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Quantum Computing 101 -What it is, how is it different and why it matters – The Jerusalem Post

§ February 4th, 2021 § Filed under Quantum Computer Comments Off on Quantum Computing 101 -What it is, how is it different and why it matters – The Jerusalem Post

In our everyday classical computers, 0s and 1s are associated with switches and electronic circuits turning on and off as part of the computer using a binary number system to calculate possibilities and perform operations. For example, when a computer mouse moves, a sensor tells the computer that an electrical signal has been converted into a binary value or number. Further, this number represents a location that is then represented on the computer screen all of which is embodied by the byte that is the building block of current computers. The sensor message to the computer is also saved to memory. Some calculations have too many possibilities for even a traditional computer to calculate like simulating the weather or calculating scrambled combinations of prime numbers. Quantum is the state of things being unknown at the subatomic level until they can be observed and moves from the byte to the qubit. In a quantum computer, it is said that the values assigned to 0 and 1 can occur at the same time. The reason this impossibility is possible is because of quantums subatomic level where protons and electrons are acting in a wild way beyond the rules of nature as we tend to think of them. Picture The Avengers superhero Antman shrinking into the quantum zone where time did not even move in a linear fashion. In computer terms, once the values of 0 and 1 can happen at the same time, it allows the quantum computer to consider trillions of possibilities or more in the same instant, dwarfing the number of calculations that our traditional computers, stuck in binary counting, can do. This process is called superposition. Superposition ends once a specialized particle, or qubit, slows/is observable, thereby emerging from its quantum state. We stick the qubit in an artificial space vacuum so that it does not get observed or interfered with and remains dynamic. Pictures of quantum computers often show tubes the size of a household refrigerator. But most of the tubing is not the central computer processor as much as the process used to maintain the qubits at the absolute zero quantum state. Since around 1977, RSA has been among the most widely used systems for secure data transmission underlying the Internet, serving as the backbone of the NYSE, most large institutions and most individual online users. What is stopping an average person from hacking anyones elses website is that RSA is easy to build, and being based on two pseudo-random prime numbers, hard to burst for traditional computers limited binary system calculation capacity.

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To Touch and to Smell a Nature Experience that Creates Happiness – Newswise

§ February 4th, 2021 § Filed under Quantum Computer Comments Off on To Touch and to Smell a Nature Experience that Creates Happiness – Newswise

Newswise During the first COVID-19-related lockdown, everyone baked sourdough bread. In the second lockdown, the trend was home gardening, and social media was flooded with a plethora of photos of pot plants and close-ups of colorful succulents.

According to researchers, the change in trend can be explained by the fact that the second lockdown found people in lower spirits that even carbs would find it hard to lift. The forced stay that kept entire families indoors turned even the brightest, most beautiful homes into traps that created a sense of being closed in, and their residents tried to mitigate its impacts with a little greenery on which they could feast their eyes and spirits.

Numerous research studies have supported this intuitive choice, demonstrating the importance of nature and green spaces to peoples emotional and physical wellbeing, but a new study has shown that feasting ones eyes on greenery is merely the tip of the iceberg. In order to benefit emotional wellbeing, humans must get close up and physically touch natural elements. In a research study published in Conservation Biology, Technion researchers found that interaction with nature alone is not enough. In order for tangible benefits to be derived, they found it is important that planners design green spaces that positive and close interaction with nature.

The effect of interaction of this kind occurs in two stages, In the first, cues of close psychological distance, such as smelling and touching natural elements, increase the state of nature relatedness. This state in turn intensifies the pleasure derived by participants.

The researchers, Professor Assaf Shwartz and Dr. Agathe Collony of the Faculty of Architecture and Town Planning, and Dr. Liat Levontin of the William Davidson Faculty of Industrial Engineering and Management, explain that closeness to nature improves wellbeing more than passive exposure or simply looking at the green landscape. Based on a survey of 1,023 visitors at Israel's Ramat Hanadiv Nature Park, they found that the closer the interaction with nature (for example, interaction that included touching natural elements or smelling flowers), the more the positive affect of visitors was enhanced following the visit to the nature reserve, compared to other visitors who experienced nature from a greater distance (for example, by simply taking a walk).

Our research has shown that people who have an emotional affinity for nature are generally happier and derive greater benefit from visits to green spaces or nature reserves, explained Prof. Shwartz.

Following these findings, the researchers conducted an experiment among 303 Technion students. All participants spent half an hour outdoors on campus, with each assigned one of nine different cues-to-experience to perform while walking. These included smelling flowers, taking photographs of nature, touching natural elements, or turning off their phones. The findings showed that participants assigned cues of close psychological distance from nature (smelling and touching natural elements) indeed felt closer to nature and felt better after the walk than the control group (with no cues). Contrary to the prevailing opinion that it is important to experience nature undisturbed, participants who were asked to turn off their phones during the walk interacted less with nature, and reported both an increase in their negative feelings and a decrease in positive feelings after the walk was recorded. According to Dr. Levontin, Turning off the phone may possibly cause people to think about it more and lead to FOMO (Fear of Missing Out) and does not enable significant interaction with nature.

People today are increasingly alienated from nature, and this has negative implications on their health and wellbeing and on the importance they attribute to the world of nature, said Prof. Shwartz. Its important to plan green spaces that enable significant interactions with nature to improve our affinity to nature and emotional wellbeing.

I think we all felt it in the recent lockdowns, added Dr. Levontin. But its possible that as a result of our growing alienation from nature, planning green spaces is not enough to create a significant nature experience and contribute to quality of life. So thought must be given to how to encourage people to go outdoors and enhance their nature experience.

This is precisely where our research comes in, Prof. Shwartz explained. In the experiment, we demonstrated that with the help of minor cues, which we called cues-to-experience, people can be brought closer to nature. We also found that it is possible to enhance the nature experience among visitors, as well as its positive effect after the visit. Even smartphones can be used to create meaningful nature experiences for all of us in parks, gardens, and nature reserves. At the same time, it is important to make sure to also protect biodiversity and not to encourage interaction that is liable to be harmful to nature, such as picking flowers. Landscape architects and environmental planners need to think about solutions that will encourage the creation of interactions with nature, whose negative impact on biodiversity is minimal and positive impact is strong.

For more than a century, the Technion Israel Institute of Technology has pioneered in science and technology education and delivered world-changing impact. Proudly a global university, the Technion has long leveraged boundary-crossing collaborations to advance breakthrough research and technologies. Now with a presence in three countries, the Technion will prepare the next generation of global innovators. Technion people, ideas and inventions make immeasurable contributions to the world, innovating in fields from cancer research and sustainable energy to quantum computing and computer science to do good around the world.

The American Technion Society supports visionary education and world-changing impact through the Technion Israel Institute of Technology. Based in New York City, we represent thousands of US donors, alumni and stakeholders who invest in the Technions growth and innovation to advance critical research and technologies that serve the State of Israel and the global good. Over more than 75 years, our nationwide supporter network has funded new Technion scholarships, research, labs, and facilities that have helped deliver world-changing contributions and extend Technion education to campuses in three countries.

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To Touch and to Smell a Nature Experience that Creates Happiness - Newswise

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Complementary and Alternative Medicine Market Set to Register Healthy CAGR During 2027 – The Courier

§ February 4th, 2021 § Filed under Quantum Medicine Comments Off on Complementary and Alternative Medicine Market Set to Register Healthy CAGR During 2027 – The Courier

Data Bridge Market Reports Present Complementary and Alternative Medicine Market new report to its research database. The report first introduces the market basics like definitions, classifications, applications, and industry chain overview, and then industry policies and plans, product specifications, manufacturing processes, cost structures, and so on. The report highlights the change in the market which is taking place due to the moves of key players and brands such as product launches, joint ventures, mergers, and acquisitions that in turn change the view of the global face of the industry. According to the report, the global market is anticipated to witness a relatively higher growth rate during the forecast period. This Complementary and Alternative Medicine Market report also evaluates the market status, market share, growth rate, future trends, market drivers, opportunities and challenges, risks and entry barriers, sales channels, distributors, and Porters Five Forces Analysis.

This market research report surely provides productive ideas with which product can be made more effective and striking in the competitive market. The market data analyzed in this Complementary and Alternative Medicine Market report makes you achieve the business goal and objective in the predetermined time frame. This report deals with the precise study of the industry which explains the market definition, classifications, applications, engagements, and global industry trends. The Global Complementary and Alternative Medicine Market research report displays important product developments and tracks recent acquisitions, mergers, and research in the industry by the key players

Complementary and Alternative Medicine Market Insight:

Complementary and alternative medicine market is expected to gain market growth in the forecast period of 2020 to 2027. Data Bridge Market Research analyses the market is growing with the healthy CAGR in the above-mentioned research forecast period. Rising prevalence cancer and other serious diseases worldwide and emerging markets are the factors responsible for the growth of this market.

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Nordic Naturals, Natures Bounty, Unity Woods Yoga Center, Columbia Nutritional, First Natural Brands Ltd., Ayush Ayurveda, Sheng Chang Pharmaceutical Company, Pure Encapsulations, LLC. Quantum-Touch, and Herb Pharm, LLC among others.

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Part 07:Five Forces Analysis

Part 08:Market Segmentation

Part 09:Customer Landscape

Part 10:Regional Landscape

Part 11:Decision Framework

Part 12:Drivers and Challenges

Part 13:Market Trends

Part 14:Vendor Landscape

Part 15:Vendor Analysis

Part 16:Appendix

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New facility to be built in Vancouver will produce 240 million vaccine doses annually | Urbanized – Daily Hive

§ February 4th, 2021 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on New facility to be built in Vancouver will produce 240 million vaccine doses annually | Urbanized – Daily Hive

As the battle against COVID-19 rages on, Canada is ramping up its vaccine producing capabilities at home in an effort to fill in the gaping hole in national security made evident by the pandemic.

Vancouvers Precision NanoSystems Inc. (PNI) announced this week it received $25.1 million from the federal governments Strategic Innovation Fund to create its domestic vaccine biomanufacturing capability.

The federal contribution covers half of the total $50.2 million cost of the new biomanufacturing centre that will be built in Vancouver, focusing on the production of ribonucleic acid (RNA) lipid nanoparticle vaccines and genetic medicines.

But the first vaccines made in this 40,000-sq-ft facility will not be ready for immediate pandemic needs; the project is not expected to reach completion until 2023, however, it will help secure the national supplies for critical medicines, future COVID-19 vaccine needs, and vaccines for future pandemics.

When operational, it will have a capacity to manufacture up to 240 million doses of vaccine each year. The RNA vaccine technology it will use is also currently being utilized by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna to rapidly develop and produce their COVID-19 vaccines.

PNIs centre of manufacturing excellence of nanomedicine will be a state-of-the-art facility for the development and manufacture of genetic therapeutics and vaccines, saidJames Taylor, the CEO of Precision NanoSystems, in a statement.

The centre will continueCanadasleadership in the creation of innovative solutions for the development and production of new medicines for the benefit of patients inCanadaand beyond.

Prior to COVID-19, PNI was already seeing quick growth in its business of developing genetic medicines by offering products and services to help create new treatments for infectious diseases, rare diseases, cancers, and other ailments.

PNI announced two separate COVID-19 vaccine development partnerships in May 2020, including a DNA vaccine with Edmonton-basedEntos Pharmaceuticals.

That same month, another partnership was entered with Chinese vaccine companyCanSino Biologics, with PNI responsible for the development of the mRNA vaccine and CanSino Biologics responsible for the pre-clinical testing, human clinical trials, regulatory approval, and commercialization. The Chinese company has the rights to commercialize the vaccine product in Asia, except in Japan, with PNI retaining the rights for the rest of the world.

A report in the Globe and Mail last summer indicated the federal governments National Research Council ended its partnership with CanSino, after the Chinese government refused to ship a vaccine to Canada for trials.

In October 2020, the federal government also provided $18.2 million in funding for PNI to advance a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine candidate to clinical trials.

Our government is bringing back the vaccine manufacturing capacity that Canadians expect and need. These investments will help to ensure thatCanadahas modern, flexible vaccine manufacturing capabilities now and in the future, saidFranois-Philippe Champagne, the federal Minister of Innovation, Science, and Industry, in a statement.

Our government is helping Canadian companies advance made-in-Canadavaccines and therapies, while securing domestic manufacturing options for international vaccine candidates.

The federal government is also funding new vaccine biomanufacturing facilities in Saskatchewan and Quebec.

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World Cancer Day: From Immunotherapy, vaccines to nanotech, new treatments that show promise against disease – Firstpost

§ February 4th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotech Comments Off on World Cancer Day: From Immunotherapy, vaccines to nanotech, new treatments that show promise against disease – Firstpost

Researchers are also looking into using genetically modified salmonella bacteria to destroy tumours from the inside out where more traditional treatments, notably chemotherapy, cannot penetrate

Representational image. National Cancer Institute/Unsplash

More effective therapies, nanotechnology and even the prospect of vaccinating for certain tumours: battles may slowly be starting to turn in the never-ending war against cancer.

The second leading cause of death globally, cancer accounted for an estimated 9.6 million deaths, or one in six deaths, in 2018.

On World Cancer Day on Thursday, here is a look at some of the more promising developments in treating and preventing the disease.

