walter Panas High School student Hannah Sophia Soloway, former Lakeland High School student Michael Gajdosik, and former Putnam Valley High School student Gavon Mitchell.

Amaavi Miriyagalla

Walter Panas High School Senior Amaavi Miriyagalla is the Valedictorian of her class, and excels in athletics and music. She is a three season athlete, plays the saxophone and has done research in DNA nanotechnology. Notwithstanding all of these remarkable attributes, the Hope For Youth Scholarship is focused on service. She has been volunteering since the 8th grade at the Yorktown Rehabilitation and Nursing Center where she helps the seniors wash their laundry, fix their smartphones, and takes them outdoors all in an effort to provide companionship and encouragement for them to recall their fondest memories. Miriyagallas service extends to tutoring adults in English as a Second language and building close relationships with the Hispanic immigrant community. Miriyagalla plans to attend Vassar College. She was awarded the Hope For Youth Scholarship.

Taylor Allen

Lakeland High School Senior Taylor Allen maintains a rigorous academic program including Calculus, AP Biology, AP MacroEconomics, AP English, and Psychology. She is a member of the National Honor Society and the Spanish Honor Society. Her GPA is 95.36. In addition to managing a rigorous schedule, Allen is President of the UNICEF Club. Allen is also a volunteer at NY Presbyterian/Hudson Valley Hospital and at the YMCA camp in Putnam Valley during summers. Taylors volunteer work at the hospital and with the children at camp has prepared her well for her goal of becoming a pediatric nurse practitioner. Allens grandfather who passed away last year was her role model and she notes his legacy has helped her grow and become independent. Taylor will be attending The University of Buffalo in the honors college in the nursing program. She was awarded the Hope For Youth Scholarship.

Sydney Goldberg

Putnam Valley High School Senior Sydney Goldberg participates in numerous clubs such as SADD, Make-a-Difference and MAGMAH, a group of high school students who volunteer to work with special education students on Sundays to create fun and enjoyable experiences for them. Goldberg spreads joy in whatever she does. Her peers were sad to miss out on the end of the year activities, so Sydney made up senior posters for every senior in her class highlighting their post high school plans, and anything the student wanted to add. At a young age, Goldberg was diagnosed with Crohns disease. The flares ups, hospitalizations, intravenous medications, created physical, emotional and social challenges, but Goldberg didnt let her Crohns Disease to define her. Instead she uses her experience with Crohns to deal with any kind of setback. Her GPA is 95.95 and she is planning to attend the University of Buffalo majoring in Chemistry with the goal of a career in dentistry.

Dejaun White

Despite facing hardships and adversity as a young African American male, White will be attending Monroe College to study business management and will play football for the D1 school in the fall. He was active on the Peekskill varsity football team for four consecutive years. He was a member of My Brothers Keeper a college prep program for young men. He also was involved with the Interact Club in which he participated in events such as the Special Olympics, blood drives, and helping seniors at a local nursing home. White will pursue his bachelors degree and plans to become involved in the auto body industry. He excelled at the BOCES program learning auto body/mechanics. White was presented with the LaMarr Barnes scholarship, created in honor of LaMarr Barnes, a longtime Peekskill resident who tragically died at age 27 in a car accident on Bear Mountain Parkway in 2011. Barnes legacy and memory live on through this memorial scholarship created and supported by Nick and Jenet Ferris of Ferris Carpentry.

Maria Davino

Lakeland High School Senior Davino has devoted her school years to working with kids, all the while maintaining a commitment to her academics. She plans on continuing in her studies at Mt. Saint Mary College where she will pursue a bachelors degree in English followed by a masters degree in Special Education. In addition to being an active member of the Lakeland Pioneers, a sports team that teaches students with special needs sports skills, Davino has been involved with the Yorktown Leos, a division of the Lions Club. For the past five years she helped run various activities, including a board game night with students with special needs and a Guiding Eyes for the Blind pizza party. Davino has been treasurer, secretary, vice-president, and now serves as its president. Davino was presented with he Bill Sherry Memorial Scholarship, named after Bill Sherry who was a 7th Grade English teacher at Copper Beech Middle School for 32 years.

HOPE for Youth Foundation was founded in 1986 by WHUD Weatherman and former educator Jim Witt, who is noted for his annual long-range weather forecast calendars featuring photographs of the Hudson Valley. Witt has formulated a complex system that relies on historic weather patterns in order to predict what the weather will be like years, even decades, ahead. The precision of his forecasts over the past 40 years has made him a successful, charismatic and eerily accurate weather prophet. Witt is also a former high school science teacher.

Learn more about Hope For Youth Foundation at http://www.hfyf.org.

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This Scientist Says He’s Built a Jet Engine That Turns Electricity Directly Into Thrust – Futurism

§ July 2nd, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on This Scientist Says He’s Built a Jet Engine That Turns Electricity Directly Into Thrust – Futurism

This past autumn, a professor at Wuhan University named Jau Tang was hard at work piecing together a thruster prototype that, at first, sounds too good to be true.

The basic idea, he said in an interview, is that his device turns electricity directly into thrust no fossil fuels required by using microwaves to energize compressed air into a plasma state and shooting it out like a jet. Tang suggested, without a hint of self-aggrandizement, that it could likely be scaled up enough to fly large commercial passenger planes. Eventually, he says, it might even power spaceships.

Needless to say, these are grandiose claims. A thruster that doesnt require tanks of fuel sounds suspiciously like science fiction like the jets on Iron Mans suit in the Marvel movies, for instance, or the thrusters that allow Doc Browns DeLorean to fly in Back to the Future.

But in Tangs telling, his invention lets just call it a Tang Jet, which he worked on with Wuhan University collaborators Dan Ye and Jun Li could have civilization-shifting potential here in the non-fictional world.

Essentially, the goal of this technology is to try and use electricity and air to replace gasoline, he said. Global warming is a major threat to human civilization. Fossil fuel-free technology using microwave air plasma could be a solution.

He anticipates this happening fast. In two years, he says, he thinks Tang Jets could power drones. In a decade, hed like to see them fly a whole airplane.

That would all be awesome, obviously. But its difficult to evaluate whether Tangs invention could ever scale up enough to become practical. And even if it did, there would be substantial energy requirements that could doom aerospace applications.

One things for sure: If the tech works the way he hopes, the world will never be the same.

Tangs curriculum vitae flits between a dazzling array of strikingly disparate academic topics, from 4D electron microscopy to quantum dot lasers, nanotechnology, artificial photosynthesis, and, of course, phase transitions and plasmonics.

Hes held several professorships, done research at Caltech and Bell Laboratories, published scores of widely-cited papers, edited several scientific journals, and won a variety of awards. He holds a U.S. patent for a device he calls a synchrotron shutter, designed to capture electrons traveling near the speed of light.

Tang says he first stumbled onto the idea for the plasma thruster when he was trying to create synthetic diamonds. As he tried to grow them using microwaves, he recalls, he started to wonder whether the same technology could be used to produce thrust.

Other huge stories, like the coronavirus pandemic and the baffling saga of Elon Musk naming his baby X A-12, were sucking a lot of oxygen out of the news cycle in early May, when Tang announced his invention to the world. A few outlets picked up Tangs story, including New Atlas, Popular Mechanics, and Ars Technica, but no journalist appears to have actually talked to him.

Because of that, there was little fanfare surrounding the sheer scope of his ambition for the technology and it went overlooked that Tang sometimes sounds as though hes invented a hammer and is now seeing a lot of things as nails.

After describing his plans to conquer aerospace with his new thruster, for instance, he starts to describe plans to take on the automotive industry as well with jet-powered electric cars.

I think the jet engine is more efficient than the electric motor, you can drive a car at much faster speeds, he mused. Thats what I have in mind: to combine the plasma jet engine with a turbine to drive a car.

But you wouldnt want to drive behind it, he warned, because you could be scorched by its fiery jet stream.

Over the course of our interview, Tang also brought up the possibilities of using the technology to build projectile weapons, launch spaceships, power boats, and even create a new type of stove for cooking. On that last point, Tang said that hes already built a prototype kitchen stove powered by a microwave air plasma torch but its so deafeningly loud that it sounds like a constant lightning strike.

Technically, the Tang Jet is an attempt to build a plasma thruster, a concept thats periodically gained attention in scientific circles. Michael Heil, a retired aerospace and propulsion engineer with a long career of Air Force and NASA research, told Futurism that Tangs research reminds him of several other attempts to build air propulsion tech that hes encountered over the years.

Plasma thrusters like those that would power a Tang Jet have been around for a while. NASA first launched a satellite equipped with plasma thrusters back in 2006, but its capabilities are a far cry from what Tang is proposing with his research.

Engineers have long dreamed of a plasma jet-powered plane, but every attempt has been smacked down by the technological limitations of the day. For example, New Scientist reported in 2017 that a team from the Technical University of Berlin attempted to build a similar thruster but like every attempt over the previous decade, their work never became useful outside of the lab.

The problems with these attempts arent so much faults with the theory the concept of generating thrust with a plasma torch is fairly sound. Rather, issues begin to pop up when working out the logistics of building a vehicle that actually works.

Tang has little interest in commercializing the jet himself. Instead, he wants to demonstrate its merits in hopes that well-funded government leaders or titans of industry will be inspired to take the ideas and run with them.

The steps toward realization of a full plasma jet engine would cost lots of money, time and energy, he said. Such investment is beyond our present resources. Such tasks should be taken by aerospace industries or governmental agencies.

Thats a common mindset for scientists, said Christopher Combs, an aerodynamics researcher at the University of Texas at San Antonio.

Thats what us academics do, we figure out the physics and say Well I dont want to make a product,' he told Futurism. Its kind of a common refrain to see people in academia who have had something that gets a lot of attention.

Though hes intrigued by the underlying principles of the Tang Jet, Combs says its unlikely that it will scale up to the size needed to lift a plane in other words, the same challenges that proved insurmountable to previous plasma thrusters will rear their heads once again. The current prototype, for perspective, only produces about 10 Newtons of thrust about the same as a medium-sized model rocket.

Youre talking about scaling something by five orders of magnitude more than 100,000 times! Combs said. Which almost never works linearly. Lots of engineering happens in the middle.

And even if it were to scale perfectly, theres the issue of power. Iron Mans suit was powered by an Arc Reactor, and the flying DeLorean was powered by a Mr. Fusion unit that turned household trash into more than a gigawatt of power both of which, unfortunately, are fictional.

