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Maintaining quality, consistency and impact through difficult times: an Associate Editor’s insight – Royal Society of Chemistry

§ June 5th, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Maintaining quality, consistency and impact through difficult times: an Associate Editor’s insight – Royal Society of Chemistry

How do you think the current pandemic could impact/change/shape the research community in the short/long term?

The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically changed our life in many ways. One of these changes is the major disruption in research activities for the research community. We will have less lab-based research results and findings in the short term. However, going through this difficult time together, we will learn how to deal with crises like this and become more resilient to future ones. In the long term, it will give us an opportunity to rethink the way we work and communicate. I think we should use this time to rework the existing research process to achieve higher efficiency and productivity and identify new ways to strengthen the research community. Last but not the least, we should support each other and get through this pandemic together.

My research group uses food chemistry, food biophysics, material science and nanotechnology approaches to investigate structurefunction relationships of food proteins and polysaccharides with the ultimate goal of improving food safety and quality. We have made various nanostructures, including nanoparticles, nanoemulsions and nanolaminates, with applications including nutraceutical encapsulation and targeted delivery, antimicrobial packaging materials, food pathogen detection and edible coatings.

The most exciting aspect part of my work is my contribution to improving food safety and human health.

Keeping up with current research in my area worldwide and coming up with novel ideas are both very challenging.

As a professional scholar and educator, I wanted to contribute to the scientific field. With my expertise in food chemistry, food biopolymer biophysics and food nanotechnology, I hope to bring forward high-quality research in food science to the journal. I am very excited to join the RSC Advances team and am planning to give my time and effort to advance the journal.

By ensuring that submissions fit the journal, checking for flaws in experimental design and advancing our knowledge in chemistry, I'm hoping to bring novel, exciting and solid publications to the scientific community. I encourage new and established authors to submit articles. I also choose the experienced independent reviewers for manuscripts that pass the initial screening. Overall, I try hard to improve the quality, consistency and impact of the journal.

Please read the scope of RSC Advances carefully and make sure the submission fits the journal before you submit. Please prepare the manuscript as accurately as possible.

Being able to read cutting-edge scientific papers covering a wide range of topics in food science with innovative ideas and experiments. I also enjoy helping the researchers to get their findings published and shared with the scientific community.

I am a regular runner and reader. I also enjoy listening to music and singing karaoke.

My mum is always my role model. She worked extremely hard and made a very positive impact on our family, the community and society. I dreamed of becoming a teacher for elementary kids when I was a teenager, turning to scientific research later.

Maybe a chef since I love cooking and enjoy eating.

RSC Advances

Find out more about RSC Advances here. Log in to submit your manuscript here.

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Maintaining quality, consistency and impact through difficult times: an Associate Editor's insight - Royal Society of Chemistry

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Create synthetic red blood cells more effective than natural ones at administering medications – Checkersaga

§ June 5th, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Create synthetic red blood cells more effective than natural ones at administering medications – Checkersaga

A team of scientists has created synthetic red blood cells that could be more useful and effective than natural ones in curing diseases. Initial results show that are capable of performing all the functions of natural blood cells and much more.

Nanotechnology has among its main objectives the promotion of medicine. Scientists want to introduce tiny devices or robots that Serve as medicine or explore the body without being so invasive like current techniques.

This new research with red blood cells has been carried out between the University of New Mexico, Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Technology of South China. The study published in the Nano journal of the American Chemical Society, reveals that artificial red blood cells could be a new treatment for cancer.

The technological revolution has changed the world forever and, in the coming years, our way of understanding and relating to medicine will radically change.

These artificial cells have been created by covering donated red blood cells with a thin layer of silica and another layer of polymers with positive and negative charges. By later coating them with natural red blood cell membranes, white blood cells do not identify them as invaders, nor attack them.

Tests have first been carried out on bird embryos and mice where it has been detected that these nanobots can remain in the blood of the animals for up to 48 hours, successfully carrying out the functions assigned to them. They can transport oxygen, medicines or loads thanks to its magnetism.

Until now, artificial red blood cells only managed to imitate some of the qualities of their natural versions, but this new design has both the size and appearance, as well as the qualities of natural blood cells and some extras.

Lets remember that red blood cells are disk-shaped cells with millions of molecules, they are very flexible and contain hemoglobin, a protein with iron that makes oxygen stick to them to transport it through the blood.

The new artificial blood cells they are just as flexible to pass through the capillaries and return to their shape. But in addition to all these qualities, they are able to administer medications and transport magnetic nanoparticles to carry loads throughout the body. Its creators bet that their invention has future medical applications in fighting cancer and biodetection of toxins.

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Create synthetic red blood cells more effective than natural ones at administering medications - Checkersaga

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Nanotechnology Journals Impact Factor | Nanotechnology …

§ June 4th, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Nanotechnology Journals Impact Factor | Nanotechnology …

List of Nanotechnology Conferences June 08-09, 2020 6th International Conference and Expo on Ceramics and Composite Materials, Frankfurt, Germany June 12-13, 2020 32nd Nano Congress for Future Advancements, Frankfurt, Germany June 15-16, 2020 33rd International Conference on Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, London, UK June 22-23, 2020 26th International Conference on Advanced Materials & Nanotechnology, Brisbane, Australia June 22-23, 2020 21st World Congress on Materials Science and Engineering, Rome, Italy June 26-27, 2020 33rd International Conference on Nanoscience, Nanotechnology and Nanoengineering, Paris, France July 09-10, 2020 World Congress on Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Geneva, Switzerland July 15-16, 2020 22nd International Conference on Advanced Energy Materials and Research, Vienna, Austria July 27-28, 2020 27th International conference on Materials Science and Nanotechnology, London, UK July 27-28, 2020 35th World Congress on Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Amsterdam, Netherlands August 03-04, 2020 32ndInternational Conference and Expo on Nanosciences and Nanotechnology, Zurich, Switzerland August 03-04, 2020 4th World Congress on Nanoscience and Nano Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam August 21-22, 2020 17th Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine Congress, Osaka, Japan August 24-25, 2020 Annual Conference on Biofuels & Biopolymers, Vancouver, Canada August 24-25, 2020 3rd International Conference on Renewable Energy and Resources, Vancouver, Canada August 31-01, 2020 5th Annual Conference and Expo on Biomaterials, Rome, Italy August 31-01, 2020 18th International Conference on Emerging Materials and Nanotechnology, Rome, Italy September 07-08, 2020 World Congress on Advanced Nano Research and Nano Tech Applications, Sydney, Australia September 14-15, 2020 36th International Conference on Advanced Nanotechnology, Dubai, UAE September 21-23, 2020 International Conferences on Nanotechnology & Chemistry, Shanghai, China September 21-22, 2020 21st International Conference and Exhibition on Materials Science, Nanotechnology and Engineering, Milan, Italy September 28-29, 2020 International Conference on Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering, Abu Dhabi, UAE October 12-13, 2020 3rd World Expo on Bio Polymers and Bio Plastics, Milan, Italy October 12-13, 2020 6th International Conference and Exhibition on Nanotechnology, Artificial Intelligence and IOT, Sydney, Australia October 14-15, 2020 International Conference on Microfluidics, Dubai, UAE October 14-15, 2020 34th International Conference on Nanomedicine & Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Zurich, Switzerland October 15-16, 2020 3rd Global Conference on Smart Materials and Nanotechnology, Prague, Czech Republic October 15-16, 2020 9th Annual Congress in Advanced Materials and Nano Science, Prague, Czech Republic October 19-20, 2020 37th Global Conference on Smart Materials and Nanotechnology, Amsterdam, Netherlands October 19-20, 2020 International Conference and Expo on Ceramics and Composite Materials, Paris, France October 21-22, 2020 20th International Conference and Exhibition on Materials Science and Engineering, Bangkok, Thailand October 21-22, 2020 Global Nanotechnology Congress, Frankfurt, Germany October 21-22, 2020 37th Global Summit on Nanoscience and Technology, Paris, France October 22-23, 2020 11th Asia Pacific Conference on Polymer Science and Engineering, Tokyo, Japan October 22-23, 2020 26th World Congress on Advanced Materials, Tokyo, Japan October 23-24, 2020 Materials Electrochemistry Conference: Advancements and Breakthroughs, Capetown, South Africa October 30-31, 2020 2nd International Conference on Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology, Dubai, United Arab Emirates October 30-31, 2020 33rd Materials Science and Engineering Conference: Advancement and Innovations, Dubai, United Arab Emirates November 04-05, 2020 International conference on Material science and Nanotechnology, Sydney, Australia November 09-10, 2020 12th World Congress on Biopolymers and Biomaterials, Amsterdam, Netherlands November 11-12, 2020 3rd International Conference on Materials Science & Research, Paris, France November 18-19, 2020 4th Global Meet on Materials Science and Nano Materials, Singapore, Singapore November 18-19, 2020 4th Annual Meet on NanoScience And Nanotechnology, Singapore, Singapore November 19-20, 2020 International Conference on Nanomaterials and Nanophotonics, Berlin, Germany November 23-24, 2020 22nd Materials Science and Nano Tech Expo, Helsinki, Finland November 23-24, 2020 34th International Conference on Nanotechnology & Expo, London, UK November 23-24, 2020 31st World Nano Conference, Barcelona, Spain November 23-24, 2020 Applied Nanotechnology Summit China, Paris, France November 23-24, 2020 33rd International Conference on Nano Materials and Nanotechnology, Edinburgh, Scotland November 23-24, 2020 25th International Conference on Advanced Materials & Nanotechnology, Barcelona, Spain November 25-26, 2020 5th International Conference on Quantum Physics and Mechanics, Berlin, Germany December 10-11, 2020 21st World Summit on Nanotechnology and Expo, Osaka, Japan

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Engineered Glow – Earth Island Journal

§ June 4th, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Engineered Glow – Earth Island Journal

In December 2017, the Strano Research Group at MIT published a paper in the journal Nano Letters about how it modified four plant species spinach, arugula, kale, and watercress to emit light. The prototype glowed for 3.5 hours with a yellowish-green light about one-thousandth the amount needed for reading, though one of the projects trademark photos shows a three-week-old watercress plant faintly illuminating the pages of Paradise Lost. Strano says the next generation of plants will glow more brightly and for substantially longer than a few hours. He hopes someday plants might glow brightly enough to illuminate a room and diminish the need for other types of indoor lighting.

