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Endocytosis and Organelle Targeting of Nanomedicines in Cancer Therapy | IJN – Dove Medical Press

§ November 25th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Endocytosis and Organelle Targeting of Nanomedicines in Cancer Therapy | IJN – Dove Medical Press

Xiaowei Wang, Yuhan Qiu, Mengyan Wang, Conghui Zhang, Tianshu Zhang, Huimin Zhou, Wenxia Zhao, Wuli Zhao, Guimin Xia, Rongguang Shao

Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, Peoples Republic of China

Correspondence: Wuli Zhao Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 10050, Peoples Republic of China Tel +86-10-83166673 Email zwl21146@imb.pumc.edu.cn Guimin Xia Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 10050, Peoples Republic of China Tel +86-10-63150697 Email xiaguimin@126.com

Abstract: Nanomedicines (NMs) have played an increasing role in cancer therapy as carriers to efficiently deliver therapeutics into tumor cells. For this application, the uptake of NMs by tumor cells is usually a prerequisite to deliver the cargo to intracellular locations, which mainly relies on endocytosis. NMs can enter cells through a variety of endocytosis pathways. Different endocytosis pathways exhibit different intracellular trafficking routes and diverse subcellular localizations. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of endocytosis mechanisms is necessary for increasing cellular entry efficiency and to trace the fate of NMs after internalization. This review focuses on endocytosis pathways of NMs in tumor cells, mainly including clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis pathways, involving effector molecules, expression difference of those molecules between normal and tumor cells, as well as the intracellular trafficking route of corresponding endocytosis vesicles. Then, the latest strategies for NMs to actively employ endocytosis are described, including improving tumor cellular uptake of NMs by receptor-mediated endocytosis, transporter-mediated endocytosis and enabling drug activity by changing intracellular routes. Finally, active targeting strategies towards intracellular organelles are also mentioned. This review will be helpful not only in explicating endocytosis and the trafficking process of NMs and elucidating anti-tumor mechanisms inside the cell but also in rendering new ideas for the design of highly efcacious and cancer-targeted NMs.

Keywords: nanomedicine, endocytosis pathway, clathrin, caveolae, endosome, organelle targeting

This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

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EFSA Publishes Environmental Risk Assessment of the Application of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology in the Food and Feed Chain – JD Supra

§ November 25th, 2020 § Filed under Nanomaterials Comments Off on EFSA Publishes Environmental Risk Assessment of the Application of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology in the Food and Feed Chain – JD Supra

On November 19, 2020, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) published a report entitled Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) of the application of nanoscience and nanotechnology in the food and feed chain. The authors analyzed existing ERA guidance documents for their adequacy to cover issues that are specific for nanomaterials, but note that none of the guidance has a specific focus on the food and feed chain. Each nanospecific issue was addressed by briefly reviewing the existing methods to address the issue in each separate step of ERA. The report suggests adaptations necessary in exposure assessment and hazard and risk characterization to address nanomaterials. The report lists the following issues that should be addressed in preparing ERA guidance of the application of nanoscience and nanotechnology in the food and feed chain:

[View source.]

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Indian Civilization Applied Advanced Nanomaterials to Their Pots 2500 Years Ago – Ancient Origins

§ November 25th, 2020 § Filed under Nanomaterials Comments Off on Indian Civilization Applied Advanced Nanomaterials to Their Pots 2500 Years Ago – Ancient Origins

Researchers in India have made an amazing discovery. They have found evidence for the earliest known carbon nanotubes. These are tiny materials, known as nanomaterials, that have several applications. This discovery is helping researchers to better understand the sophistication and advanced technology of the ancient civilization in Tamil Nadu in southern India.

Researchers were working on potshards that were unearthed at the very important archaeological site of Keeladi, Tamil Nadu. This site, which is also known as Keezhadi, holds a treasure trove of artifacts - including a great deal of pottery which has been dated to the 6th century BC. It has offered proof that there was an advanced civilization in Tamil Nadu at a much earlier date than previously thought. At Ancient Origins , we reported that the site had thrown up many surprises, including possible links between the Indus Valley civilization and early societies in Tamil Nadu, but this remains controversial.

Excavations at the Keeladi archaeological site. (Ophelia S/ CC BY SA 4.0 )

Experts, including some from the Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT) in Tamil Nadu, examined some potshards found at Keeladi. They have a unique black material coating them. To their amazement the researchers found some carbon nanotubes (CNT). These are tiny structures of atoms that have been manipulated and ordered on the coating. They had been added to the earthenware by a man-made process, probably to make it more durable.

2,500-year-old pots unearthed at the Keeladi archaeological site in India show evidence of ancient manmade nanomaterials. Source: Keeladi Tamil Civilization

NDTV reports the scientists as saying that in the shards black coatings they had found the "the oldest nanostructures observed till now. It is truly remarkable to find nanostructures at such an early date. Vijayanand Chandrasekaran, who took part in the study, is quoted by NDTV as saying that Until this discovery, to our knowledge, the most ancient known nanostructures in human-made artifacts are from the eighth or ninth century AD.

M.M. Shaijumon from IISER Thiruvananthapuram, who did not take part in the study, told EDEX Live that Carbon nanotubes have superlative properties, including high thermal and electrical conductivity, and very high mechanical strength. The presence of CNT explains why the pottery was able to last over 2500 years in good condition. It is unlikely that the artisans who made the earthenware and applied the black coating were aware that they were adding CNTs. It appears that during the manufacture of the pottery high temperatures were applied to the ware and the nanotubes would have been formed by chance.

Mr. Chandrasekaran is quoted by EDEX Live as saying that a vegetal fluid or extract" might have been used in the coatings of these pots which may have led to the formation of CNTs during high-temperature processing. In the past, artisans regularly added plant-sap to pots before placing them in fires in kilns. Once they saw that this resulted in durable and tough pottery, they would have continued to add the plant-sap and repeated the process.

Keeladi Pottery shards (a,c) Inner portion showing the shining black coating (evidence of the nanomaterial presence), (b,d) Outer portion of the pottery shards. (Manivannan Kokarneswaran et al. 2020/ Nature)

It is only since the 1990s that instruments have been able to detect these nanotubes. Professor Rajavelu S., of Alagappa University in Tamil Nadu, told EDEX Live They likely knew the technique to make these coatings practically, but may not have known this as a thesis with any kinds of formulae. It is possible that the plant-sap or vegetal fluid was added initially to achieve a color and it was noted that it made the products more durable.

Evidence for the accidental manufacture of nanotubes during the firing of pottery has been found in several ancient cultures. For example, in ancient Egypt, the famous blue ware was found to have these minuscule structures. The intentional creation of nanomaterials has only been possible in recent decades and is now very important in a range of sectors.

Southern India was very technologically advanced in ancient times. The researchers already knew that the ancient Tamil Civilization had mastered high-temperature manufacturing. Its artisans produced remarkable black and red pottery using high temperatures and some date back to the 6th century. Mr. Rajavelu told NDTV that this pottery does not look like normal pots, these have glazed finishes, and are made of high-quality clay.

This discovery and others found in Keeladi show that India was a leader in technology in the ancient past. It was known that Southern Indian cultures could produce excellent steel and were experts in metalworking. Now researchers know that they also could create CNTs - even if they were not fully aware of what they were doing and how they achieved it.

The discovery shows how advanced civilizations were in what is now Tamil Nadu in the 6th century. This evolved into the remarkable Tamil Civilization that made so many important contributions to India and also the Indianized kingdoms of South East Asia. These were kingdoms that were deeply impacted by Indian religions and culture. The discovery of the CNT is changing the history of science and technology and may even point the way to novel uses of nanomaterials in coatings of products.

Top Image: A large pot found at Keeladi. ( Keeladi Tamil Civilization )

By Ed Whelan

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Global Nanomaterials Market Professional Survey 2020 by Manufacturers, Share, Growth, Trends, Types and Applications, Forecast to 2025 – The Courier

§ November 25th, 2020 § Filed under Nanomaterials Comments Off on Global Nanomaterials Market Professional Survey 2020 by Manufacturers, Share, Growth, Trends, Types and Applications, Forecast to 2025 – The Courier

The research report titled Global Nanomaterials Market Professional Survey 2020 by Manufacturers, Share, Growth, Trends, Types and Applications, Forecast to 2025 and published by Zion Market Research is an in-depth and dedicated scrutiny of the existing stats of the globalNanomaterials Marketentailing the numerous facets pertinent to statistics and growth of the business. The report segregated into diverse sections to simplify the comprehension of the included data and thus, market dynamics. It encompasses all the major competitors and playersBASF, Evonik Industries, Covestro, Altair Nanotechnologies Inc., EMFUTUR Technologies and SkySpring Nanomaterialsinvolved in the global Nanomaterials Market along with the various features relating to the market players like company profiles, supply chain value, product specifications, market shares, and so on. Also, the report entails the major strategic market developments, comprising R&D activities, collaborations, new product launch, agreements, joint ventures, partnerships, M&A, and presence & expansion extent of these prominent players on the global and regional scale. In addition, it comprises the systematic examination of business strategies for expansion of the prominent Nanomaterials Market players.

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BASF, Evonik Industries, Covestro, Altair Nanotechnologies Inc., EMFUTUR Technologies and SkySpring Nanomaterials

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Global Nano Copper Oxide Market To Witness Huge Gains Over 2020-2026 – The Courier

§ November 25th, 2020 § Filed under Nanomaterials Comments Off on Global Nano Copper Oxide Market To Witness Huge Gains Over 2020-2026 – The Courier

The globalNano Copper Oxidemarket research report offers all the vital data in the domain. The latest report assists new bees as well as established market participants to analyze and predict the Nano Copper Oxide market at the regional as well as global level. It covers the volume [k MT] as well as revenues [USD Million] of the global Nano Copper Oxide market for the estimated period. Numerous key players Ionic Liquids Technologies GmbH, SkySpring Nanomaterials, Inframat Corporation, PlasmaChem GmbH, Quantumsphere, Reade Advanced Materials, Sisco Research Laboratories, American Elements, Hongwu International Group, Nanoshel, Sun Innovations, Nanjing Emperor Nano Material, Nanocomposix, Nanotechnology, US Research Nanomaterials, Strem Chemicals, NaBond Technologies are dominating the global Nano Copper Oxide market. These players hold the majority of share of the global Nano Copper Oxide market.

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The data presented in the global Nano Copper Oxide market offers budding opportunities, which help users to make strategic moves and prosper their business. The report highlights the impact of numerous factors that might result in obstructing or propelling the Nano Copper Oxide market at global as well as local level. The global Nano Copper Oxide market research report offers the summary of key players dominating the market including several aspects such as their financial summary, business strategy, and most recent developments in these firms.

Key points of the global Nano Copper Oxide market

Theoretical analysis of the global Nano Copper Oxide market stimulators, products, and other vital facets Recent, historical, and future trends in terms of revenue and market dynamics are reported Pin-point analysis of the competitive market dynamics and investment structure is predicted to grow Future market trends, latest innovations, and various business strategies are reported Market dynamics include growth influencers, opportunities, threats, challenges, and other crucial facets

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This research report includes the analysis of various Nano Copper Oxide market segments {Uncoated Nano Copper Oxide, Coated Nano Copper Oxide}; {Electricals & Electronics, Paints & Coatings, Catalysts, Energy Storage, Others}. The bifurcation of the global market is done based on its present and prospective inclinations. The regional bifurcation involves the present market scenario in the region along with the future projection of the global Nano Copper Oxide market. The global market report offers an overview of expected market conditions due to changes in the technological, topographical, and economic elements.

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Antimony Tin Oxide Market Demand Analysis and Projected huge Growth by 2025 – Cheshire Media

§ November 25th, 2020 § Filed under Nanomaterials Comments Off on Antimony Tin Oxide Market Demand Analysis and Projected huge Growth by 2025 – Cheshire Media

The Global Antimony Tin Oxide Market analysis report published on Upmarketresearch.com is a detailed study of market size, share and dynamics covered in XX pages and is an illustrative sample demonstrating market trends. This is a latest report, covering the current COVID-19 impact on the market. The pandemic of Coronavirus (COVID-19) has affected every aspect of life globally. This has brought along several changes in market conditions. The rapidly changing market scenario and initial and future assessment of the impact is covered in the report. It covers the entire market with an in-depth study on revenue growth and profitability. The report also delivers on key players along with strategic standpoint pertaining to price and promotion.

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The Global Antimony Tin Oxide Market report entails a comprehensive database on future market estimation based on historical data analysis. It enables the clients with quantified data for current market perusal. It is a professional and a detailed report focusing on primary and secondary drivers, market share, leading segments and regional analysis. Listed out are key players, major collaborations, merger & acquisitions along with upcoming and trending innovation. Business policies are reviewed from the techno-commercial perspective demonstrating better results. The report contains granular information & analysis pertaining to the Global Antimony Tin Oxide Market size, share, growth, trends, segment and forecasts from 2020-2026.

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Even ‘Safe’ Levels of Air Pollution Tied to Brain Shrinkage – Medscape

§ November 25th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Even ‘Safe’ Levels of Air Pollution Tied to Brain Shrinkage – Medscape

Areas where there are high levels of fine-particle air pollution may increase Alzheimer's-like brain shrinkage, new research suggests.

Results of a large longitudinal study show that women who lived in areas in which there were microscopic particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters <2.5 g (PM2.5) per cubic meter of air had a significantly increased risk for brain shrinkage on imaging.

Researchers studied more than 700 women (mean age, 78 years) who were free of dementia at baseline. Participants underwent MRI at baseline and again 5 years later.

Each 3-m increase in air pollution exposure was associated with an increase of .03 points in brain shrinkage scores at the end of the 5-year period. These scores were in turn associated with a 24% increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD).

"Our findings add to the literature showing that air pollution may increase risk of Alzheimer's disease," lead author Diana Younan, PhD, MPH, senior research associate, Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, told Medscape Medical News.

"However, air pollution is a modifiable risk factor, and even those living in areas with high air pollution can make concerted efforts to reduce their exposure to these pollutants, for example, monitor air quality daily, stay indoors on days when air pollution is especially high, and keep car vents closed when driving," she said.

The study was published online November 18 in Neurology.

"Compelling evidence has demonstrated that ambient pollution" especially particulate matter of PM2.5 "is an environmental risk factor for brain aging" and is associated with an increased risk for dementia and AD, but the underlying mechanism of this association is not clear, the authors write.

"We wanted to see whether these fine particles may alter brain structure, since small brain volumes are a risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer's disease," said Younan.

She noted that this study differs from previous studies because "we used a longitudinal approach using two brain scans, while others only had brain scans at one time point."

The researchers studied data from participants (n = 1365;mean age,77.9 3.7 years) in the Women's Health Initiative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study (WHIMS-MRI), which focused on community-dwelling older women who had undergone brain MRI between April 2005 and January 2006. Of these participants, 730 underwent a second scan during the period 20102013. The average amountof time between scans was 4.77 years.

The researchers used participants' addresses, together with air monitoring data, to create a spatiotemporal model that estimated the 3-year average exposure to PM2.5 prior to the first MRI.

Additional data included information on demographics, education, socioeconomic, lifestyle factors, and clinical characteristics.

Younan explained that unlike previous studies, this study used a "different way of measuring brain shrinkage" by scoring participants' brain scans on the basis of their similarity to AD patterns "using a machine learning tool that had been 'trained' to learn these patterns via brain scans of people with Alzheimer's disease."

The MRI data captured high-dimensional gray matter atrophy in brain regions identified in previous research as vulnerable to AD. These areas included the amygdala, the hippocampus, the parahippocampal gyrus, the thalamus, the inferior temporal lobe areas, and the midbrain.

The researchers used linear models to explore the association between PM2.5 and AD pattern similarity (AD-PS) scores after accounting for potential confounders as well as white matter lesion volumes.

The primary study outcome was the 5-year standardized change in AD-PS scores from MRI-1 to MRI-2. Scores ranged from 0 1. Higher scores were associated with greater neuroanatomic AD risk.

Participants were divided into quartiles on the basis of their average exposures to air pollution during the 3 years prior to MRI-1. The lowest group was exposed to an average of 7 10 g/m3; and the highest group was exposed to an average of 13 19 g/m3.

Cross-sectional analyses found no association at baseline in participants between PM2.5 and baseline AD-PS score ( = .004; 95% CI, 0.019 to 0.011).

However, the average AD-PS scores increased by an average of 0.17 0.15 between MRI-1 and MRI-2.

Longitudinal analysis of participants who completed the full 5-year study (n = 712; aged 77.4 3.5 years) showed that each interquartile range increase in PM2.5 (2.82 g/m3) was associated with a 24% increase in AD-PS score (hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.14 1.34) at the end of the 5 years.

Racial/ethnic minorities (particularly Black or Hispanic White participants), residents of Northeastern regions, people who were unemployed at baseline, and those who had low white matter lesions were more likely to be in the upper two quartiles of PM2.5 exposure (10.91 g/m3).

Even more concerning, the association was found in participants who lived in areas with PM2.5 levels below safety standards (<12 g/m3), as determined by the US Environmental Protection Agency.

"Fine-particle pollution was associated with shrinkage in areas of the brain that are vulnerable to Alzheimer's disease, and these associations were still present at low exposure levels below the current US regulatory standards for fine particles and among healthy women without cognitive impairment or cardiovascular diseases that may accelerate brain aging," said Younan.

She noted that women are "disproportionally affected by Alzheimer's disease compared to men, and although our study only included women, other studies that included both men and women are also seeing associations between air pollution and brain shrinkage."

Commenting on the study for Medscape Medical News, Heather Snyder, PhD, vice president of medical and scientific operations, Alzheimer's Association, said data by Younan and colleagues that were reported at the 2019 Alzheimer's Association International Conference suggested that AD risk increased with increased air pollution.

"However, what is exciting [about that study] is that the research team also found that when an individual is engaged in physically and mentally stimulating activities, they may have some protection against the risk posed from outdoor air pollution exposure in late life," said Snyder, who was not involved with the current research.

"This suggests that staying active, eating a balanced diet, and staying cognitively engaged as you are able may be strategies to impact your later life risk," Snyder said.

Younan emphasized that "most importantly, we need to make sure we are continuing to enforce the Clean Air Act."

The study was supported by the National Institute on Aging and the Southern California Environmental Health Sciences Center. The Women's Health Initiative Programs are funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the National Institutes of Health, and the US Department of Health and Human Services. Sources of the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study are listed on the original article. Younan and coauthors and Snyder report no relevant financial relationships.

Neurology. Published online November 18, 2020. Abstract

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Moore aids in research for COVID vaccine – The Brewton Standard – Brewton Standard

§ November 25th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Moore aids in research for COVID vaccine – The Brewton Standard – Brewton Standard

When Ian Moore graduated from T.R. Miller High School in 1997, he had a dream for what he wanted for his life. But he had no idea his path would lead him to a place where he would have a hand in saving the world.

In February 2020, Moore was asked to join in on a project with the National Institutes of Healths (NIH) Vaccine Research Center in partnership with Moderna. Accepting that position would be instrumental in developing a vaccine for COVID-19 that path is one the Brewton native is enjoying and takes pride in accepting. I am humbled to be a part of the team, Moore said. Its exciting to know that the work Im doing has an immediate effect on people around the world. Its just awesome knowing that we are creating a vaccine that will keep people alive.

Moore is currently living in Maryland where, since 2014, he has worked at the NIH as a veterinary pathologist and head of the Infectious Disease Pathogenesis Section (IDPS), in the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID).