Fossil fuels store vastly more energy by weight than batteries, and thats unlikely to change any time soon. And thats too bad, because the Tang Jet needs a whole lot of power.

According to a paper Tang and his collaborators publishedabout the thruster prototype in the journal AIP Advances in May, the technology produces about 28 Newtons of thrust per kilowatt of power. The engines on the Airbus A320, a common commercial jet, produce about 220,000 Newtons of thrust combined, meaning that a comparably-sized jet plane powered by Tang Jets would require more than 7,800 kilowatts.

For perspective, that would mean loading an aircraft up with more than 570 Tesla Powerwall 2 units for a single hour of flight an impractical load, especially because the A320s payload could only carry about 130 of the giant battery units. Long story short, no existing battery tech could provide enough juice.

Does this thing just become a flying Tesla battery? Combs said. With the weight of these batteries, you dont have room for anything else.

The battery weight issue doesnt doom the Tang Jet, but it pushes options for its power source into the fringe. Tang is banking on improvements to battery technology over the next years and decades; those Technical University of Berlin researchers speculated about nuclear fusion. Unfortunately, any possible answers could be decades away or impossible.

It is worth noting that there exist compact nuclear fission reactors, like Russias KLT-40S, that produce enough power and weigh little enough that they could fit in a passenger plane or rocket.

But the safety and environmental implications of nuclear-powered aircraft are grim, and Heil was quick to point out that generating enough power isnt the only problem facing a Tang Jet. Actually getting the electricity from the power source to the thrusters would pose its own difficulties, perhaps requiring superconducting materials that dont exist yet.

You need power to generate thrust. And how do you move that power around on the aircraft? Heil said. Moving and controlling megawatts from the reactor to the jet is a huge challenge. You have to use big thick copper wires, that adds a lot of weight.

Overall, both Combs and Heil questioned the feasibility of a practical Tang Jet based on the technology we have today. Without a quick fix to the energy problem, its certainly a tall order.

But both said they were fascinated by the research and hoped to see future progress. They also pointed out that a plasma thruster could be useful for pushing satellites or spacecraft that are already in orbit though at that point it would need to bring propellant with it rather than using atmospheric air, since thered be none in the vacuum of space.

The bottom line, Heil and Combs agreed, is that we wont have a firmer grasp of the future of the tech until Tangs colleagues have evaluated and experimented with it.

Im rooting for this, and Id love to see it pan out, Combs said. But the scientist in me has some questions and some concerns.

More on Tangs plasma jets: Scientists Create Jet Engine Powered by Only Electricity

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Global Nanotechnology in Medical Equipment Market 2020 Industry Insights, Top Trends, Drivers, Growth & Forecast to 2025 – Bandera County Courier

§ June 30th, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Global Nanotechnology in Medical Equipment Market 2020 Industry Insights, Top Trends, Drivers, Growth & Forecast to 2025 – Bandera County Courier

RecentlyMarketsandResearch.bizhas published a new report entitledGlobal Nanotechnology in Medical Equipment Market Growth (Status and Outlook) 2020-2025goes into the past for analyzing the market scenario, at the same time, it provides a complete insight into the market. Starting from the number of sales made, the price structure of each segment, revenue generated and expected to be made, the margin of the profit, past performance, and all other aspects that can influence the market are covered in this report. The report has segmented and sub-segmented with respect to regions, players, dynamics, and strategies to simplify the actual conditions of the industry. It development trends, competitive landscape analysis, and key regions development status on the types, applications, and major players of the global Nanotechnology in Medical Equipment market are studied in detail.

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Leading manufacturers/companies operating at both regional and global levels:Stryker Corporation, AAP Implantate AG, 3M, Thermo Fisher Scientific, PerkinElmer, Inc., Abbott, Dentsply International, Starkey Hearing Technologies, Mitsui Chemicals, Inc., Smith + Nephew,

With the product, the market could be divided into: Active Implantable Medical Equipments, Biochip, Portable Material,

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Microplastics found in fruit and veg – Fruitnet

§ June 29th, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Microplastics found in fruit and veg – Fruitnet

Calls for an end to the ubiquitous use of plastic grew louder this week following the release of two peer-reviewed studies on the presence of microplastics in plants.

Since last year's publication of research estimating that the average person consumes at least 50,000 particles of microplastics a year, and breathes in a similar quantity, all eyes have been on these microscopic pollutants.

But that research, published in Environmental Science & Technology, relied on data from studies measuring only the amounts of microplastic particles found in fish, shellfish, sugar, salt, beer and water, as well as in the air in cities.

The two studies published this week, however, show that microplastics are also contaminating fruit and vegetables.

According to the first study, by University of Catania scientistMargherita Ferrante, apples are the most contaminated fruit while carrots are the most affected vegetable.

Published this week in the journalEnvironmental Research, the report calls for an urgent review of the impact of microplastics on human health.

The second study, set for publication in the journal Nature Sustainability, reportedly demonstrates how plastic is sucked up with water through the root systems of food crops.

The study, performed jointly by Dr Lianzhen Li of the Yanthai Institute of Coastal Zone Research in China and Professor Willie Peijnenburg from Leiden University in the Netherlands, found that microplastics penetrate the roots of lettuce and wheat plants, before being passed to the edible plant parts above ground.

As such, root vegetables, such as carrots, radishes and turnips, as well as leafy vegetables like lettuce, were found to be most at risk of contamination.

Another study published this week in the journal Nature Nanotechnology discovered that plants' absorption of microplastics through their roots slowed their growth, creating smaller plants with shorter roots, possibly impacting incomes for farmers.

Maria Westerbos, the founder of Dutch NGO the Plastic Soup Foundation, commented: For years we have known about plastic in crustaceans and fish, but this is the first time we have known about plastic getting into vegetables. If it is getting into vegetables, it is getting into everything that eats vegetables as well, which means it is in our meat and dairy."

Sian Sutherland, co-founder of environmental campaign group A Plastic Planet, called for an urgent investigation into the impact of micro plastics on human health. "Now more than ever we must listen to the scientists," she warned, "not the plastic lobbyists.

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IIT Guwahati, Shri Sankaradeva Nethralaya Develop Device For Detection Of Diabetic Retinopathy – NDTV

§ June 29th, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on IIT Guwahati, Shri Sankaradeva Nethralaya Develop Device For Detection Of Diabetic Retinopathy – NDTV

IIT Guwahati Team Develops Device To Detect Diabetic Retinopathy Without The Need For Invasive Testing

The Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati (IIT Guwahati) and Shri Sankaradeva Nethralaya Guwahati, have jointly developed a testing device to detect diabetic retinopathy at an early stage without the need of invasive testing. The device comprises a small plate containing microchannels for guidance of fluids. The team has also filed an Indian patent for this idea and device. Diabetic retinopathy is a serious non-communicable disease in India. It is caused by abnormal growth in the retinal blood vessels in people with diabetes and is usually worsened when the person is on insulin for diabetic treatment.

The research funded by the Ministry of Human Resource and Development, Indian Council of Medical Research and Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology was led by Dr. Dipankar Bandyopadhyay, Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering and Head of Center for Nanotechnology, IIT Guwahati.

Descriptions and results of the testing device have been published in the ACS journal -- ACS Sustainable Chemistry And Engineering. The paper has been authored by Dr Bandyopadhyay, his students of IIT Guwahati, Mr Surjendu Maity, Mr Subhradip Ghosh and Ms Tamanna Bhuyan and collaborator Dr. Dipankar Das, Head of the Department of Ocular Pathology and Uvea in Shri Sankaradeva Nethralaya, Guwahati.

Dr Bandyopadhyay in a statement said: Currently, the first step in the test for diabetic retinopathy is an invasive eye exam, in which the eyes are dilated and the ophthalmologist inspects the eye.

As people who have had eye examinations know, this is inconvenient, with blurry vision for a long time after examination, the professor added.

The team of IIT Guwahati, as per a statement, wondered if there was a simple test such as a blood or urine test, to detect retinopathy even before symptoms are seen in the eye. This induced the researchers to look for appropriate biomarkers of retinopathy chemicals that are found in body fluids, that can indicate impending or ongoing retinopathy.

The statement issued by IIT Guwahati said: Researchers found that -2-microglobulin (B2M), a protein found in tears and urine, is a reliable indicator for retinopathy. Armed with this knowledge, they set out to develop a device that can detect this protein in these body fluids.

We designed a microfluidic system, in which, the body fluid tear or urine was drawn into very thin tubes or capillaries, where they came in contact with the gold-antibody nanoparticles, and the change in colour was assessed to detect B2M, explained Dr Bandyopadhyay.

Numerous microfluidic devices have already been developed for the biomarker detection in cancer and other diseases, but there are hitherto, none for detection of diabetic retinopathy. The IIT Guwahati teams work is among the first in this area and has tremendous practical implications, especially in India, the diabetic capital of the world, the statement added.

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati Guwahati news Diabetic

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Beware of These Common Food Additive in Desserts or be Ready For Long-Term Health Damage – India.com

§ June 28th, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Beware of These Common Food Additive in Desserts or be Ready For Long-Term Health Damage – India.com

Next time when you hop on desserts, candy, beverages or gum, read on. Researchers have found that a common food additive significantly alters gut microbiota in mice, causing inflammation in the colon and changes in protein expression in the liver. Also Read - E-cigarette additives may impair lung function: Study

The study confirmed a strong linkage between foodborne titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) and adverse health effects, said researchers from University of Massachusetts Amherst. Also Read - Flavouring And Additive Ingredients Used in E-Cigarettes More Likely to Impair Lung Function: Study

Human exposure to food-borne TiO2 NPs commonly used as a food additive known as E171, recently banned in France but allowed in the US and some other countries, which is made up of different-size particles of TiO2, including one-third or more that are nanoscale.

E171 makes products look whiter and more opaque. Its exposure is two to four times higher in US. children than in adults.

I think our results have a lot of implications in the food industry and on human health and nutrition, said lead author Hang Xiao, professor and Clydesdale Scholar of Food Science.

Gut microbiota, which refers to the diverse and complex community of microorganisms in the gut, plays a vital role in human health.

An imbalance of gut microbiota has been associated with a range of health issues, including inflammatory bowel disease, obesity and cardiovascular disease.

Smaller than 100 nanometers, foodborne nanoscale particles may have unique physiological properties that cause concern.