The light-emitting plant project is a part of a broader, relatively new niche of research within nanotechnology that Strano calls plant nanobionics. Nano refers to science at a nanoscale (specifically, between 1 and 100 nanometers, a nanometer measuring one billionth of a meter), and bionics refers to functions typically performed by electronic devices. Plant nanobionics is a developing field and thus still quite small; indeed, most of its researchers are Stranos former students. Strano is currently working on multiple plant nanobionics initiatives, from plants that can detect explosives to those that can communicate with cell phones.

STRANOS LIGHT-EMITTING PLANT is among the latest iterations of a scientific endeavor that began in the 1980s when a team at the University of California, San Diego modified a tobacco plant to give off light. In November 1986, The New York Times published an article with the headline: TOBACCO PLANT WITH FIREFLY GENE IMPLANT GROWS, which explained that, due to a genetic modification, the tobacco plant now emitted visible light in total darkness. Why didnt the editors take the easy bait: TOBACCO PLANT WITH FIREFLY GENE IMPLANT GLOWS? By the articles last paragraph, its clear the alternate headline wouldnt have exactly followed the Times commitment to truth, given that this glow could only be seen with the unaided eye when the scientists stood in the dark for about 10 minutes so that their eyes became acclimatized.

That effort, however, marked the first time a light-producing gene was successfully transferred into a complex multicellular organism. The team modified the firefly gene for the luciferase enzyme and spliced it into genetic material called plasmids, which were transferred into tobacco plant cells. Once the plants began to grow, they were irrigated with water containing another firefly compound: luciferin, the chemical fuel for light production. Both luciferase and luciferin were needed to illuminate the plant. (Every living thing on Earth that naturally glows uses luciferin. Most, but not all, use luciferase.)

In the past decade, biotechnology startups have continued experimenting with luciferase in plants. In 2010, molecular biologist Alexander Krichevsky at State University of New York, Stony Brook engineered tobacco plant DNA with both luciferase and luciferin to create a glowing plant that he dubbed the Starlight Avatar. The plant eventually became as luminous as a glow-in-the-dark stick-on star, and Krichevsky started Bioglow, a company that auctioned its initial round of prototypes in 2015 for $300 each. But Bioglow struggled to increase the brightness of the plants, and the link to the companys website now redirects to the unrelated Dehydrate2Store.

Stranos light-emitting plant is among the latest iterations of a scientific endeavor that began in the 1980s.

In 2013, San Francisco-based entrepreneur Antony Evans launched a Kickstarter campaign to make his own light-emitting plant. Like those before him, Evans proposed genetically engineering plants with luciferase and luciferin to make them glow. His company, TAXA Biotechnologies, promised backers a hodgepodge of prizes: a t-shirt with a $25 donation, a how to make a glowing plant coffee table book at $90, and, if you invested $10,000, the grand-daddy of prizes, a personalized message expressed in DNA.

The Glowing Plant project appealed to the public; it pulled in nearly $500,000 from around the world, easily surpassing its $65,000 fundraising goal. The project description claimed this money would go towards the first step in creating sustainable natural lighting.

A couple of years passed, and still no plant. Inserting six genes into a plant proved more challenging than Evans expected. After years of hanging on, TAXA Biotechnologies finally announced its defeat. It was a poor choice of product, Evans told the MIT Technology Review in summer 2016, shortly before the end. I personally feel terrible we havent shipped yet. But its not like we took the money and ran.

In 2017 the same year as TAXAs failure Stranos group published a paper on their Nanobionic Light-Emitting Plant. But if you Google glowing plant, the majority of hits are related to the TAXA Kickstarter projects demise. A press release on Stranos work lingers in the middle of the page.

It was just bad timing, Strano sighs. Even though our approach is completely different, I think the public is like, Yeah, right. Weve heard this before, and it failed.

IN THE SPRING OF 2007, six years before Evans launched his Kickstarter, botanist Jodie Holt walked onto a movie set to look at sketches of made-up plants. The crew, producer, and director awaited her input on the zany drawings.

Holt didnt hide her horror very well. They were too blue.

Though many years have passed since that day, Holt recounts this moment to me with some agitation in her voice. Blue plants on Earth would not survive, she says. They wouldnt be able to photosynthesize, since chlorophyll an essential pigment for photosynthesis gives plants their green hue.

Holt was hired by Lightstorm Entertainment in March 2007 as a plant consultant for James Camerons new movie project, the 2009 blockbuster-to-be Avatar. She was asked to teach Sigourney Weaver how to embody a true botanist, as well as advise on the imaginary plants that would exist on the invented moon of Pandora. Though the flora was to be fictional, Cameron wanted to ensure it was not fantastical.

The next time Holt arrived on set, all the plants were green.

If real plants on Earth can respond to touch, communicate, and shoot poison, why arent there any glowing plants?

A few months after the movie premiered, Holt was asked to put together a guide to Pandoras plants that described the science behind them. Hesitant to invent new science, she told Cameron that, without knowing anything about the environment on Pandora, it would be challenging to scientifically defend these plants. Cameron didnt miss a beat. He spent two hours describing Pandoras every detail: light level, atmospheric gases, chemical concentrations in the soil, gravitational strength.

In the end, Holt could defend nearly every one of Pandoras invented plants based on a real plant characteristic that was magnified for effect, such as response to touch. The only exception was bioluminescence, which doesnt exist in plants on Earth, but which Holt imagined could have feasibly developed on a planet with such low light levels as Pandora.

If real plants on Earth can respond to touch, communicate, and shoot poison, why arent there any glowing plants? I ask Holt.

Im surprised they dont exist, Holt says. She reasons that the trait probably hasnt cropped up because of energy distribution. Growth, self-defense, and reproduction are priorities but glowing? Not nearly as important. In the extreme low-light conditions of Pandora, a bioluminescent plant might attract nocturnal pollinators or frighten a predator. There are other ways to achieve these objectives on Earth, however, which may explain why plants havent acquired this particular trait.

TO MAKE A GLOWING plant in the age after Avatar is to fulfill a prediction. By grounding something that sounds imaginary in science, Cameron and Holt created an endpoint; now the science has to catch up and meet it.

Stranos team appears to have done just that: Their plants already glow brightly enough to be used as indirect lighting, and the method is straightforward and reliable and fast, because it works on mature plants. (To genetically modify a tree to glow, scientists would have to change the DNA in the seed and then wait years for it to grow.)

The chemical reaction itself is fairly simple: In the presence of ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, (the fuel of the cell), magnesium, and oxygen, luciferin undergoes oxidation, losing a few electrons and emitting light as a byproduct; the luciferase enzyme accelerates the whole process. To get the reactions components into the plant, Stranos team inserts them into three different types of biocompatible nanoparticles made of silica, polyethylene glycol, and chitosan. The nanoparticles act as little boxes that hold, respectively, luciferase, luciferin, and another enzyme that lengthens the duration of the light emission.

Whether it will lead to further development I dont know, but the fact that it works and works well is remarkable.

Once the reaction ingredients are packaged into nanoparticles, scientists transfer the particles into the leaves. They do this by giving the plants a bath more specifically, a fully submerged, highly pressurized bath, during which they blast nanoparticles in solution through the tiny pores in the leaves.

Harvard professor and chemist George Whitesides, well-known for his work in nanotechnology, believes Stranos team has accomplished an impressive feat. The fact that they can get a large collection of non-plant materials with different activities to work together with the plants metabolism, without having some component fail, and without quickly killing the plant, is really astonishing, he wrote to me in an email. Whether it will lead to further development I dont know, but the fact that it works and works well is remarkable.

The important next step will be to optimize for light intensity and duration. Not surprisingly, this requires a trade-off. In short bursts, the glowing plant can be very bright; for sustained light, it is dimmer. The team has found that they can affect these two factors drastically by adjusting the amount and size of nanoparticles. With time, they predict that they can achieve a light duration of 17 days at low but meaningful brightness, or alternatively a duration of one day at a level perfect for reading a book. Because the reactants eventually run out, plant owners would need to reapply them to the leaves. Strano believes people will eventually be able to accomplish this with a spray, overcoming the current need for a pressurized bath.

Other researchers have taken a different, fungi-focused approach. Working with mushrooms, they were able to identify the structure of the protein that allows certain fungi to glow. In the process, they discovered a new type of luciferin that is chemically distinct from previously identified luciferins, including that used by Strano. This new luciferin is produced by caffeic acid, which occurs naturally in plants and is compatible with plant biochemistry. Researchers have since injected genes from a bioluminescent mushroom into a tobacco plant to achieve a glow, a process they say is more cost-effective long-term than using nanoparticles. (Seon-Yeong Kwak, lead author of the MIT study, says that the materials needed to synthesize the nanoparticles are not expensive. She acknowledges that the luminescent reagents are expensive, but says the cost could decrease with mass production.)

But the continuous glow that comes with these types of genetically-modified plants would prohibit their ability to be switched off when its time to sleep. A nanobionic plant lamp, on the other hand, shuts down naturally when it runs out of reactants. Someday Strano hopes to create a mechanism, perhaps in the form of another spray, that could act like a light switch. His team found that adding the naturally-occurring chemical dehydroluciferin inhibits the reaction, stopping the plant from emitting light, while a small dose of chitosan restarts the reaction.

WHY PLANTS? I asked Strano. For one thing, he began, theyre generally low cost. Theyre also easily recyclable: Just toss them in a compost pile. We have a lot to learn from plants, considering they pump water efficiently, make their own energy, store energy, self-repair the list goes on. Theyre doubly carbon negative too, which means not only do they not release carbon into the atmosphere, but theyre also made of carbon, thus keeping that carbon from contributing to atmospheric levels.

