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ERC president ‘optimistic’ UK will stay in ‘irreplaceable’ fund – Times Higher Education (THE)

§ February 20th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on ERC president ‘optimistic’ UK will stay in ‘irreplaceable’ fund – Times Higher Education (THE)

The UK gains benefits from the European Research Council that cannot be replaced, but there is good reason to be optimistic about the nation staying part of the programme despite Brexit, according to the funders new president.

The UK has been the number one [nation] in terms of funding received since the ERC was established in 2007, Mauro Ferrari toldTimes Higher Educationafter taking office last month. But the real benefit is bigger than that, he added.

Perhaps the biggest advantage of them all is that ERC grants strengthen the UKs position as a top destination for non-UK scientists, Professor Ferrari said. Think of all the great people that are in the UK with an ERC grant.

Science is all about people. You need the best people: you need to recruit them, you need to retain them. And I think the ERC has been a great instrument for the UK to do that.

Prestigious ERC grants for outstanding researchers, part of the European Unions wider framework programmes for research, have been described asmini-Nobel prizesand as the Champions League of research.

There is no certainty over whether the UK will seek to, or be allowed to, join the next framework programme, Horizon Europe, as an associated country when it starts in January 2021.

ERC grants are portable, but holders are expected to spend at least 50 per cent of their working time in an EU member state or associated country leading some in the UK to fear that the nation will miss out on attracting world-leading researchers if it does not associate to Horizon Europe.

While the UK will continue to attract and retain science talent, no matter what, because of its history and continuous investment, there is this bit that comes from the international connotation of the ERC that, I think, cannot be replaced, Professor Ferrari said.

His comments came as John Womersley, chief executive of the Science and Technology Facilities Council between 2011 and 2016, warns that there is great risk that the UK may choose not to associate to Horizon Europe.

Writing in THE, Professor Womersley now director-general of the European Spallation Source says that while UK-based researchers are keen to retain access to ERC funding, ministers are less likely to be keen on the two other larger pillars of Horizon Europe, covering challenge-based funding and the new European Innovation Council.

Professor Womersley warns that the EU is unlikely to allow cherry-picking of Horizon Europe, leading him to conclude that the UK was more likely to use the money it would otherwise contribute to the scheme tocreate a UK-based replacement for the ERC.

Asked by THE whether the UK could associate to the ERC, Professor Ferrari said that he cannot speculate on that. Thats the domain of a political negotiation, he said.

But given unanimous sentiment among UK and continental European scientists he had spoken with, he added: I would say there is good reason to be optimistic that some sort of reasonable construct will be reached that allows scientists to do their job in the best possible way.

ProfessorFerrari also discussed the ERCs role in building bridges between blue-sky research and innovation a link where he has personal experience as a pioneer of nanomedicine.

His 40-year academic career in the US began in engineering with a post at the University of California, Berkeley, then changed course following the death of his wife from cancer, after which heentered medical school at the age of 43to fight the disease.

Professor Ferrari retired as chief commercialisation officer at Houston Methodist Research Institute in 2019, but remains an affiliate professor with a lab at the University of Washington in Seattle.

I have returned [to Europe] for this job because I thought it was such an extraordinary and unique opportunity, he said.

The ERC, which evaluates proposals through international panels of leading scientists, is based on the principle that no individual, no agency, no office can actually envisage the future, what are the necessaryworld-changing breakthroughs in all of the fields of science, Professor Ferrari said. So we let scientists tell us.

Although European science is one of the global front-runners, he continued, there is no doubt about the fact that Europe has been lagging behind the United States when it comes to translation of great discoveries into innovation.

Professor Ferrari added that although the ERC by mandate is only doing blue-sky research, it has a role in addressing that by ensuring that research is best friends with innovation. We connect: we make sure our scientists are aware of whats happening in innovation, and make sure people on the innovation side are aware of what leading scientists are doing, he said.

john.morgan@timeshighereducation.com

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Oxford Performance Materials’ OsteoFab 3D Printed PEKK Technology Focus of Study Published in The Spine Journal – OrthoSpineNews

§ February 19th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Oxford Performance Materials’ OsteoFab 3D Printed PEKK Technology Focus of Study Published in The Spine Journal – OrthoSpineNews

SOUTH WINDSOR, CONN. (PRWEB)FEBRUARY 17, 2020

Oxford Performance Materials, Inc. (OPM), an industry leader in advanced materials science and high-performance additive manufacturing (HPAM), announced today the publication of A Comparative Study of Three Biomaterials in an Ovine Defect Model: A TETRAfuse PEKK Study in The Spine Journal. 1,2,3 This study examined the in vivo material characteristics of polyetheretherketone (PEEK), titanium-coated PEEK, and 3D printed polyetherketoneketone (PEKK) in a sheep model. In comparison with PEEK, the PEKK implants displayed bone ingrowth, no fibrotic tissue formation, a significant increase in bony apposition over time, and a significantly higher push-out strength.

Conventionally, PEEK and Ti-coated PEEK have been used as standard biomaterials for implants like spinal interbody cages, but recent shortcomings in these materials have led to adoption of newer, more innovative technologies. Although PEEK shows an elastic modulus comparable to that of cortical bone, literature has illustrated that it consistently prompts a fibrotic and inflammatory tissue response, preventing it from integrating with host tissue. And while titanium exhibits similar osseointegrative properties when compared to PEKK, it is substantially stiffer than cortical bone and it is radiopaque, which makes bone fusion assessments difficult as the bone/implant interface is often obscured in post-operative imaging. With titanium coated PEEK implants, these drawbacks still exist but with the added risks of delamination of the titanium coating, subsidence, and the generation of wear debris.

The results reported by The Spine Journal were gratifying and support the comparative benefits of 3D printed PEKK implants that we have been hearing from surgeons for some time, now, said Scott DeFelice, CEO. OPMs OsteoFab technology platform is increasingly recognized as a best of solution for CMF and spinal implants, and we will be launching our unique 3D printed suture anchor product in the coming weeks.

3D printed PEKK delivers high mechanical integrity, radiographic visibility, and osseointegration, as well as inherent antibacterial characteristics.4 In this Spine Journal study, PEKK demonstrated a significantly higher push-out force when compared to PEEK at 8 and 16 weeks post-implantation and also had notably greater bone attachment following pushout when compared to PEEK and Ti-coated PEEK. From a histological standpoint, 3D printed PEKK also showed substantial bone growth. Within a 2mm radius of the implant, 3D printed PEKK exhibited the highest bone ongrowth percentage when compared to PEEK and Ti-coated PEEK at both the 8- and 16-week endpoints.

By directly comparing the three implant materials in an in vivo model, the study showed clear evidence of the performance characteristics at the bone-implant interface. In this instance, 3D printed PEKK presented a high propensity for bone-ingrowth, no radiographic interference, and a material structure that allowed for an increase of integration of cancellous bone into the implant. In a clinical scenario, 3D printed PEKK implants could improve the effectiveness of spinal fusion procedures by promoting osseointegration and decreasing the chance of complications associated with PEEK and Ti-coated PEEK.

Since 2013, OPM has been manufacturing patient-specific cranial and facial implant devices that have been distributed world-wide. In addition to over 2,300 craniomaxillofacial implants, OPM has 3D printed over 70,000 OsteoFab implants under a number of 510(k) clearances and just recently entered the sports medicine arena with a soft tissue fixation device. As the pendulum shifts away from traditional material solutions, OsteoFab 3D printed PEKK is proving to be a robust alternative with a rapidly growing user base.

About Oxford Performance Materials, Inc.

Oxford Performance Materials was founded in 2000 to exploit and commercialize the worlds highest performing thermoplastic, PEKK (poly-ether-ketone-ketone). OPMs Materials business has developed a range of proprietary, patented technologies for the synthesis and modification of a range of PAEK polymers that are sold under its OXPEKK brand for biomedical and industrial applications. The Company is a pioneer in 3D printing. OPM Biomedicals OsteoFab technology is in commercial production in numerous orthopedic implant applications, including cranial, facial, spinal, and sports medicine devices. OPM is the first and only company to receive FDA 510(k) clearance to manufacture 3D printed patient-specific polymeric implants and has six 510(k) clearances in its portfolio. OPM Industrial produces 3D printed OXFAB production parts for highly demanding applications in the energy, transportation and semiconductor markets. OXFAB structures offer significant weight, cost, and time-to-market reductions that are defined in a set of specified performance attributes in the exhaustive OPM B-Basis database, developed in conjunction with NASA. For more information, please visit:http://www.oxfordpm.com

Company Contact:Willow JohndrowDirector of Marketing860.656.9442

References1. Cheng, PhD B, Jaffee S, Swink I, Averick, PhD S, Horvath S, Zhukauskas, PhD R et al. A Comparative Study of Three Biomaterials in an Ovine Bone Defect Model: A TETRAfuse PEKK Study. The Spine Journal. 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2019.10.0032. RESULTS paragraph from the Study abstract reads: PEKK implants demonstrated bone ingrowth, no radiographic interference, no fibrotic tissue membrane formation, significant increase in bony apposition over time, and significantly higher push-out strength compared to standard PEEK. The PEKK implant displayed bone growth characteristics comparable to Ti-coated PEEK with significant improvements in implant integrity and radiographic properties.3. Note: TETRAfuse is a Registered Trademark of RTI Surgical, Inc. and the tradename for RTIs spinal implants that are additively manufactured by Oxford Performance Materials, Inc. using OPMs proprietary OsteoFab technology platform. TETRAfuse was awarded a 2019 MedTech Breakthrough Award for Best New Technology Solution Orthopedics and a 2018 Spine Technology Award from Orthopedics This Week.4. Wang M, Bhardwaj B, Webster T; Antibacterial properties of PEKK for orthopedic applications. Intl Journal of Nanomedicine. 2017: 12 6471-6476.

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New Discoveries in Human Anatomy – The Scientist

§ February 19th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on New Discoveries in Human Anatomy – The Scientist

In the 16th century, when the study of human anatomy was still in its infancy, curious onlookers would gather in anatomical theaters to catch of a glimpse of public dissections of the dead. In the years since, scientists have carefully mapped the viscera, bones, muscles, nerves, and many other components of our bodies, such that a human corpse no longer holds that same sense of mystery that used to draw crowds.

New discoveries in gross anatomythe study of bodily structures at the macroscopic levelare now rare, and their significance is often overblown, says Paul Neumann, a professor who specializes in the history of medicine and anatomical nomenclature at Dalhousie University. The important discoveries about anatomy, I think, are now coming from studies of tissues and cells.

Over the last decade, there have been a handful of discoveries that have helped overturn previous assumptions and revealed new insights into our anatomy. Whats really interesting and exciting about almost all of the new studies is the illustration of the power of new [microscopy and imaging] technologies to give deeper insight, saysTom Gillingwater, a professor of anatomy at the University of Edinburgh in the UK. I would guess that many of these discoveries are the start, rather than the end, of a developing view of the human body.

Here is a sampling of some of those discoveries.

The lymphatic system, a body-wide network of vessels that drains fluids and removes waste from tissues and organs, was long-believed to be absent from the brain. Early reports of lymphatic vessels in the meninges, the membrane coating the brain, date as far back as the 18th centurybut these findings were met with skepticism. Only recently has this view been overturned, after a 2015 report of lymphatic vessels in mouse meninges and the 2012 discovery of the so-called glymphatic system, an interconnected network of glial cells that facilitates the circulation of fluid throughout mouse brains. In 2017, neuroimaging work revealed evidence for such lymphatic vessels in human meninges.

In 2018, researchers reported that the space between cells was a collagen-lined, fluid-filled network, which they dubbed the interstitium. They proposed that this finding, which emerged from close examinations of tissue from patients bile ducts, bladders, digestive tracts, and skin, may help scientists better understand how tumors spread through the body. The team also called the interstitium a newly-discovered organ, but many dismissed this claim. Most biologists would be reticent to put the moniker of an organ on microscopic uneven spaces between tissues that contain fluid, Anirban Maitra, a pathologist at the University of Texas MD Anderson Center, told The Scientistlast year.