The bigger particles wont be absorbed easily, but the smaller ones could get into the tissues and accumulate somewhere, Xiao said in Small, a weekly, peer-reviewed journal that covers nanotechnology.

In their study, Xiao and his team fed either E171 or TiO2 NPs to two populations of mice as part of their daily diet.

The mice fed a high-fat diet eventually became obese, while the mice on the low-fat diet did not.

In both the non-obese mice and obese mice, the gut microbiota was disturbed by both E171 and TiO2 NPs, Xiao said.

The nanosized particles caused more negative changes in both groups of mice.

Moreover, the obese mice were more susceptible to the adverse effects of TiO2 NPs, causing more damage in obese mice than in non-obese ones.

The researchers found TiO2 NPs decreased cecal levels of short-chain fatty acids, which are essential for colon health, and increased pro-inflammatory immune cells and cytokines in the colon, indicating an inflammatory state.

The study also measured levels of TiO2 in human stool samples, finding a wide range.

Xiao said further research is needed to determine the health effects of long-term such as life-long and multigenerational exposure to TiO2 NPs.

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Sixth Wave Innovations Inc. to Webcast Live at Life Sciences Investor Forum June 25th – Press Release – Digital Journal

§ June 23rd, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Sixth Wave Innovations Inc. to Webcast Live at Life Sciences Investor Forum June 25th – Press Release – Digital Journal

HALIFAX, Nova Scotia, June 23, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Sixth Wave Innovations Inc. (CSE:SIXW | OTCQB:ATURF | FSE:AHUH), focused on Cannabinoid Purification, today announcedthat Dr. Jonathan Gluckman, President/CEO, will present live at LifeSciencesInvestorForum.com on June 25th.

DATE: Thursday, June 25th TIME: 1 PM EST LINK: https://tinyurl.com/062520LSIFPR

This will be a live, interactive online event where investors are invited to ask the company questions in real-time. If attendees are not able to join the event live on the day of the conference, an archived webcast will also be made available after the event.

It is recommended that investors pre-register and run the online system check to expedite participation and receive event updates.

Learn more about the event at http://www.lifesciencesinvestorforum.com.

Recent Company Highlights

About Sixth Wave Innovations Inc.

Sixth Wave is a development stage nanotechnology company with patented technologies that focus on extraction and detection of target substances at the molecular level using highly specialized Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs). The Company is in the process of commercializing its AffinityTM cannabinoid purification system, as well as, IXOS, a line of extraction polymers for the gold mining industry.

Sixth Wave can design, develop and commercialize MIP solutions across a broad spectrum of industries. The company is focused on nanotechnology architectures that are highly relevant for detection and separation of viruses, biogenic amines and other pathogens, for which the Company has products at various stages of development.

For more information about Sixth Wave, please visit our web site at: https://sixthwave.com

About Life Sciences Investor Forum

Life Sciences Investor Forum is the leading proprietary investor conference series that provides an interactive forum for Life Sciences companies to meet with and present directly to investors.

A real-time solution for investor engagement, Life Sciences Investor Forum is powered by Intrado Digital Media and specifically designed for more efficient investor access. Replicating the look and feel of on-site investor conferences, Life Sciences Investor Forum combines leading-edge conferencing and investor communications capabilities with a comprehensive global investor audience network.

CONTACTS:

Dr. Jonathan Gluckman President/CEO 801-582-0559 info@sixthwave.com

Life Sciences Investor Forum John M. Viglotti SVP Corporate Services, Investor Access (212) 220-2221 johnv@lifesciencesinvestorforum.com

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To Build Tiny Supercomputers, Scientists Are Modeling Circuits on the Human Brain – Yahoo News

§ June 12th, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on To Build Tiny Supercomputers, Scientists Are Modeling Circuits on the Human Brain – Yahoo News

Photo credit: Sanford/Agliolo - Getty Images

From Popular Mechanics

Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have developed a "brain-on-a-chip" that includes tens of thousands of artificial brain synapses.

Called memristors, the artificial synapses are made of silver and copper alloys, rendering them more efficient than their earlier non-alloyed counterparts.

They published their work on Monday in the journal Nature Nanotechnology.

In the future, you just might be able to carry around a tiny machine in your pocket that works like the human brain. It could do anything that the most advanced artificial neural network couldbut with no internet, and no software download required. That is, if new brain-on-a-chip research published Monday in the journal Nature Nanotechnology is any indication of where miniature computers are headed.

At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, scientists have been developing that tech, squeezing tens of thousands of artificial brain synapses, called memristors (short for memory transistors), onto a confetti-sized slab of silicon and metal alloys. The goal is to produce tiny devices that can pack the punch of artificial intelligence, locally, without having to connect to the cloud, or rely on a supercomputer.

"Imagine connecting a neuromorphic device to a camera on your car, and having it recognize lights and objects and make a decision immediately, without having to connect to the internet," Jeehwan Kim, associate professor of mechanical engineering at MIT who led the work, said in a prepared statement. "We hope to use energy-efficient memristors to do those tasks on-site, in real-time.

Brain-on-a-chip research is a step toward neuromorphic devices, or electronics that contain a new kind of circuitry meant to mimic the brain's neural architecture. These devices are meant to be energy efficient and fluent in cognitive tasks like object recognition, association, adaption, and learning. One day, researchers hope to make them as capable as today's supercomputersand MIT is a step toward that reality.

Story continues

To fabricate the memristors, the team used silver and copper alloys, along with silicon. The resulting chip is only about one millimeter square, and can "remember" stored images and reproduce them over and over again. Those replications were more exact than in past efforts, which relied on unalloyed metals in the chip.

In one test, researchers recreated a grayscale image of the Captain America shield. Each pixel corresponded to one memristor in the chip. So, the team altered the conductivity of each memristor such that it was relative in strength to the color in the pixel it would illustrate. They were able to reproduce the image many times over.

Then, in an image processing task, the team programmed the memristors to change the appearance of an image depicting MIT's Killian Court, a manicured lawn before a classical domed building on campus. They found that they could better sharpen and blur the original image with these memristors than the prior state-of-the-art circuits.

All of this adds up to a move away from large-scale computing. Because researchers could complete these tasks on the tiny memristors, rather than through software on a computer, it's a step toward small devices that can use artificial intelligence without reliance on a massive data center. That could mean better onboard cameras in smartphones, or more intelligent computers in our cars.

"We would like to develop this technology further to have larger-scale arrays to do image recognition tasks" Kim said. "And some day, you might be able to carry around artificial brains to do these kinds of tasks, without connecting to supercomputers, the internet, or the cloud."

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Need A New Pair Of Work Shoes? Then Zappos Has You Covered – Men’s Journal

§ June 12th, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Need A New Pair Of Work Shoes? Then Zappos Has You Covered – Men’s Journal

Mens Journal aims to feature only the best products and services. We update when possible, but deals expire and prices can change. If you buy something via one of our links, we may earn a commission. Questions? Reach us at [emailprotected].

As the world slowly starts to open back up in America, that means a lot of guys are heading back to work. So now might be a good time to get some new work clothes. And if you work a physical job, then you might want to pick up the Timberland PRO Reaxion Composite Safety Toe Work Shoes.

Thats right. Timberland doesnt just make legendary boots. With these Timberland PRO Reaxion Composite Safety Toe Work Shoes, you get the comfort and flexibility of shoes with the sturdiness and protection of a pair of boots.

Work boots may be good for some jobs, but others need a little more flexibility than a pair of boots can offer. Thats where the Timberland PRO Reaxion Composite Safety Toe Work Shoes come in. Right off the bat, the most obvious benefit for the working man is the safety toe feature.

The safety toe feature on these shoes has no metal in it. It is made with a CarbonShield Nanotechnology so your feet (and especially your toes) are safe from any falling objects. And since theres no metal in there, the shoe has a little more flexibility to it for your working needs.

Another added benefit that the Timberland PRO Reaxion Composite Safety Toe Work Shoes has is that they help to fight odor. You shouldnt have to worry about these shoes getting all stunk up thanks to the antimicrobial mesh lining.

Of course, the Timberland PRO Reaxion Composite Safety Toe Work Shoes wouldnt be all that great if they werent comfortable. And they really are. The soles absorb shock to relieve stress from your feet, sending energy back to your foot so it never gets fatigued while youre working

Your feet will be comfortable all day thanks to the soles adding a ton of support and stability to the proceedings. You wont have to worry about rips or abrasions thanks to the material used on the midsole. And the sole is slip, oil, and heat resistant up to 248 degrees Fahrenheit. All jobs should be easy with these shoes on.

If you want to go back to work with some new shoes, the Timberland PRO Reaxion Composite Safety Toe Work Shoes are for you. Comforting your feet while protecting them in such a stylish looking package. And at this sales price, who can say no?

Get It: Pick up the Timberland PRO Reaxion Composite Safety Toe Work Shoes ($115; was $130) at Zappos

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Curadigm Announces Publication of Results Using Proprietary Nanoprimer to Improve RNA Therapeutics in Collaboration With the Langer Lab – Press…

§ June 12th, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Curadigm Announces Publication of Results Using Proprietary Nanoprimer to Improve RNA Therapeutics in Collaboration With the Langer Lab – Press…

PARIS & CAMBRIDGE, Mass.--(Business Wire)--Curadigm today announced the publication, with Prof. Robert Langers lab at MIT, of pre-clinical in vivo results showing that its Nanoprimer can improve the efficacy of RNA-based therapeutics. This collaboration utilized next-generation RNA technology developed at the Langer Lab, in combination with Curadigms proprietary Nanoprimer technology. The Nanoprimer is designed to precisely, but transiently, occupy the hepatic pathways responsible for therapeutic clearance. In pre-clinical studies, the combination resulted in significantly increased bioavailability and efficacy of siRNA and mRNA in vivo.

Published in Nano Lettersone of the premier nanotechnology journalsthe results are the culmination of a 2-year research collaboration evaluating the utility of the Curadigms Nanoprimer in increasing the efficacy of nucleic-acid based therapeutics. Combined with mRNA and siRNA-based therapeutics, the Nanoprimer increased efficacy by 32% and 49% respectively in the study. This was correlated with decreased liver trapping and increased blood bioavailability of 8 and 16- fold, respectively, without any additional associated toxicity.

