Fact Sheets about Genomics | NHGRI – genome.gov

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Fact Sheets about Genomics | NHGRI Skip to main content

The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) has produced this series of fact sheets to explain complex concepts in genomics research to a non-scientific audience. Teachers, students and the general public alike will find the materials clearly written and easy to understand.

A biological pathway is a series of actions among molecules in a cell that leads to a certain product or a change in the cell.

Genomics is the study of all of a person's genes (the genome), including interactions of those genes with each other and with the person's environment.

Chromosomes are thread-like structures located inside the nucleus of animal and plant cells.

Cloning describes a number of different processes that can be used to produce genetically identical copies of a biological entity.

Comparative genomics is a field of biological research in which researchers compare the complete genome sequences of different species.

DNA sequencing determines the order of the four chemical building blocks - called "bases" - that make up the DNA molecule.

Epigenomics is a field in which researchers chart the locations and understand the functions of all the chemical tags that mark the genome.

Genetic mapping offers evidence that a disease transmitted from parent to child is linked to one or more genes and clues about where a gene lies on a chromosome.

A knockout mouse is a laboratory mouse in which researchers have inactivated an existing gene by replacing it or disrupting it with an artificial piece of DNA.

Newborn screening tests use a dried blood sample collected during the first week after birth to measure the presence of disease biomarkers.

Data used to estimate the cost of sequencing the human genome over time since the Human Genome Project.

The X chromosome determines your sex, gives some females super color vision and lends its magic to a certain breed of cat.

The Y chromosome of all living men is related through a single male ancestor who lived over 100,000 years ago.

Genetics refers to the study of genes and their roles in inheritance. Genomics refers to the study of all of a person's genes (the genome).

Last updated: November 9, 2015

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Fact Sheets about Genomics | NHGRI - genome.gov

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