Another obvious appeal is, of course, the potential environmental benefits associated with replacing at least some electrical demand with plant-based lights. In addition to household lighting, Strano can imagine a world where streetlights are replaced with glowing trees.

Moving a glowing plant from the containment of a research facility to outdoor environments raises a host of concerns.

Strano believes the energy benefits of such an application could be enormous. The US Energy Information Administration estimates that, in 2018 alone, the commercial sector, which includes buildings and street lighting, consumed about 141 billion kilowatt-hours, or 16 billion watts of power. A significant amount of this energy gets lost along the way: The total percentage of overall losses in the US electrical grid is approximately 6 percent, and the global average is closer to 30 percent. Because the light-emitting plant would be off the grid, no energy would be lost in the production of light. Given that the going rate per kilowatt-hour ranges from 8 to 33 cents in the US, it could be a huge money saver if glowing plants replaced even a portion of traditional lighting.

But moving a glowing plant from the containment of a research facility to outdoor environments raises a host of concerns. For example, how would a glowing tree affect the ecosystem? How might light emission confuse animal behavior?

My first impression is that the impacts of a glowing tree may be minimal, because, remember, youre replacing a street lamp, which is a lot brighter and already has impacts on wildlife, Strano says. Another concern would be the impact on animals eating the glowing plants. The materials within the plants themselves are technically edible; in fact, all three nanoparticles are used as food additives. For lighting something outside, we want something thats completely safe, Strano explains. But while initial toxicity risk may be low, more research needs to be done on how these particles could accumulate along the food chain. Strano concedes that a lot has to happen before we bring technology outside.

I discussed the potential pros and cons of the endeavor with Holt, who studied plant ecosystems in college. Its such a complicated question, she says. In a time in our history where were more concerned about climate change and negative environmental impacts than ever, I think the benefits of substituting a live tree for an energy-consuming streetlight would outweigh the risks.

But, she adds, it depends on the currency youre using. If youre measuring the impact on energy consumption, the glowing plant is a good option. But perhaps it has a negative impact on wildlife behavior. How do you compare the two? You have to first define what your goals are, Holt says. What are your criteria for success? How do you define benefit and risk?

A MAJOR SOURCE of anxiety around modifying living things is the risk of spread. Theres a long history of humans introducing species to new regions where they wreak havoc on native organisms. For instance, the Japanese honeysuckle, introduced to the United States in 1806, has overrun the East Coast and smothered native species in the process. This is a plant that already existed in nature; how would it affect our ecosystems to introduce a plant species that we modified? What happens if someone plants a glowing seedling in their backyard, and it reproduces? Could it spread across the country, contributing to light pollution and pushing out critical plant species?

Methods that involve changing nature tend to inspire deep unease in people, and for good reason.

Methods that involve changing nature tend to inspire deep unease in people, and for good reason. The smallest miscalculation could domino, causing monumental damage in ways that no one anticipated. To have a system that could escape and be heritable would be a really bad thing, Holt says.

Thats why the key selling point of Stranos nanotechnology technique besides its efficacy is that it doesnt change the plants genome in any way. Instead, Stranos team infuses materials into the plant. Because no genes are changed, the plants acquired superpowers arent hereditary.

But nanotechnology is a relatively new field, still in the early days of research. Because of that, some environmental groups, including Friends of the Earth, advocate a precautionary approach to the field, pointing to mounting evidence of health and environmental impacts associated with nanoparticles, and the ongoing uncertainty surrounding their use.

In the US, investigation into the biological and ecological impacts of this technology has been spearheaded by the two national Centers for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (CEINT) established in 2008, one at Duke University and one at the University of California, Los Angeles. When we started this research, we were, globally, taking a more contaminant view of nanomaterials, says Dr. Christine Hendren, executive director of CEINT at Duke University. But we havent seen the type of acute, toxic response that people were worried about at the beginning.

CEINTs research has shown that the impact of nanomaterials primarily depends on environment and context. For instance, the nanosilica used in Stranos light-emitting plant is extremely dangerous to the respiratory system while in the air, but it cant damage lungs when inside of a plant. Similarly, toxicity of nanoparticles depends not only on if the particle is toxic at its regular size, but also what other materials its exposed to in the environment.

Hendren believes that the biggest implication of nanotechnology will be a positive one, especially in applications involving renewable energy. But, she says, nanomaterials should be regarded carefully on a case-by-case basis, and scientists should engage with other stakeholders and disciplines to understand potential implications. We need to consider what are the ways that these things could get out of the matrix theyre in while inside the plant, and what happens if they do, says Hendren.

Strano agrees on the need to proceed with caution: We are not rushing out into a field and transforming plants.

While health and environmental impacts should be taken into consideration alongside laboratory development, its possible they may end up being moot points unless glowing plants could someday become mainstream. Paul Hawken, editor of Project Drawdown, which analyzed hundreds of possible environmental solutions to create a prioritized agenda for tackling climate change, doubts that will happen. These kinds of breakthroughs pour out of research universities, he said in an email. They are fascinating science, but there is no validation of their commercial viability. There is usually a 20-year lag time before they become commercial, and only 1 percent ever reach that point. In other words, glowing plants probably arent making his list of the best ways to address the climate crisis. The amount of system overhaul necessary to expand plant lighting would be massive and expensive.

Regardless, TAXAs failure demonstrated that the science should be solid before anyone even teases the idea of commercial viability. Indeed, some of the biggest doubters are Stranos own colleagues, who are unsure his efforts can technically succeed. Can a plant be a lamp? Can it talk to your cell phone? Can it measure chemicals in the environment? Strano asks. He thinks the answer to all these questions is yes, but acknowledges that the rest of science isnt there yet. These techniques are new and weird, and theyre not typically used in plants.

But he believes the project can teach scientists about these groundbreaking nanotechnology techniques, which will, he hopes, lead to several useful applications. In 2017, shortly after Stranos team released a paper on sentinel plants plants that are used to monitor environmental stimuli the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) started the Advanced Plant Technologies program, which seeks to develop plants capable of serving as next-generation, persistent, ground-based sensor technologies to protect deployed troops. (While it refers here to using plants only as potential sensors, DARPAs research around modifying living organisms for use in biological warfare is quite controversial.)

Strano sees this as a small victory for the future of plant nanobionics. I think people are understanding, he says. This is how the field will evolve. Im willing to be patient.

STRANO REALIZES THAT any transition that moves glowing plants into homes will depend not only on the science, but also importantly on normalizing the concept. We have an uphill burden in convincing people that this can be a real thing, he says. How do you do that with something that currently exists only in Avatar?

Stranos idea: Put it in an actual house. Or at least, a miniature house inside of a museum. This past January marked the end of a 33-week installation, part of the Nature Cooper Hewitt Design Triennial exhibition, in New Yorks Smithsonian Museum of Design. Instead of scaling up the watercress plant to room-size, they scaled down a New York City tenement building to match the current science.

The building model offered peepholes for visitors to look inside at rooms where glowing plants illuminated dining room tables and reading nooks occupied by tiny figurines.

Its part of this outreach to get people familiar and comfortable with the idea that your light could come from a plant, Strano explains. The person at the exhibit gets a sense of what itd be like to live in a house illuminated by plants.

Still, some people find foreign the concept of owning even non-glowing plants. Much like a pet, plants require maintenance. Are people going to water plants when they can turn on a light switch? Its an interesting question, says Whitesides. In the same way a person might prefer cats or dogs, some people like plants while others are indifferent to them. The latter population would be a harder sell when it comes to popularizing plant lights. But as to the plants already occupying peoples homes, Whitesides muses, Why shouldnt they emit light at the same time?

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Advancing Production Flow Profiling With Subatomic Fingerprints and Big Data Analytics – Journal of Petroleum Technology

§ June 2nd, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Advancing Production Flow Profiling With Subatomic Fingerprints and Big Data Analytics – Journal of Petroleum Technology

Advancing Production Flow Profiling With Subatomic Fingerprints and Big Data Analytics

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This paper describes a smart-tracer-portfolio testing and design solution for multistage hydraulic fracturing which will, write the authors, enable operators to reduce operating cost significantly and optimize production in shale wells. The technology combines recently developed smart tracers with advanced subatomic measurements in an automated process with stringent quality control that assures precise tracer addition onsite and provides accurate and actionable completion diagnostics results at a fraction of the cost of production-logging testing, distributed temperature testing, or distributed acoustic sensing.

Multistage hydraulic fracturing operations costsincluding high-pressure pumping, proppant, and fluidranged from $2.9 million to $5.6 million per well in a typical US shale well in 2018, representing close to 60% of the total drilling and completion cost for each well. Yet industry studies reported that up to 50% of the clusters and stages and up to 40% of the fracture networks do not produce in the current geometric factory-mode-completion approach, leading to estimates that up to 40% of the drilled and completed shale wells in North America alone could be uneconomical.

Additionally, interactions between fractures in adjacent horizontal wells, and the costly negative effects of these interactions, have become the focus of much discussion and debate within the technical community. The impetus for this attention has been the effect of these interactions on productivity and the mechanical integrity of the parent wells.

These issues drive the need for oil and gas operators to have more-accurate, affordable, and timely data on the performance of individual fracturing stages, measured intrawell communication, and temporary and long-term frac/frac connections to enable improved decision-making and optimization of multistage hydraulic fracturing operations as well as overall field development.

The complete paper describes smart tracer technology, including a patented portfolio and fracturing-/completion-optimization work flow; laboratory testing and performance analysis; and integration with completion diagnostics.

To control the effectiveness of multistage hydraulic fracturing stimulation treatments, it is essential to use special tracing methods based on the addition of the labeled substance to the proppant, water, or gas, and monitor the release of tracers with flowback water and produced oil and gas from the current well or nearby observation wells. Currently, conventional water- and oil-soluble chemical substances with fluorescent properties and ionic, organic materials, or radioactive isotopes, are used as the tracers. Tracers with fluorescent properties and ionic and organic materials are high-cost, limited to chemical-measurement techniques at a molecular level, and often have reported false-positive results for long-term communication. Environmental regulations in many countries prohibit the use of radioactive tracers (i.e., radioactive isotopes) because they pollute the environment and could contaminate subsurface layers.