Until recently, the prevailing view among scientists was that the mesentery, the large, fan-like sheet of tissue that holds our intestines in place, consisted of multiple fragments. In 2016, after examining the mesentery of both cadavers and patients undergoing surgery, a team of researchers concluded that the mesentery was actually a single unit. This wasnt the first time the mesentery was described as continuousin one of the first depictions of the structure, Leonardo da Vinci also portrayed it in this way. But in the 2016 paper, the scientists argued that its continuity should qualify the mesentery as an organ. As with the interstitium, however, other experts have objected to this claim. In both of these cases, there seems to have been a misunderstanding of what the term organ means, Neumann says.

laurie okeefe

In January 2019, scientists described a previously unknown web of capillaries that pass through the bones of mice. Textbooks describe large veins and arteries jutting out the ends of bones, but this newly-described network of tunnels provide a faster route for blood cells produced in the bone marrow to enter the circulation. The research team also looked at human bones using a variety of methods: taking photos from patients undergoing surgery, conducting MRI scans of a healthy leg, and investigating extracted samples under a microscopeand revealed a similar, albeit less extensive, system of capillaries.

Last October, researchers reported that muscles typically seen in reptiles and other animalsbut not peoplewere present in the limbs of human embryos. Using a combination of immunostaining, tissue clearing, and microscopy, the team generated high-resolution 3-D images of upper and lower limb muscles in tissue samples from preserved 8- to 14-week-old embryos and fetuses. These structures, which disappear before birth, may be anatomical remnants of our evolutionary ancestors that disappear during the early stages of development, the authors suggest. They only examined 13 images, however, so experts caution that its a preliminary finding that needs to be replicated in a larger sample.

The fabella, a tiny bone located in a tendon behind the knee, is becoming more common in humans, according to a study published last spring. After reviewing 58 studies on fabella prevalence in 27 different countries, researchers reported that people were approximately 3.5 times more likely to have the little bone in 2018 than 1918. The cause of this trend remains an open question, but the authors suggest that changes in muscle mass and bone lengthdriven by increased diet quality in many parts of the worldcould be one explanation.

Diana Kwon is a Berlin-based freelance journalist. Follow her on Twitter@DianaMKwon.

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Enriching newborns’ environment in the right way helps heal young, injured brains – PRNewswire

§ February 19th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Enriching newborns’ environment in the right way helps heal young, injured brains – PRNewswire

WASHINGTON, Feb. 19, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- An enriched environmentwith increased opportunities for physical activity, socialization and exploring novel stimulihelped lessen functional, anatomical and cellular deficits in an experimental model of brain damage caused by oxygen deprivation at birth. What's more, recovery of the brain's white matter required a combination of all experimental interventions, not just a single intervention, suggests a new study led by researchers at Children's National Hospital. Their findings, published online Feb. 19, 2020, in "Nature Communications," could lead to new treatments for children affected by this condition.

About 450,000 babies are born preterm in U.S. every year, a number that continues to rise, says senior author Vittorio Gallo, Ph.D., chief research officer for Children's National Hospital and scientific director for Children's National Research Institute. Oxygen deprivation caused by immature lungs or birth injuries is a common consequence of prematurity, which leads to permanent neurological deficits and disabilities, Gallo explains.

Premature babies require minimal handling for their first months of life in order to eliminate stressful stimuli and optimize their development. Efforts have been made to switch from the noisy and crowded environment of the older neonatal intensive care units to new, quiet private family rooms in order to eliminate noise and light. However, recent studies suggest that infants that were treated in private family rooms had lower language and motor scores compared to the infants in open wards, raising questions about the ideal level of stimulation that premature neonates require in order to achieve optimal brain development. The mechanisms by which environmental stimuli positively affect brain development in the early neonatal period and better neurological outcomes remain unclear.

To determine how enriched environments may affect recovery for newborns who suffer brain injury after birth, Gallo and colleagues leveraged a preclinical model of newborns exposed to low oxygen levels shortly after birth. These experimental models had brain damage similar to premature human babies with hypoxic brain injuries.

After injury, some of these experimental models grew up in standard enclosures, with little more than nesting materials, a few other cage mates, and access to food and water. Others grew up in enriched environments: larger enclosures equipped with a running wheel as well as objects of differing sizes and colors that were switched out frequently, and more cage mates for enhanced socialization.

When these preclinical models were young adults, the researchers assessed how well they performed on a functional test of motor skills in which both groups scurried up a narrow, inclined beam. While foot slips were common in both groups, those raised in an enriched environment had about half as many as those raised in the less-stimulating enclosures.

When researchers examined the brains, they found that these functional improvements were linked to significantly enhanced division and maturation of oligodendrocytes, cells in the brain's white matter that support nerve cells and produce myelin, a fatty insulating sheath that covers the long extensions that connect nerve cells to each other and to other parts of the body. Indeed, consistent with the cellular and functional findings, the white matter of experimental models raised in enriched environments had significantly more myelin content than that of counterparts raised in the simpler environment.

Further experiments showed that for these improvements in function and anatomy to occur in experimental models raised in the enriched environments, they needed all three elements: enhanced physical activity, socialization and cognitive stimulation from novel objects. Additionally, exposure to these elements needed to start early and be continuous and long term. Those experimental models that weren't raised in a completely enriched environment or whose exposure to the environment started later, was interrupted, or was cut short didn't have any improvements in function and white matter recovery.

Digging deeper, Gallo and colleagues employed next generation sequencing to investigate oligodendrocyte gene expression in these animals, identifying broad differences in networks of genes involved in oligodendrocyte development between the two groups.

Gallo notes that these results and future studies to better understand the effects of enriched environments could lead to better ways to care for premature babies that help lessen or prevent the long-term consequences of oxygen deprivation.

In addition to Gallo, other Children's National co-authors include Thomas A. Forbes, Ph.D., co-lead author, Evan Z. Goldstein, Ph.D., and co-authors Beata Jablonska, Ph.D., Joseph Scafidi, D.O., Katrina L. Adams, Ph.D. and Kazue Hashimoto-Torii, Ph.D.; additional authors include Jeffrey L. Dupree, Ph.D., Virginia Commonwealth University; and Yuka Imamura, Ph.D., Penn State University.

Financial support for research described in this post was provided by the District of Columbia Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Research Center (DC-IDDRC) under award No. U54HD090257, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) under award Nos. R37NS109478, F31NS100277, F32NS106723 and 5R01NS099461. Microscopic analyses were carried out at the Children's National Research Institute Cell and Tissue Microscopy Core, which is supported by DC-IDDRC. The study authors also acknowledge the support of the CRI Bioinformatics Unit, a partnership between the Children's Research Institute, the Center for Genetic Medicine Research, the Clinical Translational Science Institute at Children's National (CTSI-CN) and the DC-IDDRC. The CTSI-CN is supported by the NIH under grant Nos. UL1TR001876 and KL2TR001877.

Summary: Preclinical model of oxygen deprivation, a common consequence of prematurity, showed better recovery when exposed to a combination of increased physical activity, socialization and cognitive stimulation

About Children's National HospitalChildren's National Hospital, based in Washington, D.C., celebrates150yearsof pediatric care, research and commitment to community. Volunteers opened the hospital in 1870 with 12 beds to care for Civil War orphans. Today, 150 years stronger, it is the nation's No. 6 children's hospital. It is ranked No. 1 fornewborn carefor the third straight year and ranked in all specialties evaluated by "U.S. News & World Report." Children's National is transforming pediatric medicine for all children. In 2020, it will open the Children's National Research & Innovation Campus, the first in the nation dedicated to pediatric research. It has been designated twice as a Magnethospital, demonstrating the highest standards of nursing and patient care delivery. This pediatric academic health system offers expert care through a convenient, community-based primary care network and specialty outpatient centers in the D.C., metropolitan area, including the Maryland and Northern Virginia suburbs. Children's National is home to theChildren's National Research InstituteandSheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovationand is the nation's seventh-highest NIH-funded children's hospital. It is recognized for its expertise and innovation in pediatric care and as a strong voice for children through advocacy at the local, regional and national levels.

For more information, follow us onFacebook, Instagram andTwitter.

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RICK MacLEAN: We need a nudge to sign donor cards – SaltWire Network

§ February 19th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on RICK MacLEAN: We need a nudge to sign donor cards – SaltWire Network

Rick MacLean

Someday, perhaps quite soon, a piece of Trina Doyles liver will begin living inside someone elses body.

A single mother of two living in Tignish, shes due to head to Toronto General Hospital soon so she can donate a piece of her liver - to a stranger.Its not a simple process.

But it could be, says Daniel Ariely. Hes an expert in how we make up our minds about everything from what we eat for breakfast in the morning to, well, going under the knife to help ease the always chronic lack of organs needed for donation.

Trina first.

She began pondering the idea of helping others as a teen when someone in her community needed a bone marrow transplant.

That didnt work out. She wasnt a match.

See, this isnt easy.

She became a blood donor, then signed up to give up some of her stem cells, microscopic bits of us that have the nearly magical ability to become anything from muscle to brain cells. They can also help repair damage, making them a hot item in medicine today.

Organ donation is much more complicated. There are concerns about the donors physical health, mental health, even financial health. Getting the nod can take time.

But the liver is a special case when it comes to donation. Cut out a piece and put it into someone else and it grows a whole new liver. Meanwhile, the donors liver grows right back.

Noticing a Facebook posting about organ donation was the final nudge Trina needed to take the plunge. Around Christmas, 2018, she signed up for the organ donation registry.

And "nudge"brings us to Ariely.

Hes a professor of psychology and something called behavioural economics at Duke University in the U.S.

He believes he knows how you make up your mind better than you do. Far better.

Consider organ donation, he says. Your chances of finding a donor in Europe depend on where you live.

If you call Denmark home. Just 4.25 per cent of drivers there have signed an organ consent form. But if youre in France, the number leaps to 99.91 per cent. Germany? Just 12 per cent.

But Hungary? How does 99.997 sound?

Now, Europe is not a big place. Hop in a car in Paris and you can arrive in Bonn, Germany about 500 kilometres and six hours later.

So what gives, when it comes to signing an organ donor card? Why the huge differences?

Were lazy, Ariely says. A simple nudge can influence us.

Countries with the best numbers use an opt-out plan, he says. They assume you want to be a donor - unless you fill out a form saying otherwise. Most people cant be bothered.

Most of Canada assumes you dont want to be donor. You must fill out a form to say you want to help. Most people cant be bothered.

Nova Scotia is an exception. It has passed a law, the first in North America, that assumes you want to donate. It is expected to take effect this year.

Here, Charlottetown-West Royalty MLA Gord McNeilly asked the province last fall to consider doing the same thing. The government is considering the idea.Good plan.

It would mean those in need would have to depend less on people like Doyle, remarkable as her kindness is, and more on the rest of us.

Rick MacLean is an instructor in the journalism program at Holland College in Charlottetown.

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Synthetic Biology Market to Witness a CAGR of 23.9% Through 2020-2025 – Increasing Demand for Protein Therapeutics & Personalized Medicine, Increasing…

§ February 19th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Synthetic Biology Market to Witness a CAGR of 23.9% Through 2020-2025 – Increasing Demand for Protein Therapeutics & Personalized Medicine, Increasing…

DUBLIN, Feb. 17, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- The "Synthetic Biology Market by Tools (Oligonucleotides, Enzymes, Synthetic Cells), by Technology (Gene Synthesis, Bioinformatics), by Application (Tissue Regeneration, Biofuel, Renewable Energy, Food & Agriculture, Bioremediation) - Global Forecast to 2025" report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering.

The global synthetic biology market is projected to reach USD 19.8 billion by 2025 from USD 6.8 billion in 2020, at a CAGR of 23.9%.

This report analyzes the market for various synthetic biology market and their adoption patterns. It aims at estimating the market size and future growth potential of the synthetic biology market and its subsegments. The report also includes an in-depth competitive analysis of the key players in this market, along with their company profiles, product offerings, and recent developments.

Factors such as the increasing demand for synthetic genes and synthetic cells, wide range of applications of synthetic biology, declining cost of DNA sequencing and synthesizing, increasing R&D funding and initiatives in synthetic biology, and increasing investments in the market are propelling the growth of this market. However, rising biosafety, biosecurity, and ethical concerns related to synthetic biology are likely to hamper the growth of this market.

