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Nanorobotics – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

§ August 7th, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanorobotics – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

"Nanobots" redirects here. For the They Might Be Giants album, see Nanobots (album).

Nanorobotics is the emerging technology field creating machines or robots whose components are at or close to the scale of a nanometre (109 meters).[1][2][3] More specifically, nanorobotics refers to the nanotechnology engineering discipline of designing and building nanorobots, with devices ranging in size from 0.110 micrometers and constructed of nanoscale or molecular components.[4][5] The names nanobots, nanoids, nanites, nanomachines, or nanomites have also been used to describe these devices currently under research and development.[6][7]

Nanomachines are largely in the research and development phase,[8] but some primitive molecular machines and nanomotors have been tested. An example is a sensor having a switch approximately 1.5 nanometers across, capable of counting specific molecules in a chemical sample. The first useful applications of nanomachines might be in nanomedicine. For example,[9]biological machines could be used to identify and destroy cancer cells.[10][11] Another potential application is the detection of toxic chemicals, and the measurement of their concentrations, in the environment. Rice University has demonstrated a single-molecule car developed by a chemical process and including buckyballs for wheels. It is actuated by controlling the environmental temperature and by positioning a scanning tunneling microscope tip.

Another definition is a robot that allows precision interactions with nanoscale objects, or can manipulate with nanoscale resolution. Such devices are more related to microscopy or scanning probe microscopy, instead of the description of nanorobots as molecular machine. Following the microscopy definition even a large apparatus such as an atomic force microscope can be considered a nanorobotic instrument when configured to perform nanomanipulation. For this perspective, macroscale robots or microrobots that can move with nanoscale precision can also be considered nanorobots.

According to Richard Feynman, it was his former graduate student and collaborator Albert Hibbs who originally suggested to him (circa 1959) the idea of a medical use for Feynman's theoretical micromachines (see nanotechnology). Hibbs suggested that certain repair machines might one day be reduced in size to the point that it would, in theory, be possible to (as Feynman put it) "swallow the doctor". The idea was incorporated into Feynman's 1959 essay There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom.[12]

Since nanorobots would be microscopic in size, it would probably be necessary for very large numbers of them to work together to perform microscopic and macroscopic tasks. These nanorobot swarms, both those incapable of replication (as in utility fog) and those capable of unconstrained replication in the natural environment (as in grey goo and its less common variants[clarification needed]), are found in many science fiction stories, such as the Borg nanoprobes in Star Trek and The Outer Limits episode The New Breed.

Some proponents of nanorobotics, in reaction to the grey goo scenarios that they earlier helped to propagate, hold the view that nanorobots capable of replication outside of a restricted factory environment do not form a necessary part of a purported productive nanotechnology, and that the process of self-replication, if it were ever to be developed, could be made inherently safe. They further assert that their current plans for developing and using molecular manufacturing do not in fact include free-foraging replicators.[13][14]

The most detailed theoretical discussion of nanorobotics, including specific design issues such as sensing, power communication, navigation, manipulation, locomotion, and onboard computation, has been presented in the medical context of nanomedicine by Robert Freitas. Some of these discussions remain at the level of unbuildable generality and do not approach the level of detailed engineering.

The joint use of nanoelectronics, photolithography, and new biomaterials provides a possible approach to manufacturing nanorobots for common medical applications, such as for surgical instrumentation, diagnosis and drug delivery.[15][16][17] This method for manufacturing on nanotechnology scale is currently in use in the electronics industry.[18] So, practical nanorobots should be integrated as nanoelectronics devices, which will allow tele-operation and advanced capabilities for medical instrumentation.[19][20]

Nubot is an abbreviation for "nucleic acid robot." Nubots are organic molecular machines at the nanoscale.[21] DNA structure can provide means to assemble 2D and 3D nanomechanical devices. DNA based machines can be activated using small molecules, proteins and other molecules of DNA.[22][23][24] Biological circuit gates based on DNA materials have been engineered as molecular machines to allow in-vitro drug delivery for targeted health problems.[25] Such material based systems would work most closely to smart biomaterial drug system delivery,[26] while not allowing precise in vivo teleoperation of such engineered prototypes.