The authors, in collaboration with a nanotechnology partner, developed and commercialized a portfolio of smart tracers based on proprietary particles developed from low-cost materials. The technology uses advanced subatomic spectroscopy-measurement techniques to map the distribution of well production, the performance of each fracturing stage, crosswell interference, and environmental containment. The complete paper presents a description and illustration of the work flow.

To provide quantitative and qualitative interpretation, all smart tracers undergo rigorous laboratory testing and validation. Each smart tracer is tested for thermal and pressure stability, settling time, particle size distribution, reservoir static, and dynamic adsorption, as well as other characteristics during the testing process.

The next step is to align and refine each smart tracer design with preplanned fracturing design and estimated well-completion-flow profile. This is required for performance testing of the smart particles recovery efficiency for minimum and maximum flow rates at stage level. For this paper, a shale operator provided a typical completion design for smart-tracer-performance verification testing at the following downhole conditions.

The assumption for these conditions is that the shale well has averaged 1.5 open perforations per cluster during the period while the well is producing at 4,000 B/D or higher. In reality, the production rate may fall off quickly, so long-term monitoring of smart tracer recovery would also rely on smart particles being able to move at a much lower rate. Additionally, the performance of moving the smart tracer in the horizontal section of the shale well is considered. If the stage closest to the toe is producing 100 BLPD (or 0.0486 gal/sec) with 4-in. liner, the fluid is moving at 0.0814 ft/sec.

To accomplish such flow profiling and smart-tracer-recovery testing, a special unit was designed and deployed under expert supervision for a dedicated study of each smart-tracer-flow profile by simulated hydraulic fracturing with fracturing sand and at downhole wellbore conditions using different flow-profile rates at each stage. The complete paper presents a detailed discussion of the testing unit and procedure.

The smart tracer recovery was tested using an actual shale well completion design provided by an operator assuming 400,000 lb of 40/70 fracturing sand per stage. The projected flow velocity at the cluster level ranged from 0.13.0 gal/min, and detection limited up to 1ppm from the milligram sample collected from the testing, as shown in Fig.1. The results indicated a very good volume of smart tracer recovery from the first run with 9.2% at 3 gal/min and with 6% at 0.1 gal/min. These results were then verified using subatomic instruments for fingerprinting identification.

Completion diagnostics is a complex, multidisciplined task that requires knowledge of formation evaluation, geologic and geomechanics modeling, reserves estimation, hydraulic fracturing pressure analysis, and dynamic simulation. It is required to identify the reasons for good or poor performance in horizontal well stages determined through smart tracer diagnostics and to verify each stages contribution to the total well production rate.

As with conventional fields, shale well stage production rate is defined by the presence of hydrocarbon in place, formation quality (brittleness, porosity, and permeability), and completion efficiency (perforation strategy and hydraulic fracturing-treatment design). Hydrocarbon presence in shale formations can be characterized by total organic content. Formation organic content is normally determined in the laboratory by kerogen extraction from the core sample and its further analysis. In the field, organic reach intervals can be found using resistivity, spectral gamma ray, and mud logs.

Unconventional fields often are not well characterized by subsurface data needed for formation evaluation and limited modeling for accurate geological and geomechanical assessment. Nevertheless, the industry has accumulated a huge amount of subsurface data. More than 2million wells have been drilled in the US alone, and most currently developed basins are covered with seismic, well logging and core data, geological, and tectonic information. These legacy data are used to understand geology, correlations, and trends of rock distribution in studied areas to construct reliable models and predict well-production potential.

The complete paper discusses the role of formation evaluation, geomechanics analysis, diagnostic fracture injection testing, and fracturing pressure diagnostics and their importance to analyzing and optimizing hydraulic fracture performance, completion-design efficiency, and well productivity. According to the authors, legacy information and new insightful learning gained from different types of geologic data need to be combined in one reliable solution, but the correlations between these types of information can be highly complex and not always analytically clear. The future of shale-formation characterization is deep machine learning and big data analytics employing different kinds of neural networks, a biologically inspired programming approach that enables computers to learn from observational data.

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Advancing Production Flow Profiling With Subatomic Fingerprints and Big Data Analytics - Journal of Petroleum Technology

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Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene Market Will Expect Consumption of over 40 Kilo Tons by 2025 : Leading Key Players 3M, DowDuPont, Daikin Industries,…

§ May 26th, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene Market Will Expect Consumption of over 40 Kilo Tons by 2025 : Leading Key Players 3M, DowDuPont, Daikin Industries,…

Whats driving the Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene Market growth? | Leading Key Players 3M, DowDuPont, Daikin Industries, Ltd., Shanghai, F New Materials Co. Ltd., Saint-Gobain, Merck Millipore

This press release was orginally distributed by SBWire

Ocean View, DE -- (SBWIRE) -- 05/26/2020 -- Global Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene Market is anticipated to witness prominent growth on account of its increasing applications in the construction, renewable energy, automotive, chemical processing, and electrical & electronics industries. The product exhibits properties like greater breakdown voltage, longer life and good mechanical strength, making its application vital in electrical cable and wires that are used in power distribution lines.

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Frontrunners in the Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene Market - 3M - DowDuPont - Daikin Industries, Ltd. - Shanghai - F New Materials Co. Ltd. - Saint-Gobain - Merck Millipore - The Chemours Company - Juhua Group Corporation - AMETEK, Inc. - Polyfluor Plastics B.V. - BASF - ITAFLON - Shandong Hengyi New Material Technology - Inoflon Fluoropolymers

A noticeable rise in government initiatives to expand existing power distribution networks may fuel the demand for fluorinated ethylene propylene. Moreover, commencement of new building infrastructures and rapid urbanization may drive the demand for wires and cables, thereby augmenting FEP market size. On this note, Global Market Insights, Inc., suggests that the fluorinated ethylene propylene market is anticipated to amass around USD 1.2 billion by 2025.

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A surge in the vehicle manufacturing may bolster product demand in the automobile sector. Moreover, rise in military spending and air passenger traffic worldwide would supplement fluorinated ethylene propylene market outlook in the forthcoming years.

FEP finds extensive applications in the chemical processing industry as well, owing to its properties like low coefficient of friction, desirable chemical resistance, and nonstick functionalities. Intensifying demand for advanced chemicals in the construction and oil & gas industry might fuel the demand for FEP in applications like gaskets, vessel liners, tubing, fluid handling systems, and valves.

Moreover, surging investment in research & development, increasing requirement for advanced materials in the automotive sector and rising adoption of nanotechnology are projected to propel FEP market share. Studies suggest that the global fluorinated ethylene propylene would record growth of over 6.5% from chemical processing applications over the estimated timeframe.

In terms of regional share, North America fluorinated ethylene propylene market is expected to witness considerable growth owing to rapid advancements in the renewable energy sector. The product is used in the manufacturing of solar cells due to its low weight, long life, weathering performance, and UV resistance. The advent of new government initiatives focused on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, increasing demand for self-sufficiency, and offering of subsidies on installation photovoltaic systems are anticipated to shape the growth trajectory for North America fluorinated ethylene propylene market growth.

It is vital to mention that the fluorinated ethylene propylene market is highly competitive, with companies like Daikin Industries, 3M, DowDuPont, Saint-Gobain, and Merck Millipore dominating the global industry. These firms are introducing new products to enhance their offering and attract new customers.

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Swarms of robots sweep the human body to fight cancer – Innovation Origins

§ May 22nd, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Swarms of robots sweep the human body to fight cancer – Innovation Origins

Research carried out by the German Max-Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (MPI-IS) resembles films like Innerspace and the sci-fi classic Fantastic Voyage (after a book by Isaac Asimov), in which scientists on board a minuscule pod make a journey through the human body in order to remove a brain tumor.

Just like in those films, MPI-IS has developed a microrobot that resembles a white blood cell or leukocyte in size, shape, and movement. According to the researchers, the microrobot should make it easier in the future to bring highly targeted medication to places in the body where it is most needed. The institutes research is centered on cancer cells. The study results were published last Wednesday in the renowned academic journal Science Robotics.

The researchers state that the microrobot has been tested in an artificial blood vessel in the laboratory. There it had to deal with roughly the same obstacles as in a real human body. The robot moves in a rolling motion much like a leukocyte. Which is why the researchers call it a microroller. The microrobot draws its energy from small magnetic coils.

White blood cells served as inspiration because they are the only mobile cells in the bloodstream. While out on patrol to places where pathogens have infiltrated, the white blood cells roll along the inner wall of the blood vessels. They then exit when they reach a wound, for example. Their ability to move is mainly due to the much lower flow rate along the inner walls of the blood vessels. The researchers have made use of this phenomenon in their robot.

Each microrobot has a diameter of almost eight micrometers and is made up of tiny glass particles. One side is covered with a thin layer of nickel and gold. The other side is covered with cancer medication and special molecules that can detect cancer cells.

With the help of magnetic fields, our microrobots can navigate upstream through a simulated blood vessel. Thats normally a real challenge owing to the powerful blood flow and the dense cellular environment. No microrobot has ever been able to withstand such a flow. But we did it! Whats more, our robots can recognize autonomously cells that are of interest to them, such as cancer cells. They can do this because weve coated them with antibodies. They can then release the drugs along the way, says fellow researcher Yunus Alapan.

He claims that the microrobot can reach a speed of up to 600 micrometers per second in the laboratory. Thats about 76 times its body length per second, making it the fastest magnetic micro-robot of its size.

That all sounds pretty amazing, but according to Max-Planck its still too early to start cheering. First of all, a real human body is something very different from a replicated circulatory system in the laboratory. Secondly, the robot can only carry a limited amount of medicine with it. Thats why the aim is that at some point in the future, microrobots will be able to venture out in swarms and deliver their cargo to the right place.