The oligonucleotides and synthetic DNA segment is expected to grow at the highest rate during the forecast period

Based on tools, the market has been segmented into oligonucleotides and synthetic DNA, enzymes, cloning technology kits, chassis organisms, xeno-nucleic acids, and synthetic cells. In 2019, the oligonucleotides and synthetic DNA segment is expected to register the highest CAGR during the forecast period.

This can be attributed to factors such as the rising demand for synthetic DNA, synthetic RNA, and synthetic genes, which are used in a wide range of applications, such as pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, personal care, flavors and fragrances, probiotics, green chemicals, and industrial enzymes.

The genome engineering segment is expected to grow at the highest CAGR during the forecast period

On the basis of technology, the market is segmented into gene synthesis, genome engineering, cloning, sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, measurement and modeling, microfluidics, nanotechnology, bioinformatics technologies.

The genome engineering segment is expected to register the highest CAGR during the forecast period due to factors such as the increasing use of engineering technologies for manipulating complex genomes, growing therapeutics development for cancer and other diseases, and the increasing technological advances in CRISPR-toolbox and DNA synthesis technologies.

The industrial applications segment is expected to grow at the highest CAGR during the forecast period

Based on application, the synthetic biology market is segmented into medical, industrial, food & agricultural, and environmental applications. The industrial applications segment is expected to grow at the highest CAGR owing to the rising applications of synthetic biology in producing renewable energy, biomaterials & green chemicals, and enzymes.

The Asia Pacific is projected to witness the highest growth during the forecast period

The synthetic biology market is divided into North America, Europe, the Asia Pacific, Latin America, and the Middle East & Africa. In 2019, North America accounted for the largest share of the synthetic biology market.

However, the APAC region is expected to witness the highest growth during the forecast period owing to the growth in the number of pharmaceutical & biopharmaceutical companies, the increasing number of healthcare & life science facilities, and increasing requirements for regulatory compliance in pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical companies, growing number of international alliances, heavy funding for synthetic biology research, and strong government support.

Furthermore, the increasing focus on the Asia Pacific markets due to their low-cost manufacturing advantage also provides growth opportunities for manufacturers.

Key Topics Covered

1 Introduction

2 Research Methodology

3 Executive Summary

4 Premium Insights 4.1 Market Overview4.2 Asia Pacific: Market, By Application4.3 Market: Geographic Growth Opportunities4.4 Market, By Region (2018-2025)4.5 Market: Developed vs. Developing Markets

5 Market Overview 5.1 Introduction5.2 Market Dynamics5.2.1 Drivers5.2.1.1 Wide Range of Applications of Synthetic Biology5.2.1.2 Rising R&D Funding and Growing Initiatives in Synthetic Biology5.2.1.3 Declining Cost of DNA Sequencing and Synthesizing5.2.1.4 Increasing Investments in the Market5.2.2 Restraints5.2.2.1 Biosafety, Biosecurity, and Ethical Concerns5.2.3 Opportunities5.2.3.1 Rising Need for Fuel Alternatives5.2.3.2 Increasing Demand for Protein Therapeutics and Personalized Medicine5.2.3.3 Increasing Research in Synthetic Drugs and Vaccines5.2.4 Challenges5.2.4.1 Standardization of Biological Parts

6 Synthetic Biology Market, By Tool 6.1 Introduction6.2 Oligonucleotides & Synthetic DNA6.2.1 Oligonucleotides and Synthetic Dna to Dominate the Market During the Forecast Period6.3 Enzymes6.3.1 Development of Enzymes has Helped in Evolving New Therapies for A Range of Diseases6.4 Cloning Technology Kits6.4.1 Need for the Creation of Artificial Dna Along With Their Assembly is Driving the Growth of the Segment6.5 Synthetic Cells6.5.1 Synthetic Cells Will Allow Tailoring Biologics and Its Adoption is Expected to Grow in the Coming Years6.6 Chassis Organisms6.6.1 Increasing Demand for Fossil Fuels is Likely to Propel the Demand for Chassis Organisms6.7 Xeno-Nucleic Acids6.7.1 Xnas are Increasingly Researched With the Growing Demand for Breakthrough Medicine

7 Synthetic Biology Market, By Technology 7.1 Introduction7.2 Gene Synthesis7.2.1 Gene Synthesis to Dominate the Market During the Forecast Period7.3 Genome Engineering7.3.1 Increasing Demand for Synthetic Dna and Genes is Expected to Drive Market Growth7.4 Sequencing7.4.1 Ngs Technology is Rapidly Becoming an Indispensable and Universal Tool for Biological Research7.5 Bioinformatics7.5.1 Use of Bioinformatics Technologies is Increasing With the Rising Need for Data Management and Curation7.6 Cloning7.6.1 Cloning Aids in Building New Genetic Modules/Pathways, Enabling Rapid Advances in Research Across Various Industries7.7 Site-Directed Mutagenesis7.7.1 Wide Applications in Genetic Engineering, Dna Assembly, and Cloning Technologies is Driving This Segment7.8 Measurement & Modeling7.8.1 Computational Modeling is Aiding the Growth of the Segment During the Forecast Period7.9 Microfluidics7.9.1 Droplet Microfluidics is Gaining Wide Recognition in the Field of Synthetic Biology7.1 Nanotechnology7.10.1 Convergence Between Synthetic Biology and Nanotechnologies Aid in Building Complex Bodies

8 Synthetic Biology Market, By Application 8.1 Introduction8.2 Medical Applications8.2.1 Pharmaceuticals8.2.1.1 In 2019, the Pharmaceuticals Segment Accounted for the Largest Share of the Medical Applications Market8.2.2 Drug Discovery and Therapeutics8.2.2.1 Cancer Detection & Diagnostics8.2.2.1.1 With Rising Investments for Cancer Research, the Market for Synthetic Biology is Expected to Grow for This Segment8.2.2.2 Other Drug Discovery and Therapeutic Applications8.2.3 Artificial Tissue & Tissue Regeneration8.2.3.1 Bio-Synthesis8.2.3.1.1 Bio-Synthesis is Dominating the Market With Its Increasing Adoption in Creating Artificial Genomes8.2.3.2 Stem Cell Regulation8.2.3.2.1 Use of Synthetic Biology in Stem Cell Regeneration and Reprogramming Somatic Cells is Expected to Drive Market Growth8.2.3.3 Other Artificial Tissue and Tissue Regeneration Applications8.3 Industrial Applications8.3.1 Biofuel and Renewable Energy8.3.1.1 Advantages of Using Genetically Engineered Organisms for the Synthetic Production of Biofuels is Driving Market Growth8.3.2 Industrial Enzymes8.3.2.1 Textile Industry8.3.2.1.1 Synthetic Biology is Being Applied in the Textile Industry to Replace Traditional Raw Materials8.3.2.2 Paper Industry8.3.2.2.1 Enzymes are Being Increasingly Used in the Pulp and Paper Industry8.3.2.3 Other Industries8.3.3 Biomaterials & Green Chemicals8.3.3.1 Silk-Based Proteins are A Type of Biomaterial Prepared Through Synthetic Biology8.4 Food & Agriculture8.4.1 Synthetic Biology Techniques are Applied in the Food and Agriculture Industry to Produce Metabolites, Health Products, and Processing Aids8.5 Environmental Applications8.5.1 Bioremediation8.5.1.1 Owing to the Growing Severity of Environmental Problems, It has Become Necessary to Develop Cost-Effective, On-Site Methods for Environmental Monitoring and Bioremediation8.5.2 Biosensing8.5.2.1 Biosensor Applications Commonly Make Use of Microalgae Owing to Their High Reproductive Rates and Ease of Culturing Due to Their Microscopic Size

9 Synthetic Biology Market, By Region 9.1 Introduction9.2 North America9.2.1 US9.2.1.1 The US Dominates the North American Market9.2.2 Canada9.2.2.1 Strong Research Infrastructure and Availability of Funding Will Support Market Growth9.3 Europe9.3.1 UK9.3.1.1 The UK Holds the Largest Share of the European Market9.3.2 Germany9.3.2.1 The Rapidly Growing Pharmaceutical Market is Expected to Drive Market Growth9.3.3 France9.3.3.1 Research Across All Industries is Strongly Supported By the Government9.3.4 Denmark9.3.4.1 Denmark has the Third-Largest Commercial Drug-Development Pipeline in Europe9.3.5 Switzerland9.3.5.1 Market Growth is Primarily Driven By the Well-Established Pharmaceutical & Biotechnology Industry in the Country9.3.6 Spain9.3.6.1 Spain has A Well-Established Network of Research Centers, Universities, and Hospitals, Which Form an Ideal Environment for Research9.3.7 Italy9.3.7.1 Growth in This Market is Mainly Driven By Increasing Life Science R&D in the Country, Funded By Both Public and Private Organizations9.3.8 Rest of Europe9.4 Asia Pacific9.4.1 Japan9.4.1.1 Large Number of Research Initiatives Towards the Development of Precision Medicine Supporting Market Growth9.4.2 China9.4.2.1 Growth in R&D to Enhance the Technological Capabilities in the Country, Thereby Driving the Demand for High-Quality Research Tools9.4.3 Australia9.4.3.1 Increasing Focus of the Healthcare System on Precision Medicine to Offer Significant Growth Opportunities9.4.4 India9.4.4.1 Increasing Pharma R&D and Government Funding in the Biotechnology Industry are the Major Factors Driving Market Growth9.4.5 Rest of Asia Pacific9.5 Latin America9.5.1 Strong Pharmaceutical Industry in the Region to Provide Significant Growth Opportunities9.6 Middle East and Africa9.6.1 Increasing Partnerships Among Global Players With Government Organizations in the Region to Support Growth

10 Competitive Landscape 10.1 Overview10.2 Market Share Analysis10.2.1 Synthetic Biology Market, By Key Players, 201810.3 Competitive Leadership Mapping10.3.1 Visionary Leaders10.3.2 Innovators10.3.3 Dynamic Differentiators10.3.4 Emerging Companies10.4 Competitive Situation and Trends10.4.1 Product Launches10.4.2 Expansions10.4.3 Acquisitions10.4.4 Other Strategies

11 Company Profiles 11.1 Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.11.1.1 Business Overview11.1.2 Products Offered11.1.3 Recent Developments11.2 Merck KGaA11.3 Agilent Technologies Inc.11.4 Novozymes A/S11.5 Ginkgo Bioworks11.6 Amyris Inc.11.7 Intrexon Corporation11.8 Genscript Biotech Corporation11.9 Twist Bioscience11.10 Synthetic Genomics Inc. (SGI)11.11 Codexis Inc.11.12 Synthego Corporation11.13 Creative Enzymes11.14 Eurofins Scientific11.15 Cyrus Biotechnology Inc.11.16 Other Major Companies11.16.1 Atum11.16.2 Teselagen11.16.3 Arzeda11.16.4 Integrated DNA Technologies Inc.11.16.5 New England Biolabs

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How Nanomedicine is Going Green and Fighting Superbugs – CareDash News

§ February 18th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on How Nanomedicine is Going Green and Fighting Superbugs – CareDash News

Nanomaterials are materials with one dimension less than 100 nanometers. A nanometer is one-billionth of a meter. Professor Thomas Webster directs the Nanomedicine Laboratory at Northeastern University. His lab designs, synthesizes, and evaluates nanomaterials for various medical implant applications. CareDash CEO and Managing Editor Ted Chan interviewed Dr. Webster about nanotech innovation.

We focus on the synthesis, design, and evaluation of nanomaterials (that is, tubes, particles, etc. with dimensions usually less than 100 nm) in medicine. Specifically, we were the first group to demonstrate increased tissue growth (such as bone, cartilage, vascular, bladder, nervous system, etc.) on nanomaterials compared to conventional implants. We were also the first group to report decreased infection on nanomaterials compared to conventional implants, even without the use of drugs. We have also been pioneering the use of implantable nanosensors to detect disease, communicate such information to a handheld device, and kill the disease on-demand.

As just one example, we have a growing alarming number of antibiotic-resistant infections that are crippling our healthcare system. In fact, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control has predicted that more people will die from antibiotic-resistant infections than all cancers combined by 2050. We created this problem, and we can solve it. So, in simple terms, we are killing bacteria using nanoparticles, but not antibiotics. We can even kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria with nanoparticles, whereas antibiotics fail. Decreasing infection from any bacteria, especially antibiotic-resistant bacteria, will significantly increase health.