After earning his veterinary medical degree from Tuskegee Universitys College of Veterinary Medicine, Moore went on to complete a combined residency/PhD program in veterinary anatomic pathology at Michigan State University and in partnership with the NIH. He made the move to the NIH, in Maryland, to complete his dissertation research which focused on the immunology and pathogenesis of Influenza virus infection. It was there he would find himself poised to be included in life-changing discoveries for everyone around the world.

I was finishing my Ph.D. when I was asked to lead the lab at NIH, Moore said. The vaccine that is being tested now, Moore said. I really have enjoyed the work. Ive had the chance to sit in on meetings with people who have been doing this kind of work for a long time. I am glad that I was in the right place at the right time and to be a part of what is happening now is humbling.

Under the program description on the NIH website, Dr. Moores job is part of a group of professionals thatprovides molecular pathology support to NIAID investigators and programs related to research involving animal models of human disease. Our veterinary pathologists have expertise in the gross and microscopic evaluation of both spontaneous and experimental disease and provide guidance on the design, conduct, interpretation, and publication of studies involving laboratory research animals.

Moore said that his work on the team, as a veterinary pathologist, largely relates to the safety and efficacy of the vaccine in the animal model and is this stage that lays the groundwork for the start of human clinical trials.

My work has been to evaluate the pathology of experimental COVID-19 infections and determine if the vaccine is safe and effective in neutralizing the virus in the animal model, Moore said. The vaccine has to be validated in two non-human models before moving on to human clinical trials. Its the last step before FDA approval.

Moore said that part of the work is among many important factors when developing a vaccine.

We do all of that testing and research to make sure that what we take is safe, Moore said. Since we have now reached Phase III human clinical trials and even closer to FDA approval, the second half of the work begins with talking to people and providing information to educate people on why they should take the vaccine and why its important to their health and safety. I know that a lot of people have questions and are sometimes skeptical when it comes to government-produced vaccines and drugs, but this is so important and will save lives. It will help in preventing the unnecessary loss of life and will minimize the chance of this pandemic becoming endemic.

Moore is a native of Brewton and is the son of David and Cliffie Moore.

I dont get home as much as Id like, Moore said. But, I do miss Brewton and I hope to be able to get closer to home in the future.

For Moore, home is where he received the encouragement from family and some of his teachers over the years. For him, that encouragement is what put him on the path to achieve his goals in life.

Any accomplishments I have achieved are the products of a supportive family combined with a select group of teachers who went above and beyond in supporting and encouraging me throughout my time in Brewton Public Schools and even after I graduated, Moore said. I would like to encourage every student to make sure your confidence remains as high as your aspirations any student can do what I have, and hopefully far more, as long as he or she believes in themselves and has the right supporting cast of educators.

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Coeliac UK and Innovate UK announce the award from their 2019 research call – PharmiWeb.com

§ November 25th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Coeliac UK and Innovate UK announce the award from their 2019 research call – PharmiWeb.com

Coeliac UK and Innovate UK announce the award

from their 2019 research call

Coeliac UK, the UK charity for people who need to live gluten free, along with Innovate UK, the UKs innovation agency, announces joint funding of 180K from their 2019 research call, has been awarded to Lyzeum Ltd.

Despite Covid-19, which has meant many research projects being put on hold, this joint funding from 2019 enabled the research grant winners to commence the project earlier this year. The funding will assist Cambridge based Lyzeum Ltd, who is working with a multi-disciplinary team of mathematicians and pathologists from both the University of Cambridge and the University of Edinburgh to develop an AI (artificial intelligence) solution to help and speed up the diagnosis of coeliac disease, an autoimmune condition.

Currently in the majority of cases, in order to diagnose coeliac disease, biopsies are inspected by a trained pathologist to identify the damage to intestinal cells which is characteristic of coeliac disease. A process which is time consuming and subjective, with different opinions in up to 25% of cases.

With access to a large database of scanned, high resolution, microscopic images of small intestinal biopsies, this funding will allow the researchers to develop a cloud based, digital pathology tool to help with the diagnosis of coeliac disease using an algorithm that can diagnose biopsies as diseased or normal.

The aim is to substantially improve the speed and accuracy of biopsy based coeliac disease diagnosis and potentially automate part of the process. The research may also provide important new insights into the microscopic appearances of coeliac disease and potentially identify different subtypes of coeliac disease.

Hilary Croft, CEO of Coeliac UK said: This new research is a tremendous step forward to potentially help speed up one element of the diagnosis journey, reduce subjectivity and improve accuracy. Pioneering research is essential to aid in developing new testing methods and we are thrilled to have combined forces with Innovate UK once again to advance our knowledge and support innovation that can improve the lives of people with coeliac disease.

Richard Hebdon, Head of Health and Medicine at Innovate UK, said: Innovate UK has long supported businesses innovating in the areas of healthcare diagnostics and nutrition, helping to translate the UKs world class research into commercially available solutions. This new research will not only help improve, but also speed up diagnoses of one of the most undiagnosed chronic conditions in the UK.

In early 2019, three projects based in Birmingham, Newcastle and Edinburgh, were awarded Coeliac UK / Innovate UK grants from the first joint research call held in 2018. Including the contribution from industry, a total 750k was committed to research:

A new test to provide a less invasive way of diagnosing coeliac disease that may not rely on someone having to eat ongoing amounts of gluten if they have already adopted a gluten free diet.

Development of three new plant proteins derived from crops, which are underused in the UK: rapeseed cake, faba beans and naked oats, to help improve the ingredients used in gluten free bread. At the beginning of the year, Nandi Proteins Ltd and the team welcomed Finsbury Food Group Ultrapharm to the project, as one of the industrial end users.

Software innovation to help in the ongoing management of coeliac disease, so that those who need additional care receive access to crucial support when they need it and those living well can receive the assurance of being clinically followed up without the inconvenience, time and cost of hospital appointments.

About Coeliac UK

Coeliac UK campaigns for better access to diagnosis of coeliac disease and funds critical research into potential cures. It provides expert and independent information to 65,000 members and the wider gluten free community to manage their health and gluten free diet.

The charity also fights for wider availability of gluten free food by working with food manufacturers, service providers and venues. Currently 3,000 products and 200 companies use the charitys Crossed Grain certification scheme and over 3,200 food outlets, cafs and restaurants have achieved its Gluten Free accreditation.

About Innovate UK

Innovate UK is part of UK Research and Innovation, a non-departmental public body funded by a grant-in-aid from the UK government. For more information visitwww.ukri.org.

Innovate UK drives productivity and economic growth bysupporting businesses todevelop andrealise the potential of new ideas, including those from the UKs world-class research base.

We connect businesses to the partners, customers and investorsthat can help them turn ideas into commercially successful products and services and business growth.

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Make Face Masks Fit Better With This Quick Trick – Mental Floss

§ November 25th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Make Face Masks Fit Better With This Quick Trick – Mental Floss

The constant stream of information about the novel coronavirus and COVID-19 can cause a lot of anxiety. Mental Floss created this weekly digest so you can peruse the news at your own pacewithout feeling overwhelmed.

Another week, another round of promising vaccine news: On Monday, AstraZeneca announced that its vaccine, developed with Oxford University, was up to 90 percent effective in a dosing regimen they discovered by accident. Some participants in the study received a half-dose of the vaccine instead of a full dose, followed by a full dose a month later. Others correctly received the two full doses a month apart. Researchers were surprised to find that the patients who received the incorrect half-dose were actually better protected; the two full doses resulted in only 65 percent effectiveness, according to the preliminary data. The New York Times examines this vaccines pros and cons.

AstraZeneca's experimental vaccine, like those being developed by Pfizer and Moderna, works by telling the body to make a SARS-CoV-2 protein to trigger an immune response. But unlike the latter two, which use messenger RNA to tell the body what to do, AstraZenecas vaccine uses a snippet of DNA delivered by a virus. NBC News looks at how both methods work.

One of COVID-19s most noticeable yet mysterious symptoms is the loss of smell and taste. Now, scientists are beginning to understand how the virus makes smell and taste temporarily disappear, as well as how patients regain them after recovery. Heres more from Scientific American.

Thanksgiving is upon us, and public health officials are urging people to stay home and avoid holiday get-togethers. But if you dont heed what Dr. Fauci says, just look at Canadas example. Their Thanksgiving occurred on October 12, and the country saw a jump in cases two weeks later, likely resulting from travel and large holiday gatherings. Unfortunately, Americans dont seem to be getting the message. Last Sunday, the TSA screened more than a million air passengers at U.S. airports, the highest number since the pandemic began.

If you are traveling for the holiday, dont forget your masks. Heres a refresher on how masks protect you and others.

More good news on the vaccine development front: On Monday, pharmaceutical company Moderna revealed in a press release that its experimental coronavirus vaccine is 94.5 percent effective, according to early data from its Phase 3 trial. Like the one being developed by Pfizer, Modernas vaccine uses messenger RNA to tell the body to start making a coronavirus protein, which triggers an immune response. The data have not been peer-reviewed or published yet, but Moderna plans to seek emergency use authorization from the FDA to begin inoculating high-risk people as soon as possible. Fun fact: the work is supported by the Dolly Parton COVID-19 Research Fund.

That doesnt mean the pandemic is over, though. You should still wear face coverings to keep your droplets to yourself. If you find yourself wearing them inconsistently because they fall down your nose or fog up your glasses, neurosurgeon Dr. Daniel M. Heiferman has a solution: a Band-Aid. On Twitter, he posted a selfie with a Band-Aid stuck over the top of his surgical mask, solving both annoying problems at once.

Is getting together with relatives and friends for Thanksgiving safe? Buzzfeed asked seven infectious disease experts about what they are planning for next weeks holiday and advice for celebrating safely. The semi-short answer: The less you travel and the fewer people you see, the better.

Ah, yes, a mouthwash kills coronavirus study is trending on social media again. But dont get too excited. A Cardiff University study [PDF] found that an ingredient in mouthwash kills the coronavirus in human salivain test tubeswithin 30 seconds. But the results have not been peer-reviewed, and the lab conditions arent the same as a human being swishing some Listerine. Even if real-world tests show that the ingredient does wipe out the virus in peoples saliva, mouthwash isnt going to be a viable treatment for coronavirus infection because it never reaches other parts of the body. A better idea? Wash your hands often and dont touch your face.

Some good coronavirus news for once! Pfizer and BioNTech announced that early results of the phase three trial for their coronavirus vaccine showed 90 percent efficacy against infection. The study will continue for another few weeks at least. If all goes according to plan, the company will seek emergency use authorization from the FDA and potentially manufacture 50 million doses of the vaccine by the end of the year. Heres more.

While Pfizers news is promising, Los Angeles Times business columnist Michael Hiltzik explains why you shouldnt throw away your mask just yet.

Coincidentally, Eli Lilly received emergency use authorization for its monoclonal antibody treatment for mild or moderate COVID-19 on Monday. The drug, called bamlanivimab, was approved for patients at high risk of developing severe symptoms. But there is currently a shortage of the drug, blunting its impact for slowing the pandemic, at least for now.

As coronavirus cases continue to spike across the U.S., people are facing the prospect of extended time at homeor even another series of lockdowns. And, apparently, a lot of them buying puzzles. NPR reports a worldwide run on anxiety-soothing puzzles, leaving many companies with mountains of back orders. There's not a factory on the planet that is not months behind on production," Puzzle Warehouse co-owner Brian Way said. Here are a few more optionsfor whiling away the hours.

Its Election Day! And the CDC has good news for voters who have recently tested positive for the coronavirus: You can still vote in person, even if youre in isolation. This seemingly counterintuitive advice was published on the agencys website Sunday. People who have been exposed to a person with the coronavirus, or who have tested positive for it, can still show up to polling places as long as they wear masks, stay 6 feet away from other people, and wash their hands before and after voting, The Washington Post reports.

Citizens are heading to the polls amid the worst outbreak of coronavirus cases thus far. NPR has an at-a-glance rundown of where cases are spiking fastest. The acceleration of infections has led national treasure Dr. Anthony Fauci to suggest we may not be back to pre-pandemic normality until 2022, according to CNN. If an effective vaccine is approved in the next several months, it could take six to eight months for a significant number of Americans to be vaccinated, Fauci said.

A Gallup poll in October 2020 found that the coronavirus is the most important non-economic issue facing the United States today. Of those surveyed, 30 percent cited the coronavirus, compared to 23 percent choosing the government/poor leadership as the next most pressing non-economic problem. A recent Pew Research poll showed the sharp divide in concern about the coronavirus pandemic among voters for each presidential candidate.

The International Coastal Cleanup, an annual volunteer effort to tidy up the worlds beaches, released it preliminary data from this years eventand it turns out that a lot of disposable masks, gloves, gowns, and other PPE are ending up in the ocean. According to CNN Business, people in 76 countries collected more than 1.6 million pounds of garbage, including thousands of pounds of PPE.

Last week, the CDC updated its definition of close contact when it comes to coronavirus contact tracing. Now, anyone who spent a total of 15 minutes within 6 feet of an infected person in a 24-hour period is considered a close contact. Previously, anyone who spent 15 consecutive minutes within 6 feet of a person who tests positive would be a close contact. The updated guidelines will most likely have an impact in places where people spend longer stretches of time indoors, such as schools, stores, restaurants, and offices.

A recent study found that over-the-counter mouthwash can inactivate a type of human coronavirus that causes coldsand set off an online debate about its ability to kill SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Katherine J. Wu at The New York Times debunks the idea that mouthwash could prevent COVID-19 with the facts.

Small businesses continue to feel the economic impact of the pandemic. But when New York Citys beloved Strand bookstore asked customers to help it survive the financial crisis, readers placed so many online orders that its website crashed.

After months cooped up at home, perhaps youre ready for a working vacation. The Washington Post looks at eight countries that currently allow American travelers to visit for remote working. Most of the countries are in the Caribbean region, but digital nomads could also check out Estonia or Georgia for a change of scenery.

The British government is about to start the worlds first coronavirus vaccine human challenge trialsa type of clinical trial in which participants are purposely exposed to the virus in a controlled setting. This method differs from a usual Phase 3 trial in that all participants receive one of several vaccines, and none receives a placebo as part of a control group. According to The New York Times, In the first stage of the study, scientists will try to determine the smallest doses of the virus required to infect people. The scientists will test gradually increasing doses of virus on up to 90 healthy volunteers from 18 to 30 years old until they reach a level that reliably infects them. Once they have decided on a dosepotentially by late spring, the government saidresearchers will begin to compare a set of coronavirus vaccine candidates by immunizing people and then deliberately infecting them. Human challenge trials save time over the usual Phase 3 method, but some bioethicists argue that its not ethical to expose people to incurable illnesses.

It was really only a matter of time. The Sturgis Motorcycle Rally in South Dakota likely seeded the current coronavirus outbreak across the Upper Midwest, The Washington Post reports. At the August event attended by 500,000 motorcycle buffs, few wore masks or practiced social distancing. This month, North and South Dakota, Montana, and Minnesota led the U.S. in new infections per capita. Read the full story here.

Certain uninformed politicians have claimed that coronavirus deaths are vastly overcounted, and that they actually total far less than the current number in the U.S. (which is 221,000 as of today). An analysis in Scientific American debunks the coronavirus death overcount myth and explains how deaths are recorded and factored into the total. The final result is a number that places the coronavirus as the third leading cause of death in the U.S., behind only heart disease and cancer.

Finally, 14-year-old Anika Chebrolu, a middle school student from Frisco, Texas, won the prestigious 3M Young Scientists Challenge for her project exploring a weakness of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Chebrolu designed a computer model that identified a molecule that can bind to the spike protein on the virus, which could lead to new drugs that can bind to and destroy it. How I develop this molecule further with the help of virologists and drug development specialists will determine the success of her efforts to combat the pandemic, she told CNN.

Johnson & Johnson put a temporary pause on its coronavirus vaccine trial after one of thousands of participants reported an unexplained illness, STAT reveals. The company didnt offer any details about the nature of the illness. Adverse events are a normal part of human clinical trials, STAT notes, and it is not known whether the patient received a dose of the experimental vaccine or the placebo.

The Lancet Infectious Diseases reported the first case of coronavirus reinfection in the U.S. A 25-year-old Nevada man tested positive for the coronavirus in April and recovered. He tested negative at two consecutive points in time after his recovery. But about two months later, he again tested positive, and genetic analyses showed that the SARS-CoV-2 strains for the two infections were different. The journal said the mans second bout was worse than the first, requiring supplemental oxygen and hospitalization.

Multisymptom inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) has now appeared in adults. The Kawasaki disease-like syndrome associated with active or past coronavirus infection has been documented in a small number of adult COVID-19 patients. The CDCs Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report announced 16 cases in which adult COVID-19 patients, ranging in age from 21 to 50, had symptoms including fever, cardiac irregularities, gastrointestinal effects, and rash. Ten of the 16 patients exhibited pulmonary ground glass opacities indicating possible lung injury, though they reported minimal respiratory symptoms.

Lets end on a high note, shall we? The Washington Post tells the story of Jesse Katayama, a Japanese boxing trainer whose life goal was to visit Machu Picchu in Peru. But he arrived in the South American country just as the government closed the site due to the pandemic. Instead of flying back to Japan, he waited, renting a room and teaching local kids boxing to pass the time. The locals implored the government to reopen Machu Picchu for Katayamaand only for Katayamaso he could visit before returning to Japan. This week, he got his wish.

A new study in the Proceedings of the National Academies of Science found that simply speaking can release vortical puffs of air capable of shooting droplets up to 3 feet per puff. The paper suggested that certain sounds, such as the p in puff, spoken in a 30-second stream of speech, could carry respiratory droplets 6 feet from speakers mouth. The findings point to the importance of wearing masks to prevent the spread of the coronavirus.

What does clean really mean these days? Weve seen businesses, restaurants, and airlines wiping down surfaces to disinfect high-traffic areas (efforts which some have called comforting but not really worth it). Public health campaigns have implored people to wash their hands (and that really does help slow the spread of germs). NPR spoke with James Hamblin, author of Clean: The New Science of Skin, about what it means to be hygienic now.

About 9 percent of Americans have antibodies against the coronavirus in their blood, according to a new paper in The Lancet. Researchers sampled blood from more than 28,000 patients at 1300 dialysis centers across the U.S. Seroprevalence for the antibodies was highest in the Northeast, where the majority of coronavirus cases emerged early in the pandemic, and higher among Black and Hispanic patients, who are at greater risk of infection than whites.

And finally, we hate to end on a low note, but the global number of deaths from the coronavirus has passed 1 million. The Washington Post has a multimedia examination of this terrible and unnecessary milestone.

Once an impeccable source for evidence-based health information, the CDC is now facing criticism over two incidents involving its guidance for containing the coronavirus. The New York Times reported that information calling aerosols the primary mode of transmission (which most public health officials believe is true) was posted to the website, then removed without an official explanation. The key updates: The CDC said that the coronavirus may be able to spread in the air farther than six feet from an infected person and that proper indoor ventilation is essential to eliminate airborne particles. The mystery echoes the previous weeks scandal in which political appointees bypassed CDC officials in issuing new coronavirus testing guidelines and meddled in the CDCs Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, the agencys public health bulletin. Confused? Wear a mask, avoid people, and hope for the best.

