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Quantum Biofeedback | EDUCTOR Biofeedback in West …

§ October 13th, 2021 § Filed under Quantum Medicine Comments Off on Quantum Biofeedback | EDUCTOR Biofeedback in West …

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Well, My computer broke down and it wont even turn on.. I went around and around trying to figure out how to reinstall the system , get a new computer ,ect. andI contacted a few other people and I was still in a quandary. Without recognition from the past , Jake immediately made me a priority in helping me solve this problem. It wasnt only his expertise that I was so impressed with but his willingness to do what ever it took to solve the issue and it wasnt a simple task at all.

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I am so impressed with the service, the quality and the selflessness this man gave to me. Thank you, Jake. I am one of your greatest fans. Jenna

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The future of neuroimaging is lit: PET-based technique aids better live visualization – EurekAlert

§ October 13th, 2021 § Filed under Quantum Medicine Comments Off on The future of neuroimaging is lit: PET-based technique aids better live visualization – EurekAlert

Novel neuroimaging technique using bacterial enzymes and corresponding inhibitors could help better visualize brain circuitry at the molecular level

image:(upper) Pathological progress of tau deposition; (lower, left panel) Schematic representation of tau oligomerization by reporter fragments; (lower, right panel) Representative image of tau assembly in cell models (fluorescence) and mouse brain (PET). view more

Credit: Masafumi Shimojo from National Institutes for Quantum Science and Technology

Imagine the ability to monitor brain activity at the molecular level in real-time! The possible scientific and medical applications are endless. Recent advancements in neuroscience have achieved this milestone, but current strategies still require some polishing. This can be attributed to several shortcomings of existing techniqueshigh light scattering, narrow field of observation, surgically invasive manipulations to set up imaging, among others, which could potentially disrupt the molecular system under observation.

In this regard, a group of scientists led by Dr. Makoto Higuchi, Head of the Department of Functional Brain Imaging at the National Institutes for Quantum Science and Technology (QST), Japan, and senior researcher Dr. Masafumi Shimojo of the same department appear to have identified a blanket solution to all these neuroimaging problems. They have developed a positron emission tomography (PET)-based neuroimaging technique that uses the bacterial enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (ecDHFR), and its unique antagonist, trimethoprim (TMP) to facilitate in vivo imaging in the brain. Their breakthrough findings have been published as a research article in The EMBO Journal (DOI:

Accordingly, the PET-based neuroimaging technique allows the live visualization of brain circuitry at the molecular level, without the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The team of scientists, which in addition to Drs. Higuchi and Shimojo also comprised Dr. Ming-Rong Zhang of Department of Radiopharmaceuticals Development, QST, Dr. Yutaka Tomita of Department of Neurology, Keio University School of Medicine, and Dr. Anton Maximov of Department of Neuroscience, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, among others, meticulously determined the components required for successful live brain imaging.

Firstly, they genetically manipulated neuronal cells in brains of living mice to express ecDHFR. Parallelly, they prepared a concoction of TMP tagged with a fluorophore (a fluorescent chemical that emits light upon excitation with light) called HEX, and radioisotope labeled TMP derivative, [18F]fluoroethoxy-TMP. Then, they intravenously injected the concoction into the living mice, and allowed it to penetrate the BBB. Finally, they performed live imaging of brain regions using two-photon microscopy to confirm their results.

Though their study is a success, Dr. Shimojo believes there is scope for further perfecting the technique. In this regard, he says, At this stage, substantial continuous effort will still be necessary to overcome the challenges in terms of safety, cost-effectiveness, and ethics, although recent advances in the design of viral tools for non-invasive gene delivery will make it feasible to eventually apply these reporters to biomedical PET imaging of human brains. Currently, they are hard at work addressing all the possible issues.

However, the results are still exciting. Particularly, the finding that this technique allows visualization of undetectable tau protein assemblies, the hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimers, during the early stages of their aggregation could be invaluable for neurodegenerative disease research. Speaking about the clinical potential of their findings, Dr. Higuchi explains, not without excitement, Along with the recent advances in gene therapy and regenerative medicine, genetic reporter imaging could become a principal pillar of future biomedical applications. In a few studies, HSV1-tk reporter imaging was indeed tested to track a tumor or infused cytolytic CD8+ T cells in human patients, highlighting the feasibility and advantage of genetic reporter imaging for future clinical applications.

Indeed, these findings do create hope for illuminated probing of the intricacies of the enigmatic brain and may herald a paradigm shift in neuroscience research.


About National Institutes for Quantum Science and Technology, Japan

The National Institutes for Quantum Science and Technology (QST) was established in April 2016 to promote quantum science and technology in a comprehensive and integrated manner. The new organization was formed from the merger of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) with certain operations that were previously undertaken by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA).

QSTs mission is to raise the level of quantum and radiological sciences and technologies through its commitment to research and development into quantum science and technology, the effect of radiation on humans, radiation emergency medicine, and the medical use of radiation.

To ensure that research and development delivers significant academic, social and economic impacts, and to maximize benefits from global innovation, QST is striving to establish world-leading research and development platforms, explore new fields, and serve as a center for radiation protection and radiation emergency medicine.


About Dr. Makoto Higuchi from National Institutes for Quantum Science and Technology, Japan

Dr. Makoto Higuchi is the Deputy Director of the Department of Functional Brain Imaging, at the National Institutes for Quantum Science and Technology, Japan. He also serves as the Group Leader, Brain Disorder Translation Research Group of the Institute. He has a license in Medicine and a PhD in Medicine from Tohoku University, and over two decades of research experience in neuroscience, physiology, neuroimaging, brain function, and translational neuroscience. He has authored over 370 research articles in national and international journals of repute and cited over 11,000 times.

About Dr. Masafumi Shimojo from National Institutes for Quantum Science and Technology, Japan

Dr. Masafumi Shimojo is a senior researcher at the Department of Functional Brain Imaging, at the National Institutes for Quantum Science and Technology, Japan. Dr. Shimojo has over 7 years of experience in the field of neuroimaging. His primary research interests include molecular and cellular neuroscience, physiology, neuroimaging, brain function, and translational neuroscience. He has authored over 20 research publications in journals of international reputation.

Funding information

This study was financially supported in part by JST CREST Grant Number JPMJCR1652; AMED Grant Number JP19dm0207072, and JP19dm0107146; and JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 18H04752 and 18K07777.

Media contact:

Public Relations Section

Department of Management and Planning, QST

Tel: +81-43-206-3026 Email:

A genetically targeted reporter for PET imaging of deep neuronal circuits in mammalian brains

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The best way to win a Nobel is to get nominated by another laureate – The Economist

§ October 13th, 2021 § Filed under Quantum Medicine Comments Off on The best way to win a Nobel is to get nominated by another laureate – The Economist

Oct 9th 2021

THE NOBEL prizes, whose winners are announced this month (see Science), may be the worlds most coveted awards. As soon as a new crop of laureates is named, critics start comparing the victors achievements with those of previous winners, reigniting debates over past snubs.

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A full account of why, say, Stephen Hawking was passed over will have to wait until 2068: the Nobel Foundations rules prevent disclosure about the selection process for 50 years. But once this statute of limitations ends, the foundation reveals who offered nominations, and whom they endorsed. Its data start in 1901 and end in 1953 for medicine; 1966 for physics, chemistry and literature; and 1967 for peace. (The economics prize was first awarded in 1969.)

Nomination lists do not explain omissions like Leo Tolstoy (who got 19 nominations) or Mahatma Gandhi (who got 12). But they do show that in 1901-66, Nobel voters handed out awards more in the style of a private members club than of a survey of expert opinion. Whereas candidates with lots of nominations often fell short, those with the right backerslike Albert Einstein or other laureatesfared better.

The bar to a Nobel nomination is low. For the peace prize, public officials, jurists and the like submit names to a committee, chosen by Norways parliament, that picks the winner. For the others, Swedish academies solicit names from thousands of people, mostly professors, and hold a vote for the laureate. On average, 55 nominations per year were filed for each prize in 1901-66.

Historically, voters paid little heed to consensus among nominators. In literature and medicine, the candidate with the most nominations won just 11% and 12% of the time; in peace and chemistry, the rates were 23% and 26%. Only in physics, at 42%, did nomination leaders have a big advantage. In 1956 Ramn Menndez Pidal, a linguist and historian, got 60% of nominations for the literature prize, but still lost.

However, voters did make one group of nominators happy: current and future laureates. Candidates put forward by past victors went on to win at some point in the future 40% more often than did those whose nominators never won a Nobel. People whose nominators became laureates later on also won unusually often. This implies that being accomplished enough to merit future Nobel consideration was sufficient to gain extra influence over voters.

In theory, this imbalance could simply reflect laureates nominating stronger candidates. However, at least one Nobel winner seems to have boosted his nominees chances, rather than merely naming superstars who would have won anyway.

According to the Nobel Foundations online archive, all 11 of Einsteins nominees won a prize. Some were already famous, like Max Planck; others, like Walther Bothe, were lesser-known. In two cases, his support seems to have been decisive.

In 1940 Einstein supported Otto Stern, a physicist who had already had 60 nominations. Stern won the next time the prize was given. Similarly, Wolfgang Pauli, whose exclusion principle is central to quantum mechanics, had received 20 nominations before Einstein backed him in 1945. He got his prize that same year.

Source: Nobel Foundation

This article appeared in the Graphic detail section of the print edition under the headline "Noblesse oblige"

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Spin quantum number – Wikipedia

§ October 5th, 2021 § Filed under Quantum Medicine Comments Off on Spin quantum number – Wikipedia

Quantum number parameterizing spin and angular momentum

In atomic physics, the spin quantum number is a quantum number (designated ms) which describes the intrinsic angular momentum (or spin angular momentum, or simply spin) of an electron or other particle. The phrase was originally used to describe the fourth of a set of quantum numbers (the principal quantum number n, the azimuthal quantum number l, the magnetic quantum number m, and the spin quantum number ms), which completely describe the quantum state of an electron in an atom. The name comes from a physical spinning of the electron about an axis, as proposed by Uhlenbeck and Goudsmit. The value of ms is the component of spin angular momentum parallel to a given direction (the zaxis), which can be either +1/2 or 1/2 (in units of the reduced Planck constant).

However this simplistic picture was quickly realized to be physically impossible because it would require the electrons to rotate faster than the speed of light.[1] It was therefore replaced by a more abstract quantum-mechanical description. This description technically involves two spin quantum numbers ms and s, where s is related to the magnitude of the electron spin. However s is always +1/2 for an electron, so it is not necessary to include its value in the set of quantum numbers describing the state of each electron in an atom.

At an elementary level, ms is described as the spin quantum number,[2][3] and s is not mentioned since its value 1/2 is a fixed property of the electron. At a more advanced level where quantum mechanical operators are introduced, s is referred to as the spin quantum number, and ms is described as the spin magnetic quantum number[4] or as the z-component of spin sz.[5]

Early attempts to explain the behavior of electrons in atoms focused on solving the Schrdinger wave equation for the hydrogen atom, the simplest possible case, with a single electron bound to the atomic nucleus. This was successful in explaining many features of atomic spectra.