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Boston Sports Medicine | Doctor Thomas Gill

§ August 4th, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Boston Sports Medicine | Doctor Thomas Gill

Dr. Thomas Gill and members of the Boston Sports Medicine and Research Institute are nationally and internationally recognized as leaders in the field of Sports Medicine and research. Dr. Gill has served as Head Team Physician for the New England Patriots, Medical Director for the Boston Red Sox, Team Physician for the Boston Bruins, Venue Medical Director for both men's and women's World Cup Soccer, Medical Director for the Boston Breakers, Consultant to Boston College and Harvard University, and Chief of the MGH Sports Medicine Service.

"I am a 57 year old female and tore my ACL and PCL. Dr Gill performed surgery on these tears and within 4 months my knee was as good as new. There is no better Sports Orthopedic Surgeon in New England!!"

"I cannot believe that I am the first one to write this. He is the "KNEE GOD".

"Dr. Gill has taken wonderful care of me for more than ten years. He is an attentive listener, and is a caring, skilled, and realistic surgeon. Dr. Gill has consistently made accurate diagnoses of my injuries and ailments; with each injury or ailment, he has prescribed treatments that resulted in improvement. Dr. Gill performed surgery on me at Massachusetts General Hospital and at MGH West (in Waltham), and I have maintained the highest level of confidence in him throughout my worries, aches, pains, surgery, and rehab."

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Sports Medicine Devices Market be Worth US$8,284.0 billion …

§ August 3rd, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Sports Medicine Devices Market be Worth US$8,284.0 billion …

July 27, 2015 06:05 ET | Source: Transparency Market Research

Albany, NY, July 27, 2015 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- A recent market study by Transparency Market Research (TMR), a market intelligence company based in the U.S., states that the global sports medicine market will be valued at US$8,284.0 billion by 2019. The TMR research report states that the market was valued at US$6,100.6 million in 2012 to grow at CAGR of 4.4% between 2013 and 2019. The report, titled "Sports Medicine Devices Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast, 2013 - 2019", is available for sale on the company website.

Browse Market Research Report on Sports Medicine Devices Market:http://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/sports-medicine-device-market.html

As per the findings of the report, the global sports medicine devices market is driven by rising participation in sports activities among individuals of all age, increasing focus for cost-effective treatment solutions for sports injuries, and technological advancement. Further, the increasing geriatric population and growing demand for arthroscopic surgeries are spurring growth of the market.

Browse Press Release of Sports Medicine Devices Market: http://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/pressrelease/sports-medicine-device-market.htm

Moreover, increasing disposable incomes in developed nations are fueling the growth of the sports medicine devices market. The unfavorable medical claim policies for sports medicine devices in developed nations, however, will decelerate the growth of the market, as per the market study.For the purpose of the study, TMR segments the sports medicine devices market on three perspectives, namely orthopedic devices, recovery and support products, and regional geographies. Orthopedic products are sub-segmented into artificial joint implants, fracture repair devices, arthroscopy devices, orthobiologics, and prosthesis.

Get Sample Report Copy of Sports Medicine Devices Market:http://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/sample/sample.php?flag=S&rep_id=765

As stated in the report, the arthroscopy devices segment of the sports medicine devices market dominated the market and was worth US$1,593.8 million in 2012. Further, the product segment is projected to exhibit a CAGR of 5.8% for the forecast period. The TMR research report classifies the recovery and support products segment into braces, accessories, other recovery products, and performance monitoring devices. In the recovery and support products segment, braces account for the second largest segment of the market and are projected to progress at a CAGR of 3.4% between 2013 and 2019. However, the accessories market and prosthetics market is expected to exhibit the slowest growth in the sports medicine devices market, as per TMR's forecasts.

Browse Article of Sports Medicine Devices Market:http://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/article/sports-medicine-device-market.htm

From a geographical standpoint, the market study segments the global sports medicine devices market into North America, Rest of the World (RoW), Europe, and Asia. Among regional segments, North America dominated the sports medicine devices market, boasting a net worth of US$2,478.2 million in 2012. In the coming years, Asia and RoW are anticipated to be lucrative markets for sports medicine devices, as per the study findings.