Nucleic acid-based therapeutics (RNA and DNA) represent a rapidly growing segment of the biotech and pharma market, showing nearly exponential growth in programs over the last decade. While RNA-based therapeutics hold great potential to treat diverse and challenging diseases, their clinical utility has been limited by the difficulty achieving efficient accumulation in target tissues. This is largely due to the rapid liver clearance of RNA and DNA-based therapeutics. This promising new data, highlights the potential for the Nanoprimer technology to enable greater efficacy for nucleic acid-based therapeutics, facilitate their advancement toward the clinic and strengthen their ability to efficiently target a diverse range of tissues, including non-liver.

This collaboration provides validation of Curadigms approach to increasing therapeutic bioavailability and efficacy. The Nanoprimer technology is broadly applicable across multiple drug classes including nanomedicines, nucleic acid therapeutics, and gene editing technologies. The system does not modify the therapeutic at all, rather it is a precisely designed nanoparticle that is administered just prior to a therapeutic and works on a universal liver clearance mechanism for intravenous (IV) therapeutics.

About Curadigm:

Curadigm, a Nanobiotix Corp S. A. subsidiary, is an early-stage nanotechnology company dedicated to improving outcomes for patients by shifting the therapeutic delivery paradigm. Curadigms Nanoprimer platform is designed to increases drug bioavailability while decreasing unintended off-target effects, specifically liver toxicity. The platform can be used with most intravenous (IV) therapeutics across multiple drug classes. Curadigm is dedicated to advancing therapeutic development based on our deep understanding of how drugs interact with the body, to impact both known and novel drugs across multiple clinical indications.

For more information about Curadigm visit http://www.curadigm.com

View source version on businesswire.com: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20200609005710/en/

CURADIGM

Kate ROCHLIN (US) +1 (617)-583-0990

kate.rochlin@curadigm.com

Matthieu GERMAIN (FR) +33 (0)6 63 16 13 86

contact@curadigm.com

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Holders of negative opinions towards GM food likely to be against other novel food tech – Science Codex

§ June 10th, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Holders of negative opinions towards GM food likely to be against other novel food tech – Science Codex

Scientists at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) and the Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health (HSPH) have found that people who hold negative opinions of genetically-modified (GM) food are likely to feel the same about nano-enabled food - food with nano-additives to enhance flavour, nutrition or prolong shelf life.

In a survey of 1,000 respondents led by NTU comprising adult Singaporeans and permanent residents, close to a third found GM food unappealing, and their negative feelings influenced how they viewed nano-enabled food. Over a third felt neutral about GM food, while the remaining respondents welcomed it.

While the study focused specifically on reactions towards nano-enabled foods, lead investigator and NTU Associate Professor Shirley Ho said that the "spillover effect" they observed from GM food to nano-enabled food could possibly extend to other novel food technologies as well, given that mental associations that people make between similar technologies have shown to influence their behaviour towards a newer technology. This represents a cause for concern for policy makers as Singapore invests in food science and technology as one of its strategies to bolster food security.

With the COVID-19 outbreak extending into the second quarter of the year, the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations has warned of global disruption in food supply brought about by movement restrictions and border controls in a protracted crisis.

The global pandemic has thrust the issue of food security and the necessity to explore cutting edge research in novel food technologies into the spotlight, said Assoc Prof Ho of NTU's Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information.

"The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of food security for a small country like Singapore, which imports more than 90 per cent of its food consumed in the country. We don't have the problem of disrupted food supply yet, but we have to anticipate the possibility," said Assoc Prof Ho.

"Our study is a timely examination of the public's reactions towards novel food technologies. We may soon be able to make food last longer with the help of science, or dine on lab-cultured meat, but all these would be futile if a sizeable group of people reject these new food innovations."

"This study highlights the challenge in communicating safety of new food technologies as innovations advance to meet global food needs for a growing world population," added Dr K. Viswanath, Lee Kum Kee Professor of Health Communication at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and a co-author on the paper.

The study was published in the Journal of Communication on 5 June.

Tech-enabled food doesn't go down well with some Singaporeans

To study public opinion on engineered food, the NTU-Harvard team first surveyed 1,000 Singapore citizens and permanent residents on their thoughts on GM food - for example, asking whether they consider it to be delightful, nutritious, fresh and appealing.

Close to a third, or 305 respondents, showed unfavourable attitudes towards GM food.

The team then investigated how the respondents' pre-existing attitudes towards GM food affected their feelings about nano-enabled food, and found that those who had unfavourable attitudes towards GM food were also unfavourable about nano-enabled food - what the scientists called a spillover effect.

The scientists also found that participants who were unfavourable towards technology-enabled food may not be swayed to do the same after watching others eat this food.

Assoc Prof Ho, who is also NTU's Research Director for Arts, Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, explained: "This spillover effect could potentially be due to a general rejection of technology-enabled food and other notions associated with it. The mental associations that people make between similar technologies may influence their behaviours toward a newer technology. This is especially so in cases where the technology from which people draw cues is socially contestable."

The findings also highlight the key role communication plays in bridging the gap between science and the public, she added.

The study was funded by the NTU-HSPH Initiative for Sustainable Nanotechnology, and done in collaboration with Prof K. Vish Viswanath and Dr Mesfin Awoke Bekalu at the Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health. Other NTU authors include PhD student Tong Jee Goh, research fellow Dr Agnes Chuah, and research associate Yan Wah Leung.

A similar survey is being conducted by the team in the US. The findings will provide a comparative study of attitudes towards tech-enabled food across different regions and populations.

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Maintaining quality, consistency and impact through difficult times: an Associate Editor’s insight – Royal Society of Chemistry

§ June 5th, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Maintaining quality, consistency and impact through difficult times: an Associate Editor’s insight – Royal Society of Chemistry

How do you think the current pandemic could impact/change/shape the research community in the short/long term?

The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically changed our life in many ways. One of these changes is the major disruption in research activities for the research community. We will have less lab-based research results and findings in the short term. However, going through this difficult time together, we will learn how to deal with crises like this and become more resilient to future ones. In the long term, it will give us an opportunity to rethink the way we work and communicate. I think we should use this time to rework the existing research process to achieve higher efficiency and productivity and identify new ways to strengthen the research community. Last but not the least, we should support each other and get through this pandemic together.

My research group uses food chemistry, food biophysics, material science and nanotechnology approaches to investigate structurefunction relationships of food proteins and polysaccharides with the ultimate goal of improving food safety and quality. We have made various nanostructures, including nanoparticles, nanoemulsions and nanolaminates, with applications including nutraceutical encapsulation and targeted delivery, antimicrobial packaging materials, food pathogen detection and edible coatings.

The most exciting aspect part of my work is my contribution to improving food safety and human health.

Keeping up with current research in my area worldwide and coming up with novel ideas are both very challenging.

As a professional scholar and educator, I wanted to contribute to the scientific field. With my expertise in food chemistry, food biopolymer biophysics and food nanotechnology, I hope to bring forward high-quality research in food science to the journal. I am very excited to join the RSC Advances team and am planning to give my time and effort to advance the journal.

By ensuring that submissions fit the journal, checking for flaws in experimental design and advancing our knowledge in chemistry, I'm hoping to bring novel, exciting and solid publications to the scientific community. I encourage new and established authors to submit articles. I also choose the experienced independent reviewers for manuscripts that pass the initial screening. Overall, I try hard to improve the quality, consistency and impact of the journal.

Please read the scope of RSC Advances carefully and make sure the submission fits the journal before you submit. Please prepare the manuscript as accurately as possible.

Being able to read cutting-edge scientific papers covering a wide range of topics in food science with innovative ideas and experiments. I also enjoy helping the researchers to get their findings published and shared with the scientific community.

I am a regular runner and reader. I also enjoy listening to music and singing karaoke.

My mum is always my role model. She worked extremely hard and made a very positive impact on our family, the community and society. I dreamed of becoming a teacher for elementary kids when I was a teenager, turning to scientific research later.

Maybe a chef since I love cooking and enjoy eating.

RSC Advances

Find out more about RSC Advances here. Log in to submit your manuscript here.

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Create synthetic red blood cells more effective than natural ones at administering medications – Checkersaga

§ June 5th, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Create synthetic red blood cells more effective than natural ones at administering medications – Checkersaga

A team of scientists has created synthetic red blood cells that could be more useful and effective than natural ones in curing diseases. Initial results show that are capable of performing all the functions of natural blood cells and much more.

Nanotechnology has among its main objectives the promotion of medicine. Scientists want to introduce tiny devices or robots that Serve as medicine or explore the body without being so invasive like current techniques.

This new research with red blood cells has been carried out between the University of New Mexico, Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Technology of South China. The study published in the Nano journal of the American Chemical Society, reveals that artificial red blood cells could be a new treatment for cancer.

The technological revolution has changed the world forever and, in the coming years, our way of understanding and relating to medicine will radically change.

These artificial cells have been created by covering donated red blood cells with a thin layer of silica and another layer of polymers with positive and negative charges. By later coating them with natural red blood cell membranes, white blood cells do not identify them as invaders, nor attack them.

Tests have first been carried out on bird embryos and mice where it has been detected that these nanobots can remain in the blood of the animals for up to 48 hours, successfully carrying out the functions assigned to them. They can transport oxygen, medicines or loads thanks to its magnetism.

Until now, artificial red blood cells only managed to imitate some of the qualities of their natural versions, but this new design has both the size and appearance, as well as the qualities of natural blood cells and some extras.

Lets remember that red blood cells are disk-shaped cells with millions of molecules, they are very flexible and contain hemoglobin, a protein with iron that makes oxygen stick to them to transport it through the blood.

The new artificial blood cells they are just as flexible to pass through the capillaries and return to their shape. But in addition to all these qualities, they are able to administer medications and transport magnetic nanoparticles to carry loads throughout the body. Its creators bet that their invention has future medical applications in fighting cancer and biodetection of toxins.