With many of their travel plans still stalled, tourists are snapping up tickets for flights to nowhere, The Washington Post says. Some major airlines are offering trips that depart and arrive at the same airport, just to give folks the opportunity to squish into a seat, gaze out the window, and enjoy a Bloody Mary. Australian airline Qantas told Reuters that its seven-hour flight from and to Sydney flies over the Great Barrier Reef and Uluru with no layovers. Its probably the fastest selling flight in Qantas history, a spokesperson said.

Quick reminder: Get your flu shot! Public health officials have been warning about potentially battling a twindemic this fall of COVID-19 and the flu. A wave of flu cases would put more pressure on our already maxed-out healthcare system, so its important to get your flu vaccine ASAP. Here are a few up-to-date facts about the flu shot.

Young children are spreading the new coronavirus to adults. In a new Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, the CDC says that 12 children under the age of 10 at two Utah day care facilities acquired COVID-19 and transmitted the virus to at least 12 people who were not associated with the day care. Some of the children were asymptomatic. The agency said that testing of contacts of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases in child care settings, including children who might not have symptoms, could improve control of transmission from child care attendees to family members."

Two Ph.D. candidates in Poland put together an online calculator to determine how many lives you could save by wearing a face mask, Popular Mechanics reports. In an effort to combat misinformation about mask efficacy, Joanna Michaowska and Dominik Czernia designed the free tool to consider your hypothetical mask material as well as the number of people around you who are wearing masks correctly. Try it out here.

People who tested positive for COVID-19 were twice as likely to have visited an indoor restaurant or bar in the previous two weeks compared to those who tested negative. NPR finds that the CDC analyzed 314 symptomatic adults who sought testing; 154 tested positive and 160 tested negative. After questioning each participant about his or her activities, researchers concluded the main factor associated with higher incidence of COVID-19 was dining out, possibly because masks cant be worn while eating and drinking.

Speaking of dining out, a lot of us have been ordering takeout instead of going to our favorite restaurants. Have you ever wondered about all the extra trash generated by our national takeout trend? The Washington Post food critic Tom Sietsema did, and gathered all the containers, lids, and utensilsdown to the tiny condiment cupsfrom three weeks worth of his carry-out meals. Though the mountain of disposables was alarming, he discovered that restaurants are beginning to find ways of reducing takeouts environmental impact.

Finally, we know wearing masks to prevent the spread of the coronavirus is annoying. But please, dont use live reptiles as face coverings when you ride the bus, like one bloke did in Manchester, England.

With the number of deaths from COVID-19 nearing 190,000 in the U.S. alone, some have remarked on the surprising absence of public memorials and collective mourning. But at least one project is addressing the need for remembrance. In Uruguay, the architecture firm Gmez Platero recently unveiled its design for the worlds first large-scale memorial to pandemic victims and survivors. Looking a little like a flying saucer touching down on Earth, the structure is meant to remind people that human beings are subordinate to nature, and not the other way around, the architects said in a statement reported by Arch Daily.

Oh deer: scientists have discovered that the deer mouse, an abundant North American rodent, can catch and spread the coronavirus (at least in a lab setting). Pre-peer-reviewed research demonstrated that one group of mice contracted the virus after being exposed and then passed it on to a second group. Whether deer mice will end up being a major vector for coronavirusas they are for hantavirusor whether they can spread it to humans remains to be seen. In semi-related news, the virus has also been documented in minks, but theres no evidence to suggest minks can pass the virus to humans (its more likely the animals at an affected farm contracted it from humans).

Researchers in Hong Kong note that poop may be a more important factor in the spread of the coronavirus than previously known. An earlier study found that flushing toilets can produce plumes of vaporized fecal matter that can carry the virus, and that testing wastewater at sewage treatment plants can predict which communities may experience outbreaks. Bloomberg reports that the current study examined poop samples from 15 patients who had tested negative after a COVID-19 infection. In seven of the patients, the virus remained active in the gut (with or without gastrointestinal symptoms), indicating that infection continued even after clearing other systems in the body.

Last week we mentioned a superspreader event in rural Maine. Now, NPR reports that yet another mass gatheringthe annual motorcycle rally in Sturgis, South Dakotais the source of outbreaks in at least 12 states. A team of German economists analyzed anonymous cellphone pings from rallygoers along with public health data during and after the 10-day event. They estimate more than 266,000 cases, or 19 percent of the 1.4 million new cases in the U.S. between August 2 and September 2, may be linked to the rally [PDF].

With the coronavirus pandemic in the U.S. entering its seventh month, The Atlantics Amanda Mull reveals why she seems to have become markedly clumsier since the crisis began. She looks at how stress and anxiety make us drop things, bump into stuff, and trip over ourselves, and finds that the decreased spatial awarenessnot impaired motor skillsthat accompanies stress is making us more cloddish.

You know whats also pretty stressful? Trying to survive a hurricane, derecho, or wildfire during a pandemic. But thats exactly what residents in Louisiana, Iowa, and California are faced with right now. WABC offers tips for preparing to evacuate and hunker down at a shelter during a natural disaster: For example, along with the usual emergency supplies in your go-bag, youll need hand sanitizer, disinfecting wipes, and face masks. Heres more about what to expect according to the Red Cross.

A recent wedding in rural Maine has become the latest superspreader event, The Washington Post reports. The event in early August, held in a lakeside cabin in Millinocket, featured about 65 guests and few masks, and has resulted in 87 cases of COVID-19. The wedding echoes another superspreader event early in the pandemic, a biotech conference held in Boston in February. According to WBUR, a new genetic analysis revealed that infections from that conference spread far and wide, eventually accounting for 40 percent of all coronavirus cases in the Boston area as of July 1.

Finally, last week we mentioned the first known case of coronavirus reinfection. Now, STAT looks at what immunologists say it means for understanding post-infection immunity.

The first confirmed case of coronavirus reinfection was documented by researchers in Hong Kong, The New York Times reports. In April, the patient tested positive for the novel coronavirus and had mild symptoms. This month, the patient tested positive again and had no symptoms. The researchers confirmed that it was a reinfection, and not just prolonged shedding of viral particles, because the genomes of the viruses causing the two infections were different. The finding suggests that for some people, immunity may last only a few months following infectionbut more research is needed.

A team of researchers in the Netherlands has found antibodies in the breast milk of women who recovered from COVID-19. But they didnt stop there. In a press release, chemist Albert Heck said that the next step to discovering whether such antibodies might prevent infection in others is to freeze breast milk into ice cubes. By licking the cubes, test subjects will theoretically place the antibodies in prolonged contact with their mouth and nasal passages, the area where infection is thought to occur.

A coronavirus outbreak occurred at the worlds largest nudist resort last week. About 100 people have tested positive at Cap dAgde on Frances Mediterranean coast, a locale The Guardian calls hugely popular among naturists and where vacationers can eat, shop, and sunbathe in the village sans vtements. Ironically, masks are required.

Speaking of masks, there are still a lot of myths and misconceptions around wearing them to prevent the spread of the coronavirus. Business Insider debunks a few here. We have more tips about choosing the right type and making them as comfortable as possible.

A new study in the journal Nature Communications finds that influenza viruses can be spread by microscopic dust particlesraising questions about the ability of coronaviruses to do the same. In an experiment using guinea pigs, researchers from the University of California, Davis and the Icahn School of Medicine at Mt. Sinai painted live flu virus on the animals fur and then let them run around their cages. Particle counters revealed that the virus became airborne and was able to infect other guinea pigs. The results show that the viruses could be transmitted by particles other than respiratory droplets. Of course, more research into this mechanism is needed to understand its implications for the novel coronavirus.

Seven months after the first appearance of the novel coronavirus in humans, what have we learned so far? The infectious diseases reporting team at STATNews breaks down the hard-won lessons and the questions that still need answers.

One question on nearly everyones mind: How long does immunity last after you recover from COVID-19? Several new preliminary studies have found that disease-fighting antibodies, as well as immune cells called B cells and T cells that are capable of recognizing the virus, appear to persist months after infections have resolvedan encouraging echo of the bodys enduring response to other viruses, reports Katherine J. Wu at The New York Times. People who have had even mild cases of COVID-19 and recovered seem to show strong, lasting immunity. In addition, the CDC issued new guidance suggesting that people who have recovered from COVID-19 may have immunity for at least three months after recovery and do not need to be retested within that time period.

Finally, one way that it seems very unlikely that you will contract the coronavirus is from frozen food. Following reports of contaminated frozen chicken wings exported from Brazil to China, the World Health Organization said that food and food packaging are not likely conduits for the virus. Also, wash your hands.

Infectious disease reporter Helen Branswell published a sobering call to action in STATNews, telling readers that the window for getting a grip on the out-of-control pandemic is closing. Branswell notes that the social adaptations that have made life somewhat more normal despite the pandemic, such as outdoor dining and trips to the park or beach, will disappear with the coming of winter. And we are not preparedespecially when we add cold and flu season to the situation. Unless Americans use the dwindling weeks between now and the onset of indoor weather to tamp down transmission in the country, this winter could be Dickensianly bleak, Branswell writes. Read more here.

On the research front, the focus has been on why some COVID-19 patients become sicker than others. But some scientists are beginning to look at the estimated 40 percent of COVID-19 patients who show no symptoms as a key to understanding how the virus operates. As Ariana Eunjung Cha writes in The Washington Post, a segment of the worlds population may have partial protection thanks to memory T cells, the part of our immune system trained to recognize specific invaders. This could originate from cross protection derived from standard childhood vaccinations. Another source of protection could be previous exposure to similar coronaviruses, like the one that causes the common cold.

A recently published MIT study has quantified the misinformation about the coronavirus pandemic that is floating around the internet. Researchers found 2311 reports of misinformation (which, honestly, seems low) that fell into three primary categories: rumors; stigma, like blaming certain people for spreading the virus; and conspiracy theories. Yasmin Tayag has the story in the Medium Coronavirus Blog.

Speaking of misinformation, Russian authorities announced the approval of the worlds first vaccine against the coronavirus todaybefore human clinical trials were completed. The rush to create a vaccine has prompted concerns among U.S. researchers that Russian institutes are cutting corners when it comes to drug safety and efficacy. Vladimir Putin said it works effectively enough, according to The New York Times.

In last weeks Coronavirus Digest, we mentioned several potential vaccines against COVID-19 that were entering human trials as part of the federal governments Operation Warp Speed. Now, MIT Technology Review has a story about a group of scientists developing DIY vaccines even faster than major pharma companiesand testing them on themselves. (Dont try this at home.)

Another one bites the dust: the parent company of the countrys oldest department store, Lord & Taylor, has filed for bankruptcy. It joins a growing list of other iconic brands like Brooks Brothers, J.C. Penney, and Neiman Marcus that have filed for Chapter 11 following pandemic-related losses.

If youre planning a coronavirus-friendly vacation this year, a road trip may be your best bet for a socially distanced getaway. Here are some expert tips for protecting yourself and your family while traveling and sightseeing. We dont need to remind you to wear a mask and wash your hands, right?

Speaking of masks, demand for masks with clear panels is increasing. For the more than 10,000 people in the U.S. who are hearing-impaired or deaf, opaque cloth masks create a barrier to communicationand the same goes for children or the elderly, NPR reports. Clear-panel masks allow people to see a speakers facial expressions or read their lips, making it easier to communicate while preventing the spread of the virus.

The potential coronavirus vaccine being developed by the pharmaceutical company Moderna and NIH entered a Phase 3 trial yesterday. In this phase, researchers will test the vaccines effectiveness against coronavirus infectionprevious phases tested its safetyin 30,000 healthy volunteers. Some participants will receive two doses of the vaccine and others a placebo. Results of the three-month study may be available before the end of the year. If you would like to volunteer, click here for info.

Meanwhile, Pfizer and BioNTech SE announced that the U.S. will buy 100 million doses of their potential vaccine for about $2 billion. Its set to enter a Phase 2b/3 trial to test safety and efficacy soon, and may be available by the end of the year if its shown to be effective and gets approved by the FDA.

Everyone should be wearing face coverings in indoor spaces (and anywhere in public, frankly) to protect others from your potentially infectious droplets. Now, new research is showing that face masks do offer some protection for the wearer after all, reports The New York Times. People who wear masks may inhale fewer viral particles from the air, thereby lessening the severity of any resulting coronavirus infection.

Until we have a vaccine to keep us safe from the coronavirus, we have Swedish knights. A group of medieval reenactors from Torneamentum, a knights association, will enforce social distancing among tourists on the Swedish island of Gotland. For us knights, it is a matter of course to stand up when duty calls, and we really look forward against taking on the task, said Lennart Borg, one of the knights.

Finally, what exactly is a COVID surcharge? As restaurants and other businesses reopen in some states, consumers are seeing more COVID fees added to their bills. NBC News looks into the practice.

Dr. Anthony Fauci, a noted Washington Nationals superfan, has shown his love for the D.C. baseball team by wearing face masks emblazoned with the Nats logo to his hearings on Capitol Hill. Now, the infectious disease specialist will throw out the first pitch at the Nats home opener against the New York Yankees on Thursday night. While no fans will be there to cheer him on, the teams official statement says it all: Dr. Fauci has been a true champion for our country during the COVID-19 pandemic and throughout his distinguished career, so it is only fitting that we honor him as we kick off the 2020 season and defend our World Series Championship title. We know Dr. Fauci was a high school basketball star, but hows his throwing arm?

CDC data released today show that vast numbers of coronavirus cases are still going unreported, The New York Times reports. The infection rate is believed to be two to 13 times higher than the official count in different parts of the country, driven mainly by pre-symptomatic or asymptomatic carriers.

With the U.S. still struggling to control the viruss spread, the Bahamas has joined dozens of other countries in banning American tourists. The countrys prime minister said that COVID-19 cases have spiked since the Bahamas reopened to international travelers on July 1. The Miami Herald has details.

Public health experts are warning people against wearing valve masksthose face masks withlittle valves in front to let the wearer exhale more comfortably. The valve defeats the whole purpose of wearing a mask in the current pandemic: it may filter some of the air you inhale, but doesnt filter any air thats exhaledincluding infectious dropletsso it wont protect those around you. A cloth mask is better at keeping your droplets to yourself. Here are some fancy ones youll actually enjoy wearing.

Governor Gavin Newsom ordered all 58 of Californias counties to close indoor bars and restaurants to curb the spread of the coronavirus, the San Francisco Chronicle reports. In the most populous counties, gyms, salons, barbershops, malls, houses of worship, and offices are also being told to close. The number of COVID-19 cases in California has risen since Memorial Day and the state has averaged 8000 new cases per day over the last week. Florida and Texas, where the number of new cases is skyrocketing, are finally considering reinstating lockdown measures as well.

Meanwhile, New Yorkonce the center of the U.S. coronavirus pandemicreported no COVID-19 deaths on Saturday, July 11. It marked the first 24-hour period since March 11 with no coronavirus-related fatalities. In exactly four months, New York City claimed 23,323 confirmed and probable COVID-19 deaths. Washington, D.C. also celebrated four consecutive days with no coronavirus deaths, the longest span of time since the citys first death occurred on March 20.

New Yorks Governor Andrew Cuomo wants to keep the states curve flattened and instituted quarantine requirements for travelers coming from more states where the pandemic is growing. Now, visitors from 19 states need to self-quarantine for two weeks upon arriving in New York. Cuomo also issued an order allowing officials to obtain travelers addresses and personal information at airports.

Finally, forgoing vacations hasnt been easy during the pandemic, but the books on the Washington Posts list of travel-disaster narratives will go a long way towards curbing your enthusiasm for adventure. We highly recommend The Worst Journey in the World, one of the included books, for its unparalleled descriptions of self-induced misery.

About those aerosols the World Health Organization updated its guidance on Thursday in response to an open letter from 239 researchers, announcing that coronavirus can be spread via very tiny, airborne droplets. The WHO maintains that the primary mode of transmission is through larger respiratory droplets, which can be partially corralled by face coverings. NPR has more on the report.

Speaking of face coverings, Starbucks announced that it will require all customers to wear masks in stores beginning July 15. The company is the first U.S. restaurant chain to do so, but with daily case counts setting records in several states, more may follow. Wearing a mask is so important, in fact, that Bill Nye the Science Guy came out of retirement to record a TikTok about it.

One of the biggest questions about the coronavirus is what its long-term effects will be in people who have recovered from COVID-19. A small study from University College London researchers, published in the journal Brain and reported by Reuters, adds to the growing body of evidence that COVID-19 can cause temporary brain dysfunction, strokes, nerve damage, or other serious brain effects. The New York Times recently reported on COVID-19 patients experiencing terrifying hallucinations and delirium while in the ICU.

On that note, some radio stations are trying to cheer up listeners by playing Christmas music in Julyas if the concept of time in 2020 couldnt get any weirder.

A team of researchers in Germany has found that we inherited genes associated with higher susceptibility to COVID-19 from Neanderthals. Modern humans and Neanderthals interbred at least 60,000 years ago, and today, Neanderthal genes make up about 2 percent of European and Asian peoples DNA. Precisely why this segment of genetic material seem to increase the risk of severe coronavirus-related illness is still a mystery.

In the market for masks? Pay attention to the fine print. The CDC is reporting that some online retailers are falsely advertising face masks as being approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). NIOSH issues approval numbers to manufacturers who must follow strict guidelines when making masks to ensure their protective integrity. Most of the fraudulent face masks are manufactured in China and are printed with fake NIOSH approval numbers. Here are some tips to consider before you buy.

More than 200 scientists signed a letter to the World Health Organization presenting evidence that the coronavirus virus can be transmitted by tiny airborne droplets. The WHO has maintained that large respiratory droplets are the main mode of transmission, but the signatories argue that the aerosols can not only carry the virus but linger in the air, especially indoors. The New York Times has the bad news.

One crucial ingredient in a potential coronavirus vaccine comes from an unlikely source: horseshoe crabs. The ancient marine invertebrates copper-rich blood is the only natural source of limulus amebocyte lysate, a substance that can indicate if vaccines, drugs, or other sterile medical materials are contaminated with a dangerous bacterial toxin. National Geographic looks into what the current pandemic means for the species.

Testing is one of the most important tools public health officials have to beat back the pandemic. NPR looks into how much testing is needed to get a handle on the record outbreaks in numerous U.S. states and finds efforts are falling alarmingly short. At the same time, the supply chain for testing is already struggling to fill orders, which may reduce the number of tests that are available and extend the wait time between having the test and receiving results. The Atlantic has more.

Spanish newspaper El Pas breaks down three cases studies analyzing superspreader events. In each case, a single person with the coronavirus infected multiple people in an enclosed environment. Researchers who compiled the data pointed to prolonged exposure to infected persons as the main driver of contagion, along with recirculated air from air conditioning systems.

With many traditional movie theaters closed, drive-ins are making a comeback across the country. Walmart announced that its turning 160 of its Supercenter parking lots into pop-up drive-ins this summer, the Verge reports. From August to October, audience members can remain in their cars while enjoying a series of films chosen by Tribeca Enterprises, the group behind the Tribeca Film Festival. Here are some traditional drive-ins to check out too.

Finally, its almost the Fourth of July. Backyard cookouts and fireworks will feel a lot different this year (if the celebrations are happening at all). The New York Times has a few suggestions for spending the July 4th holiday in a masked and socially-distanced manner, while the Red Cross offers reminders about more typical safety concerns, such as dont barbecue inside and dont swim in beach areas without lifeguards.