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Sports Medicine Research: In the Lab & In the Field …

§ August 1st, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Sports Medicine Research: In the Lab & In the Field …

Neural excitability alterations after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

Pietrosimone BG, Lepley AS, Ericksen HM, Clements A, Sohn DH, and Gribble PA. J Athl Training. 2015; 50(6) 665-674.

Take Home Message: Following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery, patients have changes in the excitability of pathways that go from the brain (primary motor cortex) and down the spinal cord when compared with an uninjured limb as well as healthy control participants.

Overall, the current study presents some useful data to clinicians because it highlights that neuromuscular function after an ACLR can be influenced by central factors in the brain and spinal cord. The primary finding was that ACLR patients require more activation energy at the brain (primary motor cortex) to contract the quadriceps. It is interesting that the diminished corticomotor excitability is present even though the average patient was tested 48 months after surgery. Further, the IKDC scores of ACLR patients was lower than controls, while Tegner activity scores were not different between groups. This demonstrates that ACLR patients, even several years after surgery, are attempting to keep activity levels comparable to healthy controls while their subjective and objective knee function are impaired. We need to wonder if this is safe for our patients. With this in mind, clinicians may wish to dedicate more time to neural training during the rehabilitation process. The authors suggest that we should consider developing therapeutic strategies to increase spinal-reflex excitability (e.g., cryotherapy or transcutaneous electrical stimulation) or corticomotor excitability (e.g., biofeedback). While more research is needed to test the benefits of these therapies for these goals they are unlikely to cause harm to a patient and therefore may be worth trying in the clinical setting.

Questions for Discussion: How much neural training to do you incorporate into your ACL rehabilitation programs? Do you think we should be doing a better job restoring neuromuscular function before a patient returns to play after an ACLR?

Reviewed by: Jeffrey Driban

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DNA nanotechnology – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

§ July 24th, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on DNA nanotechnology – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

DNA nanotechnology is the design and manufacture of artificial nucleic acid structures for technological uses. In this field, nucleic acids are used as non-biological engineering materials for nanotechnology rather than as the carriers of genetic information in living cells. Researchers in the field have created static structures such as two- and three-dimensional crystal lattices, nanotubes, polyhedra, and arbitrary shapes, as well as functional devices such as molecular machines and DNA computers. The field is beginning to be used as a tool to solve basic science problems in structural biology and biophysics, including applications in crystallography and spectroscopy for protein structure determination. Potential applications in molecular scale electronics and nanomedicine are also being investigated.

The conceptual foundation for DNA nanotechnology was first laid out by Nadrian Seeman in the early 1980s, and the field began to attract widespread interest in the mid-2000s. This use of nucleic acids is enabled by their strict base pairing rules, which cause only portions of strands with complementary base sequences to bind together to form strong, rigid double helix structures. This allows for the rational design of base sequences that will selectively assemble to form complex target structures with precisely controlled nanoscale features. A number of assembly methods are used to make these structures, including tile-based structures that assemble from smaller structures, folding structures using the DNA origami method, and dynamically reconfigurable structures using strand displacement techniques. While the field's name specifically references DNA, the same principles have been used with other types of nucleic acids as well, leading to the occasional use of the alternative name nucleic acid nanotechnology.

Nanotechnology is often defined as the study of materials and devices with features on a scale below 100 nanometers. DNA nanotechnology, specifically, is an example of bottom-up molecular self-assembly, in which molecular components spontaneously organize into stable structures; the particular form of these structures is induced by the physical and chemical properties of the components selected by the designers.[4] In DNA nanotechnology, the component materials are strands of nucleic acids such as DNA; these strands are often synthetic and are almost always used outside the context of a living cell. DNA is well-suited to nanoscale construction because the binding between two nucleic acid strands depends on simple base pairing rules which are well understood, and form the specific nanoscale structure of the nucleic acid double helix. These qualities make the assembly of nucleic acid structures easy to control through nucleic acid design. This property is absent in other materials used in nanotechnology, including proteins, for which protein design is very difficult, and nanoparticles, which lack the capability for specific assembly on their own.[5]