The solutions required each possible state of the electron to be described by three "quantum numbers". These were identified as, respectively, the electron "shell" number n, the "orbital" number l, and the "orbital angular momentum" number m. Angular momentum is a so-called "classical" concept measuring the momentum[citation needed] of a mass in circular motion about a point. The shell numbers start at 1 and increase indefinitely. Each shell of number n contains n orbitals. Each orbital is characterized by its number l, where l takes integer values from 0 to n1, and its angular momentum number m, where m takes integer values from +l to l. By means of a variety of approximations and extensions, physicists were able to extend their work on hydrogen to more complex atoms containing many electrons.

Atomic spectra measure radiation absorbed or emitted by electrons "jumping" from one "state" to another, where a state is represented by values of n, l, and m. The so-called "Transition rule" limits what "jumps" are possible. In general, a jump or "transition" is allowed only if all three numbers change in the process. This is because a transition will be able to cause the emission or absorption of electromagnetic radiation only if it involves a change in the electromagnetic dipole of the atom.

However, it was recognized in the early years of quantum mechanics that atomic spectra measured in an external magnetic field (see Zeeman effect) cannot be predicted with just n, l, and m.

In January 1925, when Ralph Kronig was still a Columbia University PhD student, he first proposed electron spin after hearing Wolfgang Pauli in Tbingen. Werner Heisenberg and Pauli immediately hated the idea. They had just ruled out all imaginable actions from quantum mechanics. Now Kronig was proposing to set the electron rotating in space. Pauli especially ridiculed the idea of spin, saying that "it is indeed very clever but of course has nothing to do with reality". Faced with such criticism, Kronig decided not to publish his theory and the idea of electron spin had to wait for others to take the credit.[6] Ralph Kronig had come up with the idea of electron spin several months before George Uhlenbeck and Samuel Goudsmit. Most textbooks credit these two Dutch physicists with the discovery.

Pauli subsequently proposed (also in 1925) a new quantum degree of freedom (or quantum number) with two possible values, in order to resolve inconsistencies between observed molecular spectra and the developing theory of quantum mechanics.

Shortly thereafter Uhlenbeck and Goudsmit identified Pauli's new degree of freedom as electron spin.

A spin-1/2 particle is characterized by an angular momentum quantum number for spin s of 1/2. In solutions of the Schrdinger-Pauli equation, angular momentum is quantized according to this number, so that total spin angular momentum

The hydrogen spectrum fine structure is observed as a doublet corresponding to two possibilities for the z-component of the angular momentum, where for any given directionz:

whose solution has only two possible z-components for the electron. In the electron, the two different spin orientations are sometimes called "spin-up" or "spin-down".

The spin property of an electron would give rise to magnetic moment, which was a requisite for the fourth quantum number. The electron spin magnetic moment is given by the formula:


and by the equation:

where B {displaystyle mu _{rm {B}}} is the Bohr magneton.

When atoms have even numbers of electrons the spin of each electron in each orbital has opposing orientation to that of its immediate neighbor(s). However, many atoms have an odd number of electrons or an arrangement of electrons in which there is an unequal number of "spin-up" and "spin-down" orientations. These atoms or electrons are said to have unpaired spins that are detected in electron spin resonance.

When lines of the hydrogen spectrum are examined at very high resolution, they are found to be closely spaced doublets. This splitting is called fine structure, and was one of the first experimental evidences for electron spin. The direct observation of the electron's intrinsic angular momentum was achieved in the SternGerlach experiment.

The theory of spatial quantization of the spin moment of the momentum of electrons of atoms situated in the magnetic field needed to be proved experimentally. In 1920 (two years before the theoretical description of the spin was created) Otto Stern and Walter Gerlach observed it in the experiment they conducted.

Silver atoms were evaporated using an electric furnace in a vacuum. Using thin slits, the atoms were guided into a flat beam and the beam sent through an in-homogeneous magnetic field before colliding with a metallic plate. The laws of classical physics predict that the collection of condensed silver atoms on the plate should form a thin solid line in the same shape as the original beam. However, the in-homogeneous magnetic field caused the beam to split in two separate directions, creating two lines on the metallic plate.

The phenomenon can be explained with the spatial quantization of the spin moment of momentum. In atoms the electrons are paired such that one spins upward and one downward, neutralizing the effect of their spin on the action of the atom as a whole. But in the valence shell of silver atoms, there is a single electron whose spin remains unbalanced.

The unbalanced spin creates spin magnetic moment, making the electron act like a very small magnet. As the atoms pass through the in-homogeneous magnetic field, the force moment in the magnetic field influences the electron's dipole until its position matches the direction of the stronger field. The atom would then be pulled toward or away from the stronger magnetic field a specific amount, depending on the value of the valence electron's spin. When the spin of the electron is +1/2 the atom moves away from the stronger field, and when the spin is 1/2 the atom moves toward it. Thus the beam of silver atoms is split while traveling through the in-homogeneous magnetic field, according to the spin of each atom's valence electron.

In 1927 Phipps and Taylor conducted a similar experiment, using atoms of hydrogen with similar results. Later scientists conducted experiments using other atoms that have only one electron in their valence shell: (copper, gold, sodium, potassium). Every time there were two lines formed on the metallic plate.

The atomic nucleus also may have spin, but protons and neutrons are much heavier than electrons (about 1836 times), and the magnetic dipole moment is inversely proportional to the mass. So the nuclear magnetic dipole momentum is much smaller than that of the whole atom. This small magnetic dipole was later measured by Stern, Frisch and Easterman.

For atoms or molecules with an unpaired electron, transitions in a magnetic field can also be observed in which only the spin quantum number changes, without change in the electron orbital or the other quantum numbers. This is the method of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) or electron spin resonance (ESR), used to study free radicals. Since only the magnetic interaction of the spin changes, the energy change is much smaller than for transitions between orbitals, and the spectra are observed in the microwave region.

For a solution of either the nonrelativistic Pauli equation or the relativistic Dirac equation, the quantized angular momentum (see angular momentum quantum number) can be written as:


Given an arbitrary directionz (usually determined by an external magnetic field) the spin z-projection is given by

where ms is the secondary spin quantum number, ranging from s to +s in steps of one. This generates 2s + 1 different values of ms.

The allowed values for s are non-negative integers or half-integers. Fermions have half-integer values, including the electron, proton and neutron which all have s = 1/2. Bosons such as the photon and all mesons) have integer spin values.

The algebraic theory of spin is a carbon copy of the angular momentum in quantum mechanics theory. First of all, spin satisfies the fundamental commutation relation:

where i j k {displaystyle epsilon _{ijk}} is the (antisymmetric) Levi-Civita symbol. This means that it is impossible to know two coordinates of the spin at the same time because of the restriction of the uncertainty principle.

Next, the eigenvectors of S 2 {displaystyle S^{2}} and S z {displaystyle S_{z}} satisfy:

where S = S x i S y {displaystyle S_{pm }=S_{x}pm iS_{y}} are the creation and annihilation (or "raising" and "lowering" or "up" and "down") operators.

In 1928, Paul Dirac developed a relativistic wave equation, now termed the Dirac equation, which predicted the spin magnetic moment correctly, and at the same time treated the electron as a point-like particle. Solving the Dirac equation for the energy levels of an electron in the hydrogen atom, all four quantum numbers including s occurred naturally and agreed well with experiment.

For some atoms the spins of several unpaired electrons (s1, s2, ...) are coupled to form a total spin quantum number S.[7][8] This occurs especially in light atoms (or in molecules formed only of light atoms) when spin-orbit coupling is weak compared to the coupling between spins or the coupling between orbital angular momenta, a situation known as LS coupling because L and S are constants of motion. Here L is the total orbital angular momentum quantum number.[8]

For atoms with a well-defined S, the multiplicity of a state is defined as (2S+1). This is equal to the number of different possible values of the total (orbital plus spin) angular momentum J for a given (L, S) combination, provided that S L (the typical case). For example, if S = 1, there are three states which form a triplet. The eigenvalues of Sz for these three states are +1, 0 and -1.[7] The term symbol of an atomic state indicates its values of L, S, and J.

As examples, the ground states of both the oxygen atom and the dioxygen molecule have two unpaired electrons and are therefore triplet states. The atomic state is described by the term symbol 3P, and the molecular state by the term symbol 3 g.

Atomic nuclei also have spins and orbital angular momenta. The nuclear spin I is a fixed property of each nucleus and may be either an integer or a half-integer. The component mI the nuclear spin parallel to the zaxis) can have (2I + 1) values I, I1, ..., I. For example, a 14N nucleus has I = 1, so that there are 3 possible orientations relative to the zaxis, corresponding to states mI = +1, 0 and -1.[9]

The spins I of different nuclei are interpreted using the nuclear shell model. Even-even nuclei with even numbers of both protons and neutrons, such as 12C and 16O, have spin zero. Odd mass number nuclei have half-integral spins, such as 3/2 for 7Li, 1/2 for 13C and 5/2 for 17O, usually corresponding to the angular momentum of the last nucleon added. Odd-odd nuclei with odd numbers of both protons and neutrons have integral spins, such as 3 for 10B and 1 for 14N.[10] Values of nuclear spin for a given isotope are found in the lists of isotopes for each element. (See Isotopes of oxygen, Isotopes of aluminium, etc. etc.)

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Two Argonne scientists awarded DOE funding for quantum …

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The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has awarded funding to two scientists at its Argonne National Laboratory to advance research in quantum information science: David Awschalom and Oleg Poluektov.

The DOE awards support the development of quantum-smart devices and quantum computing technology, next-generation tools that can solve todays most pressing challenges, including in national security, novel material development and logistics.

Quantum science represents the next technological revolution and frontier in the Information Age, and America stands at the forefront, said U.S. Secretary of Energy Jennifer M. Granholm. At DOE, were investing in the fundamental research, led by universities and our national labs, that will enhance our resiliency in the face of growing cyber threats and climate disasters, paving the path to a cleaner, more secure future.

Awschalom, an Argonne senior scientist, received the award to further the science needed to develop a metropolitan-scale quantum information network analogous to the internet without the need for quantum repeater technologies. Quantum repeaters retransmit a signal that would otherwise weaken before reaching its destination in a quantum network.

Using a three-node fiber network in Chicagoland as a testbed for transferring quantum information, Awschaloms project is to develop repeaterless quantum networking technologies and protocols under real-world conditions, including multinode quantum networking, synchronizing different types of quantum nodes and distributing quantum entanglement (a property of subatomic particles).

The metropolitan-scale repeaterless technology and fiber-network protocol development complement the chip-scale quantum technologies and repeater protocols being developed within Q-NEXT, a DOE National Quantum Information Science Research Center led by Argonne.