Incidentally, the main source of inspiration for the researchers was not the films Innerspace and Fantastic Voyage, but rather a world-famous lecture by Nobel Prize winner Richard Feynman entitled Theres Plenty of Room at the Bottom which took place in 1959.

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Swarms of robots sweep the human body to fight cancer - Innovation Origins

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Covid-19 Impact on Automated Microscopy Market : Volume, Analysis, Future Prediction, Industry Overview and Forecast 2024 : Asylum Research, Agilent…

§ May 20th, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Covid-19 Impact on Automated Microscopy Market : Volume, Analysis, Future Prediction, Industry Overview and Forecast 2024 : Asylum Research, Agilent…

Automated Microscopy Market (Product - Inverted Microscope, Fluorescence Microscope, Electron Microscope, Scanning Probe Microscope, and Optical Microscope; Application - Nanotechnology, Medical Diagnostics, Life Science Monitoring, Material Science, and Semiconductors): Global Industry Analysis, Trends, Market Size and Forecasts to 2024. The global automated microscopy market is projected to grow at a CAGR of 9.1% over the forecast period of 2018-2024.

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Pune, India -- (SBWIRE) -- 05/19/2020 -- Infinium Global Research has recently published a global report on "Automated Microscopy Market (Product - Inverted Microscope, Fluorescence Microscope, Electron Microscope, Scanning Probe Microscope, and Optical Microscope; Application - Nanotechnology, Medical Diagnostics, Life Science Monitoring, Material Science, and Semiconductors): Global Industry Analysis, Trends, Market Size and Forecasts to 2024." According to report, the global automated microscopy market is projected to grow at a CAGR of 9.1% over the forecast period of 2018-2024.

To Know More Request Sample of this Report@ https://www.infiniumglobalresearch.com/reports/sample-request/1460

Advancements in the Technologies

Automated microscopy is an advanced technology that uses advance-monitoring techniques such as atomic force microscopy called as AFM that enhances monitoring of biological specimen. Automated microscopy adjusts and determines the light shutter, wavelength selection, focus, and stage control. It also acts as the illumination source for live-cell imaging and software for live-cell imaging in an electromechanical way.

Automated microscopy gives accurate and automatic magnifying for investigating and understanding the subject and helps to reduce manual mistakes. Automated microscopy market finds widespread applications in semiconductors, surface study, life science, material science, diagnosis, genetic engineering.

Increasing Number of Biotech, Pharma, & Healthcare Companies Worldwide

The increasing number of applications along with the development of user-friendly and less complex microscope are driving the growth of the automated microscopy market. Additionally, government and industrial investment in inventing the automated microscope for nanotechnology are anticipated to boost the growth of the automated microscopy market.

However, high prices owing to more technical advances in the equipment's is the major restraint for the automated microscopy market over the forecast period. On the other hand, automated microscopy market is likely to be hampered by instrumentation complexities that have to be addressed before using automated microscopes. In addition, the increasing number of biotech, pharma, & healthcare companies worldwide are anticipated to bloom the market for automated microscopy.

"We are Now Including the Impact Analysis of the COVID-19 on this Premium Report and the Forecast Period of this Report Shall be Revised to 2020-2026. The Section on the Impact of COVID-19 on Automated Microscopy Market is Included in the Report for Free."

Asia Pacific Region to Contribute to Growth in the Global Automated Microscopy Industry

Asia Pacific accounted for the largest market share for the global automated microscopy market followed by North America. Infinium Global Research quoted that, the presence of a large number of manufacturers particularly in Japan and favorable government supports has led the dominance in the Asia Pacific regions.

Additionally, the growing investment in research and development and low labour cost are likely to hold the dominance of the Asia Pacific regional market over the forecast period. Cost-effective manufacturing of the devices, growing healthcare infrastructure and tremendous funding toward modern technologies are further accelerating the growth of the automated microscopy market.

Get this Section as a Free Customization in the Report Along With 30% Discount on the Study. https://www.infiniumglobalresearch.com/reports/customization/1460

"We Have Decided to Extend Our Support to the Industry on Account of Corona Outbreak by Offering Flat Discount 30% on All Our Studies and Evaluation of the Market Dynamics in Automated Microscopy Amidst COVID-19."

Automated Microscopy Market Coverage

Chapter - 1 Preface

=> Report Description

=> Research Methods

=> Research Approaches

Chapter - 2 Executive Summary

=> Automated Microscopy Market Highlights

=> Automated Microscopy Market Projection

=> Automated Microscopy Market Regional Highlights

Chapter - 3 Global Automated Microscopy Market Overview

=> Introduction

=> Market Dynamics

=> Porter's Five Forces Analysis

=> IGR-Growth Matrix Analysis

=> Value chain automated microscopy market

Chapter - 4 Automated Microscopy Market Macro Indicator Analysis

Chapter - 5 Global Automated Microscopy Market by Product

=> Inverted Microscope

=> Fluorescence Microscope

=> Electron Microscope

=> Scanning Probe Microscope

=> Optical Microscope

Chapter - 6 Global Automated Microscopy Market by Application

=> Nanotechnology

=> Medical Diagnostics

=> Life Science Monitoring

=> Material Science

=> Semiconductors

Chapter - 7 Global Automated Microscopy Market by Region 2018-2024

=> North America

=> Europe

=> Asia-Pacific

=> RoW

Chapter - 8 Company profiles and competitive landscape

=> Asylum Research

=> Agilent Technologies Inc.

=> Bruker Corporation

=> Carl Zeiss

=> FEI Company

=> Hitachi High Technologies Ltd

=> Nikon Corp

=> Olympus Corp

Chapter - 9 Appendix

=> Primary research findings and questionnaire

Browse Complete Report@ https://www.infiniumglobalresearch.com/industry-automation/global-automated-microscopy-market

About Infinium Global Research Infinium Global Research is a business consulting and market research firm; a group of experts that caters to fulfilling business and market research needs of leading companies in various industry verticals and business segments. The company also serves government bodies, institutes and non-profit/non-government organizations to meet their knowledge and information needs.

Through our information services and solutions, we assist our clients to improve their performance and assess the market conditions to achieve their organizational goals. Our team of experts and analysts are engaged in continuously monitoring and assessing the market conditions to provide the knowledge support to our clients. To help our clients and to stay updated with the advances and inventions in technology, business processes, regulations and environment, Infinium often conducts regular meets with industry experts and opinion leaders. Our key opinion leaders are involved in monitoring and assessing the progress in the business environment, so as to offer the best opinion to our clients.

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/covid-19-impact-on-automated-microscopy-market-volume-analysis-future-prediction-industry-overview-and-forecast-2024-asylum-research-agilent-technologies-inc-bruker-carl-zeiss-fei-company-hitachi-high-technologies-nikon-1291601.htm

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IU team pursues breathtaking regenerative medicine advances – fortworthbusiness.com

§ May 18th, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on IU team pursues breathtaking regenerative medicine advances – fortworthbusiness.com

By SAM STALL Indianapolis Business Journal INDIANAPOLIS (AP) A dime-size nanochip developed by a world-renowned researcher who recently relocated to Indianapolis could help transform the practice of medicine. It could also turn Indianapolis into a manufacturing and research hub for radically new disease and trauma treatment techniques.

It all began in August 2018, when Chandan Sen, one of the worlds leading experts in the nascent field of regenerative medicine, moved his lab from Ohio State University to the Indiana University School of Medicine. He brought along a team of about 30 researchers and $10 million in research grants, and now serves, among a myriad of other positions, as director of the newly formed Indiana Center for Regenerative Medicine and Engineering, to which IU pledged $20 million over its first five years. IU recruited Sen away from Ohio State in part because of its desire not just to promote academic research in his field but also to help develop practical, commercial products and uses for his breakthroughs. A scientist prefers to be in the lab and keep on making more discoveries, said Sen, 53. But I thought that, unless we participate in the workforce development process and the commercialization process, I dont think that the businesspeople would be ready to do it all by themselves. Because its such a nascent field.

Its definitely new and its potential sounds like the stuff of science fiction. Regenerative medicine, as its name hints, seeks to develop methods for replacing or reinvigorating damaged human organs, cells and tissues. For instance, instead of giving a diabetic a lifetimes worth of insulin injections, some of his skin cells could be altered to produce insulin, curing him. Such techniques might also be used for everything from creating lab-grown replacement organs to, someday, regenerating severed limbs. Regenerative medicine offers a form of medicine that is neither a pill nor a device, Sen said. It is a completely new platform, where you dont necessarily depend on any given drug, but are instead modifying bodily functions. Sen and his teams signal contribution to the field is a technique theyve dubbed tissue nanotransfection, or TNT. Put simply, it uses a nanotechnology-based chip infused with a special biological cargo that, when applied to the skin and given a brief electrical charge, can convert run-of-the-mill skin cells into other cell types. Potentially, the technique could be used for everything from regrowing blood vessels in burn-damaged tissue to creating insulin-secreting cells that could cure diabetics.

Obviously, such applications are still down the road a ways. But the technology is far enough along that some products are already making it to market and investors, entrepreneurs and established companies are sniffing around for opportunities. According to the Alliance for Regenerative Medicine, more than 1,000 clinical trials worldwide are using regenerative medicine technologies. Thousands of patients are already benefiting from early commercial products, and we expect that number will grow exponentially over the next few years, said Janet Lambert, the alliances CEO. Lambert predicts that the number of approved gene therapies will double in the next one to two years. Last year, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration predicted it would be approving 10 to 20 cell and gene therapies each year by 2025. These new techniques could do more than just revolutionize medicine. They could also upend the medical industry as we know it. And the IU School of Medicine and Indianapolis could lead the way. There are really only two or three places in the country that did the kind of comprehensive work that Dr. Sens group was doing, said Anantha Shekhar, executive associate dean for research at IU School of Medicine. And they were doing it from the lab all the way to the clinic, where they were already applying those technologies in patients.