In addition to those medical advances mentioned above (implantable sensors, nanoparticles that can kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria, nanomaterials to increase tissue growth, etc.), I am particularly excited about green nanomedicine.

Green nanomedicine is where we can use natural materials to create medical devices and nanoparticles. This is important since a significant portion of the "plastic island" in the Pacific Ocean is composed of plastics from the medical community, yet very few people are studying green biomaterials or green nanomedicine. We are here at Northeastern Nanomedicine Laboratory. We have been creating green medical devices and green nanoparticles, which is saving our environment and are more effective in their function than the respective conventional materials.

Persistence. We have started over 13 companies with over 23 FDA approved implants. Research is hard enough, but getting the funding to commercialize your products is even harder. I have learned throughout my career in so many ways never to give up, and if you believe in technology, persist until it is saving human lives.

Dr. Webster is a Keynote Speaker at the 2ndBiomedical Engineering and Instrumentation Summit(BEIS 2020), a conference organized to promote awareness and enhance research in biomedical engineering. BEIS 2020 will be held on July 20-22, 2020, in Boston, MA.

Disclosure: CareDash is a media partner of the BEIS Summit at which Dr. Webster is a keynote speaker in 2020. Dr. Webster and CareDash have no financial affiliation.

You can also tweet us questions and comments@caredash.

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Nanomedicine Market by Key Manufacturers, Regions, Risk Analysis, Industry Share, Driving Factors, Deployment Policy, Innovative Technology, Product…

§ February 18th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanomedicine Market by Key Manufacturers, Regions, Risk Analysis, Industry Share, Driving Factors, Deployment Policy, Innovative Technology, Product…

Global Nanomedicine Market report provides you with detailed insights, industry knowledge, market forecasts and analytics. The report on the global Nanomedicine industry also clarifies economic risks and environmental compliance. Global Nanomedicine market report assists industry enthusiasts including investors and decision makers to make confident capital investments, develop strategies, optimize their business portfolio, innovate successfully and perform safely and sustainably.

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Key Companies

The report offers detailed coverage of Nanomedicine industry and main market trends. The market research includes historical and forecast market data, demand, application details, price trends, and company shares of the leading Nanomedicine by geography. The report splits the market size, by volume and value, on the basis of application type and geography.

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Key Product Type

Market by Application

Nanomedicine Market Segment by Regions

Asia-Pacific: China, Southeast Asia, India, Japan, Korea, Oceania

Europe: Germany, UK, France, Italy, Russia, Spain, Netherlands, Turkey, Switzerland

North America: United States, Canada, Mexico

Middle East & Africa: GCC, North Africa, South Africa

South America: Brazil, Argentina, Columbia, Chile, Peru

The key points of the Nanomedicine Market report:

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Global Nanomedicine Market providing information such as company profiles, product picture, and specification, capacity, production, price, cost, revenue and contact information. Upstream raw materials and equipment and downstream demand analysis are also carried out. The Global Nanomedicine market development trends and marketing channels are analysed. Finally, the feasibility of new investment projects is assessed and overall research conclusions offered.

Key Points from Table of Content

1 Nanomedicine Industrial Chain Overview2 Global Nanomedicine Market Production & Consumption by Geography3 Nanomedicine Market Major Manufacturers Introduction4 Nanomedicine Market Competition Pattern5 Nanomedicine Product Type Segment6 Nanomedicine End-Use Segment7 Nanomedicine Market Forecast & Trend8 Nanomedicine Price & Channel9 Nanomedicine Market Drivers & Investment Environment10 Research Conclusion

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Rapid Industrialization in Emerging Countries to Bolster the Growth of the Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market during 2015 2021 – Redhill…

§ February 18th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Rapid Industrialization in Emerging Countries to Bolster the Growth of the Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market during 2015 2021 – Redhill…

The comprehensive report published by Persistence Market Research offers an in-depth intelligence related to the various factors that are likely to impact the demand, revenue generation, and sales of the Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market. In addition, the report singles out the different parameters that are expected to influence the overall dynamics of the Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market during the forecast period 2015 2021.

As per the findings of the presented study, the Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market is poised to surpass the value of ~US$ XX by the end of 2029 growing at a CAGR of ~XX% over the assessment period. The report includes a thorough analysis of the upstream raw materials, supply-demand ratio of the Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) in different regions, import-export trends and more to provide readers a fair understanding of the global market scenario.

ThisPress Release will help you to understand the Volume, growth with Impacting Trends. Click HERE To get SAMPLE PDF (Including Full TOC, Table & Figures) athttps://www.persistencemarketresearch.co/samples/6370

The report segregates the Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market into different segments to provide a detailed understanding of the various aspects of the market. The competitive analysis of the Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market includes valuable insights based on which, market players can formulate impactful growth strategies to enhance their presence in the Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market.

Key findings of the report:

The report aims to eliminate the following doubts related to the Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market:

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Key players in the global nanomedicine market include: Abbott Laboratories, CombiMatrix Corporation, GE Healthcare, Sigma-Tau Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Johnson & Johnson, Mallinckrodt plc, Merck & Company, Inc., Nanosphere, Inc., Pfizer, Inc., Celgene Corporation, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., and UCB (Union chimique belge) S.A.

Key geographies evaluated in this report are:

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Turkish doctor creates first see-through 3D maps of human kidney and eye – Daily Sabah

§ February 18th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Turkish doctor creates first see-through 3D maps of human kidney and eye – Daily Sabah

A Turkish doctor and his 15-member team have managed to render transparent 3D models of the human eye and kidney in what the scientific community heralds as an important development in organ production, the fight against cancer and even the mapping of the brain.

Genetics and neuroscience specialist Dr. Ali Ertrk, the director of the Institute for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine at Helmholtz Zentrum Mnchen and also principal investigator at the Institute for Stroke and Dementia Research at Ludwig Maximilian University's hospital, talked about their pioneering project in which they used microscopic imaging technology to reveal underlying complex structures of human organs by making them see-through. Their findings were published in the scientific journal Cell on Feb. 13.As part of the final stage of their project, Ertrk said they developed a new technology called SHANEL (Small-micelle-mediated HumAN organ Efficient clearing and Labeling) which is essentially a 3D laser microscope that can scan large tissues. Up until now, scientists had only managed to obtain cellular views of intact mouse organs in 3D. The chemicals used to turn mouse organs see-through did not work on human parts because of the accumulation of insoluble molecules including collagen over many years. After many trials, the team discovered CHAPS, a detergent that could seep into thick human organs and turn them transparent.

"We started these studies three years ago. In order to make 3D maps of these organs at a cellular level, we first had to make them visible under a laser microscope. Last year, we succeeded in making organs donated from cadavers transparent with various chemical solutions, as if turning milk into water," Demirren News Agency (DHA) quoted Ertrk as saying."We also developed an artificial intelligence algorithm that reduces the analysis of millions of images that we have obtained from the microscope, which would normally take humans centuries to analyze, down to just a few hours. Thus, for the first time in the world, we were able to make a 3D map of the human kidney and eye at the cellular level," he added.

The method could become a key technology for mapping intact human organs in the near future and hence "dramatically accelerate our understanding of organs such as the brain, their development and function in health and disease," explained Ertrk.

He said they believe that Shanel can help map the human brain at a molecular level and produce artificial human organs at a cellular level thanks to the 3D-bioprinting technology. Ertrk said they are currently working on mapping major organs such as the heart, kidney and pancreas.

"There is a huge shortage of organ donors for hundreds of thousands of people. The waiting time for patients and the transplantation costs are a real burden. Detailed knowledge about the cellular structure of human organs brings us an important step closer to creating functional organs artificially on demand," the biotech specialist said in a press release.

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A Rare Human Disease Has Been Found in Dinosaur Bones, Could it Lead to a Treatment? – PharmaLive

§ February 18th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on A Rare Human Disease Has Been Found in Dinosaur Bones, Could it Lead to a Treatment? – PharmaLive

It is largely accepted that the dinosaurs were killed off due to an asteroid impact on the planets surface that created a chain reaction of climactic calamities at least, thats the primary theory. And while all that is left of dinosaurs are their bones, those fossilized pieces can still provide us with important scientific resources, including perhaps a key to at least one rare disease.

Researchers have discovered the remains of a dinosaur from what is now modern Alberta, Canada that contains evidence of having suffered a condition similar to a rare cancer of the bone marrow. In bone remains from a hadrosaur, a duck-billed dinosaur, researchers found lesions in tail vertebrae bones that are similar to the rare disease Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), a type of cancer that begins in the bone marrow. Details of the study were published in Nature.

According to the Cleveland Clinic, LCH, previously known as histiocytosis X, is characterized by abnormal increases in white blood cells called histiocytes. The histiocyte cells help the bodys immune system fight infection and destroy foreign materials. The extra immune cells produced by this condition may form tumors, which can affect parts of the body like the bones and possibly spread to other areas, the clinic said on its website. It typically affects children between the ages of five and 10 years. There are less than 200,000 diagnoses annually. The most common form of LCH is eosinophilic granuloma. Most patients afflicted with LCH tend to recover, but the condition can cause pain and swelling.

Langerhans cell histiocytosis historically was thought of as a cancer-like condition, but more recently researchers have begun to consider it an autoimmune phenomenon in which immune cells begin to overproduce and attack the body instead of fighting infection. In most cases it is not known why the disorder appears, although there may be a genetic link, the Cleveland Clinic said on its website.

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Because of the different ways in which LCH can affect the body, there are different treatment options for people diagnosed with the disorder. In addition to steroid treatments, surgery and anti-inflammatory treatments can be recommended. Radiation treatment and chemotherapy can be used in some patients, the Histiocytosis Association noted on its website.

After a detailed study of the lesions in the hadrosaurs bones, the researchers confirmed that the issue afflicting the dinosaur was LCH. The researchers confirmed the diagnosis through macroscopic and microscopic analyses of the hadrosaur vertebrae and then compared to human LCH, as well as other pathologies. The hadrosaur pathology findings were indistinguishable from those of humans with LCH, supporting that diagnosis, the researchers said in their study abstract. The disease has been found in other animals, but this was the first time it was seen in a creature that died out millions of years ago.

Knowing that the disease has been discovered in dinosaurs could help lead to breakthroughs in potential treatments for the disease. Israel Hershkovitz, a palaeopathologist from Tel Aviv University who assisted in the study, told Science Alert that the goal of these kinds of studies, looking at disease states in long-dead creatures, could lead to an understanding of the causes of LCH and other diseases.

Ultimately, the goal of such studies is to understand the real cause of these illnesses and what evolutionary mechanisms allowed them to develop and survive, Hershkovitz told the publication. Perhaps if we understand a diseases underlying mechanisms we can treat its causes more effectively, instead of focusing on the symptoms, as modern medicine tends to do.

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On Nature column: A short history of limestone – The Herald Bulletin

§ February 18th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on On Nature column: A short history of limestone – The Herald Bulletin

Glacial deposits of sand and gravel have been waiting for 11,500 years to be discovered, mined and used to make modern life possible.

We depend on limestone quarries for a mind-boggling array of uses and end products that include agricultural lime, paper, fillers, asphalt, concrete, Portland cement, bridges, roads, building materials, monuments, medicine, makeup, toothpaste, paint, household cleaners, landscaping stone, nutritional supplements and animal feed. Many famous buildings like the Empire State Building, the Biltmore mansion, the Pentagon, Yankee Stadium, the National Cathedral and 35 state capitols were built from Indiana limestone.

After a quarry has been mined and groundwater fills it in, it can be transformed into a municipal water supply, a recreational resource or wildlife habitat. The series of gravel pits in northern Madison County along Killbuck and Little Killbuck creeks are prime examples of gravel pits that were mined out and converted to recreational and other uses.

The story of Indiana limestone began underneath a vast inland sea that covered much of North America more than 400 million years ago. At that time (the Silurian Period), the sea was filled with now extinct microscopic shelled organisms, giant scorpions, crinoids, coral, trilobites and armored fish. These life forms were able to extract calcium carbonate from the water and transform it into the calcium carbonate of their shells. As they died and sank to the ocean floor, they were covered by layer after layer of the remains of other organisms and sediment and cemented together under pressure to become limestone. Limestone is quite soft, varies in color from white to gray, and is at least 50% calcite or dolomite.