Immunotherapy breakthroughs

Immunotherapy drugs, which prime the immune system to recognise and destroy cancerous cells, have shown huge promise against previously untreatable cancers over the last decade.

But they vary greatly among different forms of cancer and only work in around a quarter of all patients.

A main focus of research now centres on "increasing the percentage of patients that respond well to immunotherapy," according to Christophe Le Tourneau, director of clinical research at France's Curie Institute.

One promising avenue is the development of antibodies capable of recognising a specific protein found in cancerous cells, "which would help the body to destroy those cells," Axel Kahn, president of the League Against Cancer, told AFP.

He said research had shown that administering medication or toxins helped destroy cancer cells after antibodies discover them.

Research is also ongoing into immunotherapy after chemotherapy, with the initial treatment creating mutations in cancer cells that may render them easier for the immune system to spot and hunt down.

Another technique known as checkpoint inhibitor therapy has also shown promise.

When proteins contained within cancer cells bind with immune cells, they send an "off" signal to the rest of the immune system, disabling the body's natural defences.

Checkpoint inhibitor therapy essentially blocks this binding, allowing killer immune T-cells to seek and destroy the pathogen.

This technique has already significantly improved prognoses for some melanomas and lung cancers, and other trials are underway.

Such treatment may offer also hope to the 10-15 percent of breast cancer sufferers who receive a so-called "triple-negative" prognoses tumours that contain neither hormonal nor HER2 protein receptors.

HER2-positive breast cancer tends to grow more quickly than other forms but it is equally more treatable.

Triple-negative breast cancer is, however, "usually more aggressive (but) the treatment options available today are not sufficiently effective", according to the Arc Foundation cancer research centre near Paris.

One study with the drug durvalumab published this month in Nature Medicine showed that the antibody was somewhat effective at shutting off tumours' ability to evade the immune system.

'Vaccinate' for tumours?

Trials are also underway exploring the efficacy of certain candidate vaccines that can help treat tumours.

The French biotech firm Transgene is developing a treatment combining immunotherapy and a viral vector vaccine a modified virus that delivers anti-cancer instructions to the body.

A similar trial is underway to treat patients with cancer of the ear, nose or throat.

The Oncopole Toulouse cancer treatment centre, conducting the research, said the treatment acts as a kind of "facial recognition service" for the immune system to detect cancerous cells and learn how to destroy them similar to how some vaccines work.

Predicting effective treatment

Analysing the structure and, increasingly, the genetic make-up of cancer plays a major role not only in prognosis how likely it is that a patient will recover but also in what treatment options are available.

"It's really the main issue: it's not worth giving certain treatments to people who won't benefit from them and it's absolutely crucial that those who will benefit receive them, said Eric Solary, scientific director at the Arc Foundation.

A better understanding of certain mutations in cancer cells as well as how immune cells behave are helping doctors make ever-more accurate treatment choices.

Nanotechnology

Another area of growing interest is the possible use of nanocapsules microscopic coatings of metal or fat on existing drug molecules.

The idea according to Solary is to better distribute medicine around the patient's body by allowing it to "go directly into tumour cells and avoiding damaging normal cells".

In the same vein, researchers are also looking into using genetically modified salmonella bacteria to destroy tumours from the inside out where more traditional treatments, notably chemotherapy, cannot penetrate.

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World Cancer Day: From Immunotherapy, vaccines to nanotech, new treatments that show promise against disease - Firstpost

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Moringa May be an Essential Tool in the Fight Against the Global Pandemic – Baystreet.ca

§ February 4th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotech Comments Off on Moringa May be an Essential Tool in the Fight Against the Global Pandemic – Baystreet.ca

The global moringa products market could be worth up to $8.4 billion by 2026 from $5 million in 2019. All thanks to its anti-depressant, anti-fungal, and anti-viral properties that can play a vital role in curing various diseases, such as those seen with the pandemic. In fact, according to Facts and Factors, Various parts of the moringa tree such as bark, fruit, root, leaves, flowers, and seeds are used to make medicine and various products with health beneficial and medicinal properties. It is a fast-growing and drought-resistant tree full of minerals and supporting vitamins. Plus, moringa can help reduce blood sugar, lower cholesterol, treat depression, anxiety, and stress, in addition to its anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties. Its medicinal qualities could be of great importance to companies fighting the current health pandemic, like Gilead Sciences Inc. (NASDAQ:GILD), Moderna Inc. (NASDAQ:MRNA), Pfizer Inc. (NYSE:PFE), and Novavax Inc. (NASDAQ:NVAX).

Its also good news for companies like Arev NanoTec Brands Inc. (CSE: AREV)(OTC: AREVF)

AREV produces functional ingredients through its proprietary extraction systems and methods. Its applying nanotech methods to create premium ingredients for products that have an increased bioavailability. Then, it sells product to targeted natural health, medical, functional food, nutraceutical, sport nutrition markets.

Most recently, Arev NanoTec Brands provided an update on its continued work with natural materials, specifically Moringa. The company has been working with several plant, fungi and marine biomass including functional mushrooms, hops, frankincense, myrrh, Kampot pepper, sea cucumber, ginseng and Moringa.

Much of this work has been focused on the best way to extract actives and researching target compounds present in each of the natural phyto-matierials. As a result, the company has chosen Moringa to be the candidate for molecular screening for its antiviral properties.

The company has secured organic supply from Priceless Farms in Uganda which is working with AREVs Cambodian subsidiary to establish Moringa as a permaculture crop on its 12 hectare parcel of land near Phnom Penh. The company will continue to update shareholders as progress is made on what is anticipated to be a fast moving initiative.

Mike Withrow CEO of AREV NanoTec stated We are encouraged by the recommendations of our growing Scientific Advisory Board. They have gone to work quickly and introduced the company to key influential people. The advisory board has been integral in coming up with the direction to explore Moringa.

Moringa Could be Beneficial to Top Pharmaceutical Companies

Gilead Sciences Inc. (NASDAQ:GILD) and Gritstone Oncology, Inc., a clinical-stage biotechnology company developing next generation cancer and infectious disease immunotherapies, today announced that the companies have entered into a collaboration, option and license agreement to research and develop a vaccine-based immunotherapy as part of Gileads efforts to find a curative treatment for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.

Moderna Inc. (NASDAQ:MRNA), a biotechnology company pioneering messenger RNA (mRNA) therapeutics and vaccines, announced that theSingapore Health Sciences Authority(HSA) has approved the interim authorization of its mRNA vaccine against COVID-19 (COVID-19 Vaccine Moderna) for use under the Pandemic Special Access Route (PSAR). Todays authorization is another important step in the global fight against COVID-19, saidStphane Bancel, Chief Executive Officer ofModerna. I want to thank theSingapore Ministry of Healthand the HSA for their collaboration and for the confidence they have demonstrated in COVID-19 Vaccine Moderna with this decision.

Pfizer Inc. (NYSE:PFE), and BioNTech announced results from in vitro neutralization studies of sera from individuals vaccinated with the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. The sera neutralized SARS-CoV-2 with key mutations present in the United Kingdom (U.K.) and South Africa variants, as measured by studies conducted by Pfizer and the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB). The results were published on the preprint serverbioRxivand submitted to a peer-reviewed journal. To study the effect of these mutations, three engineered viruses with key mutations were tested against the panel of human sera from 20 participants in thepreviously reportedPhase 3 trial who had been immunized with the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. Of the three recombinant variants, one has a mutation common to both the U.K. and South Africa variants (N501Y), one has mutations common to the U.K. variant (69/70+N501Y+D614G), and the third has mutations common to the South Africa variant (E484K+N501Y+D614G). The sera from individuals vaccinated with the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine neutralized all the SARS-CoV-2 strains tested.

Novavax Inc. (NASDAQ:NVAX), a biotechnology company developing next-generation vaccines for serious infectious diseases, announced that the company has executed a binding Heads of Terms agreement with the government ofSwitzerlandto supply six million doses of its protein-based COVID-19 vaccine candidate, NVX-CoV2373, to the country. The government ofSwitzerlandis working proactively to ensure a sufficient supply of our vaccine that could protect its citizens from COVID-19, saidJohn J. Trizzino, Chief Commercial Officer and Chief Business Officer ofNovavax. Addressing this global public health crisis requires collaboration, and we appreciate their partnership to provide an urgently needed vaccine to stem the pandemic.

Legal Disclaimer / Except for the historical information presented herein, matters discussed in this article contains forward-looking statements that are subject to certain risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such statements. Winning Media is not registered with any financial or securities regulatory authority and does not provide nor claims to provide investment advice or recommendations to readers of this release. For making specific investment decisions, readers should seek their own advice. Winning Media is only compensated for its services in the form of cash-based compensation. Pursuant to an agreement Winning Media has been paid three thousand five hundred dollars for advertising and marketing services for Arev NanoTec Brands Inc. by a third party. We own ZERO shares of Arev NanoTec Brands Inc. Please click here for full disclaimer.

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2021 has peaked already: Scientists have taught spinach to detect explosives and send emails – OpIndia

§ February 4th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotech Comments Off on 2021 has peaked already: Scientists have taught spinach to detect explosives and send emails – OpIndia

This may seem straight out of the famous animation show named the The Popeye Show but scientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the United States have reportedly managed to engineer spinach plants making them capable of sending emails.

According to reports, engineers at MIT have used nanotechnology to transform spinach into sensors capable of detecting explosive materials. The spinach plants can transmit the information back to scientists wirelessly. Whenever the presence of nitroaromatics, a compound often found in explosives like landmines, is detected by the spinach roots in the groundwater, the carbon nanotubes within the leaves of the plant emit a signal. This signal is then read by an infrared camera that sends an email alert to the scientists.

Professor Michael Strano, who led the research, told that plants are good analytical chemists. They have an extensive root network in the soil, are constantly sampling groundwater and have a way to self-power the transport of that water up into the leaves, said Professor Strano. The experiment is reportedly part of wider research involving engineering electronic components and systems into plants. The technology is called plant nanobionics which is a process of giving plants new abilities. This is a novel demonstration of how we have overcome the plant/human communication barrier, he added.

The purpose of the experiment was to detect explosives. However, scientists, including Strano, believe that the experiment could be used to alert researchers about pollution and other environmental conditions. Plants are said to be ideally suited to monitor ecological changes because of the large amount of data that they absorb from their surroundings. Professor Strano reportedly used nanoparticles to make plants into sensors for pollutants in the initial phases of the research. By changing the process of photosynthesis in the plants, Professor Strano made them capable of detecting nitric oxide, a pollutant caused by combustion.

According to Professor Strano, Plants are very environmentally responsive. They know that there is going to be a drought long before we do. They can detect small changes in the properties of soil and water potential. If we tap into those chemical signalling pathways, there is wealth of information to access.

In addition to this, scientists have reportedly found that when spinach is converted into carbon nanosheets, it can function as a catalyst to help make metal-air batteries and fuel more efficient. Professor Shouzhong Zou, who led the research paper, said, This work suggests that sustainable catalysts can be made for an oxygen reduction reaction from natural resources. Metal-air batteries have more efficiency as compared to lithium-ion batteries that are commonly found in commercial products like smartphones. The method we tested can produce highly active, carbob-based catalysts from spinach, which is a renewable biomass. In fact, we believe it outperforms commercial platinum catalysts in both activity and stability, said Professor Zou.

The reason behind selecting spinach was that it has plenty of iron and nitrogen which are important elements in compounds that act as catalysts. In order make spinach suitable for the process, researchers turned it into nanosheets.

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2021 has peaked already: Scientists have taught spinach to detect explosives and send emails - OpIndia

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Impact Of Covid 19 On Medication Adherence Packaging 2020 Industry Challenges Business Overview And Forecast Research Study 2026 KSU | The Sentinel…

§ February 4th, 2021 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Impact Of Covid 19 On Medication Adherence Packaging 2020 Industry Challenges Business Overview And Forecast Research Study 2026 KSU | The Sentinel…

A SWOT AnalysisMedication Adherence Packaging Market,Professional Survey Report Including Top Most Global Players Analysis with CAGR and Stock Market Up and Down.

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The topological players provide insights on market growth and status:WestRock, Omnicell, Genoa, Parata, Amcor, Medicine-On-Time, CHUDY, Drug Package, Global Factories, Pearson Medical

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The global Medication Adherence Packaging market research report mentioned on the Syndicate Market Research has information provided a detailed bifurcation based on product type, applications, top manufacturers, geographical players, and other segments.

Market segment based on product types:Unit-dose Packaging Systems, Multi-dose Packaging Systems

Market segments based on advanced uses by end-user:Hospital, Retail Pharmacies, Long-term Care Facilities, Mail-order Pharmacies, Others

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North America

Europe

Asia Pacific

Latin America

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The current theoretical information can help the clients and others get a taste of practical knowledge as well. The discussions regarding the global Medication Adherence Packaging market have been dominating the global market research for the past few years. The business players WestRock, Omnicell, Genoa, Parata, Amcor, Medicine-On-Time, CHUDY, Drug Package, Global Factories, Pearson Medical has been using strategic policies and plans to fabricate their future market growth and development.

The previous market consensuses compared to the present have changed quite a lot and thus, studying the market details in the extant report can help capture the gist in a glimpse.