So it was very attractive to think of starting with a bang bringing a comprehensive group here and creating a new center. Instead of merely treating chronic conditions, regenerative medicine could end them, once and for all. For instance, consider a car with an oil leak. The traditional medical approach might be to live with the chronic condition by pouring in a fresh quart of oil every few days. The regenerative medicine approach would fix the leak. Its good for the car, good for the cars owner but not necessarily good for the guy who was selling all those quarts of oil. Which is why these new techniques, if they catch on, could cause turmoil in the medical industry. Because regenerative medicine has the potential to durably treat the underlying cause of disease, rather than merely ameliorating the symptoms, this technology has the potential of being extremely disruptive to the current practice of medicine, Lambert said. This has the potential to be hugely disruptive, Sen added, because so much of medicine today relies on huge industrial infrastructures to manage, not cure, chronic diseases and disabilities.

If such disruption comes to pass, the leaders of 16 Tech, a 50-acre innovation district northwest of downtown that aspires to house dozens of medical-related startups and established firms, would love to be its epicenter. The Center for Regenerative Medicine will be one of the tenants of 16 Techs first building, a $30 million, 120,000-square-foot research and office building scheduled to open in June. Regenerative medicine is probably one of the next major waves of medical innovation in the world, 16 Tech CEO Bob Coy said. To have him here doing this work gives Indianapolis and Indiana an opportunity to develop an industrial cluster in regenerative medicine. Coy believes the most momentous early step on that road was the recent establishment by Sen of masters and doctoral programs in regenerative medicine at the IU School of Medicine. Its the first degree of its type in the country, earning IU and Indianapolis the enviable status of first mover. I think, for example, of (Pittsburghs) Carnegie Mellon University, which, back in the late 1960s, created the first college of computer science in the country, Coy said. And now you know Carnegie Mellons reputation in computer science. What isnt in place yet is a state or city program to promote development of a regenerative medicine hub.

We need to start doing that, Coy said. That means putting a lot of the infrastructure in place to support startups that are based on this technology, as well as recruiting companies that want to collaborate with Dr. Sen. In spite of the lack of a coherent recruitment program, Coys phone has started to ring, thanks largely to Sens presence. There have been a few meetings Ive had with people who already have relationships with him, who, when they come to town, have reached out to meet and talk about what were doing at 16 Tech, he said. One of the first 16 Tech startups with designs on the regenerative medicine niche is Sexton Biotechnologies. The company was groomed by Cook Regentec, a division of Bloomington-based Cook Group charged with incubating and accelerating technologies for regenerative medicine and the related field of cell gene therapy. Any products that show promise are either folded into the company, turned into their own divisions or, as in Sextons case, spun off as an independent entity with Cook retaining a financial stake.

Its a measure of the newness of this field that Sextons 17 employees arent working on new medicines, but rather marketing basic tools needed to conduct research. The companys offerings include a vial for storing cell and gene products in liquid nitrogen, and a cell culture growth medium. Theres a ready market for such tailor-made gear, because, for years, researchers in the regenerative medicine field had to make do with jury-rigged equipment. What most of those companies did was repurpose things like tools from the blood banking industry, or tools from bio pharma, said Sean Werner, Sextons president. So thats why a lot of newer companies are starting to build tools explicitly for the industry, as opposed to everybody just having to cobble together stuff that was already out there.

Werner said investors recognize the momentous opportunity in regenerative medicine and are flocking to the field. Its not something you have to explain, he said. Companies and VC groups are trying to get a piece of it. What has investors and medical researchers charged up is the almost unlimited range of potential applications, from healing burns to, perhaps someday, regenerating limbs. I think it would be a huge revolution if were able to, for example, regenerate insulin-secreting cells in children who have become juvenile diabetics or have for whatever reason lost their pancreas, Shekhar said. Those are the kinds of things that will start to change the way we see certain diseases. Lambert predicted that, as the science advances, so will the business case.

While early programs focused primarily on rare genetic diseases and blood cancers, were already seeing the field expand into more common age-related neurological disorders, such as Parkinsons and Alzheimers, she said. I expect this trend to continue in the coming years, greatly increasing the number of patients poised to benefit from these therapies. Werner said regenerative medicine also is seeking advancements in manufacturing technologies that will lower the cost of product development. It all adds up to a huge opportunity the state is well-positioned to seize, Werner believes. Indiana is a perfect place for this kind of thing to really ramp up, he said. Theres no reason we cant lead the field. __ Source: Indianapolis Business Journal

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Magnetic nanoparticles used to clarify white wine with less waste – New Atlas

§ May 11th, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Magnetic nanoparticles used to clarify white wine with less waste – New Atlas

Would you buy a cloudy white wine? Probably not, which is why vintners go to great lengths to clarify their product. Soon, they could do so more efficiently than ever, using newly created nanoparticles.

Ordinarily, white wines are commercially clarified via the use of powdered bentonite clay. Once added to the wine, the clay particles bond with suspended protein particles, causing both to settle to the bottom of the wine-making vessel. The now-clarified wine is subsequently poured off the top, leaving the sediment behind.

Unfortunately, though, the clay particles also absorb some of the wine in the process. According to scientists from the University of South Australia, this results in a loss of wine volume of about 3 percent, which translates into annual financial losses of approximately $100 million in Australia alone.

Led by Dr. Agnieszka Mierczynska-Vasilev, the researchers set out to develop a less wasteful alternative. They ultimately created magnetic nanoparticles that are coated with acrylic acid polymers, the latter of which bond with the unwanted protein particles in white wine. Instead of settling to the bottom, though, the protein-loaded nanoparticles are then removed simply by placing a magnet in the wine.

And what's more, they can be "regenerated" (cleaned up) and reused multiple times. In lab tests performed on unclarified 2017 Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon and Chardonnay, the nanoparticles were found to remove 98 percent of haze-forming proteins per treatment, and they did so consistently over the course of 10 consecutive treatments. There was reportedly no effect on the wines' color, aroma or other factors.

University of South Australia

"While there is still some way to go before the technology can be practically applied in wineries, and the need to obtain regulatory approval both in Australia and overseas, given the clear economic, sustainable and sensory benefits, this nanotechnology has a very strong potential for adoption," says Mierczynska-Vasilev.

A paper on the research was recently published in the journal Foods.

And this isn't the first time we've heard about magnetic nanoparticles being used to treat wine. Previously, scientists at Australia's University of Adelaide utilized them to remove chemical compounds known as alkylmethoxypyrazines, which can actually affect a wine's flavor and aroma.

Source: University of South Australia

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Journal of Nanotechnology | Hindawi

§ May 9th, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Journal of Nanotechnology | Hindawi

Research Article

28 Mar 2020

Development of Growth Theory for VaporLiquidSolid Nanowires: Wetting Scenario, Front Curvature, Growth Angle, Linear Tension, and Radial Instability

Valery A. Nebolsin|Nada Swaikat|Alexander Yu. Vorobev

In this paper, we report that under wetting conditions (or modes) of nanowire (NW) growth, when a nonplanar crystallization front emerges under a catalyst droplet, a shift in the three-phase line (TPL) of the vaporliquidcrystal interface occurs under thermodynamically stable conditions when the angle with respect to the droplet surface, termed the growth angle, is fixed. The growth angle of the NWs is determined not from a geometrical perspective but on the basis of the physical aspects of the processes occurring around the TPL, revealing a size dependence caused by the influence of linear tension of the three-phase contact of a vaporliquid crystal. The observed radial periodic instability of the NWs is described according to the size dependence of the thermodynamic growth angle, which induces negative feedback in the system. Under the influence of linear tension and positive feedback, the tips or needles of NWs can be formed.

Research Article

13 Feb 2020

Adsorption Capacities of Hygroscopic Materials Based on NaCl-TiO2 and NaCl-SiO2 Core/Shell Particles

Marie Bermeo|Nabil El Hadri|...|Mustapha Jouiad

Hygroscopic materials which possess high moisture adsorption capacity were successfully upgraded by the functionalization of sodium chloride (NaCl) using two nuances of oxides. A procedure was developed to first prepare submicron-sized NaCl crystals; thereafter, these crystals were coated by choice of either titanium dioxide (TiO2) or silica (SiO2) to enhance the hygroscopic properties of NaCl and prevent its premature deliquescence. After coating, several analytical techniques were employed to evaluate the obtained composite materials. Our findings revealed that both composites NaCl-TiO2 and NaCl-SiO2 gave excellent performances by exhibiting interesting hydrophilic properties, compared to the sole NaCl. This was demonstrated by both environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and water vapor adsorption experiments. In particular, NaCl-TiO2 composite showed the highest water adsorption capacity at low relative humidity and at a faster adsorption rate, induced by the high surface energy owing to the presence of TiO2. This result was also confirmed by the kinetics of adsorption, which revealed that not only does NaCl-TiO2 adsorb more water vapor than NaCl-SiO2 or sole NaCl but also the adsorption occurred at a much higher rate. While at room temperature and high relative humidity, the NaCl-SiO2 composite showed the best adsorption properties making it ideal to be used as a hygroscopic material, showing maximum adsorption performance compared to NaCl-TiO2 or sole NaCl. Therefore, NaCl-TiO2 and NaCl-SiO2 composites could be considered as promising hygroscopic materials and potential candidates to replace the existing salt seeding agents.

Research Article

24 Dec 2019

Highly Efficient Photocatalysis by Zinc Oxide-Reduced Graphene Oxide (ZnO-rGO) Composite Synthesized via One-Pot Room-Temperature Chemical Deposition Method

Roselle T. Ngaloy|Aixeen M. Fontanilla|...|Ian Jasper A. Agulo

We synthesized zinc oxide-reduced graphene oxide (ZnO-rGO) composites using a one-pot chemical deposition method at room temperature. Zinc powder and graphene oxide (GO) of different mass ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:5, 1:10, and 1:20 GO to Zn) were used as precursors in a mildly alkaline solution. UV-Vis spectroscopy was used to study the photocatalytic efficiency of the samples through the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB). UV-Vis measurements show the fast decomposition of methylene blue under UV light illumination with the best degradation efficiency of 97.7% within one hour, achieved with sample ZG2 (1 GO:2 Zn mass ratio). The corresponding degradation rate was kZG2=0.1253min1, which is at least 5.5 times better than other existing works using hydrothermal methods. We argue that the excellent photodegradation of MB by ZG2 is due to the efficient charge separation brought about by the electronic interaction of the rGO with the ZnO and the formation of a Zn-O-C bond, as supported by XRD and Raman spectroscopy measurements.