Im pleased to receive this award, which allows us to explore the science that underlies future game-changing quantum communication technologies, said Awschalom, who is also the director of Q-NEXT; the University of Chicago Liew Family professor in molecular engineering and physics and Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering vice dean for research and infrastructure; and the director of the Chicago Quantum Exchange. We are at the cusp of a revolution in quantum science, and discoveries we make here will have far-reaching impacts, leading to breakthroughs in areas as diverse as finance and medicine and even beyond what we can imagine.

Argonne senior chemist Oleg Poluektov received his award to understand how quantum effects influence solar energy conversion processes in nature. The study focuses on the effects of coherence,which refers to how long and how strongly a particular quantum state persists.

Scientists know that certain types of coherence electronic and vibronic are involved in the transport of light energy in photosynthetic proteins, which help convert the light into energy. Now Poluektov is investigating whether a third type, spin coherence, is also involved.

Spin is a property of all subatomic particles, including electrons. The spins of two electrons can become entangled inseparably correlated. The longer the spins maintain their entangled state, the greater their spin coherence. Spin entanglement is a key factor in birds inner compasses, enabling them to navigate the globe. Might it be a factor in photosynthetic processes?

Poluektov will investigate how spin coherence contributes to the efficiency of photosynthetic solar energy conversion. He will also identify the mechanisms nature uses for preserving spin entanglement in photosynthesis.

Im grateful to have been chosen for this award, Poluektov said. We expect that the results from this work will contribute to the design of future artificial solar energy conversion systems. Its one example of how a better understanding of the quantum realm could have profound impacts on energy conservation.

The DOE award for quantum information science research totals $73 million and will be distributed to 29 recipients.

This work is supported by the DOEs Office of Science.

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Bose-Einstein condensate | state of matter | Britannica

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Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), a state of matter in which separate atoms or subatomic particles, cooled to near absolute zero (0 K, 273.15 C, or 459.67 F; K = kelvin), coalesce into a single quantum mechanical entitythat is, one that can be described by a wave functionon a near-macroscopic scale. This form of matter was predicted in 1924 by Albert Einstein on the basis of the quantum formulations of the Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose.

Although it had been predicted for decades, the first atomic BEC was made only in 1995, when Eric Cornell and Carl Wieman of JILA, a research institution jointly operated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Colorado at Boulder, cooled a gas of rubidium atoms to 1.7 107 K above absolute zero. Along with Wolfgang Ketterle of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), who created a BEC with sodium atoms, these researchers received the 2001 Nobel Prize for Physics. Research on BECs has expanded the understanding of quantum physics and has led to the discovery of new physical effects.

BEC theory traces back to 1924, when Bose considered how groups of photons behave. Photons belong to one of the two great classes of elementary or submicroscopic particles defined by whether their quantum spin is a nonnegative integer (0, 1, 2, ) or an odd half integer (1/2, 3/2, ). The former type, called bosons, includes photons, whose spin is 1. The latter type, called fermions, includes electrons, whose spin is 1/2.

As Bose noted, the two classes behave differently (see Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics). According to the Pauli exclusion principle, fermions tend to avoid each other, for which reason each electron in a group occupies a separate quantum state (indicated by different quantum numbers, such as the electrons energy). In contrast, an unlimited number of bosons can have the same energy state and share a single quantum state.

Einstein soon extended Boses work to show that at extremely low temperatures bosonic atoms with even spins would coalesce into a shared quantum state at the lowest available energy. The requisite methods to produce temperatures low enough to test Einsteins prediction did not become attainable, however, until the 1990s. One of the breakthroughs depended on the novel technique of laser cooling and trapping, in which the radiation pressure of a laser beam cools and localizes atoms by slowing them down. (For this work, French physicist Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and American physicists Steven Chu and William D. Phillips shared the 1997 Nobel Prize for Physics.) The second breakthrough depended on improvements in magnetic confinement in order to hold the atoms in place without a material container. Using these techniques, Cornell and Wieman succeeded in merging about 2,000 individual atoms into a superatom, a condensate large enough to observe with a microscope, that displayed distinct quantum properties. As Wieman described the achievement, We brought it to an almost human scale. We can poke it and prod it and look at this stuff in a way no one has been able to before.

BECs are related to two remarkable low-temperature phenomena: superfluidity, in which each of the helium isotopes 3He and 4He forms a liquid that flows with zero friction; and superconductivity, in which electrons move through a material with zero electrical resistance. 4He atoms are bosons, and although 3He atoms and electrons are fermions, they can also undergo Bose condensation if they pair up with opposite spins to form bosonlike states with zero net spin. In 2003 Deborah Jin and her colleagues at JILA used paired fermions to create the first atomic fermionic condensate.

BEC research has yielded new atomic and optical physics, such as the atom laser Ketterle demonstrated in 1996. A conventional light laser emits a beam of coherent photons; they are all exactly in phase and can be focused to an extremely small, bright spot. Similarly, an atom laser produces a coherent beam of atoms that can be focused at high intensity. Potential applications include more-accurate atomic clocks and enhanced techniques to make electronic chips, or integrated circuits.

The most intriguing property of BECs is that they can slow down light. In 1998 Lene Hau of Harvard University and her colleagues slowed light traveling through a BEC from its speed in vacuum of 3 108 metres per second to a mere 17 metres per second, or about 38 miles per hour. Since then, Hau and others have completely halted and stored a light pulse within a BEC, later releasing the light unchanged or sending it to a second BEC. These manipulations hold promise for new types of light-based telecommunications, optical storage of data, and quantum computing, though the low-temperature requirements of BECs offer practical difficulties.

laser: Research tool

state of matter, called a Bose-Einstein condensate, and they earned Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, and William D. Phillips the 1997 Nobel Prize for Physics.

superfluidity: Theoretical explanation of superfluidity

T0, a phenomenon known as Bose condensation; below T0 a finite fraction of all the atoms occupy a single state, normally that of lowest energy, and this fraction increases toward one as the temperature falls toward absolute zero. These atoms are said to be condensed. It is widely believed that

atomic physics

a superfluid known as a Bose-Einstein condensation, while remaining in the form of a dilute gas. In this new state of matter, all the atoms are in the same coherent quantum state. As a consequence, the atoms lose their individual identities, and their quantum mechanical wavelike properties become dominant. The

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Storing medical information below the skins surface | MIT …

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Editors note: This article has been updated to clarify that this research was developed to help avoid preventable deaths in parts of the world where paper or digital systems for storing patients vaccination records arent available. Many vaccines require multiple doses spaced out at certain intervals; without accurate records, people may not receive all of the necessary doses. The method is still in an experimental stage and is not being used for any current vaccinations, including Covid-19 vaccines.

Every year, a lack of vaccination leads to about 1.5 million preventable deaths, primarily in developing nations. One factor that makes vaccination campaigns in those nations more difficult is that there is little infrastructure for storing medical records, so theres often no easy way to determine who needs a particular vaccine.

MIT researchers have now developed a novel way to record a patients vaccination history: storing the data in a pattern of dye, invisible to the naked eye, that is delivered under the skin at the same time as the vaccine.

In areas where paper vaccination cards are often lost or do not exist at all, and electronic databases are unheard of, this technology could enable the rapid and anonymous detection of patient vaccination history to ensure that every child is vaccinated, says Kevin McHugh, a former MIT postdoc who is now an assistant professor of bioengineering at Rice University.

The researchers showed that their new dye, which consists of nanocrystals called quantum dots, can remain for at least five years under the skin, where it emits near-infrared light that can be detected by a specially equipped smartphone.

McHugh and former visiting scientist Lihong Jing are the lead authors of the study, which appears today in Science Translational Medicine. Ana Jaklenec, a research scientist at MITs Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, and Robert Langer, the David H. Koch Institute Professor at MIT, are the senior authors of the paper.

An invisible record

Several years ago, the MIT team set out to devise a method for recording vaccination information in a way that doesnt require a centralized database or other infrastructure. Many vaccines, such as the vaccine for measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), require multiple doses spaced out at certain intervals; without accurate records, children may not receive all of the necessary doses.

In order to be protected against most pathogens, one needs multiple vaccinations, Jaklenec says. In some areas in the developing world, it can be very challenging to do this, as there is a lack of data about who has been vaccinated and whether they need additional shots or not.

To create an on-patient, decentralized medical record, the researchers developed a new type of copper-based quantum dots, which emit light in the near-infrared spectrum. The dots are only about 4 nanometers in diameter, but they are encapsulated in biocompatible microparticles that form spheres about 20 microns in diameter. This encapsulation allows the dye to remain in place, under the skin, after being injected.

The researchers designed their dye to be delivered by a microneedle patch rather than a traditional syringe and needle. Such patches are now being developed to deliver vaccines for measles, rubella, and other diseases, and the researchers showed that their dye could be easily incorporated into these patches.

The microneedles used in this study are made from a mixture of dissolvable sugar and a polymer called PVA, as well as the quantum-dot dye and the vaccine. When the patch is applied to the skin, the microneedles, which are 1.5 millimeters long, partially dissolve, releasing their payload within about two minutes.

By selectively loading microparticles into microneedles, the patches deliver a pattern in the skin that is invisible to the naked eye but can be scanned with a smartphone that has the infrared filter removed. The patch can be customized to imprint different patterns that correspond to the type of vaccine delivered.

Its possible someday that this invisible approach could create new possibilities for data storage, biosensing, and vaccine applications that could improve how medical care is provided, particularly in the developing world, Langer says.

Effective immunization

Tests using human cadaver skin showed that the quantum-dot patterns could be detected by smartphone cameras after up to five years of simulated sun exposure.

The researchers also tested this vaccination strategy in rats, using microneedle patches that delivered the quantum dots along with a polio vaccine. They found that those rats generated an immune response similar to the response of rats that received a traditional injected polio vaccine.

This study confirmed that incorporating the vaccine with the dye in the microneedle patches did not affect the efficacy of the vaccine or our ability to detect the dye, Jaklenec says.

The researchers now plan to survey health care workers in developing nations in Africa to get input on the best way to implement this type of vaccination record keeping. They are also working on expanding the amount of data that can be encoded in a single pattern, allowing them to include information such as the date of vaccine administration and the lot number of the vaccine batch.

The researchers believe the quantum dots are safe to use in this way because they are encapsulated in a biocompatible polymer, but they plan to do further safety studies before testing them in patients.

Storage, access, and control of medical records is an important topic with many possible approaches, says Mark Prausnitz, chair of chemical and biomolecular engineering at Georgia Tech, who was not involved in the research. This study presents a novel approach where the medical record is stored and controlled by the patient within the patients skin in a minimally invasive and elegant way.

The research was funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Koch Institute Support (core) Grant from the National Cancer Institute. Other authors of the paper include Sean Severt, Mache Cruz, Morteza Sarmadi, Hapuarachchige Surangi Jayawardena, Collin Perkinson, Fridrik Larusson, Sviatlana Rose, Stephanie Tomasic, Tyler Graf, Stephany Tzeng, James Sugarman, Daniel Vlasic, Matthew Peters, Nels Peterson, Lowell Wood, Wen Tang, Jihyeon Yeom, Joe Collins, Philip Welkhoff, Ari Karchin, Megan Tse, Mingyuan Gao, and Moungi Bawendi.