Chapter 1,Definition, Specifications and Classification of Medication Adherence Packaging, Applications of Medication Adherence Packaging, Market Segment by Regions; Chapter 2,Manufacturing Cost Structure, Raw Material, and Suppliers, Manufacturing Process, Industry Chain Structure; Chapter 3,Technical Data and Manufacturing Plants Analysis of Medication Adherence Packaging, Capacity, and Commercial Production Date, Manufacturing Plants Distribution, R&D Status, and Technology Source, Raw Materials Sources Analysis; Chapter 4,Overall Market Analysis, Capacity Analysis (Company Segment), Sales Analysis (Company Segment), Sales Price Analysis (Company Segment); Chapter 5 and 6,Regional Market Analysis that includes United States, China, Europe, Japan, Korea & Taiwan, Medication Adherence Packaging Segment Market Analysis (by Type); Chapter 7 and 8,The Medication Adherence Packaging Segment Market Analysis (by Application) Major Manufacturers Analysis of Medication Adherence Packaging ; Chapter 9,Market Trend Analysis, Regional Market Trend, Market Trend by Product Type Unit-dose Packaging Systems, Multi-dose Packaging Systems, Market Trend by Application Household, Commercial; Chapter 10,Regional Marketing Type Analysis, International Trade Type Analysis, Supply Chain Analysis; Chapter 11,The Consumers Analysis of Global Medication Adherence Packaging ; Chapter 12,Medication Adherence Packaging Research Findings and Conclusion, Appendix, methodology and data source; Chapter 13, 14, and 15Medication Adherence Packaging sales channel, distributors, traders, dealers, Research Findings and Conclusion, appendix, and data source.

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Determinants of ICS Therapy Adherence in Patients With Asthma – AJMC.com Managed Markets Network

§ February 4th, 2021 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Determinants of ICS Therapy Adherence in Patients With Asthma – AJMC.com Managed Markets Network

Study Design: A 2-stage study was conducted. In stage1, we performed nonassumptive deep-dive qualitative scoping to investigate the determinants of poor adherence in patients with asthma, and in stage 2 we developed a new questionnaire for cross-sectional surveys to obtain more accurate information about critical issues related to asthmamanagement.

Methods: Patients with asthma who were 18 years and older in the outpatient clinic of The First Affiliated Hospital of Xian Jiaotong University from November 2016 to January 2018 were investigated.

Results: In the 350 patients with asthma recruited, 32% of patients showed good adherence, whereas 68% of patients displayed poor adherence to inhaled therapy due to various reasons. Further analysis indicated that inadequate understanding of asthma treatment and control, poor self-management, financial burden, adverse reactions, and the fear of potential adverse reactions were significant independent risk factors for poor ICS inhalation adherence in patients with asthma.

Conclusions: Our research shows that many patients with asthma in western China have poor disease control and poor inhalation therapy adherence. We hope this research can alert clinicians and help them identify patients who may be experiencing uncontrolled asthma due to poor adherence to inhaled therapy, and we suggest that clinicians help those patients obtain appropriate information about asthma control and self-management.

Am J Manag Care. 2021;27(2):In Press

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Takeaway Points

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Asthma is a common chronic respiratory disease characterized by airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and airway remodeling.1 It is a public health problem that causes increasing mortality and disability.2 By 2025, there will be 400 million patients with asthma in the world.3 Asthma has a negative impact on the quality of life of patients with the disease and leads to an increase in social and economic burdens.3 In recent years, the incidence of asthma in China has been rising. A national epidemiological survey from 2012 to 2015 showed that the total prevalence of asthma in China was 4.2%.4 At present, asthma prevention and control are significant challenges in China.

Inhaled drugs, the main treatment for asthma, can significantly improve asthma control.5,6 However, uncontrolled asthma is still common and a considerable burden for patients and society.7-9 An important reason for poor asthma controland, therefore, for rising costs of health careis suboptimal adherence to prescription regimens.10-13 Study findings have shown that the rate of inhaled glucocorticosteroid (ICS) adherence is less than 50% in adults.14-17 A survey based on the Australian Tasmanian cohort study reported that only 28% of patients with moderate persistent asthma and 48% of patients with severe persistent asthma were using ICS treatments regularly.15 In fact, poor patient adherence is the most frequently mentioned challenge (by 41% of physicians) in the treatment of asthma.9,18

The adherence of patients with asthma to ICS or ICS/long-acting inhaled 2 agonist (LABA) treatment depends on a number of factors that are closely related to the patients economic status, social status, and culture. Although some studies have reported risk factors or determinants of poor adherence in Chinese patients with asthma,19,20 there is very limited evidence for the determinants of adherence to inhaled asthma-control therapy across different age groups. It is still necessary to conduct in-depth research, especially to understand the reasons for poor adherence from the patientsperspective.

METHODS

Objectives

The study aimed to evaluate factors affecting adherence to ICS therapy in patients with asthma to further identify the determinants most closely associated with adherence to inhaled asthma-control therapy. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xian Jiaotong University (approval No. 2016-409).

Study Design

This study included 2 stages: Stage 1 was a structured patient interview, and stage 2 was a cross-sectional survey. In stage 1, 40 patients with inadequate asthma control were invited to participate in a 1-time face-to-face interview. We interviewed patients or their guardians within the framework of 5 categories, which were summarized based on publications and the specific characteristics of Chinese society, including therapy-related factors, patient-related factors, provider-related factors, disease-related factors, and practice- and system-related factors. Then, all the factors reported by patients in stage 1 were collected and analyzed, and the top 10 factors were incorporated into the paper questionnaire (case report form [CRF]) of stage 2 to further explore the risk factors affecting patients adherence to inhalation therapy. In stage 2, 350 outpatients with asthma who were 18 years or older and who visited a respiratory or asthmatic outpatient clinic in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xian Jiaotong University were invited to participate in a face-to-face interview. Each patient was interviewed only once, and informed consent and all information collection were completed at the time of visit.

Inclusion Criteria

In each study site, outpatients who met all the following criteria were included: (1) were 18 years or older, (2) lived in the same city as the study site for at least 2 years, (3) had a history of at least 1year of diagnosed asthma based on the criteria established by the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA), (4) had inhaled ICS or ICS/LABA treatment in the past 6 months, and (5) were willing to sign the informed consent form.

Exclusion Criteria

Outpatients who met any of the following criteria were excluded: (1) patients with active cardiac or pulmonary disease (eg, bronchiectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary tuberculosis, lung cancer, severe heart disease) or other disorders (eg, HIV/AIDS), or patients undergoing therapy that, according to their physician, would interfere with the aim of the study; (2) patients with mental or neurological disorders, or those who were unable to understand and honestly answer questions due to alcohol or substance abuse, or those who refused to answer questions; and (3) patients with other conditions judged by the investigators as unsuitable for this study.

CRF Survey in Stage 2

Related factors (10 determinants explored from stage 1) affecting adherence to inhaled therapy were collected; to fill out the CRF in stage 2, each of the 350 patients was asked to choose yes or no for each of the 10 items. Then, all data were inputted into the online electronic questionnaire data capture system by the investigator(s), and the valid data were included in the statistical analysis.

Adherence Rate Assessment

The Medication Adherence Report Scale for Asthma (MARS-A) questionnaire is a self-reported measure of adherence to inhaled therapy. The MARS-A scale has 10 questions; it assesses intentional and unintentional nonadherence. Patients completed the scale based on their medication adherence over the past 4 weeks, and the investigator calculated the total score for each patient based on the scale. According to the score, asthma medication adherence status was divided into 2 levels: good adherence (45 points) and poor adherence (<45 points).

Asthma Control Assessment

The Asthma Control Test (ACT) was used to assess asthma control over the past 4 weeks. A score less than or equal to 19 was considered to signify asthma that was out of control. Scores greater than 19but less than 25 were considered to signify partial control. A global score of 25 indicates complete control of asthma.

Statistical Analysis

Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the study characteristics and adherence measurement. Continuous variables were presented as the mean and SD, whereas categorical variables were presented as proportions. Variables were entered into a final model using a multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify significant factors associated with asthma medication adherence status. All statistical tests were 2-sided; a P value<.05 was considered significant. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 22.0 software (IBM).

RESULTS

Study Characteristics

As shown in Table 1, 350 participants were recruited in stage 2 of this study. Among them, 128 (36.6%) were men and 222 (63.4%) were women. The patients were aged between 18 and 84 years, with a mean (SD) age of 43.80 (15.59) years. Among the patients, 59 (16.9%) were aged 18 to 30 years, 95 (27.1%) were aged 31 to 45 years, 59 (16.9%) were aged 46 to 60 years, and 137 (39.1%) were older than 60 years. The asthma duration of the included patients ranged from 1 to 70 years, with a mean (SD) duration of 19.51 (18.82) years. Univariate logistic statistical analysis showed no significant difference in gender, age, and duration of treatment for ICS adherence in asthma patients (P>.05) (Table 2).

Status of Adherence to Inhaled Therapy

Among these 350 outpatients with asthma included in this study, some patients discontinued ICS treatment for various reasons. According to the MARS-A questionnaire scores, 238 (68%) of the 350 patients had poor adherence to inhaled therapy and 112 (32%) had good adherence. The top 10 determinants explored from stage 1 are listed in Table3, and according to the CRF survey in stage 2, 52.9% of included patients believed that their condition had been controlled or cured, so they stopped using ICS or ICS/LABA therapy; 45.7% of patients used inhaled therapy only when their asthma symptoms were worsening or asthma was in acute attack; 30.3% of patients were afraid of potential adverse reactions, which means that these patients had suspended their treatment due to concerns about possible adverse effects of ICS treatment; 25.1% of patients had poor adherence due to forgetting to use inhaled treatment; and 15.1% of patients were unable to afford medicine because of the financial burden. In addition, other factors could also affect ICS treatment adherence in patients with asthma. For example, patients forgot to replenish with new drugs after the existing inhaled drugs were used up (12.3%); patients were unclear about the reasonable dosage, frequency, and course of inhaled treatment due to insufficient communication with doctors (12.0%); patients had an adverse reaction (eg, fungal infection of the oropharynx; hoarseness and cough due to respiratory tract irritation) after using inhaled therapy (11.7%); inhalation therapy was considered ineffective by the patient and was abandoned because the effect of inhaled treatment was not fast or not significant after treatment (10.0%); and patients were reluctant to use inhalation therapy because inhalation device operation was considered cumbersome or complicated (9.7%). At the same time, our study found that some patients had multiple risk factors that affected their treatment adherence. Among the included outpatients, 68 (19.4%) reported 2 risk factors affecting their inhaled treatment adherence, 59 (16.9%) reported 3 risk factors, and 81 (23.1%) reported 4 or more risk factors.

Determinants of ICS Treatment Adherence

To further clarify the independent risk factors affecting adherence to inhaled ICS therapy for asthma, we performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis. As shown in Table 4, the multivariable analysis indicated that independent risk factors lowering the odds of ICS therapy adherence were patients believing that their condition had been controlled or cured (odds ratio [OR], 0.28; 95% CI, 0.16-0.48; P<.01), patients using inhaled therapy only when asthma symptoms were worsening or asthma was in acute attack (OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.15-0.46; P<.01), patients being unable to bear the financial burden (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.17-0.75; P<.01), patients having adverse reactions after using inhaled therapy (OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.08-0.81; P=.02), and the fear of potential adverse reactions (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.49-0.95; P=.04).

Determinants Across Age Groups

In the study, included outpatients were divided into groups according to age. To further investigate the most significant independent risk factor affecting ICS therapy adherence in patients of different age groups, we performed a subgroup multivariate logistic regression analysis based on age. As shown in Table 5, subgroup multivariate analysis showed that forgetting to use inhaled drugs for a variety of reasons was the most significant independent risk factor lowering the odds of inhaled therapy adherence in patients aged 31 to 45 years (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.10-0.91; P=.04). Meanwhile, insufficient communication with doctors leading to the inability to obtain adequate drug information was the most significant independent risk factor lowering the odds of inhaled therapy adherence in patients older than 60 years (OR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.10-0.86; P=.03). However, we did not find significant independent risk factors affecting inhaled therapy adherence in patients aged 18 to 30 years and aged 46 to 60 years (P>.05).

Determinants Across Asthma Control Status

Of the 350 outpatients with asthma included in the study, most patients had poorer disease control. According to the ACT score, 119(34%) patients had asthma that was completely out of control, 201(57.4%) patients had asthma that was partially controlled, and only 30 (8.6%) patients reported complete control of their condition. To further clarify the most significant independent risk factor for ICS therapy adherence in patients with different asthma control status, we performed a subgroup multivariate logistic regression analysis. The logistic analysis indicated that adverse reaction was the most significant independent risk factor lowering the odds of inhaled therapy adherence in patients whose asthma was completely out of control (OR, 0.03; 95% CI, 0.01-0.58; P=.02). However, in patients who reported partially controlled or fully controlled asthma, we did not find significant independent risk factors affecting adherence to inhaled therapy (data shown in the eAppendix Table [available at ajmc.com]).

DISCUSSION

To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the determinants of ICS adherence among outpatients with asthma in western China from the patients perspective. Asthma is a common chronic respiratory disease worldwide, and it is reported that there will be 400 million patients with asthma in the world by 2025.1,3 Uncontrolled asthma is common and represents a considerable burden to patients and society in western China,4 so it is necessary to have an in-depth understanding of the current state of asthma treatment and asthma control.