Research Article

13 Oct 2019

Thermoelectric Effect of Buckypaper/Copper Assembly

Paula Fabola Pantoja Pinheiro|Luiza de Marilac Pantoja Ferreira|...|Marcos Allan Leite dos Reis

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhibit excellent electrical and thermal properties that have been used in several device assemblies, such as electrode sheets made from an aggregate of CNTs, also called as buckypaper (BP). Despite that, the properties of single CNTs are reduced when randomly assembled to form a BP. In this way, this study investigated the thermoelectric effect of a BP electrode assembled on a copper electrode with an active area of 4.0cm2. The micrographs were obtained by scanning electron microscopy and show morphology agglomerated of multiwalled CNTs, which permeated into the filter paper, forming a thickness of 67.33m. Moreover, indoor/outdoor tests were performed approaching the BP electrode from a heat source. Thus, the electrical responses in function of temperature variation show maximum thermovoltages of 9.0mV and 40.73mV from indoor and outdoor tests, respectively. Finally, an average Seebeck coefficient for the BP/copper electrodes array of 35.346.0mV/K was estimated from 298 to 304K. These findings suggest that this assembly will be easily applied in thermoelectric device concepts.

Review Article

01 Jul 2019

Fluoride in Drinking Water and Nanotechnological Approaches for Eliminating Excess Fluoride

Ruwanthi W. Premathilaka|Nalinda D. Liyanagedera

Arising awareness of health hazards due to long-term exposure of fluoride has led researchers to seek for more innovative strategies to eliminate excess fluoride in drinking water. Fluoride-bearing chemicals in both natural and anthropogenic sources contaminate drinking water, which mainly cause for human fluoride ingestion. Hence, developing sustainable approaches toward alleviation is essential. Among many emerging techniques of defluoridation, nanotechnological approaches stand out owing to its high efficiency, and hence, as in many areas, nanotechnology for excess fluoride removal in water is gaining ground compared to other conventional adsorbents and process. The present review focuses on some of the advanced and recent nanoadsorbents including their strengths and shortcomings (e.g., CNT, LDH, graphene-based nanomaterials, and magnetic nanomaterials) and other processes involving nanotechnology while discussing basic aspects of hydrochemistry of fluoride and geological conditions leading for water fluoride contamination. Considering all the findings in survey, it is evident that developing more sustainable techniques is essential rather than conducting batch-type experiments solely.

Research Article

12 Jun 2019

Antagonistic Effects of Sublethal Concentrations of Certain Mixtures of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles and the Bulk (Al2O3, CuO, and SiO2) on Gill Histology in Clarias gariepinus

Amaeze Henry Nnamdi|Tam-Miette Dawarri Briggs|...|Henry Ebele Obanya

Background. The effect of nanoparticles (NPs) on aquatic environments is poorly studied. Aim. This study evaluates the toxicity of joint effects of these different metal nanoparticles and their bulk in mixtures (Al2O3, CuO, and SiO2) on fish using histological biomarker. Materials and Methods. The bulk and nano sizes of three salts (Al2O3, CuO, and SiO2) were used. Nanosizes ranged from 25nm to 100nm. The juvenile fishes of Clarias gariepinus (mean Length: 12.33.5cm; mean weight: 18.526.41g) were used for the acute and chronic toxicity tests. They were exposed to 7mg/L each of the bulk and nano sizes of the three metallic oxides either singly or in mixtures for 28 days. The basis for the sublethal concentration was that the 96hr acute toxicity of the varied sizes of the three metallic oxides was nontoxic up to the concentrations of 100mg/L with no significant mortality at the highest exposure concentrations. The gills were collected for histopathology. Results. Of the three metal oxide nanoparticles, SiO was the most toxic, with histopathological alteration index (HAI) of 20.0, followed by nano-CuO (HAI, 10.0) and nano-Al2O3 (HAI, 2.0). In single exposure, the gill alterations include high frequencies of erosion of gill lamella (EGL), hypertrophy (HPT), oedema (OD), and necrosis (N). Less damage was observed at the combination of the metal oxide nanoparticles of SiO+Al2O3, SiO+CuO and SiO+Al2O3+CuO in equal (1:1HAI, 2 and 6; 1:1:1HAI, 6) and unequal ratios (1:2HAI, 16 and 6; 2:1HAI, 8 and 6). Similarly, all bulk combinations were also antagonistic except for the equal ratio of bulk CuO (HAI, 20) and bulk Al2O3 (HAI, 10) that gave additive effect with HAI of 32. Conclusion. The joint actions of nano Al2O3 and CuO with SiO produced a low toxic effect, unlike the high toxicity of their single trials; this also indicates that nano Al2O3 and CuO are antagonists. Similarly, among the bulk metal oxides (SiO, Al2O3, and CuO), CuO was the most toxic. Bulk SiO and Al2O3 are antagonistic on the effects of CuO on the fish gill. There is need to properly document the ecological implications of nanoparticles in the aquatic environment.

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Journal of Nanotechnology | Hindawi

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IU team pursuing breathtaking advancements in regenerative medicine – Indianapolis Business Journal

§ May 9th, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on IU team pursuing breathtaking advancements in regenerative medicine – Indianapolis Business Journal

The Indiana University School of Medicine established itself as a leader in regenerative medicine when it recruited Chandan Sen away from Ohio State University in 2018. (Photo courtesy of the IU School ofMedicine)

A dime-size nanochip developed by a world-renowned researcher who recently relocated to Indianapolis could help transform the practice of medicine. It could also turn Indianapolis into a manufacturing and research hub for radically new disease and trauma treatment techniques.

It all began in August 2018, when Chandan Sen, one of the worlds leading experts in the nascent field of regenerative medicine, moved his lab from Ohio State University to the Indiana University School of Medicine. He brought along a team of about 30 researchers and $10 million in research grants, and now serves, among a myriad of other positions, as director of the newly formed Indiana Center for Regenerative Medicine and Engineering, to which IU pledged $20 million over its first five years.

IU recruited Sen away from Ohio State in part because of its desire not just to promote academic research in his field but also to help develop practical, commercial products and uses for hisbreakthroughs.

A scientist prefers to be in the lab and keep on making more discoveries, said Sen, 53.

But I thought that, unless we participate in the workforce development process and the commercialization process, I dont think that the businesspeople would be ready to do it all by themselves. Because its such a nascentfield.

Its definitely newand its potential sounds like the stuff of science fiction.

Regenerative medicine, as its name hints, seeks to develop methods for replacing or reinvigorating damaged human organs, cells and tissues.

For instance, instead of giving a diabetic a lifetimes worth of insulin injections, some of his skin cells could be altered to produce insulin, curing him. Such techniques might also be used for everything from creating lab-grown replacement organs to, someday, regenerating severed limbs.

Regenerative medicine offers a form of medicine that is neither a pill nor a device, Sen said.

It is a completely new platform, where you dont necessarily depend on any given drug, but are instead modifying bodily functions.

A big, tiny breakthrough

Lambert

Sen and his teams signal contribution to the field is a technique theyve dubbed tissue nanotransfection, or TNT. Put simply, it uses a nanotechnology-based chip infused with a special biological cargo that, when applied to the skin and given a brief electrical charge, can convert run-of-the-mill skin cells into other cell types. Potentially, the technique could be used for everything from regrowing blood vessels in burn-damaged tissue to creating insulin-secreting cells that could cure diabetics.

Obviously, such applications are still down the road a ways. But the technology is far enough along that some products are already making it to marketand investors, entrepreneurs and established companies are sniffing around for opportunities. According to the Alliance for Regenerative Medicine, more than 1,000 clinical trials worldwide are using regenerative medicine technologies.

Thousands of patients are already benefiting from early commercial products, and we expect that number will grow exponentially over the next few years, said Janet Lambert, the alliances CEO.

Lambert predicts that the number of approved gene therapies will double in the next one to two years. Last year, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration predicted it would be approving 10 to 20 cell and gene therapies each year by2025.

Shekhar

These new techniques could do more than just revolutionize medicine. They could also upend the medical industry as we know it. And the IU School of Medicineand Indianapoliscould lead the way.

There are really only two or three places in the country that did the kind of comprehensive work that Dr. Sens group was doing, said Anantha Shekhar, executive associate dean for research at IU School of Medicine. And they were doing it from the lab all the way to the clinic, where they were already applying those technologies in patients.

So it was very attractive to think of starting with a bangbringing a comprehensive group here and creating a new center.

Ambitious goals

Instead of merely treating chronic conditions, regenerative medicine could end them, once and for all.

For instance, consider a car with an oil leak. The traditional medical approach might be to live with the chronic condition by pouring in a fresh quart of oil every few days. The regenerative medicine approach would fix the leak. Its good for the car, good for the cars owner but not necessarily good for the guy who was selling all those quarts of oil.

Which is why these new techniques, if they catch on, could cause turmoil in the medical industry.

Because regenerative medicine has the potential to durably treat the underlying cause of disease, rather than merely ameliorating the symptoms, this technology has the potential of being extremely disruptive to the current practice of medicine, Lambert said.

This has the potential to be hugely disruptive, Sen added, because so much of medicine today relies on huge industrial infrastructures to manage, not cure, chronic diseases and disabilities.

Coy

If such disruption comes to pass, the leaders of 16 Tech, a 50-acre innovation district northwest of downtown that aspires to house dozens of medical-related startups and established firms, would love to be its epicenter.