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Physics Today Jobs

§ October 5th, 2021 § Filed under Quantum Medicine Comments Off on Physics Today Jobs

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*Applications reviewed on a rolling basis.

The Department of Energys Building Technologies Office (BTO) is now accepting applications for an Efficient and Healthy Schools Fellow.

What will I be doing? As a member of the team, you will both learn how to:

Why should I apply? You will collaborate with DOE, ED, and EPA federal employees, contractors, patriating schools, school districts, state energy and education offices and other stake holders on technical and techno-economic analyses and develop short-term and long-term quantitative goals for BTO.

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Japan-born Syukuro Manabe among three winners of Nobel Prize in physics – The Japan Times

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Syukuro Manabe of the U.S. and Japan, Klaus Hasselmann of Germany and Giorgio Parisi of Italy on Tuesday won the Nobel Prize in physics for work related to climate models and the understanding of physical systems, the jury said.

Syukuro Manabe and Klaus Hasselmann laid the foundation of our knowledge of the Earths climate and how humanity influences it. Giorgio Parisi is rewarded for his revolutionary contributions to the theory of disordered materials and random processes, the jury said.

Manabe, a meteorologist at Princeton University, was born in 1931 in Ehime Prefecture and later studied at the University of Tokyo before moving to the U.S., where he holds citizenship.

Manabe demonstrated how increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere lead to increased temperatures at the surface of the Earth, the Nobel committee said. In the 1960s, he led the development of physical models of the Earths climate and was the first person to explore the interaction between radiation balance and the vertical transport of air masses. His work laid the foundation for the development of current climate models.

Syukuro Manabe is interviewed in 2017. | KYODO

The second Nobel of the season came after the medicine prize on Monday went to U.S. duo David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian for discoveries on receptors for temperature and touch.

Nobel-watchers had earlier seen several people as possible contenders for the award.

Frances Alain Aspect had been mentioned for years as a potential laureate for his research into quantum entanglement, possibly with Anton Zeilinger of Austria and John Clauser of the U.S. Quantum entanglement is a phenomenon in which the quantum states of two or more particles or molecules share one or more properties such as spin, polarization or momentum. The effect persists even if you move one of the entangled objects far away from the other, and actions performed on one affects the other.

Einstein described the theory, launched in the 1930s, as spooky because of the instantaneousness of the remote interaction. In experiments conducted in France in the early 1980s, Aspect demonstrated the theory in practice for the first time, also proving Einstein partially wrong on the subject.

Observers had also said physicists who paved the way for quantum computing and cryptography could also be under consideration for the prize, with Americans Charles Bennett and Peter Shor and Canadas Gilles Brassard mentioned.

The holy grail of information technology, the quantum computer can process complex information at a mind-boggling speed and should eventually vastly outperform even the most powerful of todays conventional computers.

Britains John Pendry had also been seen as a contender for what has been dubbed an invisibility cloak. He published an idea for the concept in 2006, which made use of metamaterials to bend light around an object, rendering it in effect invisible.His original idea has spread to many more applications, ranging from acoustic cloaking to cloaking buildings from earthquakes.

Mexican-British researcher Carlos Frenk, Canadian-Argentinian Julio Navarro and German-Briton Simon White were also seen as possibilities for their research into the formation and evolution of galaxies, cosmic structures and dark matter halos.

Last year, the physics prize went to Roger Penrose of Britain, Reinhard Genzel of Germany and Andrea Ghez of the U.S., three pioneers in the field of black holes, from which nothing, not even light, can escape.

The medicine prize kicked off the 2021 Nobel season on Monday, going to Julius and Patapoutian for breakthroughs that paved the way for the treatment of chronic pain.

Hungarys Katalin Kariko and Drew Weissman of the U.S. who pioneered the technology behind the mRNA vaccines against COVID-19 and who were among the favorites for Mondays medicine prize could have a shot at the chemistry prize announced on Wednesday.

The two most closely watched prizes, for literature and peace, will follow on Thursday and Friday.

For literature, it remains to be seen whether the Swedish Academy will fulfill its promise of greater diversity by picking a non-Westerner for the first time in a decade.

As for peace, the field appears wide open this year, with organizations defending freedom of the press, Belarus opposition leaders and climate campaigners all seen as possible winners.

The economics prize will wrap things up on Monday.

In a time of both misinformation and too much information, quality journalism is more crucial than ever. By subscribing, you can help us get the story right.

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Why New-Age Healing Is This Years Buzziest Wellness Trend – British Vogue

§ October 5th, 2021 § Filed under Quantum Medicine Comments Off on Why New-Age Healing Is This Years Buzziest Wellness Trend – British Vogue

Crystals are perhaps the most accessible gateway to mystical enlightenment, something to physically cling on to when times get tough. Psychic Sisters saw a 50 per cent increase in sales of crystals during the pandemic at its Selfridges outpost. Were wearing rocks, too: Net-a-Porter reports that in addition to chunks of celestine, amethyst and smoky quartz geode crystals from New York-based brand JiaJia selling out (at about 200 a pop), its sapphire necklaces (about 500) have seen surging sales. Meanwhile, TBalances crystal bracelets, which come in sets with energising beaded slogans, have repeatedly sold out since its October launch with the retailer.

A healing crystal hut is among the star attractions at Bamfords revamped spa in the Cotswolds. This September also saw the launch of a new wellness facial that utilises a crystal gua sha tool to support lymphatic flow and reduce puffiness, alongside sound baths and massages that employ jade and amethyst. Bamfords septuagenarian founder Carole Bamford has been using crystals for decades, having first learnt about their healing properties on a trip to India aged 20. I originally went for three months to study meditation, she recalls. It wasnt for spiritual reasons it was The Beatles that made me go. She sleeps with a rose quartz on her bedside table to promote love. I dont want people to think Im woo-woo, because Im not. But I really believe in instinct, gut feeling. Lots of people can understand that. The pandemic has made many people realise that we do need to take a different approach.

Yasmin Sewell, a former fashion buyer, has placed energy amplification at the heart of her new business. Australia-born, London-based Sewell has practised yoga, reiki and integrative quantum medicine, a form of energy healing, since her early twenties, and says her career in fashion was guided by intuition. Still, she had always felt obliged to keep her spiritual side under wraps. I was born pretty woo-woo, but Ive always been hyper-aware that some people are not into it, she smiles. Sewell launched Vyrao, a wellness brand, in May, with five fragrances created by British perfumer Lyn Harris using plant and flower remedies. Each bottle comes with its own supercharged Herkimer diamond crystal. I think fragrance is a potent tool for wellbeing, it can really shift the way you feel, she explains. Customers have been receptive the gift set of mini bottles sold out straightaway at the Selfridges launch pop-up, and Free and Witchy Woo are the current bestselling scents.

Can clutching a stick of quartz or partaking in a weekly sound bath change your life? Obviously not. But ritualising your daily routine can prove a coping mechanism in times of uncertainty. All of this is just us finding tools to feel better. Simple as that, says Sewell. Whatever works for you. Next on my to-do list: researching French doors.

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Two Indian American Women Researchers Win 2022 New Horizons ‘Oscars of Science’ Prize in Physics – India West

§ October 5th, 2021 § Filed under Quantum Medicine Comments Off on Two Indian American Women Researchers Win 2022 New Horizons ‘Oscars of Science’ Prize in Physics – India West

Indian Americans Vedika Khemani, assistant professor of physics at Stanford University, and California Institute of Technology Astronomy Professor Mansi Kasliwalhave each been named recipients of the New Horizons in Physics prize from the Breakthrough Prize Foundation.

The prize is nicknamed the Oscars of Science. The Breakthrough Prize Foundations sponsors include Sergey Brin, co-founder of Google; Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg and his wife Priscilla Chan; Russian-Israeli entrepreneurs and venture capitalists Yuri and Julia Milner; and Anne Wojcicki, CEO of the personal genomics company 23andMe.

Two Indian researchers from the University of Cambridge in England also won this years prize. Sir Shankar Balasubramanian, in theDepartment of Chemistryat theUniversity of Cambridge, was honored with the Life Sciences prize for developing next generation sequencing technologies, which allowed for immediate identification and characterization of the Covid-19 virus, rapid development of vaccines, and real-time monitoring of new genetic variants.

Before their inventions, re-sequencing a full human genome could take many months and cost millions of dollars; today, it can be done within a day at the cost of around $600. This resulted in a revolution in biology, enabling the revelation of unsuspected genetic diversity with major implications from cell and microbiome biology to ecology, forensics and personalized medicine, noted the Breakthrough Prize Foundation in a press statement.

Balasubramaniam was knighted in 2017.

Suchitra Sebastian, a condensed matter physicist at Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, received a New Horizons Prize in Physics for her work with high precision electronic and magnetic measurements that have profoundly changed our understanding of high temperature superconductors and unconventional insulators, according to a press release.

According to a press release issued by Stanford, time crystals, like all crystals, are structurally arranged in a repeating pattern. But, while standard crystals like diamonds or salt have an arrangement that repeats in space, time crystals repeat across time forever. Importantly, they do so without any input of energy, like a clock that runs forever without batteries.

Khemanis work offered a theoretical formulation for the first-time crystals, as well as a blueprint for their experimental creation. But she emphasized that time crystals are only one of the exciting potential outcomes of out-of-equilibrium quantum physics, which is still a nascent field, noted Stanford.

The researcher described her work as creating a checklist of what actually makes a time crystal a time crystal, and the measurements needed to experimentally establish its existence, both under ideal and realistic conditions.

Khemani sees great promise in these types of quantum experiments for physics. While many of these efforts are broadly motivated by the quest to build quantum computers which may only be achievable in the distant future, if at all these devices are also, and immediately, useful when viewed as experimental platforms for probing new non-equilibrium regimes in many-body physics, she said, in a press release issued by Stanford.

None of the world is in equilibrium; just look out your window, right? Were starting to see into these vastly larger spaces of how quantum systems evolve through experiments, said Khemani, who is on the faculty in the School of Humanities and Sciences and a member of Q-Farm, Stanfords broad interdisciplinary initiative in quantum science and engineering.

Im very excited to see what kinds of new physics these new regimes will bring. Time crystals are one example of something new we could get, but I think its just the beginning, she said.

In 2017, Kasliwal and her fellow researchers Gregg Hallinan, Alessandra Corsi, and Raffaella Margutti, helped make history with their observations of the first-ever cosmic event to be witnessed in both gravitational waves and electromagnetic, or light, waves.

The event, called GW170817, began when two dense stellar remnants, called neutron stars, spiraled together and collided, creating a storm of ripples in space and time, or gravitational waves, that traveled outward in all directions. Some of those waves ultimately reached Earth, where the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory detected their signatures, according to a CalTech press release.

Just seconds after the gravitational waves were produced, the neutron star collision resulted in an explosion of matter, as well as light spanning the electromagnetic spectrum, ranging from high-energy gamma rays to low-energy radio waves.