The CDC updated its list of conditions that may increase your risk for severe COVID-19 if you become infected with the coronavirus. Previously identified comorbidities included cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. Now, the list of illnesses with the potential to intensify COVID-19 symptoms include those three, plus chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), any immunosuppressing condition, sickle cell disease, and a history of organ transplants. The agency announced the updates last Thursday, June 25.

Remdesivir is the only antiviral drug that has been shown to reduce COVID-19 patients time in the hospital, and now its manufacturer, Gilead, has set a price on it. STAT reports that the company will charge the U.S. government $390 per vial of remdesivir, totaling $2340 for a six-vial, five-day course of treatment. Private insurers will be charged $520 per vial, or $3120 for a five-day course. A recent study showed the drug may shorten the average time of some patients' hospital stays by four days. In contrast, four days in a U.S. hospital costs about $12,000, according to The New York Times.

With coronavirus cases reaching unprecedented daily highs in several states, The Atlantic explains why its happening with charts that show the awful toll. In an interview with CNN and reported by Politico, Dr. Anthony Fauci scolded Americans who have abandoned mask-wearing and social distancing, saying its a recipe for disaster. And NBC has a refresher on the proper way to wear a mask for actually protecting others from your dropletsand it's not the reverse Batman.

Finally, United Airlines, Spirit Airlines, and American Airlines announced they will start booking all seats on their planes July 1 and do away with any attempt at social distancing (which, lets face it, isnt easy when seats are less than 17 inches wide). The carriers had been keeping the middle seats empty to space passengers out as much as possible. American is allowing passengers to rebook without a fee if their flight is too full for comfort, but they will need to pay the difference in fare, and other restrictions apply. Here are some hacks for carefully planning your next trip.

The governor of Texas ordered all bars in the state to close to reduce the staggering rate of new coronavirus cases, especially among younger people. On Wednesday, Texas announced a new daily high in the number of new infections at 6584. Florida reported more 8933 new cases on Thursday [PDF].

The Justice Department issued a warning about fake permits that exempt the bearers from wearing face masks, which have been popping up on social media. One fake card suggests anyone who insists on the bearer wearing a face mask could be fined under the Americans with Disabilities Act, though the laws name is misspelled on the card.

A Washington Post-Ipsos survey has found that 31 percent of Black Americans know someone who has died of the coronavirus, compared to 17 percent of Hispanic Americans and 9 percent of white Americans. Epidemiologists attribute the disparity to socioeconomic inequality: This pandemic has really unearthedshone a real bright light onthe ways these disparities should not be accepted and are not tolerable, Joseph Betancourt, vice president and chief equity and inclusion officer at Massachusetts General Hospital, told the Post.

This year marks the 50th anniversary of New York Citys first Pride march, but many Pride festivities around the world have been canceled because the pandemic. Much of the LGBTQ community will be celebrating indoors this year, so kick back with these essential LGBTQ movies available to stream now.

The U.S. now accounts for 20 percent of new coronavirus infections worldwide, The New York Times reports. New infections in states that reopened without meeting benchmarks for containing the pandemic are continuing to climb. One infectious disease specialist told The Times that the spread is like a forest fire. See the data here.

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Africa must step up fighting the spread of fake drugs – IPPmedia

§ November 25th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Africa must step up fighting the spread of fake drugs – IPPmedia

The second kind, known as counterfeit drugs, have been deliberately falsified. This means that they could contain entirely different chemicals than the original or might even have no medical properties at all.

The result of taking fake drugs, therefore, can have a wide variety of effects. The latest studies show that substandard and counterfeit anti-malarial drugs contributed to an additional 72,000 to 267,000 deaths in sub-Saharan Africa annually. Fake malaria prophylaxes may fail to protect the person from malaria; fake malaria treatment may fail to help a sick person effectively; additionally, both of these drugs may give the parasite the chance to become resistant to the medicine used. Moreover, the more people infected with malaria, the easier it is for the mosquitoes to carry the parasites from person to person, thus spreading the disease.

They can cause death, have unknown side-effects, fail to treat illnesses and sometimes even add to the spread of disease. Now, the battle to eliminate fake pharmaceutical products is being stepped up.

A drug test is a technical analysis of a biological specimen, for example urine, hair, blood, breath, sweat, and/or oral fluid/saliva to determine the presence or absence of specified parent drugs or their metabolites. Major applications of drug testing include detection of the presence of performance enhancing steroids in sport, employers and parole/probation officers screening for drugs prohibited by law (such as cannabis, cocaine, methamphetamine, and heroin) and police officers testing for the presence and concentration of alcohol (ethanol) in the blood commonly referred to as BAC (blood alcohol content). BAC tests are typically administered via a breathalyzer while urinalysis is used for the vast majority of drug testing in sports and the workplace. Numerous other methods with varying degrees of accuracy, sensitivity (detection threshold/cutoff), and detection periods exist.

A drug test may also refer to a test that provides quantitative chemical analysis of an illegal drug, typically intended to help with responsible drug use

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Health Organisation have joined a continental campaign to end antimicrobial resistance in Africa. The campaign, led by six entities, comes as cases of drug-resistant HIV, TB and malaria rise across the continent. The campaign was launched during the World Antimicrobial Awareness Week (WAAW) Campaign for Africa. It calls antimicrobial resistance the silent public health threat" in all countries in Africa.

Antimicrobials include antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals and antiparasitics and are used to prevent and treat infections in humans, animals and plants. In Africa, research findings estimate that 4.1 million people could die of failing drug treatments by 2050 unless urgent action is taken. Malaria, which kills 3,000 children in Africa every day, is increasingly showing resistance to once-effective treatment options.

Tuberculosis is also becoming resistant to the drugs typically used to treat it. Current studies indicate that drug resistance to HIV is increasing and could cause 890,000 deaths by 2030 in sub-Saharan Africa.The others are the Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, the African Union, Food and Agriculture Organization, and the World Organisation for Animal Health.

An estimated one in 10 medicines globally is substandard or falsified, and the African region is one of the most affected in the world. Without proper medical supervision, people often stop their drug course too soon or they double-dose rather than keep to a prescribed strict time interval for appropriate drug-taking.This improper use of antimicrobial medicines enables bacteria, viruses, fungi and microscopic parasites to mutate into superbugs that are resistant to the drugs designed to kill them

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In-Depth Research on Aerospace Nanotechnology Market (impact of COVID-19) with Top Players: Airbus , Glonatech , Flight Shield , Lockheed Martin, and…

§ November 25th, 2020 § Filed under Nanotech Comments Off on In-Depth Research on Aerospace Nanotechnology Market (impact of COVID-19) with Top Players: Airbus , Glonatech , Flight Shield , Lockheed Martin, and…

This report studies the Aerospace Nanotechnology market with many aspects of the industry like the market size, market status, market trends and forecast, the report also provides brief information of the competitors and the specific growth opportunities with key market drivers. Find the complete Aerospace Nanotechnology market analysis segmented by companies, region, type and applications in the report.

Get a Free Sample Copy @ https://www.reportsandmarkets.com/sample-request/global-aerospace-nanotechnology-market-insight-forecast-to-2025?utm_source=cheshire&utm_medium=40

The key players covered in this study Airbus

Glonatech

Flight Shield

Lockheed Martin

Lufthansa Technik

tripleO Performance Solution

Zyvex Technologies

Other prominent vendors

CHOOSE NanoTech

General Nano

HR TOUGHGUARD

Metamaterial Technologies

Market segment by Type, the product can be split intoType 1

Type 2

Market segment by Application, split intoApplication 1

Application 2

Market segment by Regions/Countries, this report coversNorth America Europe China Japan Southeast Asia India Central & South America

Inquire this [emailprotected] https://www.reportsandmarkets.com/enquiry/global-aerospace-nanotechnology-market-insight-forecast-to-2025?utm_source=cheshire&utm_medium=40

Table of Contents: Aerospace Nanotechnology Market

Chapter 1: Overview of Aerospace Nanotechnology Market

Chapter 2: Global Market Status and Forecast by Regions

Chapter 3: Global Market Status and Forecast by Types

Chapter 4: Global Market Status and Forecast by Downstream Industry

Chapter 5: Market Driving Factor Analysis

Chapter 6: Market Competition Status by Major Manufacturers

Chapter 7: Major Manufacturers Introduction and Market Data

Chapter 8: Upstream and Downstream Market Analysis

Chapter 9: Cost and Gross Margin Analysis

Chapter 10: Marketing Status Analysis

Chapter 11: Market Report Conclusion

Chapter 12: Research Methodology and Reference

About Us:

Reports And Marketsis part of the Algoro Research Consultants Pvt. Ltd. and offers premium progressive statistical surveying, market research reports, analysis & forecast data for industries and governments around the globe. Are you mastering your market? Do you know what the market potential is for your product, who the market players are and what the growth forecast is? We offer standard global, regional or country specific market research studies for almost every market you can imagine.

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Worldwide Industry for Nanotechnology Food Packaging to 2025 – Impact of COVID-19 – Yahoo Finance

§ November 25th, 2020 § Filed under Nanotech Comments Off on Worldwide Industry for Nanotechnology Food Packaging to 2025 – Impact of COVID-19 – Yahoo Finance

DUBLIN, Nov. 20, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- The "Nanotechnology for Food Packaging Market - A Global Market and Regional Analysis: Focus on (Product, Application, Industry Outlook, Region and Country Analysis) - Analysis and Forecast, 2019-2025" report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering.

The packaging industry is in the process of constant evolution, with various technological developments taking place in the industry that have enhanced features in packaging materials to make the food consumption experience better. The growing demand for food types and varieties of exotic foodstuffs leads to the complications for safer and more secure packaging of goods, which advances the concept of food packaging in the industry.

The rise of nanotechnology has accelerated the evolution of packaging present in the food industry. The packaging today has become the latest focus for food manufacturers, as they have to advance themselves in comparison to the new packaging material that acts as a part of branding and certifies food safety. An inevitable evolution is nanotechnology incorporated in food packaging, such as active packaging, improved packaging, and an upcoming category of smart/intelligent packaging that has sensors embedded in the packaging itself, which provides abundant data for suppliers to track than what today's packaging can offer.

The upcoming trends and opportunities in the nanotechnology application in food packaging sector are expected to be at the forefront in the coming decade, with blockchain application in food packaging becoming the most prominent in the field.

The exponential rise in the adoption of nanotechnology for food packaging on the global level has created a buzz among companies to invest in this industry.

On the basis of region, North America holds the largest share of nanotechnology for food packaging sold in terms of value, due to high awareness and product availability in the region. Apart from this, South America is anticipated to grow at the fastest CAGR during the forecast period.

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Key Companies Profiled

Amcor Ltd., Sonoco Products Company, BASF SE, Tetra Laval International S.A., Honeywell International Inc., and Chevron Phillips Chemical Company, LLC, among others

Key Questions Answered in this Report:

What are the underlying structures resulting in the emerging trends within the nanotechnology application in food packaging market?

How is the food packaging market impacted by the introduction of nanotechnology?

How are nanotechnology for food packaging manufacturers, and other players entering the market?

How are emerging technologies such as blockchain in nanotechnology and nano-printing for food packaging driving the growth of the market?

Which packaging type is expected to be leading the nanotechnology for food packaging market by 2025?

What was the market value of the leading segments and sub-segments of the Asia-Pacific & Japan market in 2019, and how is the market estimated to grow during the forecast period 2020-2025?

How is the industry expected to evolve during the forecast period 2020-2025?

What are the key developmental strategies which are implemented by the key players to sustain in the competitive market?

What has been the impact of COVID-19 on the nanotechnology for food packaging market?

Key Topics Covered:

1 Markets 1.1 Industry Outlook 1.1.1 Nanotechnology for Food Packaging: Overview 1.1.1.1 Timeline: Evolution of Food Packaging 1.1.1.2 Emergence of Nanotechnology in Food 1.1.2 Ecosystem Participants 1.1.3 Futuristic Trends 1.1.3.1 Blockchain in Food Packaging 1.2 Business Dynamics 1.2.1 Business Drivers 1.2.1.1 Need for Food Safety for the Consumers 1.2.1.2 Extended Shelf Life of Products 1.2.2 Business Challenges 1.2.2.1 Impact of COVID-19 on Raw Material Providers 1.2.3 Business Strategies 1.2.3.1 Product Development and Innovation 1.2.3.2 Market Developments 1.2.4 Corporate Strategies 1.2.4.1 Partnerships, Collaborations, Mergers and Acquisitions, and Joint Ventures 1.2.5 Business Opportunities 1.2.5.1 Nano-Printed Intelligent Food packaging

2 Application 2.1 Application and Specification 2.1.1 Fruits and Vegetables 2.1.2 Beverages 2.1.3 Prepared Foods 2.1.4 Meat Products 2.1.5 Bakery Products 2.2 Demand Analysis of Nanotechnology for Food Packaging (by Application) 2.2.1 Fruits and Vegetables 2.2.1.1 Demand Analysis of Fruits and Vegetables Nanotechnology for Food Packaging Market by Region 2.2.2 Beverages 2.2.2.1 Demand Analysis of Beverages Nanotechnology for Food Packaging Market by Region 2.2.3 Prepared Foods 2.2.3.1 Demand Analysis of Prepared Foods Nanotechnology for Food Packaging Market by Region 2.2.4 Meat Products 2.2.4.1 Demand Analysis of Meat Products Nanotechnology for Food Packaging Market by Region 2.2.5 Bakery Products 2.2.5.1 Demand Analysis of Bakery Products Nanotechnology for Food Packaging Market by Region

3 Products 3.1 Global Nanotechnology for Food Packaging Market (by Product) 3.1.1 Active Packaging 3.1.2 Improved Packaging 3.1.3 Smart/Intelligent Packaging 3.2 Demand Analysis of Nanotechnology for Food Packaging Market (by Technology) 3.2.1 Active Packaging 3.2.1.1 Demand Analysis of Active Packaging Market (by Region) 3.2.2 Improved Packaging 3.2.2.1 Demand Analysis of Improved Packaging Market (by Region) 3.2.3 Smart/Intelligent Packaging 3.2.3.1 Demand Analysis of Smart/Intelligent Packaging Market (by Region)

4 Regions 4.1 North America 4.2 South America 4.3 Europe 4.4 U.K. 4.5 Middle East and Africa 4.6 China 4.7 Asia-Pacific and Japan

5 Markets - Competitive Benchmarking & Company Profiles 5.1 Competitive Benchmarking 5.2 Amcor Plc 5.2.1 Company Overview 5.2.1.1 Role of Amcor Plc in Nanotechnology for Food Packaging Market 5.2.1.2 Product Portfolio 5.2.1.3 Production Sites 5.2.2 Business Strategies 5.2.2.1 Product Development 5.2.2.2 Market Development 5.2.3 Corporate Strategies 5.2.3.1 Partnership and Collaboration 5.2.3.2 Merger and Acquisition 5.2.4 Strength and Weakness of Amcor Plc 5.2.5 R&D Analysis 5.3 BASF SE 5.3.1 Company Overview 5.3.1.1 Role of BASF SE in Nanotechnology for Food Packaging Market 5.3.1.2 Product Portfolio 5.3.1.3 Production Sites 5.3.2 Business Strategies 5.3.2.1 Product Development 5.3.3 Corporate Strategies 5.3.3.1 Partnership and Collaboration 5.3.3.2 Merger and Acquisition 5.3.4 Strength and Weakness of BASF SE 5.3.5 R&D Analysis 5.4 Chevron Phillips Chemical Company, L.L.C. 5.4.1 Company Overview 5.4.1.1 Role of Chevron Phillips Chemical Company, L.L.C. in Nanotechnology for Food Packaging Market 5.4.1.2 Product Portfolio 5.4.1.3 Production Sites 5.4.2 Strength and Weakness of Chevron Phillips Chemical Company, L.L.C. 5.5 Danaflex Nano LLC 5.5.1 Company Overview 5.5.1.1 Role of Danaflex Nano LLC in Nanotechnology for Food Packaging Market 5.5.2 Strength and Weakness of Danaflex Nano LLC 5.6 DuPont Teijin Films 5.6.1 Company Overview 5.6.1.1 Role of DuPont Teijin Films in Nanotechnology for Food Packaging Market 5.6.1.2 Product Portfolio 5.6.1.3 Production Sites 5.6.2 Business Strategies 5.6.2.1 Product Development 5.6.3 Corporate Strategies 5.6.3.1 Partnership and Collaboration 5.6.4 Strength and Weakness of DuPont Teijin Films 5.7 Honeywell International Inc. 5.7.1 Company Overview 5.7.1.1 Role of Honeywell International in Nanotechnology for Food Packaging Market 5.7.1.2 Product Portfolio 5.7.2 Corporate Strategies 5.7.2.1 Partnership and Collaboration 5.7.3 Strength and Weakness of Honeywell International 5.7.4 R&D Analysis 5.8 Klockner Pentaplast 5.8.1 Company Overview 5.8.1.1 Role of Klockner Pentaplast in Nanotechnology for Food Packaging Market 5.8.1.2 Product Portfolio 5.8.1.3 Production Sites 5.8.2 Business Strategies 5.8.2.1 Product Development 5.8.2.2 Market Developments 5.8.3 Strength and Weakness of Klockner Pentaplast 5.9 Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Company 5.9.1 Company Overview 5.9.1.1 Role of Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Company in Nanotechnology for Food Packaging Market 5.9.1.2 Product Portfolio 5.9.2 Strength and Weakness of Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Company 5.9.3 R&D Analysis 5.1 Nanocor 5.10.1 Company Overview 5.10.1.1 Role of Nanocor in Nanotechnology for Food Packaging Market 5.10.1.2 Product Portfolio 5.10.2 Strength and Weakness of Nanocor 5.11 PPG Industries 5.11.1 Company Overview 5.11.1.1 Role of PPG Industries in Nanotechnology for Food Packaging Market 5.11.1.2 Product Portfolio 5.11.2 Strength and Weakness of PPG Industries 5.12 Sealed Air 5.12.1 Company Overview 5.12.1.1 Role of Sealed Air in Nanotechnology for Food Packaging Market 5.12.1.2 Product Portfolio 5.12.1.3 Production Sites 5.12.2 Business Strategies 5.12.2.1 Product Development 5.12.3 Corporate Strategies 5.12.3.1 Merger and Acquisition 5.12.4 Strength and Weakness of Sealed Air 5.12.5 R&D Analysis 5.13 Sonoco Products Company 5.13.1 Company Overview 5.13.1.1 Role of Sonoco Products Company in Nanotechnology for Food Packaging Market 5.13.1.2 Product Portfolio 5.13.1.3 Production Sites 5.13.2 Business Strategies 5.13.2.1 Market Developments 5.13.3 Corporate Strategies 5.13.3.1 Partnership and Collaboration 5.13.3.2 Merger and Acquisition 5.13.4 Strength and Weakness of Sonoco Products Company 5.14 Tetra Laval International S.A. 5.14.1 Company Overview 5.14.1.1 Role of Tetra Laval International S.A. in Nanotechnology for Food Packaging Market 5.14.1.2 Product Portfolio 5.14.1.3 Production Sites 5.14.2 Business Strategies 5.14.2.1 Product Development 5.14.3 Corporate Strategies 5.14.3.1 Partnership and Collaboration 5.14.4 Strength and Weakness of Tetra Laval International S.A. 5.14.5 R&D Analysis 5.15 3M 5.15.1 Company Overview 5.15.1.1 Role of 3M in Nanotechnology for Food Packaging Market 5.15.1.2 Production Sites 5.15.2 Strength and Weakness of 3M

6 Research Methodology

For more information about this report visit https://www.researchandmarkets.com/r/r8qn1l

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Here’s What You Need To Know About AstraZeneca’s Covid-19 Vaccine – Forbes

§ November 24th, 2020 § Filed under Genetically Modified Humans Comments Off on Here’s What You Need To Know About AstraZeneca’s Covid-19 Vaccine – Forbes

AstraZeneca's vaccine was tested in multiple countries, including Brazil, the U.S. and the U.K.