The GINA guideline has indicated that ICSs are currently the most effective anti-inflammatory medications for the treatment of persistent asthma, although they do not actually cure asthma.6,21-26 Compared with noninhaled administration, the ICS can be delivered directly into the airways, producing higher local concentrations with a significantly lower risk of systemic adverse effects.6 Meanwhile, LABA combined with ICS will usually be more effective when a medium dose of ICS alone fails to achieve control of asthma.27-29 Therefore, for patients with asthma, adherence to inhaled therapy is very important for controlling their condition. However, uncontrolled asthma is still a common phenomenon among outpatients with asthma.9 ICS or ICS/LABA treatment adherence in patients with asthma depends on a number of factors that are closely related to the patients economic status, social status, and culture.

Nonadherence to medical advice is common in patients with asthma and is a major cause of uncontrolled asthma. Failure to adhere to medical advice is a complex social issue in western China. Exploring patients cognition and drug preference status for their asthma treatment from their perspective can help establish effective doctor-patient relationships and improve asthma treatment adherence. In this study, our results showed that most outpatients with asthma had poorer disease control, and only 8.6% of patients reported complete control of their condition. According to the MARS-A questionnaire, 68% of the patients reported poor adherence to ICS therapy due to various reasons. The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the belief that their condition had been controlled or cured, using inhaled therapy only when asthma symptoms were worsening or asthma was in acute attack, financial burden, adverse reactions after using inhaled therapy, and the fear of potential adverse reactions were the significant independent risk factors associated with ICS treatment adherence. Further subgroup analysis indicated that forgetting inhalation therapy for a variety of reasons was the most significant independent risk factor associated with inhalation treatment adherence in patients aged 31 to 45years, and the inability to obtain adequate drug information due to insufficient communication with doctors was the most significant independent risk factor in patients older than 60 years. Additionally, our results indicated that an adverse reaction was the most significant independent risk factor associated with ICS therapy adherence in patients whose asthma was completely out of control. Therefore, based on our results, we recommend that clinicians should help those patients obtain appropriate information about asthma control and self-management, and should instruct those patients not to stop ICS or ICS/LABA irregularly. Meanwhile, effective replacement treatment is necessary and important for patients with adverse reactions after inhaled therapy. If clinicians understand the risk factors affecting asthma treatment adherence from the patients perspective, they can use patient-centered communication skills to improve patients adherence to asthma treatment and improve their asthma control.

Limitations

This study had some weaknesses. First, only 350 outpatients with asthma from one tier-3 hospital in western China were recruited in this research. This is not enough to ascertain the exact extent of nonadherence to inhaled treatment in the whole population of patients with asthma. Secondly, asthma is a complex disease with many therapeutic medicines,1,30-32 including ICS,21 leukotriene modifiers,33,34 LABA,35,36 theophylline,37,38 rapid-acting inhaled 2 agonists, and so on.6 Our study focused only on the current status of ICS or ICS/LABA in asthma control and did not further explore the role of other drugs in asthma control. When considering these limitations, the results of this research should be interpreted carefully.

CONCLUSIONS

This studys findings indicate that there are multiple independent risk factors that influence ICS therapy adherence in patients with asthma, including inadequate understanding of asthma treatment and control, poor self-management, financial burden, adverse reactions, and the fear of potential adverse reactions. Thus, we hope this research can alert clinicians and help them identify patients who may be experiencing uncontrolled asthma due to poor adherence to ICS therapy. We suggest that clinicians should help those patients obtain appropriate information about asthma control and self-management. For patients with adverse reactions after ICS therapy, effective replacement treatment is strongly recommended.

Author Affiliations: Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xian Jiaotong University (JW, CZ, QW, WS, WF, XY, QZ, XX, SL, ML), Xian, Shaanxi, China.

Source of Funding: This study was supported by AstraZeneca China (study code: ESR-16-12138).

Author Disclosures: The authors report no relationship or financial interest with any entity that would pose a conflict of interest with the subject matter of this article.

Authorship Information: Concept and design (JW, CZ, QW, WS, XX, SL, ML); acquisition of data (CZ, QW, WS, WF, XY, QZ); analysis and interpretation of data (JW, QW, WS, WF, XY, QZ); drafting of the manuscript (JW, CZ, ML); critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content (JW, WF, XY, QZ); statistical analysis (CZ, QW, WS, WF, QZ, XX, SL, ML); provision of patients or study materials (JW, QW, WS, WF, XY, QZ, XX, SL); obtaining funding (ML); administrative, technical, or logistic support (CZ, XX, SL); and supervision (ML).

Address Correspondence to: Manxiang Li, PhD, MD, Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xian Jiaotong University, No. 277, West Yanta Rd, Xian, Shaanxi, 710061, China.

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24. Pauwels RA, Lfdahl CG, Postma DS, et al; Formoterol and Corticosteroids Establishing Therapy (FACET) International Study Group. Effect of inhaled formoterol and budesonide on exacerbations of asthma. N Engl J Med. 1997;337(20):1405-1411. doi:10.1056/NEJM199711133372001

25. Szefler S, Weiss S, Tonascia J, et al; Childhood Asthma Management Program Research Group. Long-term effects of budesonide or nedocromil in children with asthma. N Engl J Med. 2000;343(15):1054-1063. doi:10.1056/NEJM200010123431501

26. Perera BJ. Successful withdrawal of inhaled corticosteroids in childhood asthma. Respirology. 2005;10(3):385-388. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1843.2005.00708.x

27. Lazarus SC, Boushey HA, Fahy JV, et al; Asthma Clinical Research Network for the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Long-acting beta2-agonist monotherapy vs continued therapy with inhaled corticosteroids in patients with persistent asthma: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2001;285(20):2583-2593. doi:10.1001/jama.285.20.2583

28. Lemanske RF Jr, Sorkness CA, Mauger EA, et al. Inhaled corticosteroid reduction and elimination in patients with persistent asthma receiving salmeterol: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2001;285(20):2594-2603. doi:10.1001/jama.285.20.2594

29. Gibson PG, Powell H, Ducharme FM. Differential effects of maintenance long-acting beta-agonist and inhaled corticosteroid on asthma control and asthma exacerbations. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;119(2):344-350. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2006.10.043

30. Levy ML, Fletcher M, Price DB, Hausen T, Halbert RJ, Yawn BP. International Primary Care Respiratory Group (IPCRG) Guidelines: diagnosis of respiratory diseases in primary care. Prim Care Respir J. 2006;15(1):20-34. doi:10.1016/j.pcrj.2005.10.004

31. Pelaia G, Vatrella A, Maselli R. The potential of biologics for the treatment of asthma. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2012;11(12):958-972. doi:10.1038/nrd3792

32. Papi A, Brightling C, Pedersen SE, Reddel HK. Asthma. Lancet. 2018;391(10122):783-800. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(17)33311-1

33. Barnes NC, Miller CJ. Effect of leukotriene receptor antagonist therapy on the risk of asthma exacerbations in patients with mild to moderate asthma: an integrated analysis of zafirlukast trials. Thorax. 2000;55(6):478-483. doi:10.1136/thorax.55.6.478

34. Dicpinigaitis PV, Dobkin JB, Reichel J. Antitussive effect of the leukotriene receptor antagonist zafirlukast in subjects with cough-variant asthma. J Asthma. 2002;39(4):291-297. doi:10.1081/jas-120002285

35. Kesten S, Chapman KR, Broder I, et al. A three-month comparison of twice daily inhaled formoterol versus four times daily inhaled albuterol in the management of stable asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1991;144(3, pt 1):622-625. doi:10.1164/ajrccm/144.3_Pt_1.622

36. Wenzel SE, Lumry W, Manning M, et al. Efficacy, safety, and effects on quality of life of salmeterol versus albuterol in patients with mild to moderate persistent asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1998;80(6):463-470. doi:10.1016/S1081-1206(10)63068-2

37. Evans DJ, Taylor DA, Zetterstrom O, Chung KF, OConnor BJ, Barnes PJ. A comparison of low-dose inhaled budesonide plus theophylline and high-dose inhaled budesonide for moderate asthma. N Engl J Med. 1997;337(20):1412-1418. doi:10.1056/NEJM199711133372002

38. Ukena D, Harnest U, Sakalauskas R, et al. Comparison of addition of theophylline to inhaled steroid with doubling of the dose of inhaled steroid in asthma. Eur Respir J. 1997;10(12):2754-2760. doi:10.1183/09031936.97.10122754

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Determinants of ICS Therapy Adherence in Patients With Asthma - AJMC.com Managed Markets Network

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Explore amphibian life under the ice with Edwin Barkdoll – PenBayPilot.com

§ February 4th, 2021 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Explore amphibian life under the ice with Edwin Barkdoll – PenBayPilot.com

Do you ever wonder what hides under the ice of a frozen Maine pond? Have you ever closely witnessed the springtime explosion of amphibian life that follows winter? Join Maine master naturalist and photographer Edwin Barkdoll on Tuesday, Feb. 16, from 12 to 1 p.m., for a live Zoom exploration of life under the ice, culminating in the annual spring amphibian emergence and migration.

The program is free and open to all, and is sponsored by the Belfast Garden Club.

Edwin Barkdolls presentation will consist of photographs and video, accompanied by a talk. It will examine many creatures, from nearly microscopic crustaceans to the shy salamanders and boisterous frogs that emerge after ice breakup. Questions will be welcome and answered as time allows at the end of the program.

Expect to leave and never look at a frozen pond with quite the same eyes! said the Garden Club, in a news release.

Dr. Barkdoll earned a doctorate from the University of Pennsylvania in 1987 and a VMD degree from the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine in 1995. He was a veterinarian in Ellsworth, from 1996-2019. A resident of Surry, he now enjoys combining his expertise in science with his skills in photography. Register in advance for this Zoom presentation by clicking on the link on the Belfast Garden Club website (BelfastGardenClub.org). After registering, you will receive a confirmation email containing information about how to join the meeting.

The Belfast Garden Club has promoted the creation and care of public gardens and presented speakers to stimulate the knowledge and love of gardeningfor more than 90 years. The 2021 programs include topics about conservation and the environment. For more information, visitBelfastGardenClub.org.

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[Full text] A Case Report Illustrating the Spontaneous Vision Recovery After Inadv | IMCRJ – Dove Medical Press

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Introduction

Descemetorhexis describes complete removal of Descemet membrane leading to a potentially sight-threatening condition. Analogous to a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, descemetorhexis may occur as a rare complication of trauma, corneal ectasia, or during cataract surgery when there is a tear in the Descemet membrane. The fluid from the anterior chamber may than accumulate between the membrane and the overlaying stroma leading to a subsequent partial or complete ablation (Descemet membrane detachment) or complete separation (Descemetorhexis) of the membrane. If left untreated, resulting corneal edema may persist, leading to corneal decompensation and visual loss. The conventional surgical treatment strategies include Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty, Descemet stripping (automated) endothelial keratoplasty, pre-Descemets endothelial keratoplasty, femtosecond laser-assisted keratoplasty, or penetrating keratoplasty to repair the missing Descemet membrane.13 To avoid complications of long-term immunosuppressive treatment after keratoplasty, new salvage agents are the subject of intense research.4

In our case report, we have documented a previously undescribed mechanism of descemetorhexis during anterior capsulotomy creation. We report an unusual case of full vision recovery in a patient with large iatrogenic descemetorhexis including persistent central corneal edema. After 2 months of conservative treatment, edema underwent spontaneous resolution.

Written informed consent has been provided by the patient to have the case report details and any accompanying images published prior to publication. Institutional approval was not required to publish the case details. An 81 year old woman presented with immature senile cataract for phacoemulsification in our centre. Best corrected visual acuity was 0.05 (Snellen chart 6-m distance, high contrast). Slit lamp examination was remarkable for a clear cornea with normal appearing endothelium. This was confirmed by specular endothelial microscopy and cell count that showed no significant difference between the two eyes before surgery (2,455 cells/mm2 on the right eye and 2,449 cells/mm2 on the left eye, Nidek CEM-530; Nidek Co., Ltd, Japan). Pentacam pachymetry (Oculus Pentacam 70,700, Oculus, Germany) revealed central corneal thickness of 590 m in the right eye and 618 m in the left eye. Otherwise, there were no pathological findings on the anterior or posterior segment of both eyes. The ocular history was characteristic of mild hypermetropia and blepharoplasty. The eye medical history was unremarkable.

Written informed consent and the EU General Data Protection Regulation Form were obtained by the patient prior to the operation. Cataract extraction was performed in a standard way via temporal clear corneal incision placed at 180 degrees under topical anesthesia. A small side incision was made with a number 15 knife. Intracameral anesthetics and a disperse ocular viscoelastic device (OVD) were inserted through the main incision. The operation continued with the creation of a continuous curvilinear capsulotomy. Following the capsule extraction, the surgeon noted that there was a defect in the central part of the Descemet membrane beside the central circular border after the CCC which dropped to the main clear corneal incision (Figure 1C). Phacoemulsification and intracapsular lens implantation were completed without complications. At the end of the operation, a clear cornea with central defect in Descemet membrane was present (Figure 1C and D).