Kasliwal's team was one of the first to observe the collision in visible and infrared light, using the Global Relay of Observatories Watching Transients Happen project, a worldwide network of telescopes that specializes in catching short-lived energetic events such as this. The GROWTH team put together a picture of a cocoon breaking out to explain the rich multi-wavelength dataset.

"Pursuing astrophysics to unlock mysteries of our universe is truly a dream job for mea passion converted into a profession in a dynamic field where the book is actively being written. Discovering where and how the elements in our periodic table are synthesized is exhilarating, said Kasliwal.

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Hagler Institute for Advanced Study Announces 10th Class of Fellows – Texas A&M University Today

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Texas A&Ms Hagler Institute brings renowned scholars and researchers to campus to collaborate with students and faculty.

TheHagler Institute for Advanced Studyat Texas A&M University announced eight Hagler Fellows for its Class of 2021-22, including a recipient of the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics.

This 10th class in the Hagler Institutes history includes scientists, engineers and scholars who are recognized internationally for their achievements. Each belongs to the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine, or hold recognitions of equal stature in their fields.

Every year for the last decade, the Hagler Institute has enhanced the Texas A&M research community through its exceptional ability to consistently attract the worlds brightest minds to our campus, Texas A&M University System Chancellor John Sharp said. Combined with the Chancellors Research Initiative, the Hagler Institute also persuades many of these National Academy-level researchers to join our own illustrious and permanent faculty.

The fellows will collaborate with faculty, researchers and students in the colleges of agriculture and life sciences, engineering, medicine and science; Texas A&M AgriLife Research; and the Institute for Quantum Science and Engineering.

Congratulations to the Hagler Institute for recruiting an outstanding new class of fellows for its 10th anniversary, Texas A&M Interim Vice President for Research Jack Baldauf said. We look forward to the collaboration of these renowned scholars with our own outstanding faculty members, researchers and students.

The institute selects its Hagler Fellows from among top scholars who have distinguished themselves through outstanding professional accomplishments or significant recognition. Previous classes of Hagler Fellows have included two Nobel laureates, a Wolf Prize recipient, a recipient of the Hubble Medal in Literature for Lifetime Achievement, a recipient of the National Medal of Science, an awardee of the National Medal of Technology and Innovation, a two-time recipient of the State Prize of Russia and a recipient of both the National Humanities Medal and the Johan Skytte Prize, the most prestigious award in political science.

We expect this remarkable 10th class of Hagler Fellows to have a productive and enduring impact on our faculty, our students and on the culture of the Texas A&M campus, Founding Director John L. Junkins of the Hagler Institute said. Since 2012, the Hagler Institute has now attracted 88 outstanding scientists, engineers and scholars to enhance our research community.

The Hagler Institute plans to induct the following Class of 2021-22 Hagler Fellows during its annual gala in early 2022:

About the Hagler Institute for Advanced Study:The Hagler Institute for Advanced Study was established in December 2010 by The Texas A&M University System Board of Regents to build on the growing academic reputation of Texas A&M and to provide a framework to attract top scholars from throughout the nation and abroad for appointments of up to a year. The selection of Hagler Fellows initiates with faculty nominations of National Academies and Nobel Prize-caliber scholars who align with existing strengths and ambitions of the University.

About Research at Texas A&M University: As one of the worlds leading research institutions, Texas A&M is at the forefront in making significant contributions to scholarship and discovery, including science and technology. Research conducted at Texas A&M generated annual expenditures of more than $1.131 billion in fiscal year 2020. Texas A&M ranked in the top 25 of the most recent National Science Foundation Higher Education Research and Development survey based on expenditures of more than $952 million in fiscal year 2019. Texas A&Ms research creates new knowledge that provides basic, fundamental, and applied contributions resulting in economic benefits to the state, nation, and world.

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The top candidates for the Nobel battle | GP – DealMakerz

§ October 5th, 2021 § Filed under Quantum Medicine Comments Off on The top candidates for the Nobel battle | GP – DealMakerz

The award winners will be announced this week starting Monday when Karolinska Institutet reveals who will receive the award in medicine/physiology. Then the Academy of Sciences announces the winners in Physics (Tuesday) and Chemistry (Wednesday).

People often sigh a little when they hear about prices, which is a normal reaction since these are usually complex phenomena.

The highest sigh is usually reserved for a physics award, especially when it comes to particle physics and you have to master advanced mathematics to fully understand what the award winners have done. It becomes increasingly popular if the award goes to space research, as happened last year when the main topic was black holes.

This year, however, it is doubtful whether there will be space again. There are many indications that it would have to do with quantum physics or quantum mechanics, the physics that describe extremely small systems, such as atomic nuclei and elementary particles something that is difficult for most of us to understand. It doesnt usually help to have someone stand in front of the podium and show with cinnamon buns or golf balls how it all works.

According to the analysis firm Clarivate, one of the most famous candidates is Russian-American physics professor Alexei Kitaev, who is generally described as one of the most prominent physicists of our time. Among other things, he developed error-resistant computers but not ordinary computers but so-called quantum computers.

Another potential physics prize winner is Italian Giorgio Baresi, who made groundbreaking discoveries in so-called quantum chromodynamics a system that describes how the smallest building blocks of matter, quarks, bind together into protons and neutrons, which in turn build atoms. nuclei

See also Israelis over 60 years of age are given the third dose of the vaccine - Dajin

The third potential winner is Anglo-American Mark EJ Newman, known for his research on complex networks. His methods have been used in fields as diverse as biology, economics, politics, and sociology.

The lightest substance, for most people, is usually chemistry at least outwardly although even here it can sometimes be difficult to understand. Last year, the chemistry prize got a lot of attention when French Emmanuelle Charpentier and American Jennifer were rewarded for discovering the so-called Crispr/Cas9 genetic scissors, a molecular mechanism borrowed from certain bacteria and archaea that makes this possible. To make drastic changes in DNA.

Its doubtful whether this years award could be high, but the nominee is Briton Barry Halliwell for his award-winning research on so-called free radicals molecules that can attack the bodys cell walls and their impact on our health.

American William L Jorgensen was also mentioned as a potential chemistry prize winner. He pioneered the so-called computational chemistry where computer simulations are used to solve chemical problems.

The third candidate is Katalin Kariko from Hungary. She is one of the researchers behind the mRNA technology used to produce some vaccines against covid-19.

Usually the most popular award is the one in medicine/physiology because we are naturally very interested in how our bodies work, what diseases we can suffer from and how the latter can be treated. This does not mean that the topic is not complicated. The experts at the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet who name the winners often refer to the way our cells talk to other cells, a complex and sometimes difficult area to understand.

See also Analysis: Voting on Cheney's Future Proves Trump's Impact on Republicans

One of my favorites this year, according to Clarivate, is Frenchman Jean-Pierre Changux, who has achieved exceptional results with his research on neuronal receptors in the body, part of the molecular machinery that enables our cells to communicate with each other.

Carl M. Johnson, USA, and Wang Lee, South Korea, are also potential winners, in their case for the discovery of hantavirus, a dangerous group of viruses spread by small rodents and can cause fatal hemorrhagic fever. The infection is spread through the urine and feces of rodents. The virus family is found worldwide in Sweden it causes swine fever but the deadly variants are found mainly in East Asia and southwest North America.

Two other Medicine Prize nominees are Japans Toshio Hirano and Tadamitsu Kishimoto for discovering interleukin-6, a signaling molecule in our immune system that is important, among other things, to the development of severe COVID-19.



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Ushering in a New Era of Medical Education at NTHU – Business Wire

§ October 5th, 2021 § Filed under Quantum Medicine Comments Off on Ushering in a New Era of Medical Education at NTHU – Business Wire

HSINCHU, Taiwan--(BUSINESS WIRE)--National Tsing Hua Universitys plan to establish a post-baccalaureate program in medicine has been approved at a recent cross-ministerial meeting held at the Ministry of Education. The schools recruitment and admission application process will begin by the end of 2021, and the first class of government-sponsored students will be enrolled in September 2022.

NTHU President Hocheng Hong said that NTHU already has a strong foundation in cross-disciplinary research in medical science, including big data analysis, application of artificial intelligence (AI), bioengineering, material science, and nuclear medicine, by which the school is well-positioned to train physicians specializing in more than one expertise. As such, this new program represents a quantum jump in medical education in Taiwan.

President Hocheng said that NTHU already has sufficient number of faculty members, funding, and infrastructure for the new program. In addition to the existing 180 faculty members teaching related courses, the program has recently recruited an additional 71 full-time faculty members, and 87 physician scientists from leading medical centers throughout Taiwan as adjunct faculty members. Moreover, the provisional office of this program has raised NT$2 billion for medical education. An ongoing plan for establishing a state-of-the-art teaching hospital and medical complex in the Taoyuan Aerotropolis next to the Taoyuan International Airport is currently being reviewed by the Ministry of Health and Welfare.

The post-baccalaureate program in medicine is a four-year program, open for graduates from all disciplines. The government-sponsored students will be required to serve in a public healthcare facility for six years. They will have an opportunity to undertake an additional two years of advanced training in a medical center.

NTHU will draw on its extensive experience in student recruitment to admit only those applicants who meet the stringent admission qualifications, the innovative student selection process could open a new path for medical education in Taiwan.

The post-baccalaureate program in medicine will be part of the future College of Life Sciences and Medicine (currently the College of Life Science). Dean of the College of Life Science, Kao Ruey-Ho, former Superintendent of Tzu Chi Medical Center, said that applicants who apply directly to NTHU will be evaluated based on test scores, transcripts, and interviews, to select students who have demonstrated academic excellence, as well as a passion for medicine and public welfare.

Government-sponsored students in the program will take several courses designed to prepare them for practicing in a rural area, such as Community Medicine Practicum, and make good use of AI diagnosis and telemedicine technology; they will also attend seminars on altruism and dedication to public health, which will be taught by laureates of the Medical Contribution Award.

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Computational Medicine and Drug Discovery Software Market to Eyewitness Massive Growth by 2025 | Entelos, Inc., Genedata The Manomet Current – The…

§ October 5th, 2021 § Filed under Quantum Medicine Comments Off on Computational Medicine and Drug Discovery Software Market to Eyewitness Massive Growth by 2025 | Entelos, Inc., Genedata The Manomet Current – The…

Global Computational Medicine and Drug Discovery Software Market Insights to 2026 is a compilation of first-hand information, qualitative and quantitative assessment by industry analysts, and input from industry experts and industry participants across the value chain. The Computational Medicine and Drug Discovery Software market report provides an in-depth analysis of parent market trends, macroeconomic indicators, and governing factors, as well as market attractiveness by segment. The report also maps the qualitative impact of various market factors on market segments and regions.