The structure of a nucleic acid molecule consists of a sequence of nucleotides distinguished by which nucleobase they contain. In DNA, the four bases present are adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). Nucleic acids have the property that two molecules will only bind to each other to form a double helix if the two sequences are complementary, meaning that they form matching sequences of base pairs, with A only binding to T, and C only to G.[5][6] Because the formation of correctly matched base pairs is energetically favorable, nucleic acid strands are expected in most cases to bind to each other in the conformation that maximizes the number of correctly paired bases. The sequences of bases in a system of strands thus determine the pattern of binding and the overall structure in an easily controllable way. In DNA nanotechnology, the base sequences of strands are rationally designed by researchers so that the base pairing interactions cause the strands to assemble in the desired conformation.[3][5] While DNA is the dominant material used, structures incorporating other nucleic acids such as RNA and peptide nucleic acid (PNA) have also been constructed.[7][8]

DNA nanotechnology is sometimes divided into two overlapping subfields: structural DNA nanotechnology and dynamic DNA nanotechnology. Structural DNA nanotechnology, sometimes abbreviated as SDN, focuses on synthesizing and characterizing nucleic acid complexes and materials that assemble into a static, equilibrium end state. On the other hand, dynamic DNA nanotechnology focuses on complexes with useful non-equilibrium behavior such as the ability to reconfigure based on a chemical or physical stimulus. Some complexes, such as nucleic acid nanomechanical devices, combine features of both the structural and dynamic subfields.[9][10]

The complexes constructed in structural DNA nanotechnology use topologically branched nucleic acid structures containing junctions. (In contrast, most biological DNA exists as an unbranched double helix.) One of the simplest branched structures is a four-arm junction that consists of four individual DNA strands, portions of which are complementary in a specific pattern. Unlike in natural Holliday junctions, each arm in the artificial immobile four-arm junction has a different base sequence, causing the junction point to be fixed at a certain position. Multiple junctions can be combined in the same complex, such as in the widely used double-crossover (DX) motif, which contains two parallel double helical domains with individual strands crossing between the domains at two crossover points. Each crossover point is itself topologically a four-arm junction, but is constrained to a single orientation, as opposed to the flexible single four-arm junction, providing a rigidity that makes the DX motif suitable as a structural building block for larger DNA complexes.[3][5]

Dynamic DNA nanotechnology uses a mechanism called toehold-mediated strand displacement to allow the nucleic acid complexes to reconfigure in response to the addition of a new nucleic acid strand. In this reaction, the incoming strand binds to a single-stranded toehold region of a double-stranded complex, and then displaces one of the strands bound in the original complex through a branch migration process. The overall effect is that one of the strands in the complex is replaced with another one.[9] In addition, reconfigurable structures and devices can be made using functional nucleic acids such as deoxyribozymes and ribozymes, which are capable of performing chemical reactions, and aptamers, which can bind to specific proteins or small molecules.[11]

Structural DNA nanotechnology, sometimes abbreviated as SDN, focuses on synthesizing and characterizing nucleic acid complexes and materials where the assembly has a static, equilibrium endpoint. The nucleic acid double helix has a robust, defined three-dimensional geometry that makes it possible to predict and design the structures of more complicated nucleic acid complexes. Many such structures have been created, including two- and three-dimensional structures, and periodic, aperiodic, and discrete structures.[10]

Small nucleic acid complexes can be equipped with sticky ends and combined into larger two-dimensional periodic lattices containing a specific tessellated pattern of the individual molecular tiles.[10] The earliest example of this used double-crossover (DX) complexes as the basic tiles, each containing four sticky ends designed with sequences that caused the DX units to combine into periodic two-dimensional flat sheets that are essentially rigid two-dimensional crystals of DNA.[15][16] Two-dimensional arrays have been made from other motifs as well, including the Holliday junction rhombus lattice,[17] and various DX-based arrays making use of a double-cohesion scheme.[18][19] The top two images at right show examples of tile-based periodic lattices.