The Center for Regenerative Medicine will be one of the tenants of 16 Techs first building, a $30million, 120,000-square-foot research and office building scheduled to open in June.

Regenerative medicine is probably one of the next major waves of medical innovation in the world, 16 Tech CEO Bob Coy said. To have him here doing this work gives Indianapolis and Indiana an opportunity to develop an industrial cluster in regenerative medicine.

Coy believes the most momentous early step on that road was the recent establishment by Sen of masters and doctoral programs in regenerative medicine at the IU School of Medicine. Its the first degree of its type in the country, earning IU and Indianapolis the enviable status of first mover.

I think, for example, of [Pittsburghs] Carnegie Mellon University, which, back in the late 1960s, created the first college of computer science in the country, Coy said. And now you know Carnegie Mellons reputation in computerscience.

What isnt in place yet is a state or city program to promote development of a regenerative medicine hub.

We need to start doing that, Coy said. That means putting a lot of the infrastructure in place to support startups that are based on this technology, as well as recruiting companies that want to collaborate with Dr. Sen.

In spite of the lack of a coherent recruitment program, Coys phone has started to ring, thanks largely to Sens presence.

There have been a few meetings Ive had with people who already have relationships with him, who, when they come to town, have reached out to meet and talk about what were doing at 16 Tech, he said.

Fueling entrepreneurship

One of the first 16 Tech startups with designs on the regenerative medicine niche is Sexton Biotechnologies.

The company was groomed by Cook Regentec, a division of Bloomington-based Cook Group charged with incubating and accelerating technologies for regenerative medicine and the related field of cell genetherapy.

Any products that show promise are either folded into the company, turned into their own divisions or, as in Sextons case, spun off as an independent entity with Cook retaining a financial stake.

Werner

Its a measure of the newness of this field that Sextons 17 employees arent working on new medicines, but rather marketing basic tools needed to conduct research. The companys offerings include a vial for storing cell and gene products in liquid nitrogen, and a cell culture growth medium.

Theres a ready market for such tailor-made gear, because, for years, researchers in the regenerative medicine field had to make do with jury-rigged equipment.

What most of those companies did was repurpose things like tools from the blood banking industry, or tools from bio pharma, said Sean Werner, Sextons president.

So thats why a lot of newer companies are starting to build tools explicitly for the industry, as opposed to everybody just having to cobble together stuff that was already out there.

Werner said investors recognize the momentous opportunity in regenerative medicine and are flocking to the field.

Its not something you have to explain, he said. Companies and VC groups are trying to get a piece of it.

What has investors and medical researchers charged up is the almost unlimited range of potential applications, from healing burns to, perhaps someday, regenerating limbs.

I think it would be a huge revolution if were able to, for example, regenerate insulin-secreting cells in children who have become juvenile diabetics or have for whatever reason lost their pancreas, Shekhar said. Those are the kinds of things that will start to change the way we see certain diseases.

Lambert predicted that, as the science advances, so will the business case.

While early programs focused primarily on rare genetic diseases and blood cancers, were already seeing the field expand into more common age-related neurological disorders, such as Parkinsons and Alzheimers, shesaid.

I expect this trend to continue in the coming years, greatly increasing the number of patients poised to benefit from these therapies.

Werner said regenerative medicine also is seeking advancements in manufacturing technologies that will lower the cost of product development.

It all adds up to a huge opportunity the state is well-positioned to seize, Wernerbelieves.

Indiana is a perfect place for this kind of thing to really ramp up, he said. Theres no reason we cant lead thefield.

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Light-powered CO2 fixation in a chloroplast mimic with natural and synthetic parts – Science Magazine

§ May 9th, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Light-powered CO2 fixation in a chloroplast mimic with natural and synthetic parts – Science Magazine

Hybrid approach catches light

Plant chloroplasts enclose two major photosynthetic processes: light reactions, which generate the energy carriers adenosine triphosphate and reduced nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), and dark reactions, which use these molecules to fix carbon dioxide and build biomass. Miller et al. appropriated natural components, thylakoid membranes from spinach, for the light reactions and showed that these could be coupled to a synthetic enzymatic cycle that fixes carbon dioxide within water-in-oil droplets. The composition of the droplets could be tuned and optimized and the metabolic activity monitored in real time by NADPH fluorescence (see the Perspective by Gaut and Adamala). These chloroplast-mimicking droplets bring together natural and synthetic components in a small space and are amenable to further functionalization to perform complex biosynthetic tasks.

Science, this issue p. 649; see also p. 587

Nature integrates complex biosynthetic and energy-converting tasks within compartments such as chloroplasts and mitochondria. Chloroplasts convert light into chemical energy, driving carbon dioxide fixation. We used microfluidics to develop a chloroplast mimic by encapsulating and operating photosynthetic membranes in cell-sized droplets. These droplets can be energized by light to power enzymes or enzyme cascades and analyzed for their catalytic properties in multiplex and real time. We demonstrate how these microdroplets can be programmed and controlled by adjusting internal compositions and by using light as an external trigger. We showcase the capability of our platform by integrating the crotonylcoenzyme A (CoA)/ethylmalonyl-CoA/hydroxybutyryl-CoA (CETCH) cycle, a synthetic network for carbon dioxide conversion, to create an artificial photosynthetic system that interfaces the natural and the synthetic biological worlds.

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Light-powered CO2 fixation in a chloroplast mimic with natural and synthetic parts - Science Magazine

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Iron-Based Material has the Ability to Power Small Devices – AZoNano

§ May 7th, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Journal Comments Off on Iron-Based Material has the Ability to Power Small Devices – AZoNano

Image Credit: science photo / Shutterstock.com

If adeviceis small enough to be powered, with corresponding small energy demands, there is the possibility of providing it with energy without the use of batteries and wires via what would ordinarily be considered waste energyheat.

Research into the generation of electricity from heatthermoelectric generationhas sofar centered around the Seebeck effect, a significantly limited phenomenon that allows the build-up of an electric potential across a temperature gradient.

Alternative new research from the University of Tokyo Institute for Solid State Physics and Department of Physics, published in the journal Nature, suggests employing a less well-known phenomenon to perform the same task, the Anomalous Nernst Effect (ANE).

The teams research is founded upon the use of a mostly iron-based material thin enough to be molded into various forms. The beauty of a thermoelectric generator made from this material is the elements non-toxic nature, cheapness, and abundance.

In theNature paper, the team from the University of Tokyo led by Research Associate Akito Sakai, and Professor Ryotaro Arita, discuss the use of a process called dopingthe intentional addition of impurities to a semiconductor to adjust its electrical, optical, or structural propertiesto create a material that is 75% iron, and 25% aluminum or gallium.

The flexible film-like material has applicability to devices with small energy requirements, such as wearable technology and remote sensors. Wearable remote sensors are currently a heavily researched area of technology due to the advantages they provide in medical science, both for clinical trials and the treatment of patients.

The company MC10 is just one of a wide range of biotech suppliers marketing products that would greatly benefit from the use of thin thermoelectric generators. The companys BioStamp Research Connect systemone of the first wearable bioelectric tattooscollects physiological information such as vital signs, posture, and activity from a patient and delivers it to doctors and researchers via a cloud-based storage software.

Conducting clinical studies with wearable or remote biosensors and mobile health platforms enables researchers to obtain a detailed, real-world understanding of the patients physiology, behavior, and response to treatment. Thinner, more flexible thermoelectric generators could serve to make this technology more discrete and less-intrusive,allowing researchers to obtain a more accurate picture of a patients behavior.

A cheaper material reducing overall production costs would, in turn, make wider studies more feasible for clinical trials, as well as allowing doctors to remotely monitor more patients than ever before.

This is not the first time that the team from the University of Tokyo has experimented with ANE-based generators. Thematerials previously used have been difficult to source and are prohibitively expensive.

The team has been aware for some time thatto reap the benefits of an ANE-based generatornamely large-area and flexible coverage of a heat-sourcesignificant improvements to the system had to be made in both the materials performance and itssafety and stability.

The researchers say that the use ofiron-based film-like material significantly boosts the effectiveness of ANE, producing an astounding twenty-time increase in the voltage perpendicular to the direction of a temperature gradient across the surface of the material.

The result is thin and more flexible materials that harvest energy rather than relying on heavy and chunky batteries. The resultant generators are also more efficient at energy harvest than generators based upon the Seeback effect. This could potentially result in thermoelectric technology supplying power to devices in locations and with applications where a battery would be deeply impractical.

The ANE effect arises from what is known as the Berry curvature of the electrons near to a value of energy referred to as the Fermi energy. The team used computer simulations to design a large Berry curvature which pointed them to the right doping concentrations for the ideal material for their requirements.

The teams research has mostly focused on computer simulations and numerical calculations,which reduced the need for time-consuming and expensive repeated experimentation.

Click here for more information on nanotechnology equipment.

The advantage of using computer simulations is that it allows the researchers to switch between various materials and compositions to find the best mix for their needs. They were also able to significantly cut down the amount of time that materials scientists would usually spend analyzing electronic structures called nodal webs by starting from the first principles established by quantum mechanics.

Essentially this means that the material created by the team is not the only revolutionary aspect of the teams researchthe numerical methods and computational techniques they have pioneered replace previous methods that have been prohibitively difficult to undertake. Thus, the team has developed a framework that can be used by other scientists to develop materials specially adapted to specific requirements.

Sakai, A., Minami, S., Koretsune, T., et al., [2020], Iron-based binary ferromagnets for transverse thermoelectric conversion, Nature, [https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2230-z].

Kalali, A., Richerson, S., Ouzunova, E., et al., [2019], Digital Biomarkers in Clinical Drug Development, Handbook of Behavioral Neuroscience, Volume 29, Pages 229238, [https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-803161-2.00016-3].

Disclaimer: The views expressed here are those of the author expressed in their private capacity and do not necessarily represent the views of AZoM.com Limited T/A AZoNetwork the owner and operator of this website. This disclaimer forms part of the Terms and conditions of use of this website.

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