Figure 1 (A) Native picture of continuous curvilinear circular capsulotomy with Descemets membrane; (B) preparation of both Descemets membrane (yellow line) and anterior capsule (purple line) during continuous curvilinear circular capsulotomy; (C) native picture after creation of complete capsulotomy; (D) microscopic photo after creation of complete capsulotomy. Purple line marks continuous curvilinear capsulotomy, yellow line marks descemetorhexis and green line clear corneal incision.

Conservative management in the form of dexamethasone (Dexamethasone WZW Polfa 1 mg/mL, Warszawskie Zaklady Farmaceutyczne Polfa S.A., Poland), antibiotic eye drops (Tobradex 3 mg/mL+1 mg/mL, Novartis s.r.o., Czech Republic), antiglaucomatic (Timolol-POS 0.5% 5 mg/mL, Ursapharm, Czech Republic) and non-steroidal antiinflammatory eye drops (Yellox 0.9 mg/mL, Pharma Swiss s.r.o., Czech Republic) were started.

On the first postoperative day, best CDVA was 20/400 in operated eye (Snellen chart 6-m distance). Slit lamp examination revealed central corneal stromal edema with folds in the remaining Descemet's membrane (Figure 2A). The size of the descemetorhexis, documented on perioperative microscopic photography (Figure 1C and D), was measured as 4.88x4.75 mm and the continuous curvilinear capsulotomy (CCC) dimension 5.28x5.38 mm against the corneal horizontal diameter (white-to-white) 11.6 mm. After 7 days, best CDVA was reduced to counting the fingers. Central corneal edema progressed as the intraocular lens was not clearly visible (Figure 2B). However, the cornea become clearer for 1 month with continued conservative treatment without antiglaucomatics. Optical coherence tomography (OCT, RTVue-100, version 6.9, Optovue Inc., USA) recorded a large oval 480 m central descemetorhexis with folding of the edge of the membrane in the anterior chamber. Best CDVA improved to 20/80 and 2 months after cataract surgery was 20/20. Corneal edema completely resolved (Figure 2C and D). In the OCT scan 13 months after surgery, the Descemet membrane line was hyperechogenic (Figure 3). Specular endothelial microscopy showed a decrease in the number of the endothelial cells (1,087 cells/mm2). The percentage of hexagonal cells (polymorphism) was 53% and the index of the extent of variation (polymegathism) was 52%.

Figure 2 (A) Microscopic finding of corneal stromal edema on the first day after cataract surgery; (B) progression of stromal corneal edema 7 days after cataract surgery; (C) microscopic picture of the cornea 2 months after cataract surgery; (D) slit lamp picture of the cornea 2 months after cataract surgery.

Figure 3 Hyperechogenic Descemet membrane line (arrow) on the OCT 13 months after surgery.

Surgically induced descemetorhexis is a rare but well-known complication of surgical trauma from instruments, OVD, and intraocular lenses at the incision site. Most cases were created during phacoemulsification with clear corneal incisions,1,2,5 one case during scleral tunnel preparation with a crescent knife and keratome,4 and one during intraocular injection of OVD.6 In our case, the tear of Descemet membrane probably occurred during clear corneal incision. Subsequently, the OVD was inadvertently partially injected intracorneally, separating Descemet membrane from the stroma and flattening it onto the anterior capsule. Following the creation of continuous curvilinear capsulotomy, the surgeon unconsciously prepared both the Descemet's membrane and anterior capsule (Figure 1A and B). The surgery was completed without extending the detachment. Loss of Descemet's membrane leads to a sharp decrease of visual acuity due to corneal edema, as was seen in our case (Figure 2A and B). In view of the normal corneal findings on the unoperated eye, suggesting good postoperative recovery on the operated eye, we decided for conservative treatment. However, it is accepted that prolonged observation of corneal edema carries a risk of bullous keratopathy, corneal fibrosis, and scarring and microbial keratitis.2 Nevertheless in our case of descemetorhexis, a 2 month central corneal edema has not surprisingly lead to these complications.

It is assumed that the corneal endothelium of adult humans has a poor regenerative capacity.1,2 This assumption is confirmed by the decrease in endothelial cell density with age. However, several studies have proved that cell proliferation and migration from the surrounding endothelial wound edge and peripheral endothelial cells can spontaneously heal the Descemet membrane deficit.79 The paracrine effect of growth factors secreted by the remaining endothelial cells can enhance this migration. The smooth surface of a thin new basement membrane can extend between the two parts of Descemet membrane along the stromal wound surface, enabling endothelial cell migration and redistribution. Increase in size of the remaining endothelial cells helps to reform the endothelial cell layer.10 Specular microscopy performed 13 months after the surgery supports this concept of endothelial cell healing activity with an increased index of polymorphism and polymegathism. Increased reflectivity in the area of Descemet membrane on the OCT was seen, probably due to fibrosis and scarring.

Corneas with preexisting endothelial dysfunction, abnormalities in the attachment between the membrane and the overlaying stroma, and anomalous anatomy of the membrane show a slower return to preoperative pachymetry and good visual acuity.7,8 Recent studies have shown promising results after Rho-associated kinase inhibitors treatment as a support for endothelial healing in cases of central descemetorhexis.4 We experienced a slow spontaneous improvement in corneal transparency 7 days after the surgery and after 2 months, descemetorhexis in 4.88x4.75 mm diameter completely healed with CDVA 20/20 without requiring surgical management. Thus, endothelial cells restored their function.

In the case of a normal corneal finding on the unoperated eye and when the corneal edema appears to be showing a gradual resolution within 3 months, loss of more than 4 mm large central area of Descemets membrane from cataract surgery may be managed conservatively with good final visual outcome. Descemetorhexis may unusually occur during anterior capsulotomy creation.

All authors contributed to the data analysis, drafting, or revising of the article, have agreed on the journal to which the article will be submitted, gave final approval of the version to be published, and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work.

The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work.

1. Braunstein RE, Airiani S, Chang MA, Odrich MG. Corneal edema resolution after Descemetorhexis. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2003;29:14361439.

2. Samarawickrama C, Beltz J, Chan E. Descemets membrane detachments post cataract surgery: a management paradigm. Int J Ophthalmol. 2016;9:18391842.

3. Chich A, Lugo M, Kowing D. Descemet stripping and automated endothelial keratoplasty: an alternative to penetrating keratoplasty. Optom Vis Sci. 2008;85:152157.

4. Moloney G, Kerdraon Y, Beheregaray S. Descemetorhexis without rafting for Fuchs endothelial dystrophy-supplementation with topical ripasudil. Cornea. 2017;36:642648.

5. Aggarval A, Jacob S, Aggarval S. Iatrogenic descemetorhexis as a complication of phacoemulsification. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2006;32:895897.

6. Srivastava VK, Singh A, Chowdhary R. Spontaneous resolution of corneal oedema after inadvertent descemetorhexis during cataract surgery. Med J Armed Forces India. 2010;66:177179.

7. Pan JCH, Eong A. Spontaneous resolution of corneal oedema after inadvertent Descemethorhexis during cataract surgery. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2006;34::896897.

8. Stewart RMK, Hiscott PS, Kaye SB. Endothelial migration and new descemet membrane after endothelial keratoplasty. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009;149:521527.

9. Ruhe K, Finis D, Fuchsluger T, Geerling G. Spontane Visuserholung durch Endothelzellmigration bei Groem, Zentralem Postoperativem Descemetdefekt. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd. 2012;229:632634.

10. Van den Bogerd B, Dhubhghaill SN, Koppen C, et al. A review of the evidence for in vivo corneal endothelial regeneration. Surv Ophthalmol. 2018;63:149165.

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The Pandemic Broke the Flu – The Atlantic

§ February 4th, 2021 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on The Pandemic Broke the Flu – The Atlantic

In the U.S., even relatively spotty masking and physical distancing seem to have made a difference. Workplaces and businesses closed; more people stayed home when they felt sick. In many places, children, who tend to be hit particularly hard by bouts of seasonal flus, stopped mingling in schools and day cares. And a vocal push for vaccinations might have bumped influenza inoculations up a notch from previous years, according to tentative CDC estimates.

Read: Paging Dr. Hamblin: I dont see the upside of a flu shot.

Many of these measures have long been known to successfully combat the spread of disease. Each year, we try to get vaccination rates up, to get sick people to stay home, says Ibukun Akinboyo, a pediatrician and infectious-disease physician at Duke University. This is the first year we have this many people masking, washing their hands, and being aware of their symptoms.

The flu and the rest of the seasonal-virus cavalry might also be easier targets to quell than the new coronavirus. To most human immune systems, prepped by previous encounters or vaccination, these annual pathogens represent a cadre of familiar foes. Their recognizability, though not potent enough to prevent new infections entirely, boosts a persons chances of mounting a successful defense when another version of these viruses return, like a layer of hardy bark that offers a tree a touch of flame resistance.

I think thats one of the biggest things, says Stacey Schultz-Cherry, a virologist and immunologist at St. Judes Childrens Hospital, in Memphis, Tennessee. That low-level immunity can make a huge difference.

The coronavirus, however, was a stray spark that leaped from the wild into a population of completely susceptible humansa fresh batch of kindling, ready to burn.

Despite their rough overlap in symptoms, flu viruses and the new coronavirus are biologically distinct in ways that might give the newcomer an edge. The coronavirus seems to transmit more readily to others, even from people without symptoms, and has been linked to more super-spreader events. Microscopic anatomical differences might make the coronavirus more likely to cling to airborne globs of spittle, or tougher to snuff out as it traverses the space among hosts. (Oddly, rhinoviruses, the main culprits behind the common cold, havent been stamped out to the same extent as the flua hardiness that could be attributed to their tough outer armor or an as-yet-unidentified quirk in how they spread among people.)

Flu just tends to be a lot less transmissible, which means its easier to suppress it, says Shweta Bansal, a disease ecologist at Georgetown University. Thats partly why were getting away with an imperfect response right now.

All these factors together might have cleared a path for the coronavirus to jostle its way to the top, at the expense of other viruses. That tussle might even be playing out directly in individual airways: Peoples immune systems tend to remain on guard for a while after theyve cleared an infection by one virus, bolstering them against immediate invasion by another. This balance of power wont necessarily persist in the long term, though. Viruses that settle into a population may eventually learn to play nice with one anotherperhaps becoming cordial roommates, setting up simultaneous infections in the same individual, even riling one another up.

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[Full text] Concurrent Infection of Fascioliasis andTrypanosomosis and Associated | VMRR – Dove Medical Press

§ February 4th, 2021 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on [Full text] Concurrent Infection of Fascioliasis andTrypanosomosis and Associated | VMRR – Dove Medical Press

Introduction

Ethiopia has a huge and diverse livestock population that plays an important role in the economy and livelihoods of farmers and pastoralists. Despite the excess animal population, production and productivity is scanty and even below the average for most countries in sub-Saharan Africa.This may be due to poor nutrition, reproduction insufficiency, management constraints, and prevailing animal diseases.1 Among the diseases, fascioliasis and trypanosomosis are the major impediments to livestock development and agricultural production, specifically for pastoralists living along the major river basins. In Ethiopia, about 180,000200,000km2 of agriculturally suitable land in the west, southwest, and northwestern lowlands and associated river basins of the country is infested by tsetse flies, trypanosomes,snails, and helminthic parasites.24

Figure 1 Map of the study area.14

Among the genera in the Fascioladae trematode family, Fasciola is a helminthic parasite affecting mainly ruminant livestock.5 Thecommonly known species of F. hepatica and F. gigantica are the usual causes of fascioliasis in livestock, while rare in humans. However, sometimes they can affect humans through drinking contaminated water or consumption of aquatic plants containing encysted metacercaria.6 The parasite lives part of its life in aquatic snails that act as intermediate hosts and are found in and around wet areas, such as irrigation, water holes, and waterlogged areas.7

African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) is a parasitic infection caused by an extracellular flagellate. Trypanosomes are unicellular protozoan parasites of the phylum Sarcomastigophora, order Kinetoplastida, family Trypanosomatidae, and genus Trypanosoma.8,9 Trypanosomosis in Africa is mainly restricted to areas in which the vector, the tsetse fly (Glossina spp.) can survive. However, it may exist outside the tsetse-belt areas and transmitted mechanically by biting flies of the genera Tabanus, Haematopota, Chrysops, and Stomoxys. This type of transmission has caused the acyclic (mechanical) spread of trypanosomosis outside tsetse-infested areas.9 The most known pathogenic trypanosomes are T. congolense and T. vivax, which are responsible for the most important form of AAT and prevalent species in domestic animals.10

Both fascioliasis and trypanosomosis probably lead to high mortality and poor productivity. They also cause considerable economic loss through organ condemnation at meat inspection, reduced productivity (weight gain, milk yield, and traction power), rendering large areas of Ethiopia totally unsuitable for cattle-based agriculture, and lowered immunity (resistance) of cattle to other concurrent disease infections.11,12 Despite the concurrent occurrence of fascioliasis and trypanosomosis infection in the region, scientific investigation and information on the topic was very scanty. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to investigate/estimate and analyze the concurrent occurrence of these infections and associated risk factors in the tsetse-infested Didessa river basin.