Two-dimensional arrays can be made to exhibit aperiodic structures whose assembly implements a specific algorithm, exhibiting one form of DNA computing.[20] The DX tiles can have their sticky end sequences chosen so that they act as Wang tiles, allowing them to perform computation. A DX array whose assembly encodes an XOR operation has been demonstrated; this allows the DNA array to implement a cellular automaton that generates a fractal known as the Sierpinski gasket. The third image at right shows this type of array.[14] Another system has the function of a binary counter, displaying a representation of increasing binary numbers as it grows. These results show that computation can be incorporated into the assembly of DNA arrays.[21]

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Research in Sports Medicine: An International Journal

§ July 17th, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Research in Sports Medicine: An International Journal

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What is Robotic Surgery? | Advantages of Robotic Surgery …

§ July 12th, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on What is Robotic Surgery? | Advantages of Robotic Surgery …

Robotic surgery is the latest evolution of minimally invasive surgical procedures and is now available at Mount Carmel East, West and St. Anns on the da Vinci Robotic Surgical System. During surgery, three or four robotic arms are inserted into the patient though small incisions in the abdomen. One arm is a camera, two act as the surgeon's hands and a fourth arm may be used to move obstructions out of the way. Patients are surrounded by a complete surgical team, whilethe surgeon is seated at a nearby console. The surgeonuses aviewfinder which provides a three dimensional image of the surgical field, andthe surgeon's hands are placed in special devices that direct the instruments. The robotic arms filter out any tremors in the physician's hands andincreases thephysician's range of motion. This enhanced precision is especially helpful to the surgeon during especially delicate portions of procedures.

Due to small incisions, less trauma to the body and greater surgeon precision, robotic surgery provides the following benefits over traditional open procedures including:

For surgeons, robotic surgery is more precise due to better visualization of the surgical field, correction for tremors in hand movements and greater maneuverability of instruments. Watch the video below to understand more aboutthe da Vinci robot.

General Patient Guide My Personal Health Record Guide for Healthful Eating Preparing for Surgery - Mount Carmel East Preparing for Surgery - Mount Carmel West Preparing for Surgery - Mount Carmel St. Ann's Preparing for Surgery - Mount Carmel New Albany Surgery - Preventing Infection Protect Your Lungs Before and After Surgery Surgery Waiting Area Brochure - Mount Carmel East Surgery Waiting Area Brochure - Mount Carmel St. Ann's

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Nanotechnology – Applications

§ July 8th, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanotechnology – Applications

Nanotechnology Applications

Nanotechnology involves the understanding, manipulation, and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers. Nanotechnology encompasses science, engineering and technology and involves imaging, measuring, modeling, and manipulating matter at the nanoscale. The development of unique nanoscale structures has the potential to revolutionize industry, including electronics, medicine, and consumer products.

Examples of materials developed with nanotechnology include the following engineered nanomaterials:

Although the development and application of nanotechnology is primarily still in the research phase, some engineered nanomaterials are produced and used in commercial applications today. Examples of products that are produced currently using nanotechnologies include:

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Department of Commerce (DOC). NIST, a non-regulatory agency created to promote U.S. industrial innovation and competitiveness, enables science and industry by developing measurement methods, instrumentation, standards, and data to support all phases of nanotechnology development. NIST's Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology operates the Nanofab, a shared-use facility providing economical access to state-of-the-art nanotechnology-measurement tools and nanofabrication, and a research program. The NIST nanotechnology webpage contains information on nanotechnology activities, news, developments and accomplishments, including the work of the Center.

A Nanotechnology Consumer Products Inventory. Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars maintains an inventory of nanotechnology-based consumer products currently on the market.

National Cancer Institute (NCI), Exploring Nanotechnology in Cancer. This webpage includes information on the use of nanotechnology in the fight against cancer, including the use of nanotechnology in developing unique approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

The Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing. The Institute, created by NASA, is an engineering, technology and research center developing new devices for computation and sensing as well as new assembly and systems for NASA missions. The Institute's webpage provides information on workshops and programs, presentations, and the latest news on nanoelectronics.

Communication from the Commission - Towards a European Strategy for Nanotechnology. Commission of the European Communities (2004, December 5), 94 KB PDF*, 25 pages. The communication describes a strategy for responsible development of nanotechnology, including potential uses of nanomaterials, worldwide research and development activities, investment in nanotechnology, and the need to integrate public and environmental risk assessment into research and development activities.