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Nanotechnology Journals Impact Factor | Nanotechnology …

§ June 4th, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Nanotechnology Journals Impact Factor | Nanotechnology …

List of Nanotechnology Conferences June 08-09, 2020 6th International Conference and Expo on Ceramics and Composite Materials, Frankfurt, Germany June 12-13, 2020 32nd Nano Congress for Future Advancements, Frankfurt, Germany June 15-16, 2020 33rd International Conference on Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, London, UK June 22-23, 2020 26th International Conference on Advanced Materials & Nanotechnology, Brisbane, Australia June 22-23, 2020 21st World Congress on Materials Science and Engineering, Rome, Italy June 26-27, 2020 33rd International Conference on Nanoscience, Nanotechnology and Nanoengineering, Paris, France July 09-10, 2020 World Congress on Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Geneva, Switzerland July 15-16, 2020 22nd International Conference on Advanced Energy Materials and Research, Vienna, Austria July 27-28, 2020 27th International conference on Materials Science and Nanotechnology, London, UK July 27-28, 2020 35th World Congress on Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Amsterdam, Netherlands August 03-04, 2020 32ndInternational Conference and Expo on Nanosciences and Nanotechnology, Zurich, Switzerland August 03-04, 2020 4th World Congress on Nanoscience and Nano Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam August 21-22, 2020 17th Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine Congress, Osaka, Japan August 24-25, 2020 Annual Conference on Biofuels & Biopolymers, Vancouver, Canada August 24-25, 2020 3rd International Conference on Renewable Energy and Resources, Vancouver, Canada August 31-01, 2020 5th Annual Conference and Expo on Biomaterials, Rome, Italy August 31-01, 2020 18th International Conference on Emerging Materials and Nanotechnology, Rome, Italy September 07-08, 2020 World Congress on Advanced Nano Research and Nano Tech Applications, Sydney, Australia September 14-15, 2020 36th International Conference on Advanced Nanotechnology, Dubai, UAE September 21-23, 2020 International Conferences on Nanotechnology & Chemistry, Shanghai, China September 21-22, 2020 21st International Conference and Exhibition on Materials Science, Nanotechnology and Engineering, Milan, Italy September 28-29, 2020 International Conference on Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering, Abu Dhabi, UAE October 12-13, 2020 3rd World Expo on Bio Polymers and Bio Plastics, Milan, Italy October 12-13, 2020 6th International Conference and Exhibition on Nanotechnology, Artificial Intelligence and IOT, Sydney, Australia October 14-15, 2020 International Conference on Microfluidics, Dubai, UAE October 14-15, 2020 34th International Conference on Nanomedicine & Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Zurich, Switzerland October 15-16, 2020 3rd Global Conference on Smart Materials and Nanotechnology, Prague, Czech Republic October 15-16, 2020 9th Annual Congress in Advanced Materials and Nano Science, Prague, Czech Republic October 19-20, 2020 37th Global Conference on Smart Materials and Nanotechnology, Amsterdam, Netherlands October 19-20, 2020 International Conference and Expo on Ceramics and Composite Materials, Paris, France October 21-22, 2020 20th International Conference and Exhibition on Materials Science and Engineering, Bangkok, Thailand October 21-22, 2020 Global Nanotechnology Congress, Frankfurt, Germany October 21-22, 2020 37th Global Summit on Nanoscience and Technology, Paris, France October 22-23, 2020 11th Asia Pacific Conference on Polymer Science and Engineering, Tokyo, Japan October 22-23, 2020 26th World Congress on Advanced Materials, Tokyo, Japan October 23-24, 2020 Materials Electrochemistry Conference: Advancements and Breakthroughs, Capetown, South Africa October 30-31, 2020 2nd International Conference on Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology, Dubai, United Arab Emirates October 30-31, 2020 33rd Materials Science and Engineering Conference: Advancement and Innovations, Dubai, United Arab Emirates November 04-05, 2020 International conference on Material science and Nanotechnology, Sydney, Australia November 09-10, 2020 12th World Congress on Biopolymers and Biomaterials, Amsterdam, Netherlands November 11-12, 2020 3rd International Conference on Materials Science & Research, Paris, France November 18-19, 2020 4th Global Meet on Materials Science and Nano Materials, Singapore, Singapore November 18-19, 2020 4th Annual Meet on NanoScience And Nanotechnology, Singapore, Singapore November 19-20, 2020 International Conference on Nanomaterials and Nanophotonics, Berlin, Germany November 23-24, 2020 22nd Materials Science and Nano Tech Expo, Helsinki, Finland November 23-24, 2020 34th International Conference on Nanotechnology & Expo, London, UK November 23-24, 2020 31st World Nano Conference, Barcelona, Spain November 23-24, 2020 Applied Nanotechnology Summit China, Paris, France November 23-24, 2020 33rd International Conference on Nano Materials and Nanotechnology, Edinburgh, Scotland November 23-24, 2020 25th International Conference on Advanced Materials & Nanotechnology, Barcelona, Spain November 25-26, 2020 5th International Conference on Quantum Physics and Mechanics, Berlin, Germany December 10-11, 2020 21st World Summit on Nanotechnology and Expo, Osaka, Japan

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Engineered Glow – Earth Island Journal

§ June 4th, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Engineered Glow – Earth Island Journal

In December 2017, the Strano Research Group at MIT published a paper in the journal Nano Letters about how it modified four plant species spinach, arugula, kale, and watercress to emit light. The prototype glowed for 3.5 hours with a yellowish-green light about one-thousandth the amount needed for reading, though one of the projects trademark photos shows a three-week-old watercress plant faintly illuminating the pages of Paradise Lost. Strano says the next generation of plants will glow more brightly and for substantially longer than a few hours. He hopes someday plants might glow brightly enough to illuminate a room and diminish the need for other types of indoor lighting.

The light-emitting plant project is a part of a broader, relatively new niche of research within nanotechnology that Strano calls plant nanobionics. Nano refers to science at a nanoscale (specifically, between 1 and 100 nanometers, a nanometer measuring one billionth of a meter), and bionics refers to functions typically performed by electronic devices. Plant nanobionics is a developing field and thus still quite small; indeed, most of its researchers are Stranos former students. Strano is currently working on multiple plant nanobionics initiatives, from plants that can detect explosives to those that can communicate with cell phones.

STRANOS LIGHT-EMITTING PLANT is among the latest iterations of a scientific endeavor that began in the 1980s when a team at the University of California, San Diego modified a tobacco plant to give off light. In November 1986, The New York Times published an article with the headline: TOBACCO PLANT WITH FIREFLY GENE IMPLANT GROWS, which explained that, due to a genetic modification, the tobacco plant now emitted visible light in total darkness. Why didnt the editors take the easy bait: TOBACCO PLANT WITH FIREFLY GENE IMPLANT GLOWS? By the articles last paragraph, its clear the alternate headline wouldnt have exactly followed the Times commitment to truth, given that this glow could only be seen with the unaided eye when the scientists stood in the dark for about 10 minutes so that their eyes became acclimatized.

That effort, however, marked the first time a light-producing gene was successfully transferred into a complex multicellular organism. The team modified the firefly gene for the luciferase enzyme and spliced it into genetic material called plasmids, which were transferred into tobacco plant cells. Once the plants began to grow, they were irrigated with water containing another firefly compound: luciferin, the chemical fuel for light production. Both luciferase and luciferin were needed to illuminate the plant. (Every living thing on Earth that naturally glows uses luciferin. Most, but not all, use luciferase.)

In the past decade, biotechnology startups have continued experimenting with luciferase in plants. In 2010, molecular biologist Alexander Krichevsky at State University of New York, Stony Brook engineered tobacco plant DNA with both luciferase and luciferin to create a glowing plant that he dubbed the Starlight Avatar. The plant eventually became as luminous as a glow-in-the-dark stick-on star, and Krichevsky started Bioglow, a company that auctioned its initial round of prototypes in 2015 for $300 each. But Bioglow struggled to increase the brightness of the plants, and the link to the companys website now redirects to the unrelated Dehydrate2Store.

Stranos light-emitting plant is among the latest iterations of a scientific endeavor that began in the 1980s.

In 2013, San Francisco-based entrepreneur Antony Evans launched a Kickstarter campaign to make his own light-emitting plant. Like those before him, Evans proposed genetically engineering plants with luciferase and luciferin to make them glow. His company, TAXA Biotechnologies, promised backers a hodgepodge of prizes: a t-shirt with a $25 donation, a how to make a glowing plant coffee table book at $90, and, if you invested $10,000, the grand-daddy of prizes, a personalized message expressed in DNA.

The Glowing Plant project appealed to the public; it pulled in nearly $500,000 from around the world, easily surpassing its $65,000 fundraising goal. The project description claimed this money would go towards the first step in creating sustainable natural lighting.

A couple of years passed, and still no plant. Inserting six genes into a plant proved more challenging than Evans expected. After years of hanging on, TAXA Biotechnologies finally announced its defeat. It was a poor choice of product, Evans told the MIT Technology Review in summer 2016, shortly before the end. I personally feel terrible we havent shipped yet. But its not like we took the money and ran.

In 2017 the same year as TAXAs failure Stranos group published a paper on their Nanobionic Light-Emitting Plant. But if you Google glowing plant, the majority of hits are related to the TAXA Kickstarter projects demise. A press release on Stranos work lingers in the middle of the page.

It was just bad timing, Strano sighs. Even though our approach is completely different, I think the public is like, Yeah, right. Weve heard this before, and it failed.

IN THE SPRING OF 2007, six years before Evans launched his Kickstarter, botanist Jodie Holt walked onto a movie set to look at sketches of made-up plants. The crew, producer, and director awaited her input on the zany drawings.

Holt didnt hide her horror very well. They were too blue.

Though many years have passed since that day, Holt recounts this moment to me with some agitation in her voice. Blue plants on Earth would not survive, she says. They wouldnt be able to photosynthesize, since chlorophyll an essential pigment for photosynthesis gives plants their green hue.

Holt was hired by Lightstorm Entertainment in March 2007 as a plant consultant for James Camerons new movie project, the 2009 blockbuster-to-be Avatar. She was asked to teach Sigourney Weaver how to embody a true botanist, as well as advise on the imaginary plants that would exist on the invented moon of Pandora. Though the flora was to be fictional, Cameron wanted to ensure it was not fantastical.

The next time Holt arrived on set, all the plants were green.

If real plants on Earth can respond to touch, communicate, and shoot poison, why arent there any glowing plants?

A few months after the movie premiered, Holt was asked to put together a guide to Pandoras plants that described the science behind them. Hesitant to invent new science, she told Cameron that, without knowing anything about the environment on Pandora, it would be challenging to scientifically defend these plants. Cameron didnt miss a beat. He spent two hours describing Pandoras every detail: light level, atmospheric gases, chemical concentrations in the soil, gravitational strength.

In the end, Holt could defend nearly every one of Pandoras invented plants based on a real plant characteristic that was magnified for effect, such as response to touch. The only exception was bioluminescence, which doesnt exist in plants on Earth, but which Holt imagined could have feasibly developed on a planet with such low light levels as Pandora.