Bedele and Jimma Arjo districts are located 480 and 378.4 km west of Addis Ababa, respectively, at an elevation of 1,2002,200 m above sea level. The climate alternates, with long summer rain (JuneSeptember), a short rainy season (MarchApril), and a dry winter season (OctoberFebruary). The study area (Figure 1) receives a mean annual rainfall of 1,2001,800 mm, with optimum temperature of 25C. Agriculture is the mainstay of peoples livelihoods, with a mixed farming system. Livestock plays an integral role in agriculture.13

This cross-sectional study was conducted from late October 2016 to June 2017 with the primary objective of estimating and analyzing the concurrent occurrence of fascioliasis and trypanosomosis infections and associated risk factors along the tsetse-infested Didessa river basin. To obtain a representative sample area, stratified sampling was applied, as the target populations were all local zebu-breed cattle of all age-groups and both sexes in each randomly selected study site. The sample size was determined using15 expected disease prevalence in the area of 50%, since there had been no officially reported prevalence previously. A minimum 384 head of cattle was required, and 520 animals were included, increasing precision of the study:

The methodology applied was based on stratified sampling for the parasitological study and entomological and malacological surveys, including fly dissection. Blood and fecal sample collection, laboratory presentation, diagnosis, recording of associated risk factors, and analysis of both study parasites were performed simultaneously to assess concurrent occurrence.

Paired blood samples were collected from the auricular vein (marginal ear vein) of each animal using two hematocrit capillary tubes after the animal had been restrained properly. Each tubewas filled to 75% of its height and sealed with crystal sealant. The first tube was used to measure packed cell volume (PCV) values for determination of anemia.16 According to Murray et al, only cattle with PCV 24 are considered anemic. Then, the second tube was cut 1 mm below the buffy coat to include the top layer of red blood cells. The content of the tube was expressed onto a clean microscopic slide, mixed, and covered with a coverslip. Finally, prepared slides were examined for the presence of trypanosomes based on the type of movement in the microscopic field. Trypanosome species were confirmed after Giemsa staining and examination under oil-immersion microscopy (100 magnification) by morphological characteristics of the parasites. During sample collection, the body condition of each animal was categorized as poor, medium, and good,17 and all associated risk factors, eg, age, sex, and altitude, were recorded.

Monopyramidal traps (n =89) were deployed in the Didessa river basin of Bedele and Jimma Arjo districts. All traps were baited uniformly with octenol (1-octen-3-ol), acetone, and 3-week-old cow urine. All bait was placed on the ground about 30 cm upwind of the trap in separate bottles. The poles of traps were greased to prevent predation, mainly by ants. The traps were positioned for 2 consecutive days with a mean gap between traps of 250 m, in areas most likely for finding tsetse, based on the presence of gallery forests and the location of rivers and streams after clearing up to a 23 m radius of the trap site to enhance the visibility of the traps and prevent possible fire damage.18 Then, after 48 hours, the catch ineach trap was sorted by fly species and counted, identified, and analyzed. The apparent density (arithmetic mean catches per trap per day) of flies was calculated by dividing the total number of tsetse flies captured (F) by the product of the number of functioning traps used to catch them (T) and the number of days for which the traps were operational (D): FTD =F/T D. The sex of all collected flies was identified by observing the posterior end of the ventral aspect of the abdomen by hand lens. Male flies were identified by the enlarged hypopygium in the posterior ventral part of the abdomen, which is absent in female flies.19 The coordinates of each trap position were recorded using GPS, and a map of the study area was drawn.

Dissection was carried out as described by Meharenet and Alemu,20 starting by removing the wings and legs after wing-fray and ovary analysis had determined the age of male and female flies, respectively. Then, freshly killed tsetse flies were dissected under microscopy using 0.9% normal saline. Trypanosome infections in dissected body parts of tsetse flies (ie, midgut, salivary gland, and mouthpart or proboscis) were observed using a compound microscope (magnification 40), and consequently parasite positive samples were again stained with Giemsa and examined under compound oil-immersion microscopy for trypanosome species identification based on morphology.21,22

Fecal samples were collected directly from the rectum using sterile gloves after blood samples had been collected. The fecal samples were placed in a clean universal bottle preserved with 10% formalin and closed with a screw top in airtight condition. The bottles were labeled with unique identification numbers that matched the detailed data recorded using the standard format. The samples were transported to Bedele Regional Laboratory for gross and microscopic examination. For qualitative study,23 a routinely used sedimentation-bead technique was used for identification of Fasciola eggs.

Snails were collected by hand (gloved) or scooping from marshy grass lands and waterlogged areas around the Didessa river basin. In sum, 62 snails were collected, placed in plastic bags with fresh algae, aquatic vegetation, and aerated water, and transported to Bedele Regional Laboratory for identification. Snail identification was conducted at the laboratory based on morphology.

Data processing was carried out using both qualitative and quantitative data analysis. For qualitative testing, tables, frequency distribution, and means SD analysis were some of the methods employed. For quantitative testing, prevalence rates and differences in mean PCV based on disease prevalence were analyzed using independent t-tests, and Chi-square 2 tests were used to estimate significance with adjusted ORs. Test statistics were used to assess overall disease prevalence with precision of 5% and 95% CIs. We used StataCorp for analysis.

Of a total of 520 bovine blood specimens examined for trypanosomosis infection, 61 were diagnosed positive, for prevalence of 11.73%. These were composed of 39 (7.50%), 18 (3.46%), and 4 (0.77%) T. congolense, T. vivax, and mixed infections (T. congolense and T. vivax), respectively. Concurrently, 520 bovine fecal samples were examined for fascioliasis infection,with 147 diagnosed positive for prevalence of 28.27%. Variance-ratio tests fortrypanosomosis and fascioliasis infections resulted in means of 0.1170.322 and 0.2830.451, respectively, and were statistically significant (P[F>f] =0) for higher fascioliasis infections. Among the total animals tested, 23 (4.42%) had coinfection of trypanosomosis and fascioliasis (Tables 1 and 2).

Table 1 Concurrent Infection and Variance Ratios of the Study Parasites

Table 2 Infections of Study Parasites in Cattle Grouped Under Epidemiologically Associated Risk Factors

Among the associated risk factors considered, body condition and anemia were found to be statistically significant (AOR 1.70, 95% CI 1.102.68, P=0.01, and AOR 0.13, 95% CI 0.060.27, respectivelyP=0) for fascioliasis and trypanosomosis infections. As shown in Table 2, animals with good body condition had less chance of being infected by fascioliasis, while nonanemic animals had lower risk of having trypanosomosis infection than animals with poor body condition and anemia, respectively. Higher prevalence of Fasciola infection occurred among cattle with medium and poor body condition (n=91, 32.73%; n=38, 21.47%), whereas comparatively higher trypanosomosis infection was observed (n=50, 22.32%) among anemic cattle with PCV <24. Milder anemia was observed in fascioliasis-infected cattle (mean PCV23.374.71, OR 0.93; P>|z|=0), and severe anemia was characterized by trypanosomosis infection (mean PCV=19.574.73 OR 0.74; P>|z|=0; Table 3).

Table 3 Association of Anemia with Fascioliasis and Trypanosomosis Infections

From the entomological study, 578 (62.62%) and 345 (37.38%) female and male G. tachinoides flies were collected for an overall FTD of 5.19 (n=923. Despite the prevalence of trypanosomosis in infected cattle (n=130), G. tachinoides flies were dissected, and three found positive (two were harboring T. congolense and the remaining T. vivax) for an infection rate of 2.31%. All were identified at different sampling points (Table 4).

Table 4 Entomological Study and Glossina tachinoides Fly Dissection

The malacological study collected a total of 62 snails from different biotopes (watering and grazing lands) and identified as three snail species known to maintain fascioliasis: Lymnea truncatula (n=28, 45.16%), L. natalensis (n=23, 37.10%), and Biomphalaria (n=11, 17.74%).

Bovine fascioliasis is one of the most important parasitic diseases in cattle, causing mortality and production losses in various parts of Ethiopia. It is a priority disease in both highland and lowland areas.24 This flukes distribution is worldwide in areas where cattle, sheep, and goats are raised and there is a niche for the Lymnaeid snail as a maintenance or intermediate host.25 Similarly, AAT and its primary vector, the tsetse, are among the biggest constraints to sustainable livestock production in Africa, specifically Ethiopia.26 Although extensive trypanosomosis and tsetse (T&T)control operations have been running since the beginning of the twentieth century, tsetse infestation in sub-Saharan Africa and Ethiopia has hardly receded.27 In the context of AAT or T&T control, achieving eradication of the disease has been highly debated and many disease experts believe that sustained reduction in disease incidence to a locally acceptable level (control) is a more realistic target.28 However, geographic variation in T&T-species distribution and ecoepidemiology of the disease and concurrent occurrence with other gastrointestinal parasites, mainly fascioliasis, make it highly harmful to livestock production.29

Mathewos et al29 suggested that concurrent infection of Trypanosoma and Fasciola was highly pathogenic, resulting in anemia and even death in cattle if not treated early. Contrary to this, the current study showed that animals with concurrent infections had better PCV than those thathad trypanosomosis infection only. Inconsistently with the present findings, Dwinger et al and Kaufmann et al30,31 confirmed an increase in pathogenicity when helminthosis is aggravated by trypanosome infections. Furthermore, Mathewos et al29 confirmed an improvement in body-weight gain and PCV levels when infected cattle were treated with a combination of trichlabendazole and trypamidium/samorin, which was consistent with this finding, suggesting that each parasite is highly responsible for anemia and loss of body weight (condition).

The conducted entomological survey confirmed the presence of G. tachinoides with trypanosomosis infection. When Glossina flies are infected with trypanosomes,they gate infection throughout their lifetime, which makes them cyclic transmitters of the disease.32 The trypanosomosis prevalence found was due to the high Glossina fly density at the study area and confirmed trypanosome infection in densely distributed flies.

One of the most important factors inthe occurrence and prevalence of Fasciola infection in the study area was the availability of suitable snail habitats.33 This study demonstrated that L. truncatula, L. natalensis, and Biomphalaria species are highly dominant snail species, and they are known intermediate hosts for fascioliasis. Other studies were also in agreement with this finding, which confirms that the distribution and occurrence of Lymnaeid snails results in high fascioliasis prevalence.3336

Concurrent infection of fascioliasis and trypanosomosis was mainly associated with the cooccurrence of their intermediate host snails and Glossina flies, respectively. This study clearly demonstrated that the former parasite was highly associated with emaciation, whereas the second was responsible for anemia. The major findings of the present study strongly suggest that concurrent infection with Trypanosoma and Fasciola is the most harmful form of parasitosis in animals within the study area. In future, it is recommended that researchers focus solely on estimating meat and milk production of the local cattle to access the economic impact of the study parasites.

The data sets supporting the conclusions of this research article are available upon request to the corresponding author.

The National Institute for the Control and Eradication of Tsetse Fly and Trypanosomosis and Ministry of Agriculture, Ethiopia authorized the fieldwork. The purpose of the study was clearly explained to the cattle owners and veterinary officers, and consent was obtained verbally from the institutes technical team and cattle owners. Participants involvement in the study was on a voluntary basis. Those who were unwilling to participateor wished to quit were informed that they may do so without any restriction. This study did not involve any human/animal trials or experiments.

The authors received no specific funding for this work.

The authors report no conflicts of interest for this work.

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13. Demissew A, Hawaria D, Kibret S, et al. Impact of sugarcane irrigation on malaria vector Anopheles mosquito fauna, abundance and seasonality in Arjo-Didessa, Ethiopia. Malar J. 2020;19(1):18. doi:10.1186/s12936-020-03416-0

14. Software ESRIE. The Study Area Map. USA: Redlands, California; 2015. Arcgis version 10.14.11.

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16. Murray M, Murray P, McIntyre W. An improved parasitological technique for the diagnosis of African trypanosomiasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1977;71:325326. doi:10.1016/0035-9203(77)90110-9

17. Nicholson M, Butterworth MH. A Guide to Condition Scoring of Zebu Cattle. ILRI (aka ILCA and ILRAD); 1986.

18. Gouteux J, Lancien J. The pyramidal trap for collecting and controlling tsetse flies (Diptera: glossinidae). Comparative trials and description of new collecting technics. Trop Med Parasitol. 1986;37:6166.

19. Leak SG. Tsetse Biology and Ecology: Their Role in the Epidemiology and Control of Trypanosomosis. ILRI (aka ILCA and ILRAD); 1999.

20. Meharenet B, Alemu D. Trypanosome infection rate in Glossina tachinoides: infested rivers of Limmu Kosa District Jimma Zone, Western Ethiopia. BMC Res Notes. 2020;13:02004970. doi:10.1186/s13104-020-04970-1

21. Desta M, Beyene D, Haile S. Trypanosome infection rate of Glossina pallidipes and trypanosomosis prevalence in cattle in Amaro Special District of Southern Ethiopia. J Vet Med Anim Health. 2013;5:164170.

22. Pollock J. Training Manual for Tsetse Control Personnel. Rome: FAO; 1982.

23. Bonita R, Taira N. Faecal examination of Fasciola eggs fixed with formalin solution using the beads technique. Vet Parasitol. 1996;67:269273. doi:10.1016/S0304-4017(96)00990-9

24. Gebrie Y, Gebreyohannes M, Tesfaye A. Prevalence of bovine fasciolosis in and around Bahir Dar, North West Ethiopia. J Parasitol Vector Biol. 2015;7:7479.