Opportunities and risks of Nanotechnologies. 2.61 MB PDF*, 46 pages. The Allianz Center for Technology and Allianz Global Risks, in cooperation with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) International Futures Programme, has reviewed the likely economic impact, investment possibilities, and potential risks of nanotechnologies from their perspective. The report includes a discussion on present and future areas of nanotechnology application as well as nanotechnology market prospects and opportunities in areas such as medicine, food and agriculture and energy.

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Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and …

§ July 7th, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and …

Impact Factor: 4.239 Read, cite the journal, or submit your paper to keep contributing to the success of WIREs Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology

NanoMedicine-2013 is a dedicated event for the nanotech community and aims to offer professionals in the field a multidisciplinary platform to learn more about the latest scientific updates and industrial standards. Nanomedicine-2013 will consist of six tracks covering current advances in many aspects of nano-medicine R & D and business. The conference will consist of keynote forum, panel discussions, free communication, poster presentations and an exhibition. Through these dynamic scientific and social events, you will have many opportunities to network and to form potential business collaborations with participants from all over the world.

From 2012 (Volume 4), access to the full content of WIREs Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology is through a subscription only. Subscribe here or use our easy online library recommendation form to recommend this title to your librarian today.

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CCNE | Northeastern University

§ July 5th, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on CCNE | Northeastern University

Welcome!

The NIH-funded Northeastern University Center for Translational Cancer Nanomedicine (CTCN) was established in September 2010 as part of Phase 2 of the National Cancer Institute's Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer program with collaborators at Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital; Harvard Medical School; Tufts University, Auburn University and Nemucore Medical Innovations, Inc. The CTCN will utilize the support and facilities of the NU-based Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing.

Northeastern University CTCN is one of only nine Centers of Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence (CCNE) across the country that has been awarded a five-year $13.5 million grant from the NCI Alliance in an open nationwide competition.

Building upon Northeasterns strong base of interdisciplinary nanotechnology research, the center will create new drugs that target cancer cells, advance technology on how nanocarriers deliver these drugs, and utilize imaging tools that track how they travel through the body. To enable the translation of these nanomedicines from bench to bedside, test batches of the nanopreparations will be developed for preclinical use to meet FDA standards for further clinical testing. The team will also develop semi-industrial and industrial processes to scale up their production.

Cross-disciplinary collaboration will enable integration of the fundamental biological knowledge base with physical science and engineering approaches for intimate involvement in scale-up and manufacture to rapidly translate bench research into animal testing and GMP production and to narrow the gap between discovery and development of anticancer therapeutics. The CTCN will concentrate on multifunctional, targeted devices that will bypass current biological barriers to delivery of multiple therapeutic agents at high local concentrations, with appropriate timing, directly to cancer cells.

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IBM Research: Ninja polymers

§ July 5th, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on IBM Research: Ninja polymers

Creating a hydrogel from the polymers

Through the precise tailoring of the ninja polymers, researchers were able to create macromolecules - molecular structures containing a large number of atoms - which combine water solubility, a positive charge, and biodegradability. When mixed with water and heated to normal body temperature, the polymers self-assemble, swelling into a synthetic hydrogel that is easy to manipulate.

When applied to contaminated surfaces, the hydrogel's positive charge attracts negatively charged microbial membranes, like stars and planets being pulled into a black hole. However, unlike other antimicrobials that target the internal machinery of bacteria to try to prevent it from replicating, this hydrogel destroys the bacteria by rupturing the bacteria's membrane, rendering it completely unable to regenerate or spread.

The hydrogel is comprised of more than 90 percent water, making it easy to handle and apply to surfaces. It also makes it potentially viable for eventual inclusion in applications like creams or injectable therapeutics for wound healing, implant and catheter coatings, skin infections or even orifice barriers. It is the first-ever to be biodegradable, biocompatible and non-toxic, potentially making it an ideal tool to combat serious health hazards facing hospital workers, visitors and patients.