Pharmaceutical giant AstraZeneca and its partner Oxford University released preliminary results from its phase 3 Covid-19 vaccine trials on Monday, which found that the companys vaccine, which uses a genetically modified cold virus, is up to 90% effective. This makes AstraZeneca the third to announce preliminary data from its phase 3 trials, after Moderna and Pfizer released results from their phase 3 trials earlier this month. Both Moderna and Pfizer, whose vaccines use an mRNA platform, found their vaccines to be about 95% effective. The AstraZeneca/Oxford vaccine showed a somewhat lower efficacy, but is less expensive and poses fewer issues involved in distribution and administration.

Today marks an important milestone in our fight against the pandemic, AstraZeneca CEO Pascal Soriot said in a statement. This vaccines efficacy and safety confirm that it will be highly effective against Covid-19 and will have an immediate impact on this public health emergency.

Heres what you need to know.

The AstraZeneca-Oxford vaccine is a chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine. This means that the company took a virus that normally infects chimpanzees, and genetically modified to avoid any possible disease consequences in people. This modified virus carries a portion of the Covid-19 coronavirus called the spike protein. When the vaccine is delivered into human cells, it triggers an immune response against the spike protein, producing antibodies and memory cells that will be able to recognize the virus that causes Covid-19.

Adenovirus-vectored vaccines have been in development for a long time, in particular against malaria, HIV and Ebola. But no adenovirus vaccine has ever been approved for human use in the U.S. Some adenovirus vaccines in past trials have been simply ineffective, while others have been attacked by the bodys immune system (human adenoviruses can cause the common cold, so some people already have antibodies to these viruses). Researchers behind the Covid-19 vaccine are working around this problem by using a chimpanzee virus that few humans have antibodies to. Previous trials have shown that their vaccine triggers an immune response to Covid-19.

Other companies are also working on adenovirus vaccines against Covid-19, including Johnson & Johnson, whose vaccine is currently in clinical trials with preliminary results expected in early 2021. China-based CanSino Biologists is also developing an adenovirus virus, as is NantKwest, the biotech company founded by billionaire Patrick Soon-Shiong.

The preliminary data released on Monday studied two different ways to administer the vaccine. In one group, patients were given a smaller initial dose of the vaccine (or placebo), then a larger dose as a booster one month later. In the second group, patients were given the same dose both initially and as a booster one month later. In the first group, the interim data analysis found that the vaccine was about 90% effective at preventing Covid-19. Paradoxically, the second group, which had the larger initial dose, showed that the vaccine was only about 62% effective.

Its not entirely clear why the smaller initial dose produces better results, though scientists in the field have suggested several ideas. First is that the difference may just be a statistical artifact - a consequence of the fact that this is an interim data analysis, and that once the final results are in the difference may be smaller. The second possibility is that the smaller initial dose may stimulate memory cells in the immune system, priming the body to produce antibodies in greater quantities when the second dose is administered. The third possibility is that the larger initial dose may be causing the body to develop antibodies against the vaccine itself, blunting the impact of the booster shot. More study will be needed to answer this question.

That said, these interim results are in line with a peer-reviewed study published in medical journal Lancet last week, which found that the AstraZeneca vaccine bolstered the immune response to Covid-19 in older adults, who are most at risk of developing severe versions of the disease. So far, no serious safety concerns have emerged from the clinical trials, which were conducted with over 23,000 people.

The next step for AstraZeneca is to have its vaccine approved by regulators. This week, the company has said it intends to provide its data to regulators in the United Kingdom, the European Union and the United States for emergency authorization to begin administering the vaccine. Its additionally seeking an emergency authorization from the World Health Organization to administer the vaccine in low-income countries.

No adenovirus vector vaccine has yet been approved for use in the United States, though several have completed phase 2 studies with adenovirus vaccines against other diseases. A few have been approved globally, including CanSinos adenovirus vaccine against Ebola, which was authorized for emergency use in China in 2017. The Sputnik V vaccine against Covid-19, developed by the Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, has been approved in Russia. However, there have been serious questions about how effective that vaccine is, especially after data published in The Lancet sparked serious skepticism from scientists around the world in September.

We can only hope that together with Pfizer and also Moderna and also Astrazeneca, we will manufacture enough doses.

In May, the U.S. Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) provided AstraZeneca and Oxford more than $1 billion in funding to develop this Covid-19 vaccine. AstraZeneca also agreed to supply the U.S. with at least 400 million doses of the vaccine if it is approved. Additionally, in June they partnered with the Center For Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, a global partnership between public and private entities, to scale up manufacturing of the vaccine. Also in June, the company reached an agreement with Europes Inclusive Vaccines Alliance to provide 400 million vaccine doses at cost, with no profit, during the duration of the pandemic.

Once regulatory bodies authorize use of the vaccine, AstraZeneca will begin manufacturing doses, having struck arrangements with a number of different organizations to make it quickly. In a statement released Monday, the company said it could produce up to 3 billion doses of the vaccine in 2021.

Both Pfizer and Modernas vaccines require long-term storage at low temperatures, Pfizers at -94 Fahrenheit and Modernas at -4 Fahrenheit, though both appear to be able to tolerate being refrigerated for short periods of time at higher temperature. These storage requirements may pose potential roadblocks in areas that lack access to the equipment needed to maintain those temperatures. By contrast, AstraZenecas vaccine can be transported and stored at the same temperatures you might find in a normal refrigerator - between about 36 and 46 Fahrenheit for as long as six months.

Even if AstraZeneca can manufacture 3 billion doses in 2021, that wont be enough to cover the global population of 7 billion people. Which means that multiple companies working on the multiple vaccines is vital to finally contain the pandemic. We can only hope that together with Pfizer and also Moderna and also Astrazeneca, we will manufacture enough doses, Dr. Ruud Dobber, president of AstraZeneca U.S. said on CNBCs Squawk Box Monday morning.

Though the results from Pfizer, Moderna and AstraZeneca all showing positive data against Covid-19 is a ray of hope in the fight against the pandemic, one open question about all of these vaccines is how long they will last against the disease. Theres reason for concern - though still rare, the number of documented cases of people being reinfected with Covid-19 is growing, which calls into question how long people remain immune to the disease, if at all. The jurys still out on how long people might remain immune to Covid-19 naturally, with some studies finding robust immunity months later while others have found immune responses already beginning to drop off after a few weeks. All of this has implications for how long vaccine-derived immunity lasts.

The preliminary data so far suggests that Covid-19 reinfections are caused by different strains of the virus, and so further study will be needed to determine how well vaccines work in the face of multiple coronavirus strains. Flu shots are recommended to be taken every year, for example, because new seasonal strains of the flu are constantly emerging, requiring new vaccines. It may turn out that will also be the case for Covid-19, though right now its too early to tell.

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Evidence-based pros and cons of GMO foods – Insider – INSIDER

§ November 24th, 2020 § Filed under Genetically Modified Humans Comments Off on Evidence-based pros and cons of GMO foods – Insider – INSIDER

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are living organisms that have had their genes altered in some way. GMOs can be animals or bacteria, but most often they are crops like corn or potatoes that have been tweaked in a lab to increase the amount or quality of food they produce.

There are many advantages of GMO crops, but some groups have raised concerns that GMOs may have negative health effects. Here's what you need to know about the pros and cons of GMO foods and whether you should avoid them.

Humans have been altering the genetics of plants for thousands of years through the slow process of cross-breeding between crops. Today, scientists can take a shortcut to modify plants by editing their DNA in a lab setting.

Chances are, you've eaten GMO foods without even realizing it in 2018, around 92% of corn and 94% of soybeans grown in the US came from genetically modified seeds.

The process of creating a GMO plant is complex, but it follows these basic steps:

"GMOs are designed to be extra extra healthy, extra fast-growing, and extra resistant to weather or pests," says Megan L. Norris, PhD, a biomedical researcher at the UT Southwestern Medical Center.

Because scientists can select the most ideal traits to include in GMO crops, there are many advantages of modified foods, including:

GMOs may have fewer pesticides. Many GMO crops have been altered to be less vulnerable to insects and other pests. For example, Bt-corn is a GMO crop that has a gene added from Bacillus thuringiensis, a naturally occurring soil bacteria. This gene causes the corn to produce a protein that kills many pests and insects, helping to protect the corn from damage.

"Instead of having to be sprayed with a complex pesticide, these crops come with an innate 'pesticide'," Norris says.

This means that farmers don't need to use as much pesticide on crops like Bt-corn a 2020 study found that farmers with GMO crops reduced their pesticide use by 775.4 million kilograms (8.3%) between 1996 and 2018. The use of fewer pesticides in crops may lead to fewer health risks for people eating them and less damage to the environment.

GMOs are usually cheaper. GMO crops are bred to grow efficiently this means that farmers can produce the same amount of food using less land, less water, and fewer pesticides than conventional crops.

Because they can save on resources, food producers can also charge lower prices for GMO foods. In some cases, the costs of foods like corn, beets, and soybeans may be cut by 15% to 30%.

GMOs may have more nutrients. Certain GMO crops are designed to provide more nutrients like vitamins or minerals. For example, researchers have been able to create a modified form of African corn that contains:

This may be especially helpful in regions where people suffer from nutritional deficiencies.

GMO crops can offer many advantages in costs and nutrition, but some experts worry that they carry health risks, as well.

GMOs may cause allergic reactions. Because GMO foods contain DNA from other organisms, it's possible that the new DNA can trigger allergies in people who wouldn't normally be allergic to the food.

In one instance, a GMO soybean crop created using DNA from a Brazil nut was unsafe for people with nut allergies and couldn't be released to the public.

However, GMO foods go through extensive allergen testing, so they shouldn't necessarily be riskier than conventional crops.

GMOs may increase antibiotic resistance. When GMO scientists insert new DNA into plant cells, they will often add in an additional gene that makes the modified cells resistant to antibiotics. They can then use an antibiotic to kill off any plant cells that didn't successfully take in the new DNA.

However, researchers are finding that these antibiotic-resistant genes don't always go away once you digest GMO foods, but can actually be passed through your feces into sewage systems. Some experts worry that these genes may be absorbed into harmful bacteria found in sewers or your gut that can cause serious illnesses like staph infections. This means that the usual antibiotic treatments would be powerless against these new super-bacteria.

Not all experts agree on this concern, however some scientists argue that this type of gene transfer is very unlikely and there is little risk to humans.

GMO crops have many advantages for your health, such as greater nutritional value and fewer pesticides. They may also be cheaper for farmers to grow, allowing for lower food prices.

Though there are possible risks, major agencies like the US Food and Drug Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency tightly regulate GMO foods and ensure that they are safe for people to eat.

"I consume GMO products and feed them to my family without hesitation," Norris says.

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Frontiers | Nanomedicine: Principles, Properties, and …

§ November 24th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Frontiers | Nanomedicine: Principles, Properties, and …

Introduction

Over the last years, nanotechnology has been introduced in our daily routine. This revolutionary technology has been applied in multiple fields through an integrated approach. An increasing number of applications and products containing nanomaterials or at least with nano-based claims have become available. This also happens in pharmaceutical research. The use of nanotechnology in the development of new medicines is now part of our research and in the European Union (EU) it has been recognized as a Key Enabling Technology, capable of providing new and innovative medical solution to address unmet medical needs (Bleeker et al., 2013; Ossa, 2014; Tinkle et al., 2014; Pita et al., 2016).

The application of nanotechnology for medical purposes has been termed nanomedicine and is defined as the use of nanomaterials for diagnosis, monitoring, control, prevention and treatment of diseases (Tinkle et al., 2014). However, the definition of nanomaterial has been controversial among the various scientific and international regulatory corporations. Some efforts have been made in order to find a consensual definition due to the fact that nanomaterials possess novel physicochemical properties, different from those of their conventional bulk chemical equivalents, due to their small size. These properties greatly increase a set of opportunities in the drug development; however, some concerns about safety issues have emerged. The physicochemical properties of the nanoformulation which can lead to the alteration of the pharmacokinetics, namely the absorption, distribution, elimination, and metabolism, the potential for more easily cross biological barriers, toxic properties and their persistence in the environment and human body are some examples of the concerns over the application of the nanomaterials (Bleeker et al., 2013; Tinkle et al., 2014).

To avoid any concern, it is necessary establishing an unambiguous definition to identify the presence of nanomaterials. The European Commission (EC) created a definition based on the European Commission Joint Research Center and on the Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks. This definition is only used as a reference to determine whether a material is considered a nanomaterial or not; however, it is not classified as hazardous or safe. The EC claims that it should be used as a reference for additional regulatory and policy frameworks related to quality, safety, efficacy, and risks assessment (Bleeker et al., 2013; Boverhof et al., 2015).

According to the EC recommendation, nanomaterial refers to a natural, incidental, or manufactured material comprising particles, either in an unbound state or as an aggregate wherein one or more external dimensions is in the size range of 1100 nm for 50% of the particles, according to the number size distribution. In cases of environment, health, safety or competitiveness concern, the number size distribution threshold of 50% may be substituted by a threshold between 1 and 50%. Structures with one or more external dimensions below 1 nm, such as fullerenes, graphene flakes, and single wall carbon nanotubes, should be considered as nanomaterials. Materials with surface area by volume in excess of 60 m2/cm3 are also included (Commission Recommendation., 2011). This defines a nanomaterial in terms of legislation and policy in the European Union. Based on this definition, the regulatory bodies have released their own guidances to support drug product development.

The EMA working group introduces nanomedicines as purposely designed systems for clinical applications, with at least one component at the nanoscale, resulting in reproducible properties and characteristics, related to the specific nanotechnology application and characteristics for the intended use (route of administration, dose), associated with the expected clinical advantages of nano-engineering (e.g., preferential organ/tissue distribution; Ossa, 2014).

Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not established its own definition for nanotechnology, nanomaterial, nanoscale, or other related terms, instead adopting the meanings commonly employed in relation to the engineering of materials that have at least one dimension in the size range of approximately 1 nanometer (nm) to 100 nm. Based on the current scientific and technical understanding of nanomaterials and their characteristics, FDA advises that evaluations of safety, effectiveness, public health impact, or regulatory status of nanotechnology products should consider any unique properties and behaviors that the application of nanotechnology may impart (Guidance for Industry, FDA, 2014).

According to the former definition, there are three fundamental aspects to identify the presence of a nanomaterial, which are size, particle size distribution (PSD) and surface area (Commission Recommendation., 2011; Bleeker et al., 2013; Boverhof et al., 2015).

The most important feature to take into account is size, because it is applicable to a huge range of materials. The conventional range is from 1 to 100 nm. However, there is no bright line to set this limit. The maximum size that a material can have to be considered nanomaterial is an arbitrary value because the psychochemical and biological characteristics of the materials do not change abruptly at 100 nm. To this extent, it is assumed that other properties should be taken in account (Lvestam et al., 2010; Commission Recommendation., 2011; Bleeker et al., 2013; Boverhof et al., 2015).

The pharmaceutical manufacturing of nanomaterials involves two different approaches: top down and bottom down. The top down process involves the breakdown of a bulk material into a smaller one or smaller pieces by mechanical or chemical energy. Conversely, the bottom down process starts with atomic or molecular species allowing the precursor particles to increase in size through chemical reaction (Luther, 2004; Oberdrster, 2010; Boverhof et al., 2015). These two processes of manufacturing are in the origin of different forms of particles termed primary particle, aggregate and agglomerate (Figure 1). The respective definition is (sic):

Figure 1. Schematic representation of the different forms of particles: primary particle, aggregate, and agglomerate (reproduced with permission from Oberdrster, 2010).

particle is a minute piece of matter with defined physical boundaries (Oberdrster, 2010; Commission Recommendation., 2011);

aggregate denotes a particle comprising strongly bound or fused particlesand the external surface can be smaller than the sum of the surface areas of the individual particles (Oberdrster, 2010; Commission Recommendation., 2011);

agglomerate means a collection of weakly bound particles or aggregates where the resulting external surface area are similar to the sum of the surface areas of the individual components (Oberdrster, 2010; Commission Recommendation., 2011).

Considering the definition, it is understandable why aggregates and agglomerates are included. They may still preserve the properties of the unbound particles and have the potential to break down in to nanoscale (Lvestam et al., 2010; Boverhof et al., 2015). The lower size limit is used to distinguish atoms and molecules from particles (Lvestam et al., 2010).

The PSD is a parameter widely used in the nanomaterial identification, reflecting the range of variation of sizes. It is important to set the PSD, because a nanomaterial is usually polydisperse, which means, it is commonly composed by particles with different sizes (Commission Recommendation., 2011; Bleeker et al., 2013; Boverhof et al., 2015).

The determination of the surface area by volume is a relational parameter, which is necessary when requested by additional legislation. The material is under the definition if the surface area by volume is larger than 60 m2/cm3, as pointed out. However, the PSD shall prevail, and for example, a material is classified as a nanomaterial based on the particle size distribution, even if the surface area by volume is lower than the specified 60 m2/cm3 (Commission Recommendation., 2011; Bleeker et al., 2013; Boverhof et al., 2015).

Nanomaterials can be applied in nanomedicine for medical purposes in three different areas: diagnosis (nanodiagnosis), controlled drug delivery (nanotherapy), and regenerative medicine. A new area which combines diagnostics and therapy termed theranostics is emerging and is a promising approach which holds in the same system both the diagnosis/imaging agent and the medicine. Nanomedicine is holding promising changes in clinical practice by the introduction of novel medicines for both diagnosis and treatment, having enabled to address unmet medical needs, by (i) integrating effective molecules that otherwise could not be used because of their high toxicity (e.g., Mepact), (ii) exploiting multiple mechanisms of action (e.g., Nanomag, multifunctional gels), (iii) maximizing efficacy (e.g., by increasing bioavailability) and reducing dose and toxicity, (iv) providing drug targeting, controlled and site specific release, favoring a preferential distribution within the body (e.g., in areas with cancer lesions) and improved transport across biological barriers (Chan, 2006; Mndez-Rojas et al., 2009; Zhang et al., 2012; Ossa, 2014).

This is a result of intrinsic properties of nanomaterials that have brought many advantages in the pharmaceutical development. Due to their small size, nanomaterials have a high specific surface area in relation to the volume. Consequently, the particle surface energy is increased, making the nanomaterials much more reactive. Nanomaterials have a tendency to adsorb biomolecules, e.g., proteins, lipids, among others, when in contact with the biological fluids. One of the most important interactions with the living matter relies on the plasma/serum biomoleculeadsorption layer, known as corona, that forms on the surface of colloidal nanoparticles (Pino et al., 2014). Its composition is dependent on the portal of entry into the body and on the particular fluid that the nanoparticles come across with (e.g., blood, lung fluid, gastro-intestinal fluid, etc.). Additional dynamic changes can influence the corona constitution as the nanoparticle crosses from one biological compartment to another one (Pearson et al., 2014; Louro, 2018).