After a time, forces deep within the Earths crust lifted what was once the ocean floor hundreds of feet above sea level, becoming outcroppings of sedimentary rock like limestone, sandstone and shale. The road cut south of Wabash is an excellent example of shale formed from mud at the bottom of an ancient sea.

Shifts in the Earths crust and changes in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are continually affecting the Earths climate. Beginning about 2.4 million years ago, a series of ice sheets advanced and retreated over present-day North America. The most recent ice age (the Wisconsin glaciation) ended about 11,500 years ago. At that time, huge sheets of ice covered the northern two-thirds of Indiana. Glaciers pretty well pulverized most limestone outcroppings and much of the land surface, leaving this part of the state relatively flat. As the climate warmed and glaciers began to retreat, melt water formed depressions filled with rushing water that carried silt, sand and gravel along with it. The heaviest particles settled out first followed by progressively lighter particles, eventually producing layers of sedimentary rock (strata).

In east-central Indiana, we have an abundance of aggregate (sand and gravel) quarries currently in operation. Salem limestone is mined near Bloomington and Bedford and was immortalized in the film Breaking Away.

Sheryl Myers taught biology and environmental science for 34 years and has worked as a naturalist for area parks. She is a founding director of Heart of the River Coalition. On Nature is published Tuesdays in The Herald Bulletin.

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Synthetic Biology Market to Witness a CAGR of 23.9% Through 2020-2025 – Increasing Demand for Protein Therapeutics & Personalized Medicine,…

§ February 18th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Synthetic Biology Market to Witness a CAGR of 23.9% Through 2020-2025 – Increasing Demand for Protein Therapeutics & Personalized Medicine,…

DUBLIN, Feb. 17, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- The "Synthetic Biology Market by Tools (Oligonucleotides, Enzymes, Synthetic Cells), by Technology (Gene Synthesis, Bioinformatics), by Application (Tissue Regeneration, Biofuel, Renewable Energy, Food & Agriculture, Bioremediation) - Global Forecast to 2025" report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering.

The global synthetic biology market is projected to reach USD 19.8 billion by 2025 from USD 6.8 billion in 2020, at a CAGR of 23.9%.

This report analyzes the market for various synthetic biology market and their adoption patterns. It aims at estimating the market size and future growth potential of the synthetic biology market and its subsegments. The report also includes an in-depth competitive analysis of the key players in this market, along with their company profiles, product offerings, and recent developments.

Factors such as the increasing demand for synthetic genes and synthetic cells, wide range of applications of synthetic biology, declining cost of DNA sequencing and synthesizing, increasing R&D funding and initiatives in synthetic biology, and increasing investments in the market are propelling the growth of this market. However, rising biosafety, biosecurity, and ethical concerns related to synthetic biology are likely to hamper the growth of this market.

The oligonucleotides and synthetic DNA segment is expected to grow at the highest rate during the forecast period

Based on tools, the market has been segmented into oligonucleotides and synthetic DNA, enzymes, cloning technology kits, chassis organisms, xeno-nucleic acids, and synthetic cells. In 2019, the oligonucleotides and synthetic DNA segment is expected to register the highest CAGR during the forecast period.

This can be attributed to factors such as the rising demand for synthetic DNA, synthetic RNA, and synthetic genes, which are used in a wide range of applications, such as pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, personal care, flavors and fragrances, probiotics, green chemicals, and industrial enzymes.

The genome engineering segment is expected to grow at the highest CAGR during the forecast period

On the basis of technology, the market is segmented into gene synthesis, genome engineering, cloning, sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, measurement and modeling, microfluidics, nanotechnology, bioinformatics technologies.

The genome engineering segment is expected to register the highest CAGR during the forecast period due to factors such as the increasing use of engineering technologies for manipulating complex genomes, growing therapeutics development for cancer and other diseases, and the increasing technological advances in CRISPR-toolbox and DNA synthesis technologies.

The industrial applications segment is expected to grow at the highest CAGR during the forecast period

Based on application, the synthetic biology market is segmented into medical, industrial, food & agricultural, and environmental applications. The industrial applications segment is expected to grow at the highest CAGR owing to the rising applications of synthetic biology in producing renewable energy, biomaterials & green chemicals, and enzymes.

The Asia Pacific is projected to witness the highest growth during the forecast period

The synthetic biology market is divided into North America, Europe, the Asia Pacific, Latin America, and the Middle East & Africa. In 2019, North America accounted for the largest share of the synthetic biology market.

However, the APAC region is expected to witness the highest growth during the forecast period owing to the growth in the number of pharmaceutical & biopharmaceutical companies, the increasing number of healthcare & life science facilities, and increasing requirements for regulatory compliance in pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical companies, growing number of international alliances, heavy funding for synthetic biology research, and strong government support.

Furthermore, the increasing focus on the Asia Pacific markets due to their low-cost manufacturing advantage also provides growth opportunities for manufacturers.

Key Topics Covered

1 Introduction

2 Research Methodology

3 Executive Summary

4 Premium Insights 4.1 Market Overview4.2 Asia Pacific: Market, By Application4.3 Market: Geographic Growth Opportunities4.4 Market, By Region (2018-2025)4.5 Market: Developed vs. Developing Markets

5 Market Overview 5.1 Introduction5.2 Market Dynamics5.2.1 Drivers5.2.1.1 Wide Range of Applications of Synthetic Biology5.2.1.2 Rising R&D Funding and Growing Initiatives in Synthetic Biology5.2.1.3 Declining Cost of DNA Sequencing and Synthesizing5.2.1.4 Increasing Investments in the Market5.2.2 Restraints5.2.2.1 Biosafety, Biosecurity, and Ethical Concerns5.2.3 Opportunities5.2.3.1 Rising Need for Fuel Alternatives5.2.3.2 Increasing Demand for Protein Therapeutics and Personalized Medicine5.2.3.3 Increasing Research in Synthetic Drugs and Vaccines5.2.4 Challenges5.2.4.1 Standardization of Biological Parts

6 Synthetic Biology Market, By Tool 6.1 Introduction6.2 Oligonucleotides & Synthetic DNA6.2.1 Oligonucleotides and Synthetic Dna to Dominate the Market During the Forecast Period6.3 Enzymes6.3.1 Development of Enzymes has Helped in Evolving New Therapies for A Range of Diseases6.4 Cloning Technology Kits6.4.1 Need for the Creation of Artificial Dna Along With Their Assembly is Driving the Growth of the Segment6.5 Synthetic Cells6.5.1 Synthetic Cells Will Allow Tailoring Biologics and Its Adoption is Expected to Grow in the Coming Years6.6 Chassis Organisms6.6.1 Increasing Demand for Fossil Fuels is Likely to Propel the Demand for Chassis Organisms6.7 Xeno-Nucleic Acids6.7.1 Xnas are Increasingly Researched With the Growing Demand for Breakthrough Medicine

7 Synthetic Biology Market, By Technology 7.1 Introduction7.2 Gene Synthesis7.2.1 Gene Synthesis to Dominate the Market During the Forecast Period7.3 Genome Engineering7.3.1 Increasing Demand for Synthetic Dna and Genes is Expected to Drive Market Growth7.4 Sequencing7.4.1 Ngs Technology is Rapidly Becoming an Indispensable and Universal Tool for Biological Research7.5 Bioinformatics7.5.1 Use of Bioinformatics Technologies is Increasing With the Rising Need for Data Management and Curation7.6 Cloning7.6.1 Cloning Aids in Building New Genetic Modules/Pathways, Enabling Rapid Advances in Research Across Various Industries7.7 Site-Directed Mutagenesis7.7.1 Wide Applications in Genetic Engineering, Dna Assembly, and Cloning Technologies is Driving This Segment7.8 Measurement & Modeling7.8.1 Computational Modeling is Aiding the Growth of the Segment During the Forecast Period7.9 Microfluidics7.9.1 Droplet Microfluidics is Gaining Wide Recognition in the Field of Synthetic Biology7.1 Nanotechnology7.10.1 Convergence Between Synthetic Biology and Nanotechnologies Aid in Building Complex Bodies

8 Synthetic Biology Market, By Application 8.1 Introduction8.2 Medical Applications8.2.1 Pharmaceuticals8.2.1.1 In 2019, the Pharmaceuticals Segment Accounted for the Largest Share of the Medical Applications Market8.2.2 Drug Discovery and Therapeutics8.2.2.1 Cancer Detection & Diagnostics8.2.2.1.1 With Rising Investments for Cancer Research, the Market for Synthetic Biology is Expected to Grow for This Segment8.2.2.2 Other Drug Discovery and Therapeutic Applications8.2.3 Artificial Tissue & Tissue Regeneration8.2.3.1 Bio-Synthesis8.2.3.1.1 Bio-Synthesis is Dominating the Market With Its Increasing Adoption in Creating Artificial Genomes8.2.3.2 Stem Cell Regulation8.2.3.2.1 Use of Synthetic Biology in Stem Cell Regeneration and Reprogramming Somatic Cells is Expected to Drive Market Growth8.2.3.3 Other Artificial Tissue and Tissue Regeneration Applications8.3 Industrial Applications8.3.1 Biofuel and Renewable Energy8.3.1.1 Advantages of Using Genetically Engineered Organisms for the Synthetic Production of Biofuels is Driving Market Growth8.3.2 Industrial Enzymes8.3.2.1 Textile Industry8.3.2.1.1 Synthetic Biology is Being Applied in the Textile Industry to Replace Traditional Raw Materials8.3.2.2 Paper Industry8.3.2.2.1 Enzymes are Being Increasingly Used in the Pulp and Paper Industry8.3.2.3 Other Industries8.3.3 Biomaterials & Green Chemicals8.3.3.1 Silk-Based Proteins are A Type of Biomaterial Prepared Through Synthetic Biology8.4 Food & Agriculture8.4.1 Synthetic Biology Techniques are Applied in the Food and Agriculture Industry to Produce Metabolites, Health Products, and Processing Aids8.5 Environmental Applications8.5.1 Bioremediation8.5.1.1 Owing to the Growing Severity of Environmental Problems, It has Become Necessary to Develop Cost-Effective, On-Site Methods for Environmental Monitoring and Bioremediation8.5.2 Biosensing8.5.2.1 Biosensor Applications Commonly Make Use of Microalgae Owing to Their High Reproductive Rates and Ease of Culturing Due to Their Microscopic Size

9 Synthetic Biology Market, By Region 9.1 Introduction9.2 North America9.2.1 US9.2.1.1 The US Dominates the North American Market9.2.2 Canada9.2.2.1 Strong Research Infrastructure and Availability of Funding Will Support Market Growth9.3 Europe9.3.1 UK9.3.1.1 The UK Holds the Largest Share of the European Market9.3.2 Germany9.3.2.1 The Rapidly Growing Pharmaceutical Market is Expected to Drive Market Growth9.3.3 France9.3.3.1 Research Across All Industries is Strongly Supported By the Government9.3.4 Denmark9.3.4.1 Denmark has the Third-Largest Commercial Drug-Development Pipeline in Europe9.3.5 Switzerland9.3.5.1 Market Growth is Primarily Driven By the Well-Established Pharmaceutical & Biotechnology Industry in the Country9.3.6 Spain9.3.6.1 Spain has A Well-Established Network of Research Centers, Universities, and Hospitals, Which Form an Ideal Environment for Research9.3.7 Italy9.3.7.1 Growth in This Market is Mainly Driven By Increasing Life Science R&D in the Country, Funded By Both Public and Private Organizations9.3.8 Rest of Europe9.4 Asia Pacific9.4.1 Japan9.4.1.1 Large Number of Research Initiatives Towards the Development of Precision Medicine Supporting Market Growth9.4.2 China9.4.2.1 Growth in R&D to Enhance the Technological Capabilities in the Country, Thereby Driving the Demand for High-Quality Research Tools9.4.3 Australia9.4.3.1 Increasing Focus of the Healthcare System on Precision Medicine to Offer Significant Growth Opportunities9.4.4 India9.4.4.1 Increasing Pharma R&D and Government Funding in the Biotechnology Industry are the Major Factors Driving Market Growth9.4.5 Rest of Asia Pacific9.5 Latin America9.5.1 Strong Pharmaceutical Industry in the Region to Provide Significant Growth Opportunities9.6 Middle East and Africa9.6.1 Increasing Partnerships Among Global Players With Government Organizations in the Region to Support Growth

10 Competitive Landscape 10.1 Overview10.2 Market Share Analysis10.2.1 Synthetic Biology Market, By Key Players, 201810.3 Competitive Leadership Mapping10.3.1 Visionary Leaders10.3.2 Innovators10.3.3 Dynamic Differentiators10.3.4 Emerging Companies10.4 Competitive Situation and Trends10.4.1 Product Launches10.4.2 Expansions10.4.3 Acquisitions10.4.4 Other Strategies

11 Company Profiles 11.1 Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.11.1.1 Business Overview11.1.2 Products Offered11.1.3 Recent Developments11.2 Merck KGaA11.3 Agilent Technologies Inc.11.4 Novozymes A/S11.5 Ginkgo Bioworks11.6 Amyris Inc.11.7 Intrexon Corporation11.8 Genscript Biotech Corporation11.9 Twist Bioscience11.10 Synthetic Genomics Inc. (SGI)11.11 Codexis Inc.11.12 Synthego Corporation11.13 Creative Enzymes11.14 Eurofins Scientific11.15 Cyrus Biotechnology Inc.11.16 Other Major Companies11.16.1 Atum11.16.2 Teselagen11.16.3 Arzeda11.16.4 Integrated DNA Technologies Inc.11.16.5 New England Biolabs

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Radiation Shielding And Monitoring Market to Expand with Significant CAGR during 2024 – Kentucky Journal 24

§ February 18th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Radiation Shielding And Monitoring Market to Expand with Significant CAGR during 2024 – Kentucky Journal 24

The global market for radiation safety and protection and shielding applications should grow from $58.8 billion in 2019 to $72.9 billion by 2024, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 4.4% for 2019-2024.