If real plants on Earth can respond to touch, communicate, and shoot poison, why arent there any glowing plants? I ask Holt.

Im surprised they dont exist, Holt says. She reasons that the trait probably hasnt cropped up because of energy distribution. Growth, self-defense, and reproduction are priorities but glowing? Not nearly as important. In the extreme low-light conditions of Pandora, a bioluminescent plant might attract nocturnal pollinators or frighten a predator. There are other ways to achieve these objectives on Earth, however, which may explain why plants havent acquired this particular trait.

TO MAKE A GLOWING plant in the age after Avatar is to fulfill a prediction. By grounding something that sounds imaginary in science, Cameron and Holt created an endpoint; now the science has to catch up and meet it.

Stranos team appears to have done just that: Their plants already glow brightly enough to be used as indirect lighting, and the method is straightforward and reliable and fast, because it works on mature plants. (To genetically modify a tree to glow, scientists would have to change the DNA in the seed and then wait years for it to grow.)

The chemical reaction itself is fairly simple: In the presence of ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, (the fuel of the cell), magnesium, and oxygen, luciferin undergoes oxidation, losing a few electrons and emitting light as a byproduct; the luciferase enzyme accelerates the whole process. To get the reactions components into the plant, Stranos team inserts them into three different types of biocompatible nanoparticles made of silica, polyethylene glycol, and chitosan. The nanoparticles act as little boxes that hold, respectively, luciferase, luciferin, and another enzyme that lengthens the duration of the light emission.

Whether it will lead to further development I dont know, but the fact that it works and works well is remarkable.

Once the reaction ingredients are packaged into nanoparticles, scientists transfer the particles into the leaves. They do this by giving the plants a bath more specifically, a fully submerged, highly pressurized bath, during which they blast nanoparticles in solution through the tiny pores in the leaves.

Harvard professor and chemist George Whitesides, well-known for his work in nanotechnology, believes Stranos team has accomplished an impressive feat. The fact that they can get a large collection of non-plant materials with different activities to work together with the plants metabolism, without having some component fail, and without quickly killing the plant, is really astonishing, he wrote to me in an email. Whether it will lead to further development I dont know, but the fact that it works and works well is remarkable.

The important next step will be to optimize for light intensity and duration. Not surprisingly, this requires a trade-off. In short bursts, the glowing plant can be very bright; for sustained light, it is dimmer. The team has found that they can affect these two factors drastically by adjusting the amount and size of nanoparticles. With time, they predict that they can achieve a light duration of 17 days at low but meaningful brightness, or alternatively a duration of one day at a level perfect for reading a book. Because the reactants eventually run out, plant owners would need to reapply them to the leaves. Strano believes people will eventually be able to accomplish this with a spray, overcoming the current need for a pressurized bath.

Other researchers have taken a different, fungi-focused approach. Working with mushrooms, they were able to identify the structure of the protein that allows certain fungi to glow. In the process, they discovered a new type of luciferin that is chemically distinct from previously identified luciferins, including that used by Strano. This new luciferin is produced by caffeic acid, which occurs naturally in plants and is compatible with plant biochemistry. Researchers have since injected genes from a bioluminescent mushroom into a tobacco plant to achieve a glow, a process they say is more cost-effective long-term than using nanoparticles. (Seon-Yeong Kwak, lead author of the MIT study, says that the materials needed to synthesize the nanoparticles are not expensive. She acknowledges that the luminescent reagents are expensive, but says the cost could decrease with mass production.)

But the continuous glow that comes with these types of genetically-modified plants would prohibit their ability to be switched off when its time to sleep. A nanobionic plant lamp, on the other hand, shuts down naturally when it runs out of reactants. Someday Strano hopes to create a mechanism, perhaps in the form of another spray, that could act like a light switch. His team found that adding the naturally-occurring chemical dehydroluciferin inhibits the reaction, stopping the plant from emitting light, while a small dose of chitosan restarts the reaction.

WHY PLANTS? I asked Strano. For one thing, he began, theyre generally low cost. Theyre also easily recyclable: Just toss them in a compost pile. We have a lot to learn from plants, considering they pump water efficiently, make their own energy, store energy, self-repair the list goes on. Theyre doubly carbon negative too, which means not only do they not release carbon into the atmosphere, but theyre also made of carbon, thus keeping that carbon from contributing to atmospheric levels.

Another obvious appeal is, of course, the potential environmental benefits associated with replacing at least some electrical demand with plant-based lights. In addition to household lighting, Strano can imagine a world where streetlights are replaced with glowing trees.

Moving a glowing plant from the containment of a research facility to outdoor environments raises a host of concerns.

Strano believes the energy benefits of such an application could be enormous. The US Energy Information Administration estimates that, in 2018 alone, the commercial sector, which includes buildings and street lighting, consumed about 141 billion kilowatt-hours, or 16 billion watts of power. A significant amount of this energy gets lost along the way: The total percentage of overall losses in the US electrical grid is approximately 6 percent, and the global average is closer to 30 percent. Because the light-emitting plant would be off the grid, no energy would be lost in the production of light. Given that the going rate per kilowatt-hour ranges from 8 to 33 cents in the US, it could be a huge money saver if glowing plants replaced even a portion of traditional lighting.

But moving a glowing plant from the containment of a research facility to outdoor environments raises a host of concerns. For example, how would a glowing tree affect the ecosystem? How might light emission confuse animal behavior?

My first impression is that the impacts of a glowing tree may be minimal, because, remember, youre replacing a street lamp, which is a lot brighter and already has impacts on wildlife, Strano says. Another concern would be the impact on animals eating the glowing plants. The materials within the plants themselves are technically edible; in fact, all three nanoparticles are used as food additives. For lighting something outside, we want something thats completely safe, Strano explains. But while initial toxicity risk may be low, more research needs to be done on how these particles could accumulate along the food chain. Strano concedes that a lot has to happen before we bring technology outside.

I discussed the potential pros and cons of the endeavor with Holt, who studied plant ecosystems in college. Its such a complicated question, she says. In a time in our history where were more concerned about climate change and negative environmental impacts than ever, I think the benefits of substituting a live tree for an energy-consuming streetlight would outweigh the risks.

But, she adds, it depends on the currency youre using. If youre measuring the impact on energy consumption, the glowing plant is a good option. But perhaps it has a negative impact on wildlife behavior. How do you compare the two? You have to first define what your goals are, Holt says. What are your criteria for success? How do you define benefit and risk?

A MAJOR SOURCE of anxiety around modifying living things is the risk of spread. Theres a long history of humans introducing species to new regions where they wreak havoc on native organisms. For instance, the Japanese honeysuckle, introduced to the United States in 1806, has overrun the East Coast and smothered native species in the process. This is a plant that already existed in nature; how would it affect our ecosystems to introduce a plant species that we modified? What happens if someone plants a glowing seedling in their backyard, and it reproduces? Could it spread across the country, contributing to light pollution and pushing out critical plant species?

Methods that involve changing nature tend to inspire deep unease in people, and for good reason.

Methods that involve changing nature tend to inspire deep unease in people, and for good reason. The smallest miscalculation could domino, causing monumental damage in ways that no one anticipated. To have a system that could escape and be heritable would be a really bad thing, Holt says.

Thats why the key selling point of Stranos nanotechnology technique besides its efficacy is that it doesnt change the plants genome in any way. Instead, Stranos team infuses materials into the plant. Because no genes are changed, the plants acquired superpowers arent hereditary.

But nanotechnology is a relatively new field, still in the early days of research. Because of that, some environmental groups, including Friends of the Earth, advocate a precautionary approach to the field, pointing to mounting evidence of health and environmental impacts associated with nanoparticles, and the ongoing uncertainty surrounding their use.

In the US, investigation into the biological and ecological impacts of this technology has been spearheaded by the two national Centers for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (CEINT) established in 2008, one at Duke University and one at the University of California, Los Angeles. When we started this research, we were, globally, taking a more contaminant view of nanomaterials, says Dr. Christine Hendren, executive director of CEINT at Duke University. But we havent seen the type of acute, toxic response that people were worried about at the beginning.

CEINTs research has shown that the impact of nanomaterials primarily depends on environment and context. For instance, the nanosilica used in Stranos light-emitting plant is extremely dangerous to the respiratory system while in the air, but it cant damage lungs when inside of a plant. Similarly, toxicity of nanoparticles depends not only on if the particle is toxic at its regular size, but also what other materials its exposed to in the environment.

Hendren believes that the biggest implication of nanotechnology will be a positive one, especially in applications involving renewable energy. But, she says, nanomaterials should be regarded carefully on a case-by-case basis, and scientists should engage with other stakeholders and disciplines to understand potential implications. We need to consider what are the ways that these things could get out of the matrix theyre in while inside the plant, and what happens if they do, says Hendren.

Strano agrees on the need to proceed with caution: We are not rushing out into a field and transforming plants.

While health and environmental impacts should be taken into consideration alongside laboratory development, its possible they may end up being moot points unless glowing plants could someday become mainstream. Paul Hawken, editor of Project Drawdown, which analyzed hundreds of possible environmental solutions to create a prioritized agenda for tackling climate change, doubts that will happen. These kinds of breakthroughs pour out of research universities, he said in an email. They are fascinating science, but there is no validation of their commercial viability. There is usually a 20-year lag time before they become commercial, and only 1 percent ever reach that point. In other words, glowing plants probably arent making his list of the best ways to address the climate crisis. The amount of system overhaul necessary to expand plant lighting would be massive and expensive.

Regardless, TAXAs failure demonstrated that the science should be solid before anyone even teases the idea of commercial viability. Indeed, some of the biggest doubters are Stranos own colleagues, who are unsure his efforts can technically succeed. Can a plant be a lamp? Can it talk to your cell phone? Can it measure chemicals in the environment? Strano asks. He thinks the answer to all these questions is yes, but acknowledges that the rest of science isnt there yet. These techniques are new and weird, and theyre not typically used in plants.

But he believes the project can teach scientists about these groundbreaking nanotechnology techniques, which will, he hopes, lead to several useful applications. In 2017, shortly after Stranos team released a paper on sentinel plants plants that are used to monitor environmental stimuli the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) started the Advanced Plant Technologies program, which seeks to develop plants capable of serving as next-generation, persistent, ground-based sensor technologies to protect deployed troops. (While it refers here to using plants only as potential sensors, DARPAs research around modifying living organisms for use in biological warfare is quite controversial.)