The market is characterized by the existence of various well-known companies. These participants have a large customer base, as well as a powerful and huge distribution network that can cover a wide range of target audiences. Some leading companies will be included in our report: Entelos, Inc. (Rosa & Co. LLC) (United States), Genedata (Switzerland), Crown Bioscience, Inc. (United States), Biognos AB (Sweden), Chemical Computing Group (Canada), Quantum Benchmark (Canada), Leadscope, Inc. (United States), Nimbus Therapeutics Inc. (United States), Rhenovia Pharma (France), Schrodinger Inc. (United States), Compugen Inc. (Canada), Dassault Systemes SE (France)

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NOTE: Our analysts monitoring the situation across the globe explain that the Computational Medicine and Drug Discovery Software market will generate remunerative prospects for producers post COVID-19 crisis. The report aims to provide an additional illustration of the latest scenario, economic slowdown, and COVID-19 impact on the overall industry.

On 29th January 2020, Schrdinger Transforming Drug Discovery with GPU-Powered Platform. The company expands the evaluation of chemical compounds from thousands to billions. the New York-based developer of a physics-based software platform designed to model and compute the properties of novel molecules for the pharma and materials industries.

What Trending in Market? Increasing Use of Computational Medicine and Drug Discovery Software in the Screening, Predictive Analysis, and in Discovering the Computational Capabilities

What Drive The Market? Emerging New Human Diseases Around the World Need for Automation in Treatment and Diagnosis of the Disease

What Challenges are arise? Technological Problems with the Computational Medicine and Drug Discovery Software

Computational Medicine and Drug Discovery Software Market Segmentation and Data Breakdown : by Type (Database, Software, Others), Application (Computational Physiological Medicine, Drug Discovery And Development, Medical Imaging, Disease Modeling, Predictive Analysis Of Drug Targets, Cellular Simulation, Simulation Software), Deployment (Cloud-based, Web-based), End User (Laboratories, Hospitals, Research Center, Others)

Key highlights of the Computational Medicine and Drug Discovery Software Market Study: CAGR of the market during the forecast period 2018-2025 Detailed information on factors that will accelerate the growth. Insights on upcoming trends and changes in consumer behavior Uncovering markets competitive landscape Comprehensive information about factors that will challenge the growth

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The assessment includes the industrys primary geographical areas, including North America (United States, Canada and Mexico) Europe (Germany, France, United Kingdom, Russia, Italy, and Rest of Europe) Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India, Southeast Asia, and Australia) South America (Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, and Rest of South America) Middle East & Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, South Africa, and Rest of Middle East & Africa)

Try a limited scope research document specific to Country or Regional matching your objective. GET FULL COPY OF United States Computational Medicine and Drug Discovery Software market study @ USD 2000 And, Europe Computational Medicine and Drug Discovery Software market study @ USD 2500

Extract from Table of Content: Chapter 01 Executive Summary Chapter 02 Market Overview Chapter 03 Key Success Factors Chapter 04 Covid-19 Crisis Analysis on Global Computational Medicine and Drug Discovery Software Market Chapter 05 Global Computational Medicine and Drug Discovery Software Market Pricing Analysis Chapter 06 Global Computational Medicine and Drug Discovery Software Market Background Chapter 07 Global Computational Medicine and Drug Discovery Software Market Segmentation Chapter 08 Key and Emerging Countries Analysis in Global Computational Medicine and Drug Discovery Software Market Chapter 09 Global Computational Medicine and Drug Discovery Software Market Structure Analysis Chapter 10 Global Computational Medicine and Drug Discovery Software Market Competitive Analysis Chapter 11 Assumptions and Acronyms Chapter 12 Research Methodology Finally, Computational Medicine and Drug Discovery Software Market is a valuable source of guidance for individuals and companies.

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The Well Project Founder Dawn Averitt on What the HIV/AIDS Space Can Learn From COVID-19 – Managed Markets Network

§ October 5th, 2021 § Filed under Quantum Medicine Comments Off on The Well Project Founder Dawn Averitt on What the HIV/AIDS Space Can Learn From COVID-19 – Managed Markets Network

Now is the time where we should be looking at public health and considering how to balance individual and societal needs, while also learning more about long-acting treatment as both prevention and therapeutic change agents, noted Dawn Averitt, founder of The Well Project and Women's Research Initiative on HIV/AIDS, who has been living with HIV for 33 years.


Has the HIV/AIDS space has suffered setbacks from resources redirected toward the COVID-19 pandemic?

I think the HIV research space has certainly experienced a setback. I think there's been a setback in care. The number of diagnoses over the last year and a half, and in awareness, the kind of traction that we had, that may have suffered some setbacks. That said, we also experienced quantum leaps forward in people's understanding or interestor at least engagementaround clinical trials and around vaccine development and around really hard conversations about science and medicine and the needs of the individual vs the needs of society.

This is a real opportunity for us to take a good look at public health and what it means to be part of a community and to balance your needs as an individual against the needs of all those around you and what your role to play is. I think that, in some ways, COVID-19 has helped us certainly highlight the places where we have a lot of work to do. But I think in some ways, it's also given us a bit of a leapfrog moment where we've put these things at least front and center.

What should be next steps in the approval process for longer-acting treatments for HIV and AIDS?

How do we effectively compare these to the things that we currently have? So, [asking] how do you know what an improvement is and what are the inherent risks of a long-acting agent, if you give somebody something that's going to stay in their system for weeks or months, or maybe even longer eventually, and they have a reaction to it. There are real pros and cons to long-acting [agents].

In the adherence space, it feels a little like a panacea. But I think we have to step back and say, Okay, there's some really good things here and there are some challenges that we're going to have to figure out how to navigate in a slightly more sophisticated way, I think, than you do when you're just looking at a once-daily [regimen].

That said, I think the appetite for long-acting [agents] is great and the applications are really, really interesting. Long-acting agents won't be the ideal for everyone, but they will certainly, I think, be a game changer in a number of different environments. And there's [also] the prevention space, so being able to use a long-acting preventative agentwhich, in some ways, is kind of the halfway spot between here and a vaccine, that we can do this every 6 months or every yearand hopefully protect you. So there's a lot of excitement there.

On the therapeutic end, when we start talking about regular access and in environments where there is no health care infrastructure or there is no payer system, there are places where this could be really extraordinaryso I think we're going to have to navigate that. I don't envy the FDA or the EMA [European Medicines Agency], because this is a challenging, challenging space. But I think that there are a lot of reasons to be very excited about what's happening in the long-acting space, especially as we start to look at coformulations and so on.

And I can tell you that the fact that we've gone from 35I think at my peak, 38pills a day to 1 pill once a day to potentially being able to take something on a monthly or every-few-months basis is pretty extraordinary. And I think it's another way in which the HIV field has really been at the forefront and been driving our understanding about how to not only prevent disease, but to provide care over the long term.

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Meet the Newest Group of Tenured, Tenure-Track Faculty at UT Dallas – University of Texas at Dallas

§ October 5th, 2021 § Filed under Quantum Medicine Comments Off on Meet the Newest Group of Tenured, Tenure-Track Faculty at UT Dallas – University of Texas at Dallas

The University of Texas at Dallas welcomed 25 new tenured and tenure-track faculty members in 2021, with many of them joining the University this fall.

The professors bring an array of expertise in disciplines ranging from visual and performing arts, psychology, and bioengineering to computer science, marketing, biological sciences and mathematics.

We are delighted to welcome this stellar group of professors to UT Dallas. They exemplify the Universitys strong tradition of research, scholarship and teaching excellence and will challenge our students to fulfill their potential, said UT Dallas President Richard C. Benson, the Eugene McDermott Distinguished University Chair of Leadership.

Recognized as a top-tier public research institution by the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education, UT Dallas is home to a growing roster of esteemed faculty who foster excellence in the classroom, forge community partnerships and attract exceptional students to the University. UT Dallas recently received a National Science Foundation grant to enhance its recruitment and retention of female professors in science, technology, engineering and mathematics.

UT Dallas is a top teaching and research destination, where students are learning from some of the best and brightest minds in their respective fields. This talented group is contributing to the rich environment of ideas found throughout our campus, said Dr. Inga Musselman, provost, vice president for academic affairs and the Cecil H. Green Distinguished Chair of Academic Leadership at UT Dallas.

The new tenured and tenure-track faculty members are:

The School of Arts and Humanities offers programs in visual and performing arts, history and philosophy, and literature and languages.

Dr. Laura Kim, assistant professor of visual and performing arts

Education: PhD in intermedia art, writing and performance, University of Colorado Boulder; Master of Fine Arts in new genres, San Francisco Art Institute; Bachelor of Science in art, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Research areas: performance-based multimedia, research in art

Dr. Maurine Ogbaa, assistant professor of literature

Education: PhD in literature, University of Houston; Master of Fine Arts in creative writing, Washington University in St. Louis; Bachelor of Arts in English language and literature, UT Austin

Research areas: contemporary African and African diasporic literature, particularly womens literature; theories of race, post/coloniality, historical materialism, and feminism and gender

Dr. Songyao Ren, assistant professor of philosophy and history of ideas

Education: PhD in philosophy, Duke University; Master of Arts in East Asian literatures and cultures, Columbia University; bachelors degree in journalism, The University of Hong Kong

Research areas: Chinese philosophy, ethics, moral psychology

Dr. Jerillyn Kent, assistant professor of psychology

Education: PhD in psychological and brain sciences, Indiana University Bloomington; Bachelor of Science in psychology and biology, William & Mary

Research areas: motor abnormalities in psychopathology, particularly cerebellar abnormalities in individuals with psychotic disorders; neuromodulation interventions for psychopathology

Dr. Waseem Abbas, assistant professor of systems engineering

Education: PhD and Master of Science in electrical and computer engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology; Bachelor of Science in electrical engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan

Research areas: networked control systems, cyber-physical systems, resilience and robustness in networked systems, distributed optimization, graph machine learning and graph-theoretic methods for multiagent systems

Dr. Shuang (Cynthia) Cui, assistant professor of mechanical engineering

Education: PhD in mechanical engineering, University of California, San Diego;Master of Science in thermal engineering and Bachelor of Science in energy systems and power engineering, Wuhan University

Research areas: advanced thermal energy storage materials and systems, intelligent soft materials and devices, nanoscale heat transfer and energy conversion, grid-interactive efficient buildings

Dr. Gu Eon Kang, assistant professor of bioengineering

Education: PhD in movement science and Master of Science in mechanical engineering and biomedical engineering, University of Michigan; Bachelor of Science in mechanical engineering, Korea University

Research areas: biomechanics, mobility research, frailty, diabetic foot, fall prevention, gait, posture, wearable sensors, motion analysis, computational modeling, finite element analysis, physical activity, physiological monitoring

Dr. Kyle McCall, assistant professor of materials science and engineering

Education: PhD in applied physics, Northwestern University; Bachelor of Science in physics and mathematics, University of Notre Dame

Research areas: materials chemistry, semiconductors for optoelectronics applications, halide perovskites, renewable energy conversion, light emission, radiation detection

Dr. Joshua Summers, professor and department head of mechanical engineering

Education: PhD in mechanical engineering, Arizona State University; Master of Science and Bachelor of Science in mechanical engineering, University of Missouri

Research areas: collaborative design, knowledge management, design enabler development with the overall objective of improving design through collaboration and computation

Dr. Yu Xiang, assistant professor of computer science

Education: PhD in electrical and computer engineering, University of Michigan; Master of Science and Bachelor of Science in computer science, Fudan University

Research areas: robotics, computer vision

The School of Economic, Political and Policy Sciences is home to eight academic programs, including criminology and criminal justice.