Report Scope:

This report has been prepared in a simple, easy-to-understand format. Numerous tables and figures are included to illustrate current and future market scenarios. The report includes a detailed study of global and regional markets for various products and equipment involved in radiation monitoring and shielding, as well as the various applications for these products and equipment in different fields and industries, with reasons given for variations in the growth of the industry in certain regions.

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Report Includes:

69 tables Detailed overview of the global markets for various products and equipment involved in radiation monitoring and shielding and the various applications for these products and equipment in different fields and industries Analyses of the global market trends with data from 2017 and 2018, estimates for 2019, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2024 Quantitative analysis of the global and regional markets for radiation shielding and monitoring products and equipment by various end user segments such as forms of ionizing radiation, methods of radiation detection, radiation protection equipment and their sub-types, and applications of radiation detection Information on various types of radiation shielding materials, including their properties, uses and the future market outlook Discussion of technological, regulatory, and economic trends that are affecting the market Patent review and new developments in radiation monitoring and shielding products and equipment industry Company profiles of major manufacturers of radiation shielding and monitoring equipment, including Ametek Inc., Rapiscan Systems, S.E. International Inc., Scionix Holland B.V., IBA Dosimetry GmbH, Smiths Detection Inc., and Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.

Summary

The increased use of ionization radiation in industry and medicine presents a health hazard, as it can cause microscopic damage to living tissue, resulting in skin burns and radiation sickness at high exposures. The advances in computed tomography, as well as the high radiation doses delivered by interventional procedures, have raised serious safety and health concerns for both patients and medical staff, requiring the establishment of a radiation protection culture (RPC) in every radiology department. The term culture in RPC describes the combination of attitudes, beliefs, practices and rules among the professionals, staff and patients regarding radiation protection. The establishment of such a culturerequires continuing education of the staff and professionals, effective communication at all levels and implementation of quality assurance programs. This culture must be brought about from the highest level of leadership. The establishment of an RPC enables the reduction of the radiation dose, enhances radiation risk awareness, minimizes unsafe practices and improves the quality of a radiation protection program.

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The major factors affecting the growth of market for radiation monitoring and shielding devices can be summarized as growing security threats, increasing global prevalence of cancer, increasing safety awareness among people working in radiation-prone environments and growing safety concerns after recently nuclear disasters.

The market for radiation monitoring and shielding has been divided into two segments Radiation detection, measurement and monitoring equipment. Radiation shielding, safety and protection equipment.

The following summary table and figure illustrate the market for various radiation safety and protection and shielding applications, which have been divided into five segments Personal protection applications. Homeland security and military applications. Radiation shielding applications. Medical and laboratory applications. Industrial and nuclear power applications.

The total market for radiation safety and protection and shielding applications was worth more than REDACTED in 2017. This market is expected to reach nearly REDACTED by the end of 2024, with an expected compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of REDACTED.

The Summary Table shows that personal protection applications dominate the market, with REDACTED in 2017, increasing to nearly REDACTED in 2024, with a CAGR of REDACTED. The Homeland security and military applications segment was worth REDACTED in 2017, and it is expected to reach REDACTED by 2024, with a CAGR of REDA CTED.

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What Is Halotherapy? And Why You Should Add a Salt Cave Component to Your Wellness Routine – TownandCountrymag.com

§ February 18th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on What Is Halotherapy? And Why You Should Add a Salt Cave Component to Your Wellness Routine – TownandCountrymag.com

From freezing chambers to infrared saunas and more, the experience of sitting in unique environments for the sake of wellness is a common pursuit. Halotherapy, or salt therapy, (Halo is the Greek word for salt) reproduces the naturally occurring environments of salt mines found in countries like Poland and Russia. And like other wellness practices, halotherapy dates way back. In fact, it was first officially recognized as a therapy by Polish physician Dr. Felikz Boczowski in 1843, whod taken note of the absence of respiratory problems in salt mine workers. Here we asks the experts why sitting in a salt cave may very well be a wonderful treatment for modern ailments.

Halotherapy is more familiar than it might initially seem. Case in point: anyone whos ever gargled with salt water to quell a sore throat, or even disinfected a wound with salt water has practiced wet halotherapy. Dry halotherapy can take a number of forms In some respects, a day at the beach is a Halotherapy session, explains Alex Eingorn, a chiropractor and co-manager of Breathe Salt Room in Manhattan.

As far as manmade salt rooms, or salt caves go, there are typically two main kinds. Some are exactly as they sound, rooms in which the walls are made of Himalayan salt bricks and the floors covered in salt. The second kind uses a halogenerator, a machine which blows tiny particles of pharmaceutical grade salt into the air. These caves were created to mimic the micro-climate of salt mines and allow visitors to benefit from the inhalation of salt-infused air, and are generally considered more beneficial than those without halogenerators.

One good thing about halotherapy is how low-lift a commitment it is. Once youre sitting in a salt cave, the experience is not so different from sitting outside of one. While ideally one might meditate, you can read a book, or even catch up on emails from a salt cave too. (There are usually some lounge chairs). While you can go in a salt cave in your everyday clothes, comfy, non-precious athleisure is ideal, and some spaces provide robes and shoe covers to help protect clothes from salt particles settling on them.

Quite simply: the entire practice boils down to breathing dry, salty air.

It is commonly believed that the Himalayan salt will release negative ions (electrons) into the air, Eingorn says, explaining that inflamed tissue is usually acidic, that is electron deficient, and thus, more electrons available will help the inflamed cells repair. Inasmuch as it is a plausible theory, the scientific evidence is lacking to support this belief.

Though advocates for halotherapy claim that the practice can help with countless ailments, respiratory conditions, like sinus infections, allergies, and asthma, show the most promise. When pure pharmaceutical grade salt (NaCl) is ground into microscopic particles and vaporized into a sealed environment, such as a salt room, or a salt cave, it can be inhaled freely, and will interact with the epithelial cells that line the nasal, sinus, and air passageways, Eingorn says. In the right concentration, he explains, this has a therapeutic effect on the respiratory mucosa. Due to the hydrophilic nature of salt, upon contact with epithelial mucous cells, it will tend to reduce swelling associated with inflamed mucosa. Since salt is a natural antiseptic and a disinfectant, halotherapy is very effective in treating, and preventing many respiratory illnesses.

Fans of the practice commonly report improved sleep, and There is some evidence that it is helpful in treating some skin disorders, including eczema, psoriasis, and rosacea, Eingorn says, noting however, that one would have to have the skin exposed during the session.

While of course, consistent visits to a salt cave can lead to greater results, the effects of a session can be felt almost immediately, Eingorn, notes that most, if not all, report improvement in breathing and better sleep following the session. The effects can be long lasting, too, he says, explaining that, while effects vary from person to person, often one session will suffice for weeks or months.

Though consulting a medical professional should always be the first step before trying any new alternative therapy, halotherapy is a very safe practice with few contraindications. According to Eingorn, only patients with severe inflammatory disorders, usually requiring medical monitoring, and those with claustrophobia, should not use the salt rooms.

Halotherapy is considered a valid supplement to traditional medicine. The practice has been around for centuries, we use it often with patients when we ask them to use saline rinses for their sinuses and gargles for their sore throats, explains Dr. Mukesh Prasad, Associate Professor of Clinical Otolaryngology at Weill Cornell Medical College, Cornell University. The use of salt rooms is more recent but makes sense with the number of patients who come home feeling better after spending time near the ocean or on a beach, even for a short time, he explains, adding that while more formal research to identify the true benefits would be welcome, I have seen the success experienced by many patients who had tried the salt rooms as we treat them for sinus infections."

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Diasome Announces Positive Results from Phase 2 OPTI-1 Study of Hepatocyte Directed Vesicle Technology in Type 1 Diabetes – GlobeNewswire

§ February 18th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Diasome Announces Positive Results from Phase 2 OPTI-1 Study of Hepatocyte Directed Vesicle Technology in Type 1 Diabetes – GlobeNewswire

CLEVELAND, Feb. 18, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- DiasomePharmaceuticals, Inc., a company developing hepatocyte directed vesicle (HDV) technology that can be added to any commercially available insulin to optimize treatment for people living with diabetes, today announced positive results from its Phase 2 OPTI-1 study of injectable hepatocyte directed vesicle (HDV) added to mealtime insulin in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D).

One of the trials investigators, Bruce Bode, M.D., a diabetes specialist with Atlanta Diabetes Associates and clinical associate professor in the Department of Medicine at Emory University, added, The OPTI-1 study may be the first clinical trial to demonstrate the impact of the combined effects of liver targeted insulin and physiologically driven changes in the ratio of mealtime to long-acting insulin regimens. These results provide additional evidence that targeting insulin to the liver induces a more physiological response. When added to insulin, HDV may allow patients to optimize the amount of short-acting and long-acting insulin they need to reduce the incidence of hypoglycemia while still achieving positive long-term health outcomes.

This open-label, multicenter study was designed to evaluate the effect of HDV added to rapid-acting mealtime insulin on A1C, hypoglycemia, and bolus and basal insulin dosing in adult T1D patients with baseline A1C levels between 6.5% and 8.5%. Patients underwent a three-month run-in period on standard-of-care therapy followed by three months of treatment with HDV added to mealtime insulin in conjunction with optimized basal insulin doses. A total of 61 T1D patients were enrolled at eight United States trial sites. After patients were treated with standard-of-care Lispro or Degludec during the run-in period, they were randomized into one of two groups: HDV-Lispro (HDV-L) in conjunction with a 10% reduction in Degludec or HDV-L in conjunction with a 40% reduction in Degludec.

The completion of this clinical trial marks an important milestone for the continued development of HDV, said Robert Geho, chief executive officer of Diasome. Results from this study, which we plan to present at upcoming conferences, continue to support the hypothesis that improved mealtime insulin delivery to the liver should have an important and positive effect on overall glycemic control. We are excited about these results and look forward to sharing additional details soon.

About Hepatocyte Directed Vesicle (HDV) TechnologyHDVs are the most advanced technology designed to restore normal physiology and potentially offer protection against hypoglycemia for patients with diabetes. Only 20-50 nanometers in size, these two-layered microscopic discs are designed to bring insulin to receptors highly expressed by liver cells. Liquid HDV can be mixed with any commercially available insulin prior to administration and is compatible with any insulin delivery system.

About Type 1 Diabetes (T1D)T1D is a chronic, auto-immune disease characterized by the inability of the pancreas to produce insulin, which leads to elevated blood sugar levels. Diabetes costs represent a large burden to both patients and the healthcare system. More than 1.25 million Americans are living with T1D and there is no cure.