Strano sees this as a small victory for the future of plant nanobionics. I think people are understanding, he says. This is how the field will evolve. Im willing to be patient.

STRANO REALIZES THAT any transition that moves glowing plants into homes will depend not only on the science, but also importantly on normalizing the concept. We have an uphill burden in convincing people that this can be a real thing, he says. How do you do that with something that currently exists only in Avatar?

Stranos idea: Put it in an actual house. Or at least, a miniature house inside of a museum. This past January marked the end of a 33-week installation, part of the Nature Cooper Hewitt Design Triennial exhibition, in New Yorks Smithsonian Museum of Design. Instead of scaling up the watercress plant to room-size, they scaled down a New York City tenement building to match the current science.

The building model offered peepholes for visitors to look inside at rooms where glowing plants illuminated dining room tables and reading nooks occupied by tiny figurines.

Its part of this outreach to get people familiar and comfortable with the idea that your light could come from a plant, Strano explains. The person at the exhibit gets a sense of what itd be like to live in a house illuminated by plants.

Still, some people find foreign the concept of owning even non-glowing plants. Much like a pet, plants require maintenance. Are people going to water plants when they can turn on a light switch? Its an interesting question, says Whitesides. In the same way a person might prefer cats or dogs, some people like plants while others are indifferent to them. The latter population would be a harder sell when it comes to popularizing plant lights. But as to the plants already occupying peoples homes, Whitesides muses, Why shouldnt they emit light at the same time?

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Advancing Production Flow Profiling With Subatomic Fingerprints and Big Data Analytics – Journal of Petroleum Technology

§ June 2nd, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Advancing Production Flow Profiling With Subatomic Fingerprints and Big Data Analytics – Journal of Petroleum Technology

Advancing Production Flow Profiling With Subatomic Fingerprints and Big Data Analytics

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This paper describes a smart-tracer-portfolio testing and design solution for multistage hydraulic fracturing which will, write the authors, enable operators to reduce operating cost significantly and optimize production in shale wells. The technology combines recently developed smart tracers with advanced subatomic measurements in an automated process with stringent quality control that assures precise tracer addition onsite and provides accurate and actionable completion diagnostics results at a fraction of the cost of production-logging testing, distributed temperature testing, or distributed acoustic sensing.

Multistage hydraulic fracturing operations costsincluding high-pressure pumping, proppant, and fluidranged from $2.9 million to $5.6 million per well in a typical US shale well in 2018, representing close to 60% of the total drilling and completion cost for each well. Yet industry studies reported that up to 50% of the clusters and stages and up to 40% of the fracture networks do not produce in the current geometric factory-mode-completion approach, leading to estimates that up to 40% of the drilled and completed shale wells in North America alone could be uneconomical.

Additionally, interactions between fractures in adjacent horizontal wells, and the costly negative effects of these interactions, have become the focus of much discussion and debate within the technical community. The impetus for this attention has been the effect of these interactions on productivity and the mechanical integrity of the parent wells.

These issues drive the need for oil and gas operators to have more-accurate, affordable, and timely data on the performance of individual fracturing stages, measured intrawell communication, and temporary and long-term frac/frac connections to enable improved decision-making and optimization of multistage hydraulic fracturing operations as well as overall field development.

The complete paper describes smart tracer technology, including a patented portfolio and fracturing-/completion-optimization work flow; laboratory testing and performance analysis; and integration with completion diagnostics.

To control the effectiveness of multistage hydraulic fracturing stimulation treatments, it is essential to use special tracing methods based on the addition of the labeled substance to the proppant, water, or gas, and monitor the release of tracers with flowback water and produced oil and gas from the current well or nearby observation wells. Currently, conventional water- and oil-soluble chemical substances with fluorescent properties and ionic, organic materials, or radioactive isotopes, are used as the tracers. Tracers with fluorescent properties and ionic and organic materials are high-cost, limited to chemical-measurement techniques at a molecular level, and often have reported false-positive results for long-term communication. Environmental regulations in many countries prohibit the use of radioactive tracers (i.e., radioactive isotopes) because they pollute the environment and could contaminate subsurface layers.

The authors, in collaboration with a nanotechnology partner, developed and commercialized a portfolio of smart tracers based on proprietary particles developed from low-cost materials. The technology uses advanced subatomic spectroscopy-measurement techniques to map the distribution of well production, the performance of each fracturing stage, crosswell interference, and environmental containment. The complete paper presents a description and illustration of the work flow.

To provide quantitative and qualitative interpretation, all smart tracers undergo rigorous laboratory testing and validation. Each smart tracer is tested for thermal and pressure stability, settling time, particle size distribution, reservoir static, and dynamic adsorption, as well as other characteristics during the testing process.

The next step is to align and refine each smart tracer design with preplanned fracturing design and estimated well-completion-flow profile. This is required for performance testing of the smart particles recovery efficiency for minimum and maximum flow rates at stage level. For this paper, a shale operator provided a typical completion design for smart-tracer-performance verification testing at the following downhole conditions.

The assumption for these conditions is that the shale well has averaged 1.5 open perforations per cluster during the period while the well is producing at 4,000 B/D or higher. In reality, the production rate may fall off quickly, so long-term monitoring of smart tracer recovery would also rely on smart particles being able to move at a much lower rate. Additionally, the performance of moving the smart tracer in the horizontal section of the shale well is considered. If the stage closest to the toe is producing 100 BLPD (or 0.0486 gal/sec) with 4-in. liner, the fluid is moving at 0.0814 ft/sec.

To accomplish such flow profiling and smart-tracer-recovery testing, a special unit was designed and deployed under expert supervision for a dedicated study of each smart-tracer-flow profile by simulated hydraulic fracturing with fracturing sand and at downhole wellbore conditions using different flow-profile rates at each stage. The complete paper presents a detailed discussion of the testing unit and procedure.

The smart tracer recovery was tested using an actual shale well completion design provided by an operator assuming 400,000 lb of 40/70 fracturing sand per stage. The projected flow velocity at the cluster level ranged from 0.13.0 gal/min, and detection limited up to 1ppm from the milligram sample collected from the testing, as shown in Fig.1. The results indicated a very good volume of smart tracer recovery from the first run with 9.2% at 3 gal/min and with 6% at 0.1 gal/min. These results were then verified using subatomic instruments for fingerprinting identification.

Completion diagnostics is a complex, multidisciplined task that requires knowledge of formation evaluation, geologic and geomechanics modeling, reserves estimation, hydraulic fracturing pressure analysis, and dynamic simulation. It is required to identify the reasons for good or poor performance in horizontal well stages determined through smart tracer diagnostics and to verify each stages contribution to the total well production rate.

As with conventional fields, shale well stage production rate is defined by the presence of hydrocarbon in place, formation quality (brittleness, porosity, and permeability), and completion efficiency (perforation strategy and hydraulic fracturing-treatment design). Hydrocarbon presence in shale formations can be characterized by total organic content. Formation organic content is normally determined in the laboratory by kerogen extraction from the core sample and its further analysis. In the field, organic reach intervals can be found using resistivity, spectral gamma ray, and mud logs.

Unconventional fields often are not well characterized by subsurface data needed for formation evaluation and limited modeling for accurate geological and geomechanical assessment. Nevertheless, the industry has accumulated a huge amount of subsurface data. More than 2million wells have been drilled in the US alone, and most currently developed basins are covered with seismic, well logging and core data, geological, and tectonic information. These legacy data are used to understand geology, correlations, and trends of rock distribution in studied areas to construct reliable models and predict well-production potential.

The complete paper discusses the role of formation evaluation, geomechanics analysis, diagnostic fracture injection testing, and fracturing pressure diagnostics and their importance to analyzing and optimizing hydraulic fracture performance, completion-design efficiency, and well productivity. According to the authors, legacy information and new insightful learning gained from different types of geologic data need to be combined in one reliable solution, but the correlations between these types of information can be highly complex and not always analytically clear. The future of shale-formation characterization is deep machine learning and big data analytics employing different kinds of neural networks, a biologically inspired programming approach that enables computers to learn from observational data.

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Advancing Production Flow Profiling With Subatomic Fingerprints and Big Data Analytics - Journal of Petroleum Technology

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Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene Market Will Expect Consumption of over 40 Kilo Tons by 2025 : Leading Key Players 3M, DowDuPont, Daikin Industries,…

§ May 26th, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene Market Will Expect Consumption of over 40 Kilo Tons by 2025 : Leading Key Players 3M, DowDuPont, Daikin Industries,…

Whats driving the Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene Market growth? | Leading Key Players 3M, DowDuPont, Daikin Industries, Ltd., Shanghai, F New Materials Co. Ltd., Saint-Gobain, Merck Millipore

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Ocean View, DE -- (SBWIRE) -- 05/26/2020 -- Global Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene Market is anticipated to witness prominent growth on account of its increasing applications in the construction, renewable energy, automotive, chemical processing, and electrical & electronics industries. The product exhibits properties like greater breakdown voltage, longer life and good mechanical strength, making its application vital in electrical cable and wires that are used in power distribution lines.

Request a sample of this research report @ https://www.gminsights.com/request-sample/detail/3263

Frontrunners in the Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene Market - 3M - DowDuPont - Daikin Industries, Ltd. - Shanghai - F New Materials Co. Ltd. - Saint-Gobain - Merck Millipore - The Chemours Company - Juhua Group Corporation - AMETEK, Inc. - Polyfluor Plastics B.V. - BASF - ITAFLON - Shandong Hengyi New Material Technology - Inoflon Fluoropolymers

A noticeable rise in government initiatives to expand existing power distribution networks may fuel the demand for fluorinated ethylene propylene. Moreover, commencement of new building infrastructures and rapid urbanization may drive the demand for wires and cables, thereby augmenting FEP market size. On this note, Global Market Insights, Inc., suggests that the fluorinated ethylene propylene market is anticipated to amass around USD 1.2 billion by 2025.

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A surge in the vehicle manufacturing may bolster product demand in the automobile sector. Moreover, rise in military spending and air passenger traffic worldwide would supplement fluorinated ethylene propylene market outlook in the forthcoming years.

FEP finds extensive applications in the chemical processing industry as well, owing to its properties like low coefficient of friction, desirable chemical resistance, and nonstick functionalities. Intensifying demand for advanced chemicals in the construction and oil & gas industry might fuel the demand for FEP in applications like gaskets, vessel liners, tubing, fluid handling systems, and valves.