Furthermore, optical, electrical and magnetic properties can change and be tunable through electron confinement in nanomaterials. In addition, nanomaterials can be engineered to have different size, shape, chemical composition and surface, making them able to interact with specific biological targets (Oberdrster et al., 2005; Kim et al., 2010). A successful biological outcome can only be obtained resorting to careful particle design. As such, a comprehensive knowledge of how the nanomaterials interact with biological systems are required for two main reasons.

The first one is related to the physiopathological nature of the diseases. The biological processes behind diseases occur at the nanoscale and can rely, for example, on mutated genes, misfolded proteins, infection by virus or bacteria. A better understanding of the molecular processes will provide the rational design on engineered nanomaterials to target the specific site of action desired in the body (Kim et al., 2010; Albanese et al., 2012). The other concern is the interaction between nanomaterial surface and the environment in biological fluids. In this context, characterization of the biomolecules corona is of utmost importance for understanding the mutual interaction nanoparticle-cell affects the biological responses. This interface comprises dynamic mechanisms involving the exchange between nanomaterial surfaces and the surfaces of biological components (proteins, membranes, phospholipids, vesicles, and organelles). This interaction stems from the composition of the nanomaterial and the suspending media. Size, shape, surface area, surface charge and chemistry, energy, roughness, porosity, valence and conductance states, the presence of ligands, or the hydrophobic/ hydrophilic character are some of the material characteristics that influence the respective surface properties. In turn, the presence of water molecules, acids and bases, salts and multivalent ions, surfactants are some of the factors related to the medium that will influence the interaction. All these aspects will govern the characteristics of the interface between the nanomaterial and biological components and, consequently, promote different cellular fates (Nel et al., 2009; Kim et al., 2010; Albanese et al., 2012; Monopoli et al., 2012).

A deeper knowledge about how the physicochemical properties of the biointerface influence the cellular signaling pathway, kinetics and transport will thus provide critical rules to the design of nanomaterials (Nel et al., 2009; Kim et al., 2010; Albanese et al., 2012; Monopoli et al., 2012).

The translation of nanotechnology form the bench to the market imposed several challenges. General issues to consider during the development of nanomedicine products including physicochemical characterization, biocompatibility, and nanotoxicology evaluation, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics assessment, process control, and scale-reproducibility (Figure 2) are discussed in the sections that follow.

Figure 2. Schematic representation of the several barriers found throughout the development of a nanomedicine product.

The characterization of a nanomedicine is necessary to understand its behavior in the human body, and to provide guidance for the process control and safety assessment. This characterization is not consensual in the number of parameters required for a correct and complete characterization. Internationally standardized methodologies and the use of reference nanomaterials are the key to harmonize all the different opinions about this topic (Lin et al., 2014; Zhao and Chen, 2016).

Ideally, the characterization of a nanomaterial should be carried out at different stages throughout its life cycle, from the design to the evaluation of its in vitro and in vivo performance. The interaction with the biological system or even the sample preparation or extraction procedures may modify some properties and interfere with some measurements. In addition, the determination of the in vivo and in vitro physicochemical properties is important for the understanding of the potential risk of nanomaterials (Lin et al., 2014; Zhao and Chen, 2016).

The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development started a Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials with the International Organization for Standardization to provide scientific advice for the safety use of nanomaterials that include the respective physicochemical characterization and the metrology. However, there is not an effective list of minimum parameters. The following characteristics should be a starting point to the characterization: particle size, shape and size distribution, aggregation and agglomeration state, crystal structure, specific surface area, porosity, chemical composition, surface chemistry, charge, photocatalytic activity, zeta potential, water solubility, dissolution rate/kinetics, and dustiness (McCall et al., 2013; Lin et al., 2014).

Concerning the chemical composition, nanomaterials can be classified as organic, inorganic, crystalline or amorphous particles and can be organized as single particles, aggregates, agglomerate powders or dispersed in a matrix which give rise to suspensions, emulsions, nanolayers, or films (Luther, 2004).

Regarding dimension, if a nanomaterial has three dimensions below 100 nm, it can be for example a particle, a quantum dot or hollow sphere. If it has two dimensions below 100 nm it can be a tube, fiber or wire and if it has one dimension below 100 nm it can be a film, a coating or a multilayer (Luther, 2004).

Different techniques are available for the analysis of these parameters. They can be grouped in different categories, involving counting, ensemble, separation and integral methods, among others (Linsinger et al., 2012; Contado, 2015).

Counting methods make possible the individualization of the different particles that compose a nanomaterial, the measurement of their different sizes and visualization of their morphology. The particles visualization is preferentially performed using microscopy methods, which include several variations of these techniques. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), High-Resolution TEM, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), cryo-SEM, Atomic Force Microscopy and Particle Tracking Analysis are just some of the examples. The main disadvantage of these methods is the operation under high-vacuum, although recently with the development of cryo-SEM sample dehydration has been prevented under high-vacuum conditions (Linsinger et al., 2012; Contado, 2015; Hodoroaba and Mielke, 2015).

These methods involve two steps of sample treatment: the separation of the particles into a monodisperse fraction, followed by the detection of each fraction. Field-Flow Fractionation (FFF), Analytical Centrifugation (AC) and Differential Electrical Mobility Analysis are some of the techniques that can be applied. The FFF techniques include different methods which separate the particles according to the force field applied. AC separates the particles through centrifugal sedimentation (Linsinger et al., 2012; Contado, 2015; Hodoroaba and Mielke, 2015).

Ensemble methods allow the report of intensity-weighted particle sizes. The variation of the measured signal over time give the size distribution of the particles extracted from a combined signal. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Small-angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) are some of the examples. DLS and QELS are based on the Brownian motion of the sample. XRD is a good technique to obtain information about the chemical composition, crystal structure and physical properties (Linsinger et al., 2012; Contado, 2015; Hodoroaba and Mielke, 2015).

The integral methods only measure an integral property of the particle and they are mostly used to determine the specific surface area. Brunauer Emmet Teller is the principal method used and is based on the adsorption of an inert gas on the surface of the nanomaterial (Linsinger et al., 2012; Contado, 2015; Hodoroaba and Mielke, 2015).

Other relevant technique is the electrophoretic light scattering (ELS) used to determine zeta potential, which is a parameter related to the overall charge a particle acquires in a particular medium. ELS measures the electrophoretic mobility of particles in dispersion, based on the principle of electrophoresis (Linsinger et al., 2012).

The Table 1 shows some of principal methods for the characterization of the nanomaterials including the operational principle, physicochemical parameters analyzed and respective limitations.

Another challenge in the pharmaceutical development is the control of the manufacturing process by the identification of the critical parameters and technologies required to analyse them (Gaspar, 2010; Gaspar et al., 2014; Sainz et al., 2015).

New approaches have arisen from the pharmaceutical innovation and the concern about the quality and safety of new medicines by regulatory agencies (Gaspar, 2010; Gaspar et al., 2014; Sainz et al., 2015).

Quality-by-Design (QbD), supported by Process Analytical Technologies (PAT) is one of the pharmaceutical development approaches that were recognized for the systematic evaluation and control of nanomedicines (FDA, 2004; Gaspar, 2010; Gaspar et al., 2014; Sainz et al., 2015; European Medicines Agency, 2017).

Note that some of the physicochemical characteristics of nanomaterials can change during the manufacturing process, which compromises the quality and safety of the final nanomedicine. The basis of QbD relies on the identification of the Quality Attributes (QA), which refers to the chemical, physical or biological properties or another relevant characteristic of the nanomaterial. Some of them may be modified by the manufacturing and should be within a specific range for quality control purposes. In this situation, these characteristics are considered Critical Quality Attributes (CQA). The variability of the CQA can be caused by the critical material attributes and process parameters (Verma et al., 2009; Riley and Li, 2011; Bastogne, 2017; European Medicines Agency, 2017).

The quality should not be tested in nanomedicine, but built on it instead, by the understanding of the therapeutic purpose, pharmacological, pharmacokinetic, toxicological, chemical and physical properties of the medicine, process formulation, packaging, and the design of the manufacturing process. This new approach allows better focus on the relevant relationships between the characteristics, parameters of the formulation and process in order to develop effective processes to ensure the quality of the nanomedicines (FDA, 2014).

According to the FDA definition PAT is a system for designing, analzsing, and controlling manufacturing through timely measurements (i.e., during processing) of critical quality and performance attributes of raw and in-process materials and processes, with the goal of ensuring final product quality (FDA, 2014). The PAT tools analyse the critical quality and performance attributes. The main point of the PAT is to assure and enhance the understanding of the manufacturing concept (Verma et al., 2009; Riley and Li, 2011; FDA, 2014; Bastogne, 2017; European Medicines Agency, 2017).

Biocompatibility is another essential property in the design of drug delivery systems. One very general and brief definition of a biocompatible surface is that it cannot trigger an undesired' response from the organism. Biocompatibility is alternatively defined as the ability of a material to perform with an appropriate response in a specific application (Williams, 2003; Keck and Mller, 2013).

Pre-clinical assessment of nanomaterials involve a thorough biocompatibility testing program, which typically comprises in vivo studies complemented by selected in vitro assays to prove safety. If the biocompatibility of nanomaterials cannot be warranted, potentially advantageous properties of nanosystems may raise toxicological concerns.

Regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical industry, government, and academia are making efforts to accomplish specific and appropriate guidelines for risk assessment of nanomaterials (Hussain et al., 2015).

In spite of efforts to harmonize the procedures for safety evaluation, nanoscale materials are still mostly treated as conventional chemicals, thus lacking clear specific guidelines for establishing regulations and appropriate standard protocols. However, several initiatives, including scientific opinions, guidelines and specific European regulations and OECD guidelines such as those for cosmetics, food contact materials, medical devices, FDA regulations, as well as European Commission scientific projects (NanoTEST project, http://www.nanotest-fp7.eu) specifically address nanomaterials safety (Juillerat-Jeanneret et al., 2015).

In this context, it is important to identify the properties, to understand the mechanisms by which nanomaterials interact with living systems and thus to understand exposure, hazards and their possible risks.

Note that the pharmacokinetics and distribution of nanoparticles in the body depends on their surface physicochemical characteristics, shape and size. For example, nanoparticles with 10 nm in size were preferentially found in blood, liver, spleen, kidney, testis, thymus, heart, lung, and brain, while larger particles are detected only in spleen, liver, and blood (De Jong et al., 2008; Adabi et al., 2017).

In turn, the surface of nanoparticles also impacts upon their distribution in these organs, since their combination with serum proteins available in systemic circulation, influencing their cellular uptake. It should be recalled that a biocompatible material generates no immune response. One of the cause for an immune response can rely on the adsorption pattern of body proteins. An assessment of the in vivo protein profile is therefore crucial to address these interactions and to establish biocompatibility (Keck et al., 2013).

Finally, the clearance of nanoparticles is also size and surface dependent. Small nanoparticles, bellow 2030 nm, are rapidly cleared by renal excretion, while 200 nm or larger particles are more efficiently taken up by mononuclear phagocytic system (reticuloendothelial system) located in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow (Moghimi et al., 2001; Adabi et al., 2017).

Studies are required to address how nanomaterials penetrate cells and tissues, and the respective biodistribution, degradation, and excretion.

Due to all these issues, a new field in toxicology termed nanotoxicology has emerged, which aims at studying the nanomaterial effects deriving from their interaction with biological systems (Donaldson et al., 2004; Oberdrster, 2010; Fadeel, 2013).

The evaluation of possible toxic effects of the nanomaterials can be ascribed to the presence of well-known molecular responses in the cell. Nanomaterials are able to disrupt the balance of the redox systems and, consequently, lead to the production of reactive species of oxygen (ROS). ROS comprise hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide. Under normal conditions, the cells produce these reactive species as a result of the metabolism. However, when exposed to nanomaterials the production of ROS increases. Cells have the capacity to defend itself through reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase mechanisms. The superoxide dismutase converts superoxide anion into hydrogen peroxide and catalase, in contrast, converts it into water and molecular oxygen (Nel et al., 2006; Arora et al., 2012; Azhdarzadeh et al., 2015). Glutathione peroxidase uses glutathione to reduce some of the hydroperoxides. Under normal conditions, the glutathione is almost totally reduced. Nevertheless, an increase in ROS lead to the depletion of the glutathione and the capacity to neutralize the free radicals is decreased. The free radicals will induce oxidative stress and interact with the fatty acids in the membranes of the cell (Nel et al., 2006; Arora et al., 2012; Azhdarzadeh et al., 2015).

Consequently, the viability of the cell will be compromised by the disruption of cell membranes, inflammation responses caused by the upregulation of transcription factors like the nuclear factor kappa , activator protein, extracellular signal regulated kinases c-Jun, N-terminal kinases and others. All these biological responses can result on cell apoptosis or necrosis. Distinct physiological outcomes are possible due to the different pathways for cell injury after the interaction between nanomaterials and cells and tissues (Nel et al., 2006; Arora et al., 2012; Azhdarzadeh et al., 2015).

Over the last years, the number of scientific publications regarding toxicological effects of nanomaterials have increased exponentially. However, there is a big concern about the results of the experiments, because they were not performed following standard and harmonized protocols. The nanomaterial characterization can be considered weak once there are not standard nanomaterials to use as reference and the doses used in the experiences sometimes cannot be applied in the biological system. Therefore, the results are not comparable. For a correct comparison, it is necessary to perform a precise and thorough physicochemical characterization to define risk assessment guidelines. This is the first step for the comparison between data from biological and toxicological experiments (Warheit, 2008; Fadeel et al., 2015; Costa and Fadeel, 2016).

Although nanomaterials may have an identical composition, slight differences e.g., in the surface charge, size, or shape could impact on their respective activity and, consequently, on their cellular fate and accumulation in the human body, leading to different biological responses (Sayes and Warheit, 2009).

Sayes and Warheit (2009) proposed a three phases model for a comprehensive characterization of nanomaterials. Accordingly, the primary phase is achieved in the native state of the nanomaterial, specifically, in its dry state. The secondary characterization is performed with the nanomaterials in the wet phase, e.g., as solution or suspension. The tertiary characterization includes in vitro and in vivo interactions with biological systems. The tertiary characterization is the most difficult from the technical point of view, especially in vivo, because of all the ethical questions concerning the use of animals in experiments (Sayes and Warheit, 2009).

Traditional toxicology uses of animals to conduct tests. These types of experiments using nanomaterials can be considered impracticable and unethical. In addition, it is time-consuming, expensive and sometimes the end points achieved are not enough to correctly correlate with what happens in the biological systems of animals and the translation to the human body (Collins et al., 2017).

In vitro studies are the first assays used for the evaluation of cytotoxicity. This approach usually uses cell lines, primary cells from the tissues, and/or a mixture of different cells in a culture to assess the toxicity of the nanomaterials. Different in vitro cytotoxicity assays to the analysis of the cell viability, stress, and inflammatory responses are available. There are several cellular processes to determine the cell viability, which consequently results in different assays with distinct endpoints. The evaluation of mitochondrial activity, the lactate dehydrogenase release from the cytosol by tretazolium salts and the detection of the biological marker Caspase-3 are some of the examples that imposes experimental variability in this analysis. The stress response is another example which can be analyzed by probes in the evaluation of the inflammatory response via enzyme linked immunosorbent assay are used (Kroll et al., 2009).

As a first approach, in vitro assays can predict the interaction of the nanomaterials with the body. However, the human body possesses compensation mechanisms when exposed to toxics and a huge disadvantage of this model is not to considered them. Moreover, they are less time consuming, more cost-effective, simpler and provide an easier control of the experimental conditions (Kroll et al., 2009; Fadeel et al., 2013b).

Their main drawback is the difficulty to reproduce all the complex interactions in the human body between sub-cellular levels, cells, organs, tissues and membranes. They use specific cells to achieve specific endpoints. In addition, in vitro assays cannot predict the physiopathological response of the human body when exposed to nanomaterials (Kroll et al., 2009; Fadeel et al., 2013b).

Another issue regarding the use of this approach is the possibility of interaction between nanomaterials and the reagents of the assay. It is likely that the reagents used in the in vitro assays interfere with the nanomaterial properties. High adsorption capacity, optical and magnetic properties, catalytic activity, dissolution, and acidity or alkalinity of the nanomaterials are some of the examples of properties that may promote this interaction (Kroll et al., 2009).

Many questions have been raised by the regulators related to the lack of consistency of the data produced by cytotoxicity assays. New assays for a correct evaluation of the nanomaterial toxicity are, thus, needed. In this context, new approaches have arisen, such as the in silico nanotoxicology approach. In silico methods are the combination of toxicology with computational tools and bio-statistical methods for the evaluation and prediction of toxicity. By using computational tools is possible to analyse more nanomaterials, combine different endpoints and pathways of nanotoxicity, being less time-consuming and avoiding all the ethical questions (Warheit, 2008; Raunio, 2011).

Quantitative structure-activity relationship models (QSAR) were one the first applications of computational tools applied in toxicology. QSAR models are based on the hypothesis that the toxicity of nanomaterials and their cellular fate in the body can be predicted by their characteristics, and different biological reactions are the result of physicochemical characteristics, such as size, shape, zeta potential, or surface charge, etc., gathered as a set of descriptors. QSAR aims at identifying the physicochemical characteristics which lead to toxicity, so as to provide alterations to reduce toxicology. A mathematical model is created, which allows liking descriptors and the biological activity (Rusyn and Daston, 2010; Winkler et al., 2013; Oksel et al., 2015).

Currently, toxigenomics is a new area of nanotoxicology, which includes a combination between genomics and nanotoxicology to find alterations in the gene, protein and in the expressions of metabolites (Rusyn et al., 2012; Fadeel et al., 2013a).

Hitherto, different risk assessment approaches have been reported. One of them is the DF4nanoGrouping framework, which concerns a functionality driven scheme for grouping nanomaterials based on their intrinsic properties, system dependent properties and toxicological effects (Arts et al., 2014, 2016). Accordingly, nanomaterials are categorized in four groups, including possible subgroups. The four main groups encompass (1) soluble, (2) biopersistent high aspect ratio, (3) passive, that is, nanomaterials without obvious biological effects and (4) active nanomaterials, that is, those demonstrating surface-related specific toxic properties. The DF4nanoGrouping foresees a stepwise evaluation of nanomaterial properties and effects with increasing biological complexity. In case studies that includes carbonaceous nanomaterials, metal oxide, and metal sulfate nanomaterials, amorphous silica and organic pigments (all nanomaterials having primary particle sizes smaller than 100 nm), the usefulness of the DF4nanoGrouping for nanomaterial hazard assessment has already been established. It facilitates grouping and targeted testing of nanomaterials, also ensuring that enough data for the risk assessment of a nanomaterial are available, and fostering the use of non-animal methods (Landsiedel et al., 2017). More recently, DF4nanoGrouping developed three structure-activity relationship classification, decision tree, models by identifying structural features of nanomaterials mainly responsible for the surface activity (size, specific surface area, and the quantum-mechanical calculated property lowest unoccupied molecular orbital), based on a reduced number of descriptors: one for intrinsic oxidative potential, two for protein carbonylation, and three for no observed adverse effect concentration (Gajewicz et al., 2018)

Keck and Mller also proposed a nanotoxicological classification system (NCS) (Figure 3) that ranks the nanomaterials into four classes according to the respective size and biodegradability (Mller et al., 2011; Keck and Mller, 2013).