25. Marquardt WC, Demaree RS, Grieve RB. Parasitology and Vector Biology. Cambrage Publishing Press. 2000.

26. Swallow BM. Impacts of Trypanosomiasis on African Agriculture. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; 2000.

27. Molyneux DH, Hopkins DR, Zagaria N. Disease eradication, elimination and control: the need for accurate and consistent usage. Trends Parasitol. 2004;20:347351. doi:10.1016/j.pt.2004.06.004

28. Meyer A, Holt HR, Selby R, et al. Past and ongoing tsetse and animal trypanosomiasis control operations in five African countries: a systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016;10:e0005247. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005247

29. Mathewos Z, Getachew A, Yilma J. Observations on the effects of concurrent natural bovine Trypanosome and Fasciola infections in Kone area, western Ethiopia. Rev Med Vet. 2001;152:851858.

30. Dwinger R, Agyemang K, Kaufmann J, et al. Effects of trypanosome and helminth infections on health and production parameters of village NDama cattle in the cambia. Vet Parasitol. 1994;54:353365. doi:10.1016/0304-4017(94)90002-7

31. Kaufmann J, Dwinger R, Hallebeek A, et al. The interaction of Trypanosoma congolense and Haemochus contortus infections in trypanotolerant NDama cattle. Vet Parasitol. 1992;43:157170. doi:10.1016/0304-4017(92)90157-5

32. Ooi C-P, Schuster S, Cren-Travaill C, et al. The cyclical development of Trypanosoma vivax in the tsetse fly involves an asymmetric division. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2016;6:115. doi:10.3389/fcimb.2016.00115

33. MasComa S, Valero MA, Bargues MD. Fasciola, lymnaeids and human fascioliasis, with a global overview on disease transmission, epidemiology, evolutionary genetics, molecular epidemiology and control. Adv Parasitol. 2009;69:41146.

34. Fromsa A, Meharenet B, Mekibib B. Major trematode infections of cattle slaughtered at Jimma Municipality Abattoir and the occurrence of the intermediate hosts in selected water bodies of the zone. J Anim Vet Adv. 2011;10:15921597. doi:10.3923/javaa.2011.1592.1597

35. Alemu B. Bovine Fasciolosis in Ethiopia-A review. J Vet Anim Res. 2019;2:202.

36. Abebe R, Abunna F, Berhane M, et al. Fasciolosis: prevalence, financial losses due to liver condemnation and evaluation of a simple sedimentation diagnostic technique in cattle slaughtered at Hawassa Municipal abattoir, southern Ethiopia. Ethiop Vet J. 2010;14:3952.

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[Full text] Concurrent Infection of Fascioliasis andTrypanosomosis and Associated | VMRR - Dove Medical Press

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Biomimetic Technology Market: Applications of nanotechnology in biomimetic are expected to drive the market – BioSpace

§ February 4th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotechnology Comments Off on Biomimetic Technology Market: Applications of nanotechnology in biomimetic are expected to drive the market – BioSpace

zGlobal Biomimetic Technology Market: Introduction

Biomimetic consists of human-made processes, substances, devices, or systems that are replica of nature. The art and science of designing and building biomimetic apparatus is also known as biomimicry because it mimics biological systems. The applications of biomimetic include nanorobot antibodies that seek and destroy disease-causing bacteria, artificial organs, artificial arms, legs, hands, and feet, and various electronic devices. For instance, the kingfisher bird was the model for the engineers in Japan for designing high-speed bullet trains to reduce the massive amount of noise created by the displacement of air ahead of the train. The design team found out the fault which was in the design of blunt front nose cap. Kingfisher birds have a special structural beak allowing them to dive into water to hunt while making a minimal splash. According to Designtechnica Corporation, after applying the idea of Kingfishers beak, the next generation 500 series trains were 10% faster, consumed 15% less electricity, and did not make noise in the tunnel.

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Key Drivers of Global Biomimetic Technology Market

Advancements in Nanotechnology

Biomimetic research is being advanced by nanotechnology, a new wave of biomimetic is being extended to the imitation of animals. Applications of biomimetic in biomedical engineering have potential to significantly impact and create abundant value for human society in the future. Protein functionalized nanoparticles, peptide functionalized gold nanoparticles, and carbohydrate functionalized nanoparticles are areas of nanotechnology that are finding biomimetic applications. The applications of nanotechnology in biomimetic are expected to drive the market.

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Growing Tissue Engineering

Tissue engineeringevolved from the field ofbiomaterials development and refers to the practice of combiningscaffolds, cells, and biologically active molecules into functional tissues. Regenerative medicine is a broad field that includes tissue engineering but also incorporates research on self-healing where the body uses its own systems, sometimes with help foreign biological material to recreate cells and rebuild tissues and organs. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicines together are expected to drive the market.

North America to Account for Major Share of Global Biomimetic Technology Market

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Key Players Operating in Global Biomimetic Technology Market

The global biomimetic technology market is highly consolidated, with the presence of a small number of key players. Leading players operating in the global biomimetic technology market include:

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Global Biomimetic Technology Market: Research Scope

Global Biomimetic Technology Market, by Product Type

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Therapies, vaccines and nanotechnology: new weapons in cancer fight – FRANCE 24 English

§ February 4th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotechnology Comments Off on Therapies, vaccines and nanotechnology: new weapons in cancer fight – FRANCE 24 English

Issued on: 04/02/2021 - 07:29Modified: 04/02/2021 - 07:31

More effective therapies, nanotechnology and even the prospect of vaccinating for certain tumours: battles may slowly be starting to turn in the never-ending war against cancer.

The second leading cause of death globally, cancer accounted for an estimated 9.6 million deaths, or one in six deaths, in 2018.

Ahead of World Cancer Day on Thursday, here is a look at some of the more promising developments in treating and preventing the disease.

Immunotherapy breakthroughs

Immunotherapy drugs, which prime the immune system to recognise and destroy cancerous cells, have shown huge promise against previously untreatable cancers over the last decade.

But they vary greatly among different forms of cancer and only work in around a quarter of all patients.

A main focus of research now centres on "increasing the percentage of patients that respond well to immunotherapy," according to Christophe Le Tourneau, director of clinical research at France's Curie Institute.

One promising avenue is the development of antibodies capable of recognising a specific protein found in cancerous cells, "which would help the body to destroy those cells," Axel Kahn, president of the League Against Cancer, told AFP.

He said research had shown that administering medication or toxins helped destroy cancer cells after antibodies discover them.

Research is also ongoing into immunotherapy after chemotherapy, with the initial treatment creating mutations in cancer cells that may render them easier for the immune system to spot and hunt down.

Another technique known as checkpoint inhibitor therapy has also shown promise.

When proteins contained within cancer cells bind with immune cells, they send an "off" signal to the rest of the immune system, disabling the body's natural defences.

Checkpoint inhibitor therapy essentially blocks this binding, allowing killer immune T-cells to seek and destroy the pathogen.

This technique has already significantly improved prognoses for some melanomas and lung cancers, and other trials are underway.

Such treatment may offer also hope to the 10-15 percent of breast cancer sufferers who receive a so-called "triple-negative" prognoses tumours that contain neither hormonal nor HER2 protein receptors.

HER2-positive breast cancer tends to grow more quickly than other forms but it is equally more treatable.

Triple-negative breast cancer is however "usually more aggressive (but) the treatment options available today are not sufficiently effective", according to the Arc Foundation cancer research centre near Paris.

One study with the drug durvalumab published this month in Nature Medicine showed that the antibody was somewhat effective at shutting off tumours' ability to evade the immune system.

'Vaccinate' for tumours?

Trials are also underway exploring the efficacy of certain candidate vaccines that can help treat tumours.

The French biotech firm Transgene is developing a treatment combining immunotherapy and a viral vector vaccine a modified virus that delivers anti-cancer instructions to the body.

A similar trial is underway to treat patients with cancer of the ear, nose or throat.

The Oncopole Toulouse cancer treatment centre, conducting the research, said the treatment acts as a kind of "facial recognition service" for the immune system to detect cancerous cells and learn how to destroy them similar to how some vaccines work.

Predicting effective treatment

Analysing the structure and, increasingly, the genetic make-up of cancer plays a major role not only in prognosis how likely it is that a patient will recover but also in what treatment options are available.

"It's really the main issue: it's not worth giving certain treatments to people who won't benefit from them and it's absolutely crucial that those who will benefit receive them, said Eric Solary, scientific director at the Arc Foundation.

Better understanding of certain mutations in cancer cells as well as how immune cells behave are helping doctors make ever-more accurate treatment choices.

Nanotechnology

Another area of growing interest is the possible use of nanocapsules microscopic coatings of metal or fat on existing drug molecules.

The idea according to Solary is to better distribute medicine around the patient's body by allowing it to "go directly into tumour cells and avoiding damaging normal cells".

In the same vein, researchers are also looking into using genetically modified salmonella bacteria to destroy tumours from the inside out where more traditional treatments, notably chemotherapy, cannot penetrate.

(AFP)

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C-Bond Systems’ CEO Scott R. Silverman and World-Renowned Chemist and Nanotechnology Expert Professor Andrew R. Barron to Hold Investor Call on…

§ February 4th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotechnology Comments Off on C-Bond Systems’ CEO Scott R. Silverman and World-Renowned Chemist and Nanotechnology Expert Professor Andrew R. Barron to Hold Investor Call on…

February 03, 2021 08:30 ET | Source: C-Bond Systems

HOUSTON, Feb. 03, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- C-Bond Systems (the Company or C-Bond) (OTC: CBNT), a nanotechnology solutions company, today announced that it will hold an investor call on February 10, 2021 at 10:30 am EST, to announce a significant technology development initiative. C-Bonds CEO, Scott R. Silverman, will be joined on the call by Professor Andrew R. Barron, a world-renowned chemist and nanotechnology expert who is leading the initiative.

Professor Barron is the founder and director of the Energy Safety Research Institute (ESRI) at Swansea University in the United Kingdom and the Sr Cymru Chair of Low Carbon Energy and Environment. Educated at Imperial College (London), Professor Barron has held posts at Rice University, University of Texas at Austin, and Harvard University. He is the author of over 500 publications, 50 Patents, 8 books, and is the recipient of numerous awards including the Star of Asia International Award, Hmboldt Senior Scientist Research Award, and the first Welch Foundation Norman Hackerman Award.

Conference Call Details: To listen to the live call, please dial 877-830-2591 within the U.S. or 785-424-1738 internationally. The conference ID for the live call is 22663. For those unable to participate in the live call, a replay will be available from February 9, 2021 at approximately 1:00 pm EST to February 16 at 11.59 pm EST.

About C-Bond C-Bond Systems, Inc. (OTC: CBNT) is a Houston-based advanced nanotechnology company and marketer of the patented C-Bond technology, developed in conjunction with Rice University and independently proven to significantly strengthen glass in key automotive and structural applications. The Companys Transportation Solutions Group sells C-Bond nanoShield, a liquid solution applied directly to automotive windshields, sold through distributors. The Companys Safety Solutions Group sells ballistic-resistant glass solutions directly to private enterprises, schools, hospitals, and government agencies. The Company also sells disinfection products, including MB-10 Tablets. For more information, please visit our website: http://www.cbondsystems.com, Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/cbondsys/ and Twitter: https://twitter.com/CBond_Systems.

Forward-Looking Statements

Statements in this press release about our future expectations constitute "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, and as that term is defined in the Private Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Such forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties and are subject to change at any time, and our actual results could differ materially from expected results. These risks and uncertainties include, without limitation, C-Bonds ability to raise capital; the Companys ability to successfully commercialize its products; the effect of the COVID-19 global pandemic on the Companys and its customers ability to operate; the Companys ability to source materials; as well as other risks. Additional information about these and other factors may be described in the Companys filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) including its Form 10-K filed on March 25, 2020, its Forms 10-Q filed on November 16, 2020, August 14, 2020, and May 15, 2020, and in future filings with the SEC. The Company undertakes no obligation to update or release any revisions to these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this statement or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law.

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Imperial Cleaning Announces Exclusive Partnership With PRO-Techs Technology – PRNewswire

§ February 4th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotechnology Comments Off on Imperial Cleaning Announces Exclusive Partnership With PRO-Techs Technology – PRNewswire

NEW YORK, Feb. 4, 2021 /PRNewswire/ --Imperial Cleaning, a leader in elite commercial and residential cleaning, has announced that it will enter into a strategic partnership with PRO-Techs USA, a provider of antimicrobial surface protection. PRO-Techs is an EPA-registered nanotechnology that creates a barrier shield with a 99.9% effectiveness in preventing the growth of bacteria and microorganisms. PRO-Techs provides long-lasting antimicrobial protection on porous and non-porous surfaces, with a durability of up to 90-days.

Imperial Cleaning will be deploying PRO-Techs as part of itsImperial Shield Program. This innovative, five-step protection program pairs its existing cleaning and disinfection protocols with PRO-Techs foractive 90-day germ protection.

"Our customers are constantly being challenged by the fact that standard cleaning practices in high-traffic areas only offer temporary disinfection without long-term residual protection. That means microorganisms can rapidly multiply once surfaces are touched. Asbusinesses and organizationssearchfor a solution to create clean, safe, and healthy environments, we sought out the very best solutions and are thrilled to partner with PRO-Techs.