Dr. Anne M. Burton, assistant professor of economics

Education: PhD and Master of Arts in economics, Cornell University; Bachelor of Arts in economics and government, Colby College

Research areas: health economics, public economics, economics of crime

Dr. Sivaram Cheruvu, assistant professor of political science

Education: PhD and Master of Arts in political science, Emory University; Master of Science in politics and government in the European Union, The London School of Economics and Political Science; Bachelor of Arts in political science, Rutgers University

Research areas: comparative institutions, judicial decision-making, public law, European Union

Dr. Brenda Gambol, assistant professor of sociology

Education: PhD and Master of Philosophy in sociology, The City University of New York; Bachelor of Arts in ethnic studies and sociology, University of California, San Diego

Research areas: international migration, race and ethnicity, family and marriage

Dr. Jessica Hanson-DeFusco, assistant professor of public policy and political economy

Education: PhD in public policy and international development, University of Pittsburgh; Master of Education in international education policy, Harvard University; Bachelor of Arts in English-ESL secondary education, Colorado State University

Research areas: international development policies related to quality education, public health and gender rights

Dr. Andrew Krajewski, assistant professor of criminology and criminal justice

Education: PhD and Master of Arts in criminology, The Pennsylvania State University; Bachelor of Arts in psychology, University of South Florida

Research areas: verbal and physical aggression, interpersonal conflict, criminal behavior, social networks

Dr. Yeungjeom Lee, assistant professor of criminology and criminal justice

Education: PhD in criminology, law and society, University of Florida

Research areas: developmental life-course criminology, juvenile delinquency, victimization, psychopathy, substance use and crime

Dr. Lauren Pinson, assistant professor of public policy and political economy

Education: PhD, Master of Philosophy and Master of Arts in political science, Yale University; Master of Public Administration and Bachelor of Arts in international affairs, University of Georgia

Research areas: illicit trafficking, foreign aid, border security, migration

Dr. Allison Russell, assistant professor of public and nonprofit management

Education: PhD in social welfare, University of Pennsylvania; Master of Public Administration, University of North Carolina Wilmington; Bachelor of Arts in Latin American and Latino studies, Fordham University

Research areas: volunteerism, nonprofit human resources management, equity and ethics in nonprofits, social innovation and impact

Dr. Anton Sobolev, assistant professor of public policy, political economy, and cybersecurity

Education: PhD in political science and Master of Science in statistics, University of California, Los Angeles; Master of Arts in political economy and Bachelor of Arts in political science, Higher School of Economics University in Russia

Research areas: digital technology and political behavior, cybersecurity, misinformation, mass protest, text analysis

Dr. Samir Mamadehussene, assistant professor of marketing

Education: PhD in economics, Northwestern University; Master of Science in economics and Bachelor of Arts in management, Catholic University of Portugal in Lisbon.

Research areas: pricing and promotional strategies, game theory, consumer search

Dr. Nicholas Dillon, assistant professor of biological sciences

Education: PhD in microbiology and Master of Science in biology, University of Minnesota; Bachelor of Science in biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Research areas: microbiology, antibiotic resistance, antibiotic pharmacology, host-pathogen interactions

Dr. Shengwang Du, professor of physics

Education: PhD in physics and Master of Science in electrical engineering, University of Colorado Boulder; Master of Science in physics, Peking University; Bachelor of Science in electrical engineering, Nanjing University

Research areas: quantum optics, quantum networks, quantum information processing, nonlinear optics, laser cooling and trapping, optical neural networks and artificial intelligence, optical microscopy, bioimaging

Dr. Purna Joshi, assistant professor of biological sciences

Education: PhD in stem cell biology, Master of Science in developmental biology and Bachelor of Science in pathobiology, University of Toronto

Research areas: stem cells, breast and ovarian cancer biology, regenerative medicine

Dr. Darshan Sapkota, assistant professor of biological sciences

Education: PhD in biochemistry and developmental neurobiology, The State University of New York at Buffalo; Master of Science in microbiology and Bachelor of Science, Tribhuvan University in Kathmandu, Nepal

Research areas: neuroscience, neurological diseases, regulation of mRNA translation, brain and retinal homeostasis, molecular biology

Dr. Yunan Wu, assistant professor of statistics

Education: PhD and Master of Science in statistics, University of Minnesota; Bachelor of Science in mathematics and physics, Tsinghua University in China

Research areas: causal inference in precision medicine, nonparametric and semi-parametric analysis, high-dimensional analysis, Mendelian randomization, machine-learning techniques

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Global Complementary And Alternative Medicine Market Outlook, Strategies, Manufacturers, Countries, Type and Application, Global Forecast To 2028 -…

§ August 13th, 2021 § Filed under Quantum Medicine Comments Off on Global Complementary And Alternative Medicine Market Outlook, Strategies, Manufacturers, Countries, Type and Application, Global Forecast To 2028 -…

Complementary And Alternative Medicine Marketresearch report has been produced with the systematic gathering of market information for the industry. All this information is supplied in such a way that it properly gives an explanation of various facts and figures to the business. This report gives accurate information about market trends, industrial changes, and consumer behavior, etc. The market data provided in the business report helps to discover diverse market opportunities present worldwide for the industry.

Taking up such market research reports is always beneficial for any company, whether it is a small scale or large scale, for marketing of products or services. Analytical study of the finest this market report helps in mapping growth strategies to increase sales and build brand image in the market. The first class of this market report is a comprehensive background analysis of the, which includes an assessment of the parental market. It deeply attempts to determine the impact of buyers, substitutes, new entrants, competitors, and suppliers on the market.

Complementary and Alternative Medicine Marketis estimated to grow at a healthy CAGR for 2020 to 2027 with factors such as, lack of scientific results and challenges associated with integration restraining the market growth in the above mentioned forecasted period.

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Major Market Key Players:

The major players covered in the complementary and alternative medicine market are Nordic Naturals, Natures Bounty, Unity Woods Yoga Center, Columbia Nutritional, First Natural Brands Ltd., Ayush Ayurveda, Sheng Chang Pharmaceutical Company, Pure Encapsulations, LLC. Quantum-Touch, and Herb Pharm, LLC among others.

North America(United States, Canada, and Mexico)

Europe(Germany, France, UK, Russia, and Italy)

Asia-Pacific(China, Japan, Korea, India, and Southeast Asia)

South America(Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, etc.)

The Middle East and Africa(Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria, and South Africa)

Key Topics Covered: 1. Introduction 2. Research Methodology 3. Executive Summary 4. Market Dynamics 4.1 Growth Drivers 4.2 Challenges 5. Access Control Industry Insights 5.1 Industry segmentation 5.2 Industry landscape 5.3 Vendor matrix 5.4 Technological and innovation landscape 6. Access Control Market, By Region 6.1 North America 6.2 Market & Forecast 6.3 Volume & Forecast 6.4 Western Europe 6.5 Japan 6.6 China 6.7 Other Countries 7. Method / Technology 7.1 Traditional Microbiology 7.2 Market & Forecast 7.3 Volume & Forecast 7.4 Molecular Diagnostics 7.5 Immunodiagnostics 8.Company Profile 8.1 Business Overview 8.2 Financial Data 8.3 Product Landscape 8.4 Strategic Outlook 8.5 SWOT Analysis

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Key Pointers Covered in Complementary and Alternative Medicine Market and Forecast to 2027

A portion of the Major Highlights of TOC covers:

Philosophy and Scope Chief Summary Access Control Industry Insights Access Control Market, By Region Organization Profile

Thanks for reading this article, you can also get individual chapter-wise sections or region-wise report versions like North America, Europe, or Asia.

Key Offerings:

Market Size and Forecast by Revenue | 20212028 Market Dynamics Leading patterns, development drivers, limitations, and venture openings Market Segmentation An itemized examination by item, by types, end-client, applications, fragments, and geology Competitive Landscape Top key sellers and other conspicuous vendorsInquire

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Pandemic Highlights Opportunities, Challenges for Exosomes and Related Cell Therapies – BioSpace

§ August 13th, 2021 § Filed under Quantum Medicine Comments Off on Pandemic Highlights Opportunities, Challenges for Exosomes and Related Cell Therapies – BioSpace

New therapeutic modalities always face an uphill climb, but the urgency of COVID-19 may have opened the door for two related ones: cell therapies and exosomes.

The pandemic has been anall-hands-on-deck call for the biotech industry, with new approaches quickly reaching patients through compassionate use cases andemergency use regulatory authorizations.

As we saw the wave coming, everyone started putting all of the arsenal towards treatment, saidDalip Sethi, director of scientific affairs at Terumo Blood and Cell Technologies.

This included established fields like antibodies, and new technologies like mRNA vaccines similarly proved their salt.

Opportunities also arose for younger spaces like cell therapies, notably for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), multipotent cells found in many human tissues as well as the extracellular vesicles (EVs) they produce. Neither are approved as therapies for any indication, but academics and companies theorized they could be useful in severe cases of COVID-19 where severe lung inflammation occurs.

We knew MSCs can suppress the immune system given their properties. They were a first line of attack, along with exosomes, Sethi said.

Cell therapies are hot. With the approval of Breyanzi from Juno Therapeutics and Celgene, there are now fivemarketed CAR-T therapies. The regulatory support and exciting technologies have inspired investors, who have backed at least ninecell therapy companies that went public this year, most recently with Celularitys SPAC merger in July.

Still, bottlenecks remain. Engineered autologous productsthe first to get widespread regulatory approvalare hampered by high costs, slow manufacturing speedsand limited capacity.

Theres a big trend moving towards allogeneic,Sethi said, although off-the-shelf versions are still years away. Unmodified cell products like umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells have fewer manufacturing steps than engineered ones, but are largely unapproved outside of niche hematopoietic diseases.

Some in the industry have pinned their hopes to exosomes, which are produced naturally by all eukaryotic cells as a method intercellular communication. EVs have the natural ability to transmit genetic information into other cells, can target specific tissue, dont cause an immune responseand in some cases have innate regenerative or therapeutic effects.

In fact, for MSCs, EVs like exosomes are credited as the primary mediators of therapeutic properties. Academics have also shown that engineered chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells release EVs that carry the tumor-targeting CARs and inhibit tumor growth, while circumventing the immunosuppression and toxicity issues that dog CAR-Ts themselves. Others have shown EVs derived from natural killer (NK) cells and dendritic cells have at least some of their parent cells therapeutic abilities.

Companies have taken notice of the EV possibilities, particularly as EVs can be engineered to deliver therapeutic cargo to other cells. Leading engineered exosome company Codiak BioSciences, for one, launched an IPO, an R&D deal with nucleic acid therapy company Sarepta Therapeutics, and its first two clinical trials, all in the span of five months last year.