The IBM scientists in the nanomedicine polymer program along with the Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology have taken this research a step further and have made a nanomedicine breakthrough in which they converted common plastic materials like polyethylene terephthalate (PET) into non-toxic and biocompatible materials designed to specifically target and attack fungal infections.BCC Research reported that the treatment cost for fungal infections was $3 billion worldwide in 2010 andis expected to increase to $6 billion in 2014. In this breakthrough, the researchers identified a novel self-assembly process for broken down PET, the primary material in plastic water bottles, in which 'super' molecules are formed through a hydrogen bond and serve as drug carriers targeting fungal infections in the body. Demonstrating characteristics like electrostatic charge similar to polymers, the molecules are able to break through bacterial membranes and eradicate fungus, then biodegrade in the body naturally. This is important to treat eye infections associated with contact lenses, and bloodstream infections like Candida.

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Robotic Surgery | St. Petersburg General Hospital | St …

§ July 3rd, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Robotic Surgery | St. Petersburg General Hospital | St …

The da Vinci Si Surgical System is designed to provide surgeons with enhanced capabilities, including high-definition 3D vision and a magnified view. Your doctor controls the da Vinci System, which translates his or her hand movements into small, more precise movements of tiny instruments inside of the body. Though this is often called a robot, the da Vinci System cannot act on it own: Instead, the surgery is performed entirely by your physician.

Together, the da Vinci Si Surgical System allows doctors to perform complex procedures through just a few tiny openings. As a result, you may be able to get back to life faster without the usually recovery following major surgery.

St. Petersburg General Hospital utilizes 2 of the da Vinci Surgical Systems, which provides surgeons with an alternative to both traditional open surgery and conventional laparoscopy, putting a surgeon's hands at the controls of a state-of-the-art robotic platform with the following:

St. Petersburg General Hospital uses Robotic Surgery in the treatment of the following areas:

General

Urology

GYN/GYO

Have your house ready for when you come home from the hospital. Clean the linens on your bed. Prepare meals and freeze them for easier use when you get back. Pick up throw rugs and tack down any loose carpet. Remove electrical cords and other obstructions from your path. Put nightlights in the baths, kitchen, bedrooms and hallways. Arrange for pet care if needed. Your SAFETY is our concern.

If you get a fever, cold or rash, call your surgeon regarding your change of health. Your surgery may need to be postponed. Do not drink any alcohol for 24 hours prior to your surgery. If you normally consume alcoholic beverages regularly it is vital to provide this information to your physician.

The Same Day Surgery Center will call you the day prior to your surgery after 2 PM to verify your surgery and arrival times. If you have additional questions please call (727) 341-4812.

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Nismat / Home

§ July 3rd, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nismat / Home

Welcome to the Nicholas Institute of Sports Medicine and Athletic Trauma (NISMAT), a world-renowned research, teaching, and treatment center. Established at Lenox Hill Hospital in 1973, NISMAT was the worlds first hospital-based facility committed solely to the study of sports medicine, and has since played a key role in advancing the field, as well as redefining its focus. Once perceived as a discipline concerned only with repairing athletes' traumatic injuries, sports medicine is now recognized as a science that expands the understanding of the relationship between exercise and fitness at all levels, across every age group. Whether youre a medical practitioner or a patient, a professional athlete--or a weekend one, an occasional jogger or a marathon runner, woman or man,...

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Welcome to the Nicholas Institute of Sports Medicine and Athletic Trauma (NISMAT), a world-renowned research, teaching, and treatment center. Established at Lenox Hill Hospital in 1973, NISMAT was the worlds first hospital-based facility committed solely to the study of sports medicine, and has since played a key role in advancing the field, as well as redefining its focus. Once perceived as a discipline concerned only with repairing athletes' traumatic injuries, sports medicine is now recognized as a science that expands the understanding of the relationship between exercise and fitness at all levels, across every age group. Whether youre a medical practitioner or a patient, a professional athlete--or a weekend one, an occasional jogger or a marathon runner, woman or man, adolescent or octogenarian, NISMAT brings you the most comprehensive and current medical information and references available. Here, youll learn about injury treatment and prevention. Training tips and exercise programs. Physical therapy, sports physiology, nutrition, and so much more. Welcome to NISMAT.