"We specifically developed our Imperial Shield program to help our customers provide maximum level disinfection and protection for up to 90 days. The program includes benchmarking the microorganisms' level, an electrostatic spray of disinfectant for maximumcoverage, and antimicrobial protection for long-lasting results.Luminometer testing validates the program results, and Imperial provides certification of Imperial Shieldperformance for display to customers,"Imperial Cleaning President David Feldman explains.

"PRO-Techs is delighted to partner with Imperial Cleaning as the approved applicator in the Tri-States," said Danny Tawil, COO of PRO-Techs. "Having witnessed their dedication in creating clean, safe, and healthy environments for their commercial and residential customers, we are confident Imperial Cleaning will expand the ultimate surface-level protection to the community."

About Imperial Cleaning

Imperial Cleaning is an owner-operated, "Green Certified" company that has served the tri-state area for over 26 years. The company offers elite cleaning and disinfection services applied by their GBAC industry certified professionals who take great pride in their work. Each client location is under close supervision by an assigned Regional Manager, District Manager,Account Coordinatorandsupported by their internal Customer CareTeam. Imperial Cleaning provides services 365/24/7 and can be reached at 877- WE-CLEAN or visit them on the web atwww.imperialcleaning.com/for more information.

About PRO-Techs

PRO-Techs is a breakthrough EPA-registered, instant and lasting antimicrobial surface protection nanotechnology thatworks 24/7 in creating a barrier shield that has a 99.9% effectiveness inpreventing the growth ofgerms and microorganisms on both porous and non-porous surfaces, with a durability of up to 90-days.

PRO-Techs Technology is an environmentally GREEN water-based surface coating that is non-toxic, non-leaching,non-allergenic, non-irritating, odorless, colorless, and safe for use around children and pets. PRO-Techs is registered under the EPA with approval for use on food surface contact. Visitwww.protechsusa.comfor more information.

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Nano Biotechnology Market 2021, Size, Share, Global Industry Growth, Business Statistics, Top Leaders, Competitive Landscape, Forecast To 2027 KSU |…

§ February 4th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotechnology Comments Off on Nano Biotechnology Market 2021, Size, Share, Global Industry Growth, Business Statistics, Top Leaders, Competitive Landscape, Forecast To 2027 KSU |…

Nano Biotechnology Market:Global Size, Trends, Competitive, Historical & Forecast Analysis, 2020-2025. Increasing demand of new therapies for various tissues of lungs and cardiac as well as rising organizations investment in research and development for new drugs are some important factors driving the growth of Nano biotechnology market.

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Nano biotechnology is application of nanotechnology which is applied in biological field. The concept nanotechnology means a designed, development and applications of material which functional make up is on a nanometer scale. Technically nanotechnology is developing material or other structured material which is size from 1 to 100 nanometers. And biotechnology means the study of biological subjects including microorganism. Nano biotechnology is intersection of biology and nanotechnology. Nano biotechnology is a study of biological and biochemical applications. Nano biotechnology is used to study the nature of fabricating new Nano devices and elements which exists in living organisms. The use of Nano biotechnology in commercial applications in biomedical field is direction towards development of new techniques in biosciences and drug delivery systems.

The global nano biotechnology is segmented on the basis of applications, therapeutics and by regional basis. Based on application the global Nano biotechnology is segmented as medical research, medical devices, pharmaceuticals and others. On the basis of therapeutics the global Nano biotechnology market is divided as orthopedic therapies, dental therapies, cardiac therapies and others.

The regions covered in global Nano biotechnology report are North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of the World. On the basis of country level, Global Nano biotechnology sub divided in U.S., Mexico, Canada, U.K., France, Germany, Italy, China, Japan, India, South East Asia, GCC, Africa, etc.

Nano Biotechnology Companies:

Global Nano biotechnology reports cover prominent players like,

Dabur Pharma

cellix

InanoBio

Marina Biotech

dermaCM

Ablynx

Xantac Bioanalytics

AC Serndip

WaveSense

Nanobiotech Pharma

Celgene

Thermo Fisher Scientific

merck KGaA

Bionano Genomics

Others

New Nano drug candidate kills aggressive breast cancer cells

News: July 20, 2020 The researchers at the University of Arkansas have developed a new Nano drug candidate that kills triple-negative breast cancer cells. Triple-negative breast cancer is one of the most aggressive and fatal types of breast cancer. The research will help clinicians target breast cancer cells directly while avoiding the adverse and toxic side effects of chemotherapy. The American Cancer Society estimated 268,600 new cases of invasive breast cancer in 2019 and 41,760 deaths. Researchers in Beyzavis laboratory focus on developing new targeted photodynamic therapy drugs, as alternative to chemotherapy and significantly fewer side effects.

Global Nano Biotechnology Dynamics

The key factor for growth of global Nano biotechnology is increasing advancements in medical science to improve healthcare practices around the world for better drug delivery system which drives the growth of Nano biotechnology market. The product of Nano biotechnology is under trial but scientist have confident that this trail will give positive result to increase the prevention process, diagnosis and treatment of various diseases. Nano biotechnology is also used in areas like electronics, biomaterial and energy production. The public and private companies are also showing keen interest in Nano biotechnology which gives commercial platform for the product of Nano biotechnology.

More detailed research is required to introduce diverse components of Nano biotechnology in medical applications which restrain the growth of global Nano biotechnology market. The effect of toxicity of Nano material on environment and economy affect the growth of Nano biotechnology market. However the increase in government initiative for research and development in Nano biotechnology will increase opportunities of Nano biotechnology market in future.

The National Nanotechnology Initiatives (NNI) funded approximately USD 170 billion in 2018. Currently there are 60 countries which is member of National Nanotechnology Initiative and conducted program on National Nanotechnology. According to National institute of standard there are 1700 nanotechnology companies worldwide.

Nano BiotechnologyRegional Analysis

North America is dominating the growth nano biotechnology due to increase in investment in research and development projects and implementing flexible policies. The National Nanotechnology Initiatives which was established in 2001 which develop nanotechnology within United States. There is 3729 patent registered in USA on Nanotechnology in 2018. European Union is expected to emerge the growth of share in global Nano biotechnology market. To increase in research and development spending and investment in public and private sectors of Nano biotechnology. The European Union has published the publications on Nano biotechnology.

Asia Pacific is also emerging in the field of nano biotechnology. India has introduced Nano biotechnology based chemotherapy. The Nano biotechnology have introduced polymer free drug for treatment of cardiac disease. The drug name is Sirolimous which shows extreme excellent result which reduces the blockages of in the arteries. China has duplicated research paper and publication about 3592 and 30.479 respectively. The patent on Nano biotechnology of china is 5030 in 2019.

Key Benefits forNano biotechnologyreports

Global Nano biotechnology report covers in depth historical and forecast analysis.

Global Nano biotechnology Market research report provides detail information about Market Introduction, Market Summary, Global market Revenue (Revenue USD), Market Drivers, Market Restraints, Market opportunities, Competitive Analysis, Regional and Country Level.

Global Nano biotechnology report helps to identify opportunities in market place.

Global Nano biotechnology report covers extensive analysis of emerging trends and competitive landscape.

Nano BiotechnologySegmentation

by Application:Medical Devices, Pharmaceuticals, Medical research, Others

by Therapeutics:Cardiac Therapies, Orthopedic Therapies, Dental therapies, Others

Regional & Country Analysis North America, U.S., Mexico, Canada , Europe, UK, France, Germany, Italy , Asia Pacific, China, Japan, India, Southeast Asia, South America, Brazil, Argentina, Columbia, The Middle East and Africa, GCC, Africa, Rest of Middle East and Africa

Continued

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Nano Biotechnology Market 2021, Size, Share, Global Industry Growth, Business Statistics, Top Leaders, Competitive Landscape, Forecast To 2027 KSU |...

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Global Nanotechnology in Water Treatment Market -Forecast and Analysis (2020-2027) NeighborWebSJ – NeighborWebSJ

§ February 4th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotechnology Comments Off on Global Nanotechnology in Water Treatment Market -Forecast and Analysis (2020-2027) NeighborWebSJ – NeighborWebSJ

Global Nanotechnology in Water Treatment Market 2019 TO 2027:

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The Nanotechnology in Water Treatment market analysis also encompasses the competitive outlook of the world Nanotechnology in Water Treatment market, furnishing the detailed profiles of the major market players. The important insights and recommendations by Nanotechnology in Water Treatment industry adepts would definitely guide the players in persuasively establishing their strategies and policies and achieve a competitive edge in the Nanotechnology in Water Treatment business.

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The report emphasis on the Top Manufacturers in the world Nanotechnology in Water Treatment market, with profits, losses, prices, production, and market share for each and every manufacturer, covering: Businesses.

Lanxess Aktiengesellschaft ItN Nanovation AG, Enel Spa. Nanosys QD Vision Arkema 10Angstroms 10x MicroStructures 10x Technology Inc 3M 3rd Millennium Inc 3rdTech Inc Calgon Carbon Corporation Danaher Corporation Best Water Technology AG Honeywell International Inc. Pentair Inc. Ashland Hercules Flowserve Corporation Nalco Grundfos ITT Corporation Emerson Dresser KITZ Corporation Kirloskar Ebara Kemira.

Based on your product, the report unveils the production, growth, market share, prices, losses, profits, and growth rate of each type, exclusively separated into Nanoadsorbents Nanometals/nanometals oxides Nanomembranes Other By Application, the industry can be divided into Applications Potable water treatment Industrial water treatment

By Regions, the report captures (we can add the regions/countries as you want): Europe, North America, South America, Asia-Pacific, Middle East, and Africa

Detailed SWOT analysis of these players has also been included in the Nanotechnology in Water Treatment market report to determine the threats and opportunities faced by them while operating in the Nanotechnology in Water Treatment industry.

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The Nanotechnology in Water Treatment market 2019 industry research study further analyzes the global Nanotechnology in Water Treatment industry in terms of revenue and has presented the historical data and forecast figures with the help of tables, charts, and infographics. The Nanotechnology in Water Treatment report also provides a comprehensive analysis of the global Nanotechnology in Water Treatment market with the help of several analytical tools and helps in determining the growth prospects and opportunities of the Nanotechnology in Water Treatment industry. It also helps in understanding the major factors that affect the structure and profitability of the global Nanotechnology in Water Treatment industry.

The size and share of the segment along with the forecast statistics have been included in the scope of the Nanotechnology in Water Treatment research study. By geography; the global Nanotechnology in Water Treatment industry has been divided into North America, China, Europe, Southeast Asia, Japan, India. The capacity, revenue, export, import, cost, price, consumption, and price of each regional segment of the global Nanotechnology in Water Treatment market has been provided in the Nanotechnology in Water Treatment research report.

Browse Complete Nanotechnology in Water Treatment Report details with ToC and List Of Figures Here:

Table of Contents

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Food Nanotechnology Market 2021 Top Anticipated Trends with Business Development Strategy NeighborWebSJ – NeighborWebSJ

§ February 4th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotechnology Comments Off on Food Nanotechnology Market 2021 Top Anticipated Trends with Business Development Strategy NeighborWebSJ – NeighborWebSJ

This report provides a strategic analysis of the Global Food Nanotechnology market and the growth estimates for the forecast period. This report also provides market sizing and forecasts for the Global Food Nanotechnology Market. The report is a professional and in-depth study on the existing state. this report focuses on the major drivers, restraints, opportunities, and threats for key players. it also provides granular analysis of market share, segmentation, revenue forecasts and regional analysis till 2026.

Further, the Food Nanotechnology Market report covers strategic assessment of development policies and plans, business processes and revenue structures, marketing strategies followed by leading players, distributors analysis, marketing channels, potential buyers, and Food Nanotechnologys development history. This report also states import/export, supply, and consumption figures as well as cost, price, revenue, and gross margin by regions.

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The global Food Nanotechnology market is segmented by company, region (country), Type, and Application. Players, stakeholders, and others. The industry professionals in the global Food Nanotechnology industry will be able to gain the upper hand as they use the report as a powerful resource.

The Food Nanotechnology Market Report Covers Major Market Players like

Food Nanotechnology Market is Segmented as Below:

By Product Type:

Breakup by Application:

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Along with Food Nanotechnology Market research analysis, the buyer also gets valuable information about global Food Nanotechnology Production and its market share, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin, Supply, Consumption, Export, Import volume, and values for the following Regions:

Impact of COVID-19 on Food Nanotechnology Market

The report also contains the effect of the ongoing worldwide pandemic, i.e., COVID-19, on the Food Nanotechnology Market and what the future holds for it. It offers an analysis of the impacts of the epidemic on the international market. The epidemic has immediately interrupted the requirement and supply series. The Food Nanotechnology Market report also assesses the economic effect on firms and monetary markets. Futuristic Reports has accumulated advice from several delegates of this business and has engaged from the secondary and primary research to extend the customers with strategies and data to combat industry struggles throughout and after the COVID-19 pandemic.

The Covid19 pandemic has transformed the market landscape. The market ecosystem has taken a directional shift in the way the supply-side of the market is accessed. The report covers the aftermath of the Covid19 catastrophe

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CHAPTERS COVERED IN Food Nanotechnology MARKET REPORT ARE AS FOLLOW:

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