Due to the size effects, this parameter is assumed as truly necessary, because when nanomaterials are getting smaller and smaller there is an increase in solubility, which is more evident in poorly soluble nanomaterials than in soluble ones. The adherence to the surface of membranes increases with the decrease of the size. Another important aspect related to size that must be considered is the phagocytosis by macrophages. Above 100 nm, nanomaterials can only be internalized by macrophages, a specific cell population, while nanomaterials below 100 nm can be internalized by any cell due to endocytosis. Thus, nanomaterials below 100 nm are associated to higher toxicity risks in comparison with nanomaterials above 100 nm (Mller et al., 2011; Keck and Mller, 2013).

In turn, biodegradability was considered a required parameter in almost all pharmaceutical formulations. The term biodegradability applies to the biodegradable nature of the nanomaterial in the human body. Biodegradable nanomaterials will be eliminated from the human body. Even if they cause some inflammation or irritation the immune system will return to the regular function after elimination. Conversely, non-biodegradable nanomaterials will stay forever in the body and change the normal function of the immune system (Mller et al., 2011; Keck and Mller, 2013).

There are two more factors that must be taken into account in addition to the NCS, namely the route of administration and the biocompatibility surface. When a particle is classified by the NCS, toxicity depends on the route of administration. For example, the same nanomaterials applied dermally or intravenously can pose different risks to the immune system.

In turn, a non-biocompatibility surface (NB) can activate the immune system by adsorption to proteins like opsonins, even if the particle belongs to the class I of the NCS (Figure 3). The biocompatibility (B) is dictated by the physicochemical surface properties, irrespective of the size and/or biodegradability. This can lead to further subdivision in eight classes from I-B, I-NB, to IV-B and IV-NB (Mller et al., 2011; Keck and Mller, 2013).

NCS is a simple guide to the evaluation of the risk of nanoparticles, but there are many other parameters playing a relevant role in nanotoxicity determination (Mller et al., 2011; Keck and Mller, 2013). Other suggestions encompass more general approaches, combining elements of toxicology, risk assessment modeling, and tools developed in the field of multicriteria decision analysis (Rycroft et al., 2018).

A forthcoming challenge in the pharmaceutical development is the scale-up and reproducibility of the nanomedicines. A considerable number of nanomedicines fail these requirements and, consequently, they are not introduced on the pharmaceutical market (Agrahari and Hiremath, 2017).

The traditional manufacturing processes do not create three dimensional medicines in the nanometer scale. Nanomedicine manufacturing processes, as already mentioned above, compromise top-down and bottom-down approaches, which include multiple steps, like homogenization, sonication, milling, emulsification, and sometimes, the use of organic solvents and further evaporation. In a small-scale, it is easy to control and achieve the optimization of the formulation. However, at a large scale it becomes very challenging, because slight variations during the manufacturing process can originate critical changes in the physicochemical characteristics and compromise the quality and safety of the nanomedicines, or even the therapeutic outcomes. A detailed definition of the acceptable limits for the CQA is very important, and these parameters must be identified and analyzed at the small-scale, in order to understand how the manufacturing process can change them: this will help the implementation of the larger scale. Thus, a deep process of understanding the critical steps and the analytical tools established for the small-scale will be a greatly help for the introduction of the large scale (Desai, 2012; Kaur et al., 2014; Agrahari and Hiremath, 2017).

Another requirement for the introduction of medicines in the pharmaceutical market is the reproducibility of every batch produced. The reproducibility is achieved in terms of physicochemical characterization and therapeutic purpose. There are specific ranges for the variations between different batches. Slight changes in the manufacturing process can compromise the CQA and, therefore, they may not be within a specific range and create an inter-batch variation (Desai, 2012; Kaur et al., 2014; Agrahari and Hiremath, 2017).

Over the last decades, nanomedicines have been successfully introduced in the clinical practice and the continuous development in pharmaceutical research is creating more sophisticated ones which are entering in clinic trials. In the European Union, the nanomedicine market is composed by nanoparticles, liposomes, nanocrystals, nanoemulsions, polymeric-protein conjugates, and nanocomplexes (Hafner et al., 2014). Table 2 shows some examples of commercially available nanomedicines in the EU (Hafner et al., 2014; Choi and Han, 2018).

In the process of approval, nanomedicines were introduced under the traditional framework of the benefit/risk analysis. Another related challenge is the development of a framework for the evaluation of the follow-on nanomedicines at the time of reference medicine patent expiration (Ehmann et al., 2013; Tinkle et al., 2014).

Nanomedicine comprises both biological and non-biological medical products. The biological nanomedicines are obtained from biological sources, while non-biological are mentioned as non-biological complex drugs (NBCD), where the active principle consists of different synthetic structures (Tinkle et al., 2014; Hussaarts et al., 2017; Mhlebach, 2018).

In order to introduce a generic medicine in the pharmaceutical market, several parameters need to be demonstrated, as described elsewhere. For both biological and non-biological nanomedicines, a more complete analysis is needed, that goes beyond the plasma concentration measurement. A stepwise comparison of bioequivalence, safety, quality, and efficacy, in relation to the reference medicine, which leads to therapeutic equivalence and consequently interchangeability, is required (Astier et al., 2017).

For regulatory purposes, the biological nanomedicines are under the framework set by European Medicines Agency (EMA) This framework is a regulatory approach for the follow-on biological nanomedicines, which include recommendations for comparative quality, non-clinical and clinical studies (Mhlebach et al., 2015).

The regulatory approach for the follow-on NBCDs is still ongoing. The industry frequently asks for scientific advice and a case-by-case is analyzed by the EMA. Sometimes, the biological framework is the base for the regulation of the NBCDs, because they have some features in common: the structure cannot be fully characterized and the in vivo activity is dependent on the manufacturing process and, consequently, the comparability needs to establish throughout the life cycle, as happens to the biological nanomedicines. Moreover, for some NBCDs groups like liposomes, glatiramoids, and iron carbohydrate complexes, there are draft regulatory approaches, which help the regulatory bodies to create a final framework for the different NBCDs families (Schellekens et al., 2014).

EMA already released some reflection papers regarding nanomedicines with surface coating, intravenous liposomal, block copolymer micelle, and iron-based nano-colloidal nanomedicines (European Medicines Agency, 2011, 2013a,b,c). These papers are applied to both new nanomedicines and nanosimilars, in order to provide guidance to developers in the preparation of marketing authorization applications.The principles outlined in these documents address general issues regarding the complexity of the nanosystems and provide basic information for the pharmaceutical development, non-clinical and early clinical studies of block-copolymer micelle, liposome-like, and nanoparticle iron (NPI) medicinal products drug products created to affect pharmacokinetic, stability and distribution of incorporated or conjugated active substances in vivo. Important factors related to the exact nature of the particle characteristics, that can influence the kinetic parameters and consequently the toxicity, such as the physicochemical nature of the coating, the respective uniformity and stability (both in terms of attachment and susceptibility to degradation), the bio-distribution of the product and its intracellular fate are specifically detailed.

After a nanomedicine obtains the marketing authorization, there is a long way up to the introduction of the nanomedicine in the clinical practice in all EU countries. This occurs because the pricing and reimbursement decisions for medicines are taken at an individual level in each member state of the EU (Sainz et al., 2015).

In order to provide patient access to medicines, the multidisciplinary process of Health Technology Assessment (HTA), is being developed. Through HTA, information about medicine safety, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness is generated so as support health and political decision-makers (Sainz et al., 2015).

Currently, pharmacoeconomics studies assume a crucial role previous to the commercialization of nanomedicines. They assess both the social and economic importance through the added therapeutic value, using indicators such as quality-adjusted life expectancy years and hospitalization (Sainz et al., 2015).

The EUnetHTA was created to harmonize and enhance the entry of new medicines in the clinical practice, so as to provide patients with novel medicines. The main goal of EUnetHTA is to develop decisive, appropriate and transparent information to help the HTAs in EU countries.

Currently, EUnetHTA is developing the Joint Action 3 until 2020 and the main aim is to define and implement a sustainable model for the scientific and technical cooperation on Health Technology Assessment (HTA) in Europe.

The reformulation of pre-existing medicines or the development of new ones has been largely boosted by the increasing research in nanomedicine. Changes in toxicity, solubility and bioavailability profile are some of the modifications that nanotechnology introduces in medicines.

In the last decades, we have assisted to the translation of several applications of nanomedicine in the clinical practice, ranging from medical devices to nanopharmaceuticals. However, there is still a long way toward the complete regulation of nanomedicines, from the creation of harmonized definitions in all Europe to the development of protocols for the characterization, evaluation and process control of nanomedicines. A universally accepted definition for nanomedicines still does not exist, and may even not be feasible at all or useful. The medicinal products span a large range in terms of type and structure, and have been used in a multitude of indications for acute and chronic diseases. Also, ongoing research is rapidly leading to the emergence of more sophisticated nanostructured designs that requires careful understanding of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of nanomedicines, determined by the respective chemical composition and physicochemical properties, which thus poses additional challenges in regulatory terms.

EMA has recognized the importance of the establishment of recommendations for nanomedicines to guide their development and approval. In turn, the nanotechnology methods for the development of nanomedicines bring new challenges for the current regulatory framework used.

EMA have already created an expert group on nanomedicines, gathering members from academia and European regulatory network. The main goal of this group is to provide scientific information about nanomedicines in order to develop or review guidelines. The expert group also helps EMA in discussions with international partners about nanomedicines. For the developer an early advice provided from the regulators for the required data is highly recommended.

The equivalence of complex drug products is another topic that brings scientific and regulatory challenges. Evidence for sufficient similarity must be gathered using a careful stepwise, hopefully consensual, procedure. In the coming years, through all the innovation in science and technology, it is expected an increasingly higher number of medicines based on nanotechnology. For a common understanding among different stakeholders the development of guidelines for the development and evaluation of nanomedicines is mandatory, in order to approve new and innovative nanomedicines in the pharmaceutical market. This process must be also carried out along with interagency harmonization efforts, to support rational decisions pertaining to scientific and regulatory aspects, financing and market access.

CV conceived the original idea and directed the work. SS took the lead in writing the manuscript. AP and JS helped supervise the manuscript. All authors provided critical feedback and helped shape the research, analysis and revision of the manuscript.

This work was financially supported by Fundao para a Cincia e a Tecnologia (FCT) through the Research Project POCI-01-0145-FEDER-016648, the project PEst-UID/NEU/04539/2013, and COMPETE (Ref. POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007440). The Coimbra Chemistry Center is supported by FCT, through the Project PEst-OE/QUI/UI0313/2014 and POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007630. This paper was also supported by the project UID/QUI/50006/2013LAQV/REQUIMTE.

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Adabi, M., Naghibzadeh, M., Adabi, M., Zarrinfard, M. A., Esnaashari, S., Seifalian, A. M., et al. (2017). Biocompatibility and nanostructured materials: applications in nanomedicine. Artif. Cells Nanomed. Biotechnol. 45, 833842. doi: 10.1080/21691401.2016.1178134

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Agrahari, V., and Hiremath, P. (2017). Challenges associated and approaches for successful translation of nanomedicines into commercial products. Nanomedicine 12, 819823. doi: 10.2217/nnm-2017-0039

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Albanese, A., Tang, P. S., and Chan, W. C. (2012). The effect of nanoparticle size, shape, and surface chemistry on biological systems. Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.14, 116. doi: 10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071811-150124

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NANOBIOTIX Files Registration Statement for Proposed Initial Public Offering in the United States – Business Wire

§ November 24th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on NANOBIOTIX Files Registration Statement for Proposed Initial Public Offering in the United States – Business Wire

PARIS & CAMBRIDGE, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Regulatory News:

NANOBIOTIX (Paris:NANO) (Euronext: NANO ISIN : FR0011341205 the Company), a clinical-stage nanomedicine company pioneering new approaches to the treatment of cancer, today announced that it has filed a registration statement on Form F-1 with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC) relating to a proposed initial public offering of its American Depositary Shares (ADSs), representing ordinary shares, in the United States (the U.S. Offering), and a concurrent private placement of its ordinary shares in Europe (including France) and other countries outside of the United States (the European Private Placement, and together with the U.S. Offering, the Global Offering). All securities to be sold in the Global Offering will be offered by the Company. The number of ordinary shares to be represented by each ADS, the number of ADSs and ordinary shares to be offered and the price range for the proposed Global Offering have not yet been determined. The Company has applied to list its ADSs on the Nasdaq Global Market under the ticker symbol NBTX. The Companys ordinary shares are listed on Euronext Paris under the symbol NANO.

Jefferies LLC is acting as global coordinator for the Global Offering, and Evercore Group, L.L.C. and UBS Securities LLC are also acting as joint book-running managers for the U.S. Offering. Gilbert Dupont is acting as manager for the European Private Placement.

The securities referred to in this press release will be offered only by means of a prospectus. When available, copies of the preliminary prospectus relating to and describing the terms of the Global Offering may be obtained from Jefferies LLC, 520 Madison Avenue New York, NY 10022, or by telephone at 877-547-6340 or 877-821-7388, or by email at Prospectus_Department@Jefferies.com; or from Evercore Group L.L.C., Attention: Equity Capital Markets, 55 East 52nd Street, 35th Floor, New York, New York 10055, or by telephone at 888-474-0200, or by email at ecm.prospectus@evercore.com; or from UBS Securities LLC, Attention: Prospectus Department, 1285 Avenue of the Americas, New York, New York 10019, or by telephone at 888-827-7275, or by email at ol-prospectusrequest@ubs.com.

A registration statement relating to the securities referred to herein has been filed with the SEC but has not yet become effective. These securities may not be sold, nor may offers to buy be accepted, prior to the time the registration statement becomes effective. This press release does not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy securities in any jurisdiction, and shall not constitute an offer, solicitation or sale in any jurisdiction in which such offer, solicitation or sale would be unlawful prior to registration or qualification under the securities laws of that jurisdiction. The registration statement can be accessed by the public on the website of the SEC.

About NANOBIOTIX

Nanobiotix is a French, clinical-stage nanomedicine company pioneering new approaches to significantly change patient outcomes by bringing nanophysics to the heart of the cell. Nanobiotixs novel, proprietary lead technology, NBTXR3, is being evaluated in locally-advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) of the oral cavity or oropharynx in elderly patients unable to receive chemotherapy or cetuximab with limited therapeutic options. Nanobiotix is also running an Immuno-Oncology development program. The Companys headquarters are in Paris, France, with a U.S. affiliate in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and European affiliates in France, Spain and Germany.

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Iran ranks third for top researchers in Islamic world 2020 – Tehran Times

§ November 24th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Iran ranks third for top researchers in Islamic world 2020 – Tehran Times

TEHRAN Iran ranked third for the highly cited researchers in the world among Islamic countries in 2020, according to the recently published report of Highly Cited Researchers by Web of Science.

Among the world's top researchers, 13 Islamic countries are listed, which hold a share of 3 percent (2.85%) among the world's top researchers.

Saudi Arabia with 120 researchers, Malaysia with 17, Iran with 12, and Turkey with 11 researchers have the highest number of highly cited researchers among Islamic countries.

To be included in the list of top researchers, all scientific activities over the last 10 years are evaluated at the international level, including the number of articles, number of citations, number of highly cited articles, number of citations to highly cited articles, as well as issues such as observing ethical principles in research.

So, approximately 6,389 researchers have been selected as highly cited researchers in 2020.

From Iran in 2020, similar to 2019, 12 top researchers have been included in the list of 6,389 top-cited researchers in the world.

The country's top researchers have been in the cross-field (6 people), agricultural sciences (2 people), mathematics (2 people), and engineering (2 people), respectively.

The United States is home to the highest number of Highly Cited Researchers, with 2,650 authors, representing 41.5 percent of the researchers on the list. China, home to 770 researchers is the second country has the highest concentration of Highly Cited Researchers in the world. The United Kingdom is also a hotbed of talent, with 514 authors, and Germany, Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, and France are all home to over 150 researchers each.

Top scientific articles

Iran's share of the world's top scientific articles is 3 percent, Gholam Hossein Rahimi Sheerbaf, the deputy science minister, said in October.

The countrys share in the whole publications worldwide is 2 percent, he noted, highlighting, for the first three consecutive years, Iran has been ranked first in terms of quantity and quality of articles among Islamic countries.

Iranian articles rank 16 and 15 in Web of Science and Scopus, respectively.

The Journal Citation Reports 2019 ranking includes 42 journals from Iran, including the Journal of Nanostructure in Chemistry with an impact factor of 4.077.

Iranian scientific journals such as the Journal of Nanostructures (affiliated to Kashan University), Nanomedicine Journal (Mashhad University of Medical Sciences), Journal of Nanoanalysis (Tehran University of Medical Sciences) were listed in the ESCI index of WOS database.

Moreover, the Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology, Nanomedicine Research Journal, and International Nanoscience and Nanotechnology were also listed in the Scopus Index.

FB/MG

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Latest Innovative Report on Oral Contrast Agent Market | Research Report Explores The Trade Trends For The Forecast 2020 2026 – The Daily…

§ November 24th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Latest Innovative Report on Oral Contrast Agent Market | Research Report Explores The Trade Trends For The Forecast 2020 2026 – The Daily…

Global Oral Contrast Agent Market research report is in-depth study on the market size, growth, trends, market share, as well as detailed industry analysis. The research report offers the study of market size of the Oral Contrast Agent Market in terms of value of the year 2020 and estimated market size of 2026. The study offers the analysis of market performance for the forecast period 2015-2026, accounting on the basis of various growth determinants over the last five years.

Request Free Sample Report athttps://reportocean.com/industry-verticals/sample-request?report_id=QY809

The key players profiled in the research study of Oral Contrast Agent Market include: The major vendors covered: GE Healthcare (US) Bracco Imaging (Italy) Bayer HealthCare (Germany) Guerbet (France) Lantheus (US) Daiichi Sankyo (Japan) Unijules Life Sciences (India) J.B. Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals (India) Spago Nanomedicine (Sweden) Taejoon Pharm (South Korea) Jodas (India) Magnus Health (India)

The study on the global Oral Contrast Agent Market for all relevant companies dealing with the Oral Contrast Agent Market and related profiles include data in quantitative terms, product portfolio, and business strategy along with active tracking of recent developments. The research study is a wholesome collection of primary and secondary data collected and analysed from valuable information sources. The market forecast is based on data ranging from the year 2015 until 2026. For easy understanding, the study includes data representation in the form of various graphs and tables.

The main sources of gathering relevant data are industry experts from the Oral Contrast Agent Market industry, including processing organizations, management organizations and analytical services providers that actively contribute in the value chain of the Oral Contrast Agent Market. To compile the analytical study, we interviewed various sources and collected qualitative and quantitative information with key focus to determine future prospects of the Oral Contrast Agent Market. While, the secondary research studies include critical information about the industrial value chain, strategical developments by key companies and studying annual reports of the market players while tracking their key initiatives and contribution in market share.

The major objective of the Oral Contrast Agent Market study are:

To analyse Oral Contrast Agent Market status, key players, key market, growth opportunity and future forecast.

To offer the Oral Contrast Agent Market development in North America, Europe, China, Japan and Southeast Asia.

To strategically profile the companies dealing in Oral Contrast Agent Market and broadly study their strategic development plans to acquire key share in the global marketplace.

The research report provides data information and detailed profile analysis of leading companies of the Oral Contrast Agent Market.