About OPTI-1The 24-week, open-label, multiple dose trial is designed to assess the safety, tolerability and efficacy of hepatocyte directed vesicle (HDV) technology when added to rapid-acting mealtime insulin. All patients received insulin Lispro and Degludec during a 12-week run-in period. After completing the run-in period, patients were randomized to a treatment group of either HDV added to Lispro (HDV-L) while continuing Degludec at a dose reduced by 40% or HDV-L while continuing Degludec at a dose reduced by 10% for 12 weeks of treatment.

About Diasome Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Diasomes hepatocyte directed vesicle (HDV) technology is the only pharmaceutical insulin additive being developed to prevent hypoglycemia by restoring normal liver physiology in patients with diabetes. HDV technology is a Phase 3-ready asset designed to improve the safety and efficacy of all insulins. For more information, visit http://www.diasome.com or follow us on Twitter.

Investor Contact:Jeremy FefferLifeSci Advisors, LLCjeremy@lifesciadvisors.com+1.212-915-2568

Media Contact:Cherilyn Cecchini, M.D.LifeSci Communicationsccecchini@lifescicomms.com+1.646.876.5196

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Nanotechnology In Medical Applications Market: Opportunities, Demand and Forecasts, 2022 – Instant Tech News

§ February 17th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanotechnology In Medical Applications Market: Opportunities, Demand and Forecasts, 2022 – Instant Tech News

The global nanomedical market was valued at $134.4 billion in 2016. This market is projected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 14.0% from 2017-2022, and should reach $293.1 billion by 2022 from $151.9 billion in 2017.

Report Scope:

This report discusses the implications of technology and commercial trends in the context of the current size and growth of the pharmaceutical market, both in global terms and analyzed by the most important national markets. The important technologies supporting nanomedicine are reviewed, and the nature and structure of the nanomedicine industry are discussed with profiles of the leading 60+ companies, including recent merger and acquisition (M&A) activity. Five-year sales forecasts are provided for the national markets including the major therapeutic categories of products involved. Specific product categories quantified include diagnostics, cancer, CNS, anti-infective agents, cardiovasculars and anti-inflammatories.

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An overview of the global markets for nanotechnology used in medical applications Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2016, estimates for 2017, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2022 A review of technologies involved, in-depth analysis of applications in practice, and evaluation of future or potential applications Information on many significant products in which the nano dimension has made a significant contribution to product effectiveness A look at the regulatory environment, healthcare policies, demographics, and other factors that directly affect nanotechnology used in medicine Analysis of the markets dynamics, specifically growth drivers, inhibitors, and opportunities Coverage of strategies employed by companies specializing in nanomedicine to meet the challenges of this highly competitive market

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Summary

Nano-enabled medical products began appearing on the market over a decade ago, and some have become best-sellers in their therapeutic categories. The principal areas in which nanomedical products have made an impact are cancer, CNS diseases, cardiovascular disease and infection control. The Summary Table gives estimates of the historical and current markets for these nanomedicine areas with a forecast through 2022.

The U.S. market is by far the largest in the global nanomedicine market and is set to continue to dominate the world marketplace; however, other national markets are expected to increase their shares over the next five years.

Reasons for Doing the Study

Nanomedicine is already an established market. Unlike some other potential applications of nanotechnology, which are still largely experimental, nanomedicine has already produced some significant products in which the nano dimension has made a significant contribution to product effectiveness. Now that aspects of the nanomedicine market are established, it is appropriate to review the technology, see its practical applications so far, evaluate the participating companies and look to its future.

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Injectable Nanomedicines to Witness Growth Acceleration During 2018 2026 – Instant Tech News

§ February 17th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Injectable Nanomedicines to Witness Growth Acceleration During 2018 2026 – Instant Tech News

According to a report published by TMR market, the Injectable Nanomedicines economy is expected to witness a CAGR growth of XX% within the forecast period (2019-2029) and reach at a value of ~US$ at the ending of 2029. The macro-economic and micro elements which are predicted to influence the trajectory of this market are studied in the presented market study.

Light on the raw material throws Suppliers, vendors, manufacturers, and market consumers at the markets value chain. Furthermore, the political and economic scenarios of regions and its effect on the Injectable Nanomedicines market are discussed within the accounts.

Critical Insights enclosed from this report:

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Competitive Outlook

Light onto the throws Business prospects of prominent players operating from the Injectable Nanomedicines sector. The item pricing plans, marketing stations that were preferred , product portfolio of most players, and promote presence of each and every company is contained in the report. The dominant players covered in the report include Business, Business two, Business 3, and Company 4.

Regional Assessment

The presented market study sheds light on the Marketplace Scenario in various markets. Furthermore, the governmental and regulatory policies to the prospects of the Injectable Nanomedicines market in each regions effect is analyzed in the report.

Market segmentation based on geography:

This report gives access to decisive data, such as:

Key highlights of this report include:

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The report Suits the questions pertaining To the Injectable Nanomedicines economy:

Reasons TMR Sticks out

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Mobilizing Drug Development Efforts Against the Novel Coronavirus – BioSpace

§ February 17th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Mobilizing Drug Development Efforts Against the Novel Coronavirus – BioSpace

This illustration, created at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), reveals ultrastructural morphology exhibited by coronaviruses. Note the spikes that adorn the outer surface of the virus, which impart the look of a corona surrounding the virion, when viewed electron microscopically. Credit: CDC Public Health Image Library (PHIL) #23312.

The novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated in Wuhan, China in December 2019, has been making headlines left and right as the ticker climbs of those who have been sickened and died from the virus. On February 11, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially named the disease caused by the 2019-nCoV virus COVID-19, which stands for coronavirus disease 2019.

As of February 11, there were 44,836 confirmed COVID-19 cases worldwide, 4,686 people recovered, and 1,113 deaths (2.5 percent mortality) worldwide, according to the live COVID-19 global tracker created by Johns Hopkins Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) that combines data from the WHO, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), European CDC (ECDC), and Chinas National Health Commission (NHC). The vast majority of these cases have been in mainland China (44,360 cases, 4,636, recovered, and 1,111 deaths), especially in the Hubei province (whose capital is Wuhan). According to Chinese health officials at a WHO meeting, 80 percent of those who died in China were over 60 years old and 75 percent had an underlying condition.

While all the media buzz may seem alarming and the virus is causing serious illness (and even death), the risk to the American public is very low. The majority of cases in the US were contracted while traveling in China and robust detection and quarantine efforts in the US greatly reduce the risk of community-spread infection.

The virus risks should be taken seriously but put into context with other upper respiratory illnesses, such as the flu, to not cause panic. The CDC recommends no additional precautions [for the general public] at this time beyond the simple daily precautions that everyone should always take, such as washing your hands regularly, cleaning and disinfecting objects regularly, getting your flu shot, avoiding contact with sick people, and staying home if you are sick.

For more information on the current outbreak, check out the live updates from the CDC, WHO, European CDC, Nature, WebMD, and Newsweek.

The international response

The swift, intense, and collaborative international response is like a cool breeze of fresh air it stands in stark contrast with the slower response to the 2002 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak, a severe disease caused by another coronavirus. Advances in genetic sequencing technology, public health communication, and viral outbreak preparedness are shining through this current coronavirus outbreak.

Improved technology, pressure tested simulated pandemic situations, and stronger relationships that encourage collaboration between organizations and governments during emergency situations have been a bright spot so far in this novel coronavirus outbreak, Carl Hansen, PhD, Director and CEO of AbCellera, a Vancouver-based biotech company who is developing antibody drugs against 2019-nCoV, told BioSpace. The global effort against this virus isnt competitive so far and is moving forward for all the right reasons.

On January 30, 2020, the WHO declared the 2019-nCoV outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). The US followed suit on January 31 by declaring the outbreak a Public Health Emergency (PHE). Both declarations call for action and release resources needed to handle a public health crisis.

Now that global responses are fully mobilized, what is being done to identify and develop drugs and vaccines against this novel coronavirus? First, let us go back to the basics and a brief history of coronaviruses.

What are coronaviruses?

Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that can infect humans and other animals. Corona is Latin for crown these viruses were named for the crown-like structure of their outer proteins (seen in the picture of a MERS virus particle below).

Produced by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), this highly magnified, digitally colorized transmission electron microscopic (TEM) image, reveals ultrastructural details exhibited by a single, spherical-shaped, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) virion. Credit: CDC Public Health Image Library (PHIL) #18114.

While coronaviruses are the infamous culprits behind the 2002 SARS and 2012 Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) diseases, they also come in less severe varieties. In fact, you have probably been sickened by one of the handful of less virulent strains of coronavirus, causing cold symptoms like stuffy nose, cough, and sore throat.

Four types of coronaviruses are endemic globally and cause 10-30 percent of upper respiratory infections in adults. While there is no way to tell which virus is causing your cold symptoms, typical coronavirus infections are more common in the fall and winter in the US (typical cold and flu season) and are more common in young children.

SARS and MERS how are they related to 2019-nCoV?

Rarely, a coronavirus that normally infects an animal mutates and infects humans; this creates a new human coronavirus that tends to cause more severe symptoms. This was the case for the coronavirus strains that cause SARS, MERS, and now the novel coronavirus outbreak. While the initial 2019-nCoV cases were linked to the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market (which sold live fish, animals, and birds), the market has since been closed down before the animal source of the new coronavirus could be determined.

SARS was first seen in China in November 2002, causing a worldwide outbreak in 2002-2003 with 8,098 probable cases including 774 deaths (9.6 percent mortality). There have been no cases of SARS since 2004.

MERS was first seen in Saudi Arabia in 2012, causing an outbreak in countries in or near the Arabian Peninsula. There are still new reports of MERS currently, with the WHO reporting two new laboratory-confirmed MERS cases in the United Arab Emirates from January 9 and 13. From 2012 to January 15, 2020, there have been 2,506 MERS cases and 862 MERS-associated deaths (34.4 percent mortality), according to the WHO. The CDC estimates that about 3-4 out of every 10 patients who have MERS have died.

Is there a 2019-nCoV-specific diagnostic test available?

Yes! Because the genetic sequence of this novel coronavirus was rapidly identified and widely shared online (researchers from Fudan University in Shanghai posted the sequence on Virological.org on January 10), researchers were able to quickly analyze multiple patients samples and begin developing a diagnostic test.

On January 17, the WHO published interim guidance for a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic lab test. Respiratory samples (nose or mouth swabs, sputum, or bronchoalveolar lavage) are collected from suspected COVID-19 patients and all the DNA in the sample is amplified using PCR so it can be analyzed. If a DNA sequence that matches the 2019-nCoV is found, then the patient can be diagnosed with the novel virus.

On February 4, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an emergency use authorization (EUA) that allowed the CDCs PCR-based laboratory test (the 2019-nCoV Real-Time RT-PCR Diagnostic Panel) to be used across the US in any CDC-qualified lab. Previously, the test could only be performed at CDC laboratories.

On February 5, CDC RT-PCR diagnostic panel kits (shown below) were made available to order by both domestic and international partners.

A picture of the CDCs RT-PCR diagnostic panel kit available for order. These kits can be shipped to US CDC-qualified labs, Department of Defense (DOD) labs, and certain international labs. Credit: cdc.gov

AbCelleras approach to developing antibody drugs against 2019-nCoV

On January 27, the FDA published a press release promoting collaboration with interagency partners, product developers, international partners and global regulators to expedite development and availability of medical products needed to diagnose, treat, mitigate and prevent this novel coronavirus outbreak.

One such company working with the US government to rapidly develop drugs against the novel coronavirus is AbCellera. Their single-cell microfluidics platform can be used to identify therapeutic antibodies against a broad range of viruses.

In fact, they have been prepping for just this situation AbCellera partnered with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in March 2018 to develop rapid countermeasures against viral pandemic outbreaks. Under their Pandemic Prevention Platform (P3), DARPA will support AbCelleras development and testing of their microfluidics platform to establish it as an end-to-end platform ready to be put into action when a viral pandemic strikes. The P3 program aims to develop a platform that could stop a pandemic within 60 days a highly ambitious goal given the typically large amount of time needed to identify, isolate, synthesize, purify, manufacture, and test any new drug, especially a biologic drug like an antibody.

AbCelleras platform allows for a deep and rapid search of natural immune responses to rapidly identify antibodies against any virus from patient samples, explained Hansen. It is an integrated end-to-end solution from antibody generation and discovery all the way through protein engineering for drug discovery.