Moreover, surging investment in research & development, increasing requirement for advanced materials in the automotive sector and rising adoption of nanotechnology are projected to propel FEP market share. Studies suggest that the global fluorinated ethylene propylene would record growth of over 6.5% from chemical processing applications over the estimated timeframe.

In terms of regional share, North America fluorinated ethylene propylene market is expected to witness considerable growth owing to rapid advancements in the renewable energy sector. The product is used in the manufacturing of solar cells due to its low weight, long life, weathering performance, and UV resistance. The advent of new government initiatives focused on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, increasing demand for self-sufficiency, and offering of subsidies on installation photovoltaic systems are anticipated to shape the growth trajectory for North America fluorinated ethylene propylene market growth.

It is vital to mention that the fluorinated ethylene propylene market is highly competitive, with companies like Daikin Industries, 3M, DowDuPont, Saint-Gobain, and Merck Millipore dominating the global industry. These firms are introducing new products to enhance their offering and attract new customers.

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/fluorinated-ethylene-propylene-market-will-expect-consumption-of-over-40-kilo-tons-by-2025-leading-key-players-3m-dowdupont-daikin-industries-ltd-shanghai-1292369.htm

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Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene Market Will Expect Consumption of over 40 Kilo Tons by 2025 : Leading Key Players 3M, DowDuPont, Daikin Industries,...

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Swarms of robots sweep the human body to fight cancer – Innovation Origins

§ May 22nd, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Swarms of robots sweep the human body to fight cancer – Innovation Origins

Research carried out by the German Max-Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (MPI-IS) resembles films like Innerspace and the sci-fi classic Fantastic Voyage (after a book by Isaac Asimov), in which scientists on board a minuscule pod make a journey through the human body in order to remove a brain tumor.

Just like in those films, MPI-IS has developed a microrobot that resembles a white blood cell or leukocyte in size, shape, and movement. According to the researchers, the microrobot should make it easier in the future to bring highly targeted medication to places in the body where it is most needed. The institutes research is centered on cancer cells. The study results were published last Wednesday in the renowned academic journal Science Robotics.

The researchers state that the microrobot has been tested in an artificial blood vessel in the laboratory. There it had to deal with roughly the same obstacles as in a real human body. The robot moves in a rolling motion much like a leukocyte. Which is why the researchers call it a microroller. The microrobot draws its energy from small magnetic coils.

White blood cells served as inspiration because they are the only mobile cells in the bloodstream. While out on patrol to places where pathogens have infiltrated, the white blood cells roll along the inner wall of the blood vessels. They then exit when they reach a wound, for example. Their ability to move is mainly due to the much lower flow rate along the inner walls of the blood vessels. The researchers have made use of this phenomenon in their robot.

Each microrobot has a diameter of almost eight micrometers and is made up of tiny glass particles. One side is covered with a thin layer of nickel and gold. The other side is covered with cancer medication and special molecules that can detect cancer cells.

With the help of magnetic fields, our microrobots can navigate upstream through a simulated blood vessel. Thats normally a real challenge owing to the powerful blood flow and the dense cellular environment. No microrobot has ever been able to withstand such a flow. But we did it! Whats more, our robots can recognize autonomously cells that are of interest to them, such as cancer cells. They can do this because weve coated them with antibodies. They can then release the drugs along the way, says fellow researcher Yunus Alapan.

He claims that the microrobot can reach a speed of up to 600 micrometers per second in the laboratory. Thats about 76 times its body length per second, making it the fastest magnetic micro-robot of its size.

That all sounds pretty amazing, but according to Max-Planck its still too early to start cheering. First of all, a real human body is something very different from a replicated circulatory system in the laboratory. Secondly, the robot can only carry a limited amount of medicine with it. Thats why the aim is that at some point in the future, microrobots will be able to venture out in swarms and deliver their cargo to the right place.

Incidentally, the main source of inspiration for the researchers was not the films Innerspace and Fantastic Voyage, but rather a world-famous lecture by Nobel Prize winner Richard Feynman entitled Theres Plenty of Room at the Bottom which took place in 1959.

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Swarms of robots sweep the human body to fight cancer - Innovation Origins

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Covid-19 Impact on Automated Microscopy Market : Volume, Analysis, Future Prediction, Industry Overview and Forecast 2024 : Asylum Research, Agilent…

§ May 20th, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Covid-19 Impact on Automated Microscopy Market : Volume, Analysis, Future Prediction, Industry Overview and Forecast 2024 : Asylum Research, Agilent…

Automated Microscopy Market (Product - Inverted Microscope, Fluorescence Microscope, Electron Microscope, Scanning Probe Microscope, and Optical Microscope; Application - Nanotechnology, Medical Diagnostics, Life Science Monitoring, Material Science, and Semiconductors): Global Industry Analysis, Trends, Market Size and Forecasts to 2024. The global automated microscopy market is projected to grow at a CAGR of 9.1% over the forecast period of 2018-2024.

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Pune, India -- (SBWIRE) -- 05/19/2020 -- Infinium Global Research has recently published a global report on "Automated Microscopy Market (Product - Inverted Microscope, Fluorescence Microscope, Electron Microscope, Scanning Probe Microscope, and Optical Microscope; Application - Nanotechnology, Medical Diagnostics, Life Science Monitoring, Material Science, and Semiconductors): Global Industry Analysis, Trends, Market Size and Forecasts to 2024." According to report, the global automated microscopy market is projected to grow at a CAGR of 9.1% over the forecast period of 2018-2024.

To Know More Request Sample of this Report@ https://www.infiniumglobalresearch.com/reports/sample-request/1460

Advancements in the Technologies

Automated microscopy is an advanced technology that uses advance-monitoring techniques such as atomic force microscopy called as AFM that enhances monitoring of biological specimen. Automated microscopy adjusts and determines the light shutter, wavelength selection, focus, and stage control. It also acts as the illumination source for live-cell imaging and software for live-cell imaging in an electromechanical way.

Automated microscopy gives accurate and automatic magnifying for investigating and understanding the subject and helps to reduce manual mistakes. Automated microscopy market finds widespread applications in semiconductors, surface study, life science, material science, diagnosis, genetic engineering.

Increasing Number of Biotech, Pharma, & Healthcare Companies Worldwide

The increasing number of applications along with the development of user-friendly and less complex microscope are driving the growth of the automated microscopy market. Additionally, government and industrial investment in inventing the automated microscope for nanotechnology are anticipated to boost the growth of the automated microscopy market.

However, high prices owing to more technical advances in the equipment's is the major restraint for the automated microscopy market over the forecast period. On the other hand, automated microscopy market is likely to be hampered by instrumentation complexities that have to be addressed before using automated microscopes. In addition, the increasing number of biotech, pharma, & healthcare companies worldwide are anticipated to bloom the market for automated microscopy.

"We are Now Including the Impact Analysis of the COVID-19 on this Premium Report and the Forecast Period of this Report Shall be Revised to 2020-2026. The Section on the Impact of COVID-19 on Automated Microscopy Market is Included in the Report for Free."

Asia Pacific Region to Contribute to Growth in the Global Automated Microscopy Industry

Asia Pacific accounted for the largest market share for the global automated microscopy market followed by North America. Infinium Global Research quoted that, the presence of a large number of manufacturers particularly in Japan and favorable government supports has led the dominance in the Asia Pacific regions.

Additionally, the growing investment in research and development and low labour cost are likely to hold the dominance of the Asia Pacific regional market over the forecast period. Cost-effective manufacturing of the devices, growing healthcare infrastructure and tremendous funding toward modern technologies are further accelerating the growth of the automated microscopy market.

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"We Have Decided to Extend Our Support to the Industry on Account of Corona Outbreak by Offering Flat Discount 30% on All Our Studies and Evaluation of the Market Dynamics in Automated Microscopy Amidst COVID-19."

Automated Microscopy Market Coverage

Chapter - 1 Preface

=> Report Description

=> Research Methods

=> Research Approaches

Chapter - 2 Executive Summary

=> Automated Microscopy Market Highlights

=> Automated Microscopy Market Projection

=> Automated Microscopy Market Regional Highlights

Chapter - 3 Global Automated Microscopy Market Overview

=> Introduction

=> Market Dynamics

=> Porter's Five Forces Analysis

=> IGR-Growth Matrix Analysis

=> Value chain automated microscopy market

Chapter - 4 Automated Microscopy Market Macro Indicator Analysis

Chapter - 5 Global Automated Microscopy Market by Product

=> Inverted Microscope

=> Fluorescence Microscope

=> Electron Microscope

=> Scanning Probe Microscope

=> Optical Microscope

Chapter - 6 Global Automated Microscopy Market by Application

=> Nanotechnology

=> Medical Diagnostics

=> Life Science Monitoring

=> Material Science

=> Semiconductors

Chapter - 7 Global Automated Microscopy Market by Region 2018-2024

=> North America

=> Europe

=> Asia-Pacific

=> RoW

Chapter - 8 Company profiles and competitive landscape

=> Asylum Research

=> Agilent Technologies Inc.

=> Bruker Corporation

=> Carl Zeiss

=> FEI Company

=> Hitachi High Technologies Ltd

=> Nikon Corp

=> Olympus Corp

Chapter - 9 Appendix

=> Primary research findings and questionnaire

Browse Complete Report@ https://www.infiniumglobalresearch.com/industry-automation/global-automated-microscopy-market

About Infinium Global Research Infinium Global Research is a business consulting and market research firm; a group of experts that caters to fulfilling business and market research needs of leading companies in various industry verticals and business segments. The company also serves government bodies, institutes and non-profit/non-government organizations to meet their knowledge and information needs.

Through our information services and solutions, we assist our clients to improve their performance and assess the market conditions to achieve their organizational goals. Our team of experts and analysts are engaged in continuously monitoring and assessing the market conditions to provide the knowledge support to our clients. To help our clients and to stay updated with the advances and inventions in technology, business processes, regulations and environment, Infinium often conducts regular meets with industry experts and opinion leaders. Our key opinion leaders are involved in monitoring and assessing the progress in the business environment, so as to offer the best opinion to our clients.

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/covid-19-impact-on-automated-microscopy-market-volume-analysis-future-prediction-industry-overview-and-forecast-2024-asylum-research-agilent-technologies-inc-bruker-carl-zeiss-fei-company-hitachi-high-technologies-nikon-1291601.htm

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