Table of Content

1 Study Coverage 1.1 Oral Contrast Agent Product Introduction 1.2 Market Segments 1.3 Key Oral Contrast Agent Manufacturers Covered: Ranking by Revenue 1.4 Market by Type 1.4.1 Global Oral Contrast Agent Market Size Growth Rate by Type 1.4.2 Barium-based Contrast Media 1.4.3 Iodinated Contrast Media 1.4.4 Gadolinium-based Contrast Media 1.4.5 Microbubble Contrast Media 1.5 Market by Application 1.5.1 Global Oral Contrast Agent Market Size Growth Rate by Application 1.5.2 Cardiovascular Disorders 1.5.3 Cancer 1.5.4 Gastrointestinal Disorders 1.5.5 Musculoskeletal Disorders 1.5.6 Neurological Disorders 1.5.7 Nephrological Disorders 1.6 Study Objectives 1.7 Years Considered

2 Executive Summary 2.1 Global Oral Contrast Agent Market Size, Estimates and Forecasts 2.1.1 Global Oral Contrast Agent Revenue 2015-2026 2.1.2 Global Oral Contrast Agent Sales 2015-2026 2.2 Global Oral Contrast Agent, Market Size by Producing Regions: 2015 VS 2020 VS 2026 2.2.1 Global Oral Contrast Agent Retrospective Market Scenario in Sales by Region: 2015-2020 2.2.2 Global Oral Contrast Agent Retrospective Market Scenario in Revenue by Region: 2015-2020

3 Global Oral Contrast Agent Competitor Landscape by Players 3.1 Oral Contrast Agent Sales by Manufacturers 3.1.1 Oral Contrast Agent Sales by Manufacturers (2015-2020) 3.1.2 Oral Contrast Agent Sales Market Share by Manufacturers (2015-2020) 3.2 Oral Contrast Agent Revenue by Manufacturers 3.2.1 Oral Contrast Agent Revenue by Manufacturers (2015-2020) 3.2.2 Oral Contrast Agent Revenue Share by Manufacturers (2015-2020) 3.2.3 Global Oral Contrast Agent Market Concentration Ratio (CR5 and HHI) (2015-2020) 3.2.4 Global Top 10 and Top 5 Companies by Oral Contrast Agent Revenue in 2019 3.2.5 Global Oral Contrast Agent Market Share by Company Type (Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3) 3.3 Oral Contrast Agent Price by Manufacturers 3.4 Oral Contrast Agent Manufacturing Base Distribution, Product Types 3.4.1 Oral Contrast Agent Manufacturers Manufacturing Base Distribution, Headquarters 3.4.2 Manufacturers Oral Contrast Agent Product Type 3.4.3 Date of International Manufacturers Enter into Oral Contrast Agent Market 3.5 Manufacturers Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion Plans

4 Market Size by Type (2015-2026) 4.1 Global Oral Contrast Agent Market Size by Type (2015-2020) 4.1.1 Global Oral Contrast Agent Sales by Type (2015-2020) 4.1.2 Global Oral Contrast Agent Revenue by Type (2015-2020) 4.1.3 Oral Contrast Agent Average Selling Price (ASP) by Type (2015-2026) 4.2 Global Oral Contrast Agent Market Size Forecast by Type (2021-2026) 4.2.1 Global Oral Contrast Agent Sales Forecast by Type (2021-2026) 4.2.2 Global Oral Contrast Agent Revenue Forecast by Type (2021-2026) 4.2.3 Oral Contrast Agent Average Selling Price (ASP) Forecast by Type (2021-2026) 4.3 Global Oral Contrast Agent Market Share by Price Tier (2015-2020): Low-End, Mid-Range and High-End

5 Market Size by Application (2015-2026) 5.1 Global Oral Contrast Agent Market Size by Application (2015-2020) 5.1.1 Global Oral Contrast Agent Sales by Application (2015-2020) 5.1.2 Global Oral Contrast Agent Revenue by Application (2015-2020) 5.1.3 Oral Contrast Agent Price by Application (2015-2020) 5.2 Oral Contrast Agent Market Size Forecast by Application (2021-2026) 5.2.1 Global Oral Contrast Agent Sales Forecast by Application (2021-2026) 5.2.2 Global Oral Contrast Agent Revenue Forecast by Application (2021-2026) 5.2.3 Global Oral Contrast Agent Price Forecast by Application (2021-2026)

6 North America 6.1 North America Oral Contrast Agent by Country 6.1.1 North America Oral Contrast Agent Sales by Country 6.1.2 North America Oral Contrast Agent Revenue by Country 6.1.3 U.S. 6.1.4 Canada 6.2 North America Oral Contrast Agent Market Facts & Figures by Type 6.3 North America Oral Contrast Agent Market Facts & Figures by Application

7 Europe 7.1 Europe Oral Contrast Agent by Country 7.1.1 Europe Oral Contrast Agent Sales by Country 7.1.2 Europe Oral Contrast Agent Revenue by Country 7.1.3 Germany 7.1.4 France 7.1.5 U.K. 7.1.6 Italy 7.1.7 Russia 7.2 Europe Oral Contrast Agent Market Facts & Figures by Type 7.3 Europe Oral Contrast Agent Market Facts & Figures by Application

8 Asia Pacific 8.1 Asia Pacific Oral Contrast Agent by Region 8.1.1 Asia Pacific Oral Contrast Agent Sales by Region 8.1.2 Asia Pacific Oral Contrast Agent Revenue by Region 8.1.3 China 8.1.4 Japan 8.1.5 South Korea 8.1.6 India 8.1.7 Australia 8.1.8 Taiwan 8.1.9 Indonesia 8.1.10 Thailand 8.1.11 Malaysia 8.1.12 Philippines 8.1.13 Vietnam 8.2 Asia Pacific Oral Contrast Agent Market Facts & Figures by Type 8.3 Asia Pacific Oral Contrast Agent Market Facts & Figures by Application

9 Latin America 9.1 Latin America Oral Contrast Agent by Country 9.1.1 Latin America Oral Contrast Agent Sales by Country 9.1.2 Latin America Oral Contrast Agent Revenue by Country 9.1.3 Mexico 9.1.4 Brazil 9.1.5 Argentina 9.2 Central & South America Oral Contrast Agent Market Facts & Figures by Type 9.3 Central & South America Oral Contrast Agent Market Facts & Figures by Application

10 Middle East and Africa 10.1 Middle East and Africa Oral Contrast Agent by Country 10.1.1 Middle East and Africa Oral Contrast Agent Sales by Country 10.1.2 Middle East and Africa Oral Contrast Agent Revenue by Country 10.1.3 Turkey 10.1.4 Saudi Arabia 10.1.5 U.A.E 10.2 Middle East and Africa Oral Contrast Agent Market Facts & Figures by Type 10.3 Middle East and Africa Oral Contrast Agent Market Facts & Figures by Application

11 Company Profiles 11.1 GE Healthcare (US) 11.1.1 GE Healthcare (US) Corporation Information 11.1.2 GE Healthcare (US) Description and Business Overview 11.1.3 GE Healthcare (US) Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020) 11.1.4 GE Healthcare (US) Oral Contrast Agent Products Offered 11.1.5 GE Healthcare (US) Related Developments 11.2 Bracco Imaging (Italy) 11.2.1 Bracco Imaging (Italy) Corporation Information 11.2.2 Bracco Imaging (Italy) Description and Business Overview 11.2.3 Bracco Imaging (Italy) Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020) 11.2.4 Bracco Imaging (Italy) Oral Contrast Agent Products Offered 11.2.5 Bracco Imaging (Italy) Related Developments 11.3 Bayer HealthCare (Germany) 11.3.1 Bayer HealthCare (Germany) Corporation Information 11.3.2 Bayer HealthCare (Germany) Description and Business Overview 11.3.3 Bayer HealthCare (Germany) Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020) 11.3.4 Bayer HealthCare (Germany) Oral Contrast Agent Products Offered 11.3.5 Bayer HealthCare (Germany) Related Developments 11.4 Guerbet (France) 11.4.1 Guerbet (France) Corporation Information 11.4.2 Guerbet (France) Description and Business Overview 11.4.3 Guerbet (France) Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020) 11.4.4 Guerbet (France) Oral Contrast Agent Products Offered 11.4.5 Guerbet (France) Related Developments 11.5 Lantheus (US) 11.5.1 Lantheus (US) Corporation Information 11.5.2 Lantheus (US) Description and Business Overview 11.5.3 Lantheus (US) Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020) 11.5.4 Lantheus (US) Oral Contrast Agent Products Offered 11.5.5 Lantheus (US) Related Developments 11.6 Daiichi Sankyo (Japan) 11.6.1 Daiichi Sankyo (Japan) Corporation Information 11.6.2 Daiichi Sankyo (Japan) Description and Business Overview 11.6.3 Daiichi Sankyo (Japan) Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020) 11.6.4 Daiichi Sankyo (Japan) Oral Contrast Agent Products Offered 11.6.5 Daiichi Sankyo (Japan) Related Developments 11.7 Unijules Life Sciences (India) 11.7.1 Unijules Life Sciences (India) Corporation Information 11.7.2 Unijules Life Sciences (India) Description and Business Overview 11.7.3 Unijules Life Sciences (India) Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020) 11.7.4 Unijules Life Sciences (India) Oral Contrast Agent Products Offered 11.7.5 Unijules Life Sciences (India) Related Developments 11.8 J.B. Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals (India) 11.8.1 J.B. Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals (India) Corporation Information 11.8.2 J.B. Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals (India) Description and Business Overview 11.8.3 J.B. Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals (India) Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020) 11.8.4 J.B. Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals (India) Oral Contrast Agent Products Offered 11.8.5 J.B. Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals (India) Related Developments 11.9 Spago Nanomedicine (Sweden) 11.9.1 Spago Nanomedicine (Sweden) Corporation Information 11.9.2 Spago Nanomedicine (Sweden) Description and Business Overview 11.9.3 Spago Nanomedicine (Sweden) Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020) 11.9.4 Spago Nanomedicine (Sweden) Oral Contrast Agent Products Offered 11.9.5 Spago Nanomedicine (Sweden) Related Developments 11.10 Taejoon Pharm (South Korea) 11.10.1 Taejoon Pharm (South Korea) Corporation Information 11.10.2 Taejoon Pharm (South Korea) Description and Business Overview 11.10.3 Taejoon Pharm (South Korea) Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020) 11.10.4 Taejoon Pharm (South Korea) Oral Contrast Agent Products Offered 11.10.5 Taejoon Pharm (South Korea) Related Developments 11.1 GE Healthcare (US) 11.1.1 GE Healthcare (US) Corporation Information 11.1.2 GE Healthcare (US) Description and Business Overview 11.1.3 GE Healthcare (US) Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020) 11.1.4 GE Healthcare (US) Oral Contrast Agent Products Offered 11.1.5 GE Healthcare (US) Related Developments 11.12 Magnus Health (India) 11.12.1 Magnus Health (India) Corporation Information 11.12.2 Magnus Health (India) Description and Business Overview 11.12.3 Magnus Health (India) Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020) 11.12.4 Magnus Health (India) Products Offered 11.12.5 Magnus Health (India) Related Developments

12 Future Forecast by Regions (Countries) (2021-2026) 12.1 Oral Contrast Agent Market Estimates and Projections by Region 12.1.1 Global Oral Contrast Agent Sales Forecast by Regions 2021-2026 12.1.2 Global Oral Contrast Agent Revenue Forecast by Regions 2021-2026 12.2 North America Oral Contrast Agent Market Size Forecast (2021-2026) 12.2.1 North America: Oral Contrast Agent Sales Forecast (2021-2026) 12.2.2 North America: Oral Contrast Agent Revenue Forecast (2021-2026) 12.2.3 North America: Oral Contrast Agent Market Size Forecast by Country (2021-2026) 12.3 Europe Oral Contrast Agent Market Size Forecast (2021-2026) 12.3.1 Europe: Oral Contrast Agent Sales Forecast (2021-2026) 12.3.2 Europe: Oral Contrast Agent Revenue Forecast (2021-2026) 12.3.3 Europe: Oral Contrast Agent Market Size Forecast by Country (2021-2026) 12.4 Asia Pacific Oral Contrast Agent Market Size Forecast (2021-2026) 12.4.1 Asia Pacific: Oral Contrast Agent Sales Forecast (2021-2026) 12.4.2 Asia Pacific: Oral Contrast Agent Revenue Forecast (2021-2026) 12.4.3 Asia Pacific: Oral Contrast Agent Market Size Forecast by Region (2021-2026) 12.5 Latin America Oral Contrast Agent Market Size Forecast (2021-2026) 12.5.1 Latin America: Oral Contrast Agent Sales Forecast (2021-2026) 12.5.2 Latin America: Oral Contrast Agent Revenue Forecast (2021-2026) 12.5.3 Latin America: Oral Contrast Agent Market Size Forecast by Country (2021-2026) 12.6 Middle East and Africa Oral Contrast Agent Market Size Forecast (2021-2026) 12.6.1 Middle East and Africa: Oral Contrast Agent Sales Forecast (2021-2026) 12.6.2 Middle East and Africa: Oral Contrast Agent Revenue Forecast (2021-2026) 12.6.3 Middle East and Africa: Oral Contrast Agent Market Size Forecast by Country (2021-2026)

13 Market Opportunities, Challenges, Risks and Influences Factors Analysis 13.1 Market Opportunities and Drivers 13.2 Market Challenges 13.3 Market Risks/Restraints 13.4 Porters Five Forces Analysis 13.5 Primary Interviews with Key Oral Contrast Agent Players (Opinion Leaders)

14 Value Chain and Sales Channels Analysis 14.1 Value Chain Analysis 14.2 Oral Contrast Agent Customers 14.3 Sales Channels Analysis 14.3.1 Sales Channels 14.3.2 Distributors

15 Research Findings and Conclusion

16 Appendix 16.1 Research Methodology 16.1.1 Methodology/Research Approach 16.1.2 Data Source 16.2 Author Details 16.3 Disclaimer

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Nanotechnology in Medical Devices Market 2020: Overview, Trends, Opportunities, Impact of Drivers, Key Vendors, Types, Applications, Forecast by…

§ November 22nd, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Comments Off on Nanotechnology in Medical Devices Market 2020: Overview, Trends, Opportunities, Impact of Drivers, Key Vendors, Types, Applications, Forecast by…

Data Bridge Market Research has recently added concise research on the Nanotechnology in Medical Devices Market to depict valuable insights related to significant market trends driving the industry with 100+ market data Tables, Pie Charts, Graphs & Figures spread through Pages and easy to understand detailed analysis. All the data and statistics included in this Nanotechnology in Medical Devices Market report leading to actionable ideas, improved decision-making, and better mapping business strategies. This Nanotechnology in Medical Devices Market research report helps the clients understand the various drivers and restraints impacting the industry during the forecast period. This Nanotechnology in Medical Devices Market report provides appropriate solutions to the complex business challenges and initiates an effortless decision-making process. This Nanotechnology in Medical Devices Market research report predicts the size of the market with respect to the information on key retailer revenues, development of the industry by upstream and downstream, industry progress, key companies, key developments, along with market segments and application.

Nanotechnology in medical devices market is expected to reach a market value of USD 20.52 billion by 2027 growing with the CAGR of 11.9% in the forecast period of 2020-2027. The increasing support of the government in the provision on advanced technology has been directly impacting the growth of nanotechnology in medical devices market.

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Increasing geriatric population along with rising occurrences of diseases across the globe and growing adoption and need of high and advanced technology for the treatment of chronic diseases will accelerate the growth of the nanotechnology in medical devices market in the forecast period of 20202-2027. Rising number of applications from the emerging countries and advancement to technology for rich mid to late stage product pipeline will further create new opportunities for the growth of the market in the above mentioned forecast period.

Strict rules and regulations that will consume time in product approval and increasing process of nanotechnology based medical devices will hamper the growth of the market in the forecast period of 2020-2027.

Competitive Landscape and Nanotechnology in Medical Devices Market Share Analysis

Nanotechnology in medical devices market competitive landscape provides details by competitor. Details included are company overview, company financials, revenue generated, market potential, investment in research and development, new market initiatives, global presence, production sites and facilities, production capacities, company strengths and weaknesses, product launch, product width and breadth, application dominance. The above data points provided are only related to the companies focus related to nanotechnology in medical devices market.

The major players covered in the nanotechnology in medical devices market report are 3M, Dentsply Sirona., Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., PerkinElmer Inc, GENERAL ELECTRIC, Ferro Corporation, Eppendorf AG, Greiner Bio One International GmbH, ZELLMECHANIK DRESDEN, TV Rheinland, Medtronic, Boston Scientific Corporation, BIOTRONIK SE & Co. KG, LivaNova PLC, Demant A/S, Cochlear Ltd., Sonova, MED-EL, DEKRA, among other domestic and global players. Market share data is available for Global, North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific (APAC), Middle East and Africa (MEA) and South America separately. DBMR analysts understand competitive strengths and provide competitive analysis for each competitor separately.

Global Nanotechnology in Medical Devices Market Scope and Market Size

Nanotechnology in medical devices market is segmented on the basis of product and application. The growth amongst these segments will help you analyse meagre growth segments in the industries, and provide the users with valuable market overview and market insights to help them in making strategic decisions for identification of core market applications.

Based on product, the nanotechnology in medical devices market is segmented into active implantable devices, biochips, implantable materials, medical textiles and wound dressings, others. Active implantable devices have been segmented into cardiac rhythm management devices, hearing aid devices and retinal implants. Biochips have been further segmented into DNA microarrays and lab-on-chip. Implantable materials have been further segmented into dental restorative materials and bone substitute materials. Nanotechnology in medical devices market has also been segmented on the basis of applications into therapeutic applications, diagnostic applications and research applications.

Nanotechnology in Medical Devices Market Country Level Analysis

Nanotechnology in medical devices market is analysed and market size insights and trends are provided by country, product and application as referenced above.

The countries covered in the nanotechnology in medical devices market report are U.S., Canada and Mexico in North America, Germany, France, U.K., Netherlands, Switzerland, Belgium, Russia, Italy, Spain, Turkey, Rest of Europe in Europe, China, Japan, India, South Korea, Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, Rest of Asia-Pacific (APAC) in Asia-Pacific (APAC), Saudi Arabia, U.A.E, South Africa, Egypt, Israel, Rest of Middle East and Africa (MEA) as a part of Middle East and Africa (MEA), Brazil, Argentina and Rest of South America as part of South America.

North America dominates the nanotechnology in medical devices market because of prevalence of majority of nanotechnology based medical devices players and increasing government initiatives, while Asia-Pacific is expected to grow at the highest growth rate in the forecast period of 2020 to 2027 because of increasing geriatric population, international research collaboration and increasing investment in research and development of nanotechnology.

The country section of the nanotechnology in medical devices market report also provides individual market impacting factors and changes in regulation in the market domestically that impacts the current and future trends of the market. Data points such as consumption volumes, production sites and volumes, import export analysis, price trend analysis, cost of raw materials, down-stream and upstream value chain analysis are some of the major pointers used to forecast the market scenario for individual countries. Also, presence and availability of global brands and their challenges faced due to large or scarce competition from local and domestic brands, impact of domestic tariffs and trade routes are considered while providing forecast analysis of the country data.

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Healthcare Infrastructure Growth Installed Base and New Technology Penetration

Nanotechnology in medical devices market also provides you with detailed market analysis for every country growth in healthcare expenditure for capital equipment, installed base of different kind of products for nanotechnology in medical devices market, impact of technology using life line curves and changes in healthcare regulatory scenarios and their impact on the nanotechnology in medical devices market. The data is available for historic period 2010 to 2018.

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