Blood samples from patients who have been infected with the virus of interest and recovered are screened to identify antibodies that can recognize and bind the virus. B-cells, immune cells that make antibodies, are analyzed individually in microfluidic chambers with one cell per nanoliter volume (a minuscule scale compared to typical benchtop assays). As each B-cell produces its unique antibody, they can all be separately tested for their ability to bind to the viral proteins, usually envelope proteins on the outside of the virus.

This microfluidics approach allows them to screen millions of antibodies in a high-throughput manner in a matter of hours because each chamber requires nanoscale amounts of liquids (effectively generating high concentrations of antibodies in a short time) and multiple chambers can be run simultaneously.

Once the antibodies that best bind the viral proteins are identified, the B-cells that specifically secrete those antibodies are selected and broken open. This releases the RNA molecules that encode for the antibodies, which are then sequenced to obtain each antibodies unique genetic code. This process can generate hundreds to thousands of unique antibody sequences per run.

The antibodies RNA is then cloned and expressed to generate large amounts of antibodies for biochemical analyses. The best antibody drug candidates are then shipped to AbCelleras collaborators at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) where the antibodies can be tested in further cellular assays and in animal models.

This whole process happens at unprecedented speeds a mere 12 days from screening a blood sample to shipping potential antibody drugs to collaborators for further testing, and about two months from blood sample to animal-tested antibody drug candidates ready for human testing.

Generating antibody sequences from blood samples can happen as quickly as four days when the company is operating at maximum speed, Hansen said. Cloning, expression, and biochemical analysis of the selected antibodies can then happen as quickly as eight days after, for a total time of less than two weeks.

Manufacturing the antibody drugs will be the next hurdle in terms of the time required (usually at least six months) and specialized resources needed.

AbCellera has already pressure tested their platform by simulating a MERS outbreak response and a pandemic influenza response. Using samples from MERS-infected alpacas (a relative of the camel, the natural animal reservoir for MERS-CoV), the company was able to identify thousands of MERS-CoV-binding antibodies in one afternoon, then obtain 355 unique antibody sequences in 3.8 days. During its test run against a simulated pandemic influenza outbreak, the company was able to go from influenza antibody discovery from human samples to administering antibody therapeutics that proved effective in rodent models in just 55 days.

Now, AbCellera is getting to put their platform to the test in the real world with the novel coronavirus. Currently, they are waiting to receive samples from patients who have recovered from 2019-nCoV (which should arrive to them within 1-3 weeks) and preparing their platform to run at maximum speed. Other groups and companies are currently shuffling around resources in preparation for antibody manufacturing down the line.

We are excited and honored to be a part of this work, commented Hansen. Our team has put in the hard work to create a universal rapid response platform and has invested time and effort into building the networks needed in emergency situations. We would like to thank everyone who has contributed to putting us in an ideal position to perform this very important research.

What else is being done to develop drugs against 2019-nCoV?

Other companies are jumping into the race towards an effective coronavirus drug. Regeneronpartnered with the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to also identify and develop new antibody drugs against 2019-nCoV. Regeneron previously leveraged its technology and resources in a similar partnership during recent Ebola outbreaks to generate an experimental drug combination against the Ebola virus.

Vir Biotechnology, a San Francisco-based startup, is rapidly testing their library of fully-human monoclonal antibodies against SARS and MERS to see if they have activity against 2019-nCoV.

Gileadis also working with global health agencies to examine if its investigational antiviral drugremdesivir is useful against 2019-nCoV. Remdesivir was originally developed as a treatment for Ebola but has since shown antiviral activity against other viruses, including coronaviruses like MERS-CoV. In fact, remdesivir and chloroquine (a common anti-malarial drug that has broad-spectrum antiviral activity) were shown to effectively inhibit 2019-nCoV replication in the lab.

Phase 3 clinical trials testing remdesivir in 308 adults with mild to moderate 2019-nCoV illness and 452 adults with severe 2019-nCoV illness have recently begun at Jinyintan Hospital in Wuhan.

Another possible way to combat this novel coronavirus is to repurposeexisting antiviral drugs. After receiving large doses of the flu drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and two HIV drugs lopinavir and ritonavir (Kaletra, also known as Aluvia), a 70-year-old patient with severe 2019-nCoV illnesses in Thailand improved.

This is not the cure, but the patients condition has vastly improved, Dr. Kriangska Atipornwanich, a lung specialist at Rajavithi Hosptial in Bangkok, told Reuters. . From testing positive for 10 days under our care, after applying this combination of medicine the test result became negative within 48 hours.

Chinese health authorities are recommending Kaletra and nebulized alpha-interferon (a drug that inhibits viral replication) to treat 2019-nCoV-induced pneumonia. AbbVie, the manufacturer of Kaletra, pledged to donate about $1.5 million worth of Kaletra to patients.

Kaletra showed promise previously in SARS patients by significantly lowering the adverse clinical outcomes or death in treated patients compared to historical controls. Kaletra, in combination with interferon beta-1b (a certain type of immune cell called a cytokine that boosts the immune systems response), is also currently in a Phase 2/3 trial in an estimated 194 MERS patients.

A randomized control trial was quickly initiated in China (beginning on January 18) to study the safety and efficacy of Kaletra in patients hospitalized with 2019-nCoV infections. Two other Phase 4 trials in China studying antivirals in 2019-nCoV infected patients are listed on ClinicalTrials.gov: one studying Kaletra and the flu drug umifenovir (Arbidol) in an estimated 125 adults with 2019-nCoV illness, and another studying Kaletra, Tamiflu, or abidol hydrochloride in an estimated 400 adults with 2019-nCoV-induced pneumonia.

What about developing a vaccine against 2019-nCoV?

Although vaccines are the most cost-effective for large-scale protection, they take a longer time to develop, Hansen commented. Vaccines are complementary to the quicker and more emergency response-related antibody drug approach.

Although the vaccine development process is getting speedier (taking about 20 months from genomic sequence identification to Phase 1 clinical trials for a SARS-CoV DNA vaccine compared to just 3.25 months for other viral diseases more recently), it will likely take months before the vaccine is ready for testing in humans.

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) is collaborating with Modernato develop an mRNA vaccine. Moderna isnt wasting any time they have already designed and manufactured the first batch of an experimental 2019-nCoV vaccine in a mere 25 days. They plan to send the initial batch to the NIH for initial clinical testing soon.

The NIAID-Moderna partnership will be funded in part by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), which is also funding two other 2019-nCoV vaccine development programs at the University of Queensland in Australia and Inovio Pharmaceuticals.

Inovio, who was involved in the MERS and Zika outbreak responses, hope to leverage their DNA medicine platform to bring a vaccine to human trials within months, similar to their Zika vaccine candidate (which went into trials in just seven months). In fact, they plan to enter human trials with the potential 2019-nCoV vaccine, called INO-4800, by early this summer.

Johnson & Johnsonhas also thrown their hat into the vaccine development ring. The company estimates that it will take about one year to advance from initiation of vaccine development to human clinical trials.

Despite the seemingly breakneck speed of companies and organizations working to develop drugs and vaccines against this novel coronavirus and how much technology and viral emergency response coordination have improved, it will likely be months before a new drug or vaccine are ready for testing in humans.

Fortunately, the rapid implementation of outbreak control measures, initiation of drug and vaccine development, and launching of off-label clinical trials is bringing us ever closer to finding drugs effective against this novel coronavirus.

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Mobilizing Drug Development Efforts Against the Novel Coronavirus - BioSpace

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What phytoliths can reveal about the past lives of forests – Landscape News

§ February 17th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on What phytoliths can reveal about the past lives of forests – Landscape News

The far-flung islands of thePacific Ocean were the last scraps of land on the planet to be settled by humans.Three thousand years ago, the voyaging ancestors of todays Pacific Islanderssailed into a blue horizon, using their advanced navigation techniques to lookfor land but not knowing what they would find when they got there.

In their canoes, they took atoolkit for survival, which archaeologists call a transported landscape:chickens and pigs, bananas and root crops they could plant when they madelandfall.

But new archaeological research and the teeth of some of those long-dead voyagers has revealed that the first colonizers of the Pacific, the Lapita, didnt just rely on those familiar food sources. Instead, they quickly adapted to their new environments and extensively used the leaves and bark of local tropical forest trees and shrubs.

Monica Tromp, a researcher in the Archaeology Programme of New Zealands University of Otago, calls herself a dental hygienist for the dead. She specializes in analyzing dental calculus the calcified plaque that forms on our teeth, trapping tiny particles of things we put in our mouths (including not just food but also medicine or craft materials, such as plant fibers that need to be stripped for weaving).

For her doctoral research, Tromp analyzedthe plaque from 32 ancient teeth that had been unearthed from a 3,000-year-oldLapita cemetery in Teouma Bay on Vanuatus Efate Island. While the remains ofmore than 70 people were found there, dating back to the first generation ofhumans to arrive in Vanuatu, not many teeth were recovered. This is because ofthe Vanuatu Lapitas unusual funerary culture, in which the dead were dug upsometime after burial and the skulls removed, perhaps in a kind ofancestor-worship, Tromp says.

Still, the few dozen teethscattered among the remains were enough for Tromp to study, by scraping off theplaque and dissolving it in acid. Left behind were microscopic glass-likeparticles called phytoliths, which are formed inside plants as they grow.

Phytoliths take on different shapes depending on the plant. Some are very specific banana phytoliths look like tiny volcanoes while those of forest trees are too similar to be able to distinguish between species. From the phytoliths she found inside the teeth plaque, Tromp could see the colonists were heavily reliant on forest resources, though she couldnt say which plants exactly.

I have looked at teeth from allover the world, including lots of places in the Pacific, and Ive never seenany that look like this, that have such a high concentration of leaves andbark, says Tromp.

The findings with the phytoliths overturn the standard narrative about Lapita livelihoods and how they used the island landscape, says archaeologist Patrick Roberts from the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Germany, who was not involved in the study.

Archaeologists have tended toassume these peoples expansion through Oceania relied on imported domesticatedplants and animals and perhaps some marine resources, he says, while tropicalforests were seen as a barriers to their agricultural practices.

However, this study shows thatthese communities also made significant use of the island plants available tothem, including those within forests, as they expanded through the Pacific onceagain highlighting the role of tropical forests in human history, he says.

It shows theres more flexibility in the choices people make than we thought were not wedded to particular ways of surviving or eating, says study co-author and University of Otago professor, Lisa Matissoo-Smith.

She says the tooth-analyzing techniqueprovides information that just doesnt show up in archaeological middens.

When I work in the [Pacific]islands, Im always looking at what people eat and thinking about how theiractual behavior is reflected in what were likely to see in an archaeologicalsite. I travel often in the bush with women, and theyre eating all the time,and eating stuff that isnt going to turn up in an archaeological assemblage.

Just as Indigenous knowledge canhelp put ancient sites in context, archaeology and paleoecology have a lot tocontribute to discussions in contemporary tropical forestry, says Roberts, whohas written papers and a book on the subject.

If we want to see how different technologies, actions, forms of social organization impact forests, this is the onlydiscipline that can provide this. It can even provide insights into where animals used toexist, what their diets were, and how their ranges might be re-expanded in a modern context.

Tromps study, and the growingbody of archaeological research on prehistoric land-use in tropical forests, are areminder to conservationists, foresters and ecologists that humans have usedalmost all the tropical forests in the past, he says.

They can no longer be treated aswildernesses or untouched, and its clear that in many instances humans haveshaped the species thatgrow there We must always think, what do we want to preserve, and what do wewant to return the environment to?

The myth of the pristine foresthas sometimes been used to justify removing communities from protected areas. Instead,we should be listening to the people who have lived in these places formillennia, Roberts says. We should consult them, instead of making policydecisions from an ivory tower miles away.

Thats not to say the firstPacific peoples were living in total harmony with nature. Several species ofbats, birds and a giant crocodile went extinct on Vanuatu shortly after humanarrival, Tromp points out. But in some places in Oceania, theres evidence thatpeople became aware of their ecological impacts and shifted to more sustainablestrategies over time, Roberts says.

They didnt always, of course,and there are some examples of failure. However, its nothing like theunchecked pressures we place on tropical forests today, many of us fromthousands of kilometers away.

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