A few biotechs have feet in both worlds, like cell and exosome company Capricor Therapeutics. The company has tech transferred the manufacturing to contract development and manufacturing organization Lonza as it plans a pivotal Phase III trial for the companys lead off-she-shelf CAP-1002 cardiosphere-derived cells for patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Still, outside of CAP-1002, Capricors disclosed future pipeline is entirely in exosomes, be they derived directly from its CDCs or fibroblast cells, or as engineered vehicles to deliver RNAs.

Cells are expensive to make, expensive to qualify, and expensive to turn into products, saidCapricor President and CEO Linda Marbn. Our concept is that theyre great for rare diseases, someplace where its actually worth putting forth that expense. But if you really want to develop a product that delivers the benefits of regenerative medicines, such as a cell therapy, and drive your costs down, the best way to do that is to build up the exosomes.

Since EVs are derived from cells, the progress to date in cell therapy manufacturing is also foundational for EV manufacturing. The number of EVs will be orders of magnitude bigger than the numbers of cells they are derived from, but EVs from a single cell can vary widely in size, contentand function. Although the interest in exosomes is high, the challenges of isolation and purification remain. Companies are motivated to move away from cells, saidJim Beltzer, senior manager for global strategic medical affairs at Terumo. I think where were lagging behind is in how we make sure what weve got is what were interested in, he added.

Terumos Quantum platform expands cell populations as well as viral vectors and exosomes. Beltzer notes that in a 2018 study led by Codiak cofounder Raghu Kalluri, the cell expansion protocol using Quantum took ninedays, and the collection of exosomes from conditioned media took another 12 days.

As if it werent bad enough in cell therapies that weve got these long expansion protocols for, say, T cells, Beltzer said.

Codiak has since developed a continuous manufacturing approach that may speed the processing step, and other exosome companies are similarly developing new approaches. Beltzer saidautomation is key for accelerating both cell therapy and EV manufacturing time, but what the industry needs is a standardized GMP process.

Its really important for exosomes," Beltzer said."The process is the product.

COVID-19 proving ground

MSCs generated a lot of excitement late last year, when Novartis announced it was licensing Remestemcel-L from regenerative medicine company Mesoblast. The bone marrow-derived MSC therapy was then in phase III testing for patients with severe COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The enthusiasm dissipated almost immediately, as data from the trial released a month later showed that Remestemcel-L could not meet its primary endpoint of a 43% reduction in mortalitya high bar set early in the pandemic when therapeutic options were more limited and when overall mortality was higher.

At least two dozen cell therapies have been tested in humans by companies and academics to treat COVID-19, largely to treat ARDS, a hyperinflammatory condition that can also be caused by other infections or by lung injury. Capricor is one of them, enrolling patients in a Phase II trial for its CAP-1002, following encouraging signs in five patients received the cells under a compassionate use protocol last year.

Ismail Hadisoebroto Dilogo, a professor of medicine at the University of Indonesia, said MSCs were a logical avenue to explore when the pandemic hit because they have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties.

MSCs reboot the immune systems, Dilogo said.

Dilogo and his team published results in June in Stem Cells Translational Medicine from a Phase I study of umbilical cord MSCs in 40 patients with critical COVID-19. Surprisingly, we saw patients in the MSC group has 2.5 times improved survival.

EVs are a younger modality than cell therapies, with fewer players, but at least three companies launched clinical trials for MSC-derived products for patients with COVID-19. Some of the products have been marketed without needing U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval, under a regulatory grace period for human cell-based products that expired in May. Texas-based Direct Biologics has since announced FDA green lights to begin three Phase I/II trials for ExoFlo, its bone marrow MSC-derived exosomes. The company expects to launch all three this year in patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19, post-acute COVID-19/chronic post-COVID-19 syndromes, and ARDS, respectively. Organicell Regenerative Medicine similarly announced forthcoming trials for patients with prolonged COVD-19 symptoms, plus trials for knee osteoarthritis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, for its Zofin perinatal fluid-derived EVs.

As researchers learned more about COVID-19 through the pandemic, vaccines and therapeutic strategies that focused on blocking transmission became more reliable approaches, Sethi said. Cell therapies and exosomes can definitely help, but they cant be a first or even second line of therapy.

Interest in EV from more established cell therapy companies would be a clear signal the space is considering a shift, but none of the companies with approved cell therapies have publicly disclosed programs with exosomes or EVs. Still, the clinical progress of engineered exosome companies like Codiak, coupled with new INDs from the unmodified EV companies, are clear signs EVs are just getting started. There will be a drive to get away from using whole cells and get to active components,Beltzer said. I think its happening in peoples minds.

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Quantum technology: ‘It’s no big deal that people don’t understand the technology’ – Innovation Origins

§ June 20th, 2021 § Filed under Quantum Medicine Comments Off on Quantum technology: ‘It’s no big deal that people don’t understand the technology’ – Innovation Origins

Quantum technology is a so-called key technology that can be used, for example, to make new drugs and materials. New products and applications that we do not yet know about. Explaining how quantum technology works is no easy task. You have to be able to see it to imagine how it works, says physicist Servaas Kokkelmans.

Kokkelmans is also director of the Center for Quantum Materials and Technology Eindhoven (QT/e). His research group, CQT Coherence and Quantum Technolgy is set to move underground in 2023. A new building will rise between two buildings on the university site, Cascade and Flux, underneath which space will be made for laboratories for experiments with quantum technology. This week, outgoing Secretary of State Mona Keijzer of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs paid QT/e projects a visit. By hoisting a flag, she opened the construction for the new building.

The new laboratories are intended for continued research and more experiments, but also to show others besides the scientists who are currently mainly researching it what quantum technology makes possible. Kokkelmans: There will also be an exhibition area, among other things. Where we can welcome students, companies and other interested parties. For example, you can log in to our quantum computer and our quantum internet. This way, you can experience for yourself what it is like to work with it. We also plan to organize tours of the laboratories.

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Kokkelmans QT/e forms part of the Quantum Delta NL Program. That program is receiving 615 million euros from the Dutch National Growth Fund. Through this fund, the government will invest 20 billion euros over the next 5 years in projects that ensure economic growth. It is an initiative of the Dutch Ministries of Economic Affairs and Finance. Ministers, state secretaries and civil servants have examined how the Dutch will earn their money in 2040, State Secretary Keijzer explains.

During her visit she was treated to, among other things, a small demonstration of the work on the so-called KAT-1 demonstrator, on which PhD student Ivo Knottnerus is working. He works partly for the university in Amsterdam and partly for the Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e). There is already a similar type of machine in Amsterdam. I am transferring the knowledge from Amsterdam to here in order to build a second generation machine. The KAT-1 demonstrator is a major project line in the growth fund proposal that Quantum Delta NL submitted. What the Secretary of State got to see forms part of that, he adds.

Knottnerus is collaborating on a hybrid quantum computer. Thats a quantum computer, actually a large physics setup, with a classical computer acting as a translator between user and experiment. The normal computer optimizes parameters such as laser intensity thats used during the running of the quantum computer, but also stores any results, for example.

The KAT-1 demonstrator comprises a setup that shows how individual atoms are captured. What our qubits are. A classical computer uses bits, which have a value of 1 or 0. This kind of qubit can have any value between 1 and 0. As such, a quantum computer is able to perform certain calculations much faster than ordinary computers. For one thing, an ordinary computer can decipher large series of numbers, algorithms, one by one. Whereas a quantum computer can include all the results in the calculation at the same time. This makes it possible to quickly calculate properties of materials and medicines, for instance, Knottnerus explains.

Capturing those atoms can only be done under certain conditions. Thats why those atoms are in a vacuum chamber, well-shielded from the world. With a small fluctuation in temperature or humidity, the lasers, mirrors and magnetic fields we use to capture the atoms change. Then you cant capture the atoms and you are correcting everything all day long, which is impractical. So the temperature and humidity have to be extremely stable. That new laboratories are coming is practically a necessity. And it is ideal to be able to control all the conditions.

The Secretary of State also got to meet a number of companies and governmental bodies that are already working with the QT/e. Like the municipality of Waalre, Smart Photonics and the Automotive Campus Helmond. A self-driving car is also being tested on this campus. Kokkelmans: Those autonomous cars are connected to the 5G network. This is not done via the cloud, but via edge computing. There are small computers all over the network that need to be able to communicate very quickly with the autonomous cars. The more of those kinds of connections you have, the harder it is. We want to connect those 5G antennas quantum-protected to the network.

With the allocated funding, Quantum Delta NL aims to position itself as a leading international center and hub for quantum technology, according to the press release. Over the next seven years, the partnership intends to develop into a leading European knowledge cluster. With a contribution to the gross domestic product (GDP) of 5 to 7 billion euros and 30,000 high-quality Dutch jobs in the long term.

There are five hubs for this in the Netherlands: Delft, Amsterdam, Leiden, Twente and Eindhoven. The visit by the Secretary of State was a special occasion for Freeke Heijman, director of Quantum Delta NL: We have been working for a few years on the proposal to qualify for the growth fund. Everything up to this point had been either virtual or on paper. With the visit of a member of the cabinet, it basically amounts to a national launch of our project.

Quantum technology is an incomprehensible technology to most people, including the Secretary of State as a simple lawyer and business expert. According to Heijman, its not a big deal that people dont understand the technology. People also dont know how a computer works and what it looks like inside. Its more about what you can do with it. The Growth Fund has been set up to invest in the foundations of new technology. Its about the future, 2040.

Looking back, there are other technologies that were once at the stage where quantum technology is now, Heijman says. Like the Internet in the 1980s or transistors in the 1960s. Those changed society about 30 years ago. You see that happening now too. At the moment, its still abstract, yet soon it will be possible to do calculations that are currently so out of reach. Then completely new applications will emerge for, say, materials, medicine, energy storage and transport, security.

Until recently, quantum technology was chiefly a scientific field, Heijman goes on to say. Experiments and research tended to be carried out at universities. Now you see that, because its more and more about the actual development and use of the technology, even vocational and higher education are getting involved. We are also going to use the investment from the growth fund to set up learning and talent centers. Vocational (MBO ) and university of applied sciences (HBO) students, as well as the business community, can all get together there in a kind of experimental lab to work with the technology so that it breaks out of the purely academic world.

In essence, its about the people involved. About the talent, the students and the collaboration between all those people who you build an ecosystem with. Where innovation flows from. One of our goals is not only to help existing companies and industry, but also to generate new start-ups. Our ambition is 100 start-ups by 2027.

The quantum computing platform in Eindhoven is, according to Kokkelmans, truly complementary to other parts in the Netherlands. Our platform is based on cold atoms and that is unique if you compare it with Delft, for example. So a lot is possible with our hybrid algorithms. When integrated with the right hardware, you can turn it into a very efficient quantum computer. I think this is the most successful direction at the moment because the road to a universal quantum computer with error correction still has a long way to go.

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