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Center for Drug Delivery and Nanomedicine (CDDN

§ July 3rd, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Center for Drug Delivery and Nanomedicine (CDDN

The need for the discovery and development of innovative technologies to improve the delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents in the body is widely recognized. The next generation therapies must be able to deliver drugs, therapeutic proteins and recombinant DNA to focal areas of disease or to tumors to maximize clinical benefit while limiting untoward side effects. The use of nanoscale technologies to design novel drug delivery systems and devices is a rapidly developing area of biomedical research that promises breakthrough advances in therapeutics and diagnostics.

Center for Drug Delivery and Nanomedicine (CDDN) serves to unify existing diverse technical and scientific expertise in biomedical and material science research at the University of Nebraska thereby creating a world class interdisciplinary drug delivery and nanomedicine program. This is realized by integrating established expertise in drug delivery, gene therapy, neuroscience, pathology, immunology, pharmacology, vaccine therapy, cancer biology, polymer science and nanotechnology at the University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC), the University of Nebraska at Lincoln (UNL) and Creighton University.

CDDNs vision is to improve health by enhancing the efficacy and safety of new and existing therapeutic agents, diagnostic agents and genes through the discovery and application of innovative methods of drug delivery and nanotechnology. CDDNs mission is to discover and apply knowledge to design, develop and evaluate novel approaches to improve the delivery of therapeutic agents, diagnostic agents and genes.

The COBRE Nebraska Center for Nanomedicine is supported by the National Institute of General Medical Science(NIGMS) grant 2P20 GM103480-07.

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Sports Medicine Research: In the Lab & In the Field: The …

§ July 2nd, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Sports Medicine Research: In the Lab & In the Field: The …

Athletes' use of mental skills during sport injury rehabilitation

Arvinen-Barrow M, Clemen D, Hamson-Utley JJ, Zakrajsek RA, Lee S, Kamphoff C, Lintunen T, Hemmings B, and Martin SB. J Sports Rehab. 2015. 24, 189-197.

Take Home Message: Of 1283 survey respondents, only 27% of athletes reported using mental skills such as goal setting, positive self-talk, imagery, and relaxation. Of the 249 respondents who used mental skills 72% reported they felt it helped expedite their recovery process.

Overall, the survey results of this study present some interesting information for clinicians. Firstly, a relatively low number of athletes reported using mental skills. This result is especially interesting when one considers that a high percentage (72%) of those who used mental skills felt it was beneficial to their outcomes. Furthermore, sports psychologists, the professionals most equipped to teach and help athletes hone mental skills, were the lowest reported source of training. This is most likely due to limited access to sports psychologists. Also of note, sports medicine professionals were the most common source of teaching mental skills despite little or no standards of training in teaching mental skills. Therefore, the current study suggests that injured athletes may benefit from professional help with mental skills. Thus, sports medicine personnel may want to consider having a certified sports psychologist as part of their sports medicine team. Furthermore, sports medicine personnel may also benefit from seeking continuing education opportunities that would better equip them to teach mental skills.

Questions for Discussion: Do you incorporate mental skills into your rehabilitation programs? What kind of access do your athletes have to certified sports psychologists?

Reviewed by: Jeffrey Driban

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Citation Analysis of Sports Medicine Research, 1981-1996 …

§ June 22nd, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Citation Analysis of Sports Medicine Research, 1981-1996 …

Citation Analysis of Sports Medicine Research, 1981-1996 Productivity, Impact and Influence of Nations, Institutions and Researchers presented by Eugene Garfield Chairman Emeritus, ISI Publisher, The Scientist 3501 Market Street Philadelphia, PA 19104 Tel. 215-243-2205 Fax 215-387-1266 email: garfield@codex.cis.upenn.edu Home Page: http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu presented at American College of Sports Medicine 44th Annual Meeting Denver May 13, 1997

Academics rely on peer review, meaning subjective human judgment, for evaluating research performance. However, modern databases which index millions of research papers permit us, through publication and citation analysis to view the research world with some new objective perspectives which can validate peer review opinions. This process can provide better-informed judgments to those responsible for funding research.

ISI launched Current Contents(r) in the 1950s and then in the early 1960s, the Science Citation Index(r). SCI(r) included not only full bibliographic information on each journal article, including author names and addresses, article titles, journal names, and pagination, but also the references listed or cited in these papers. The Science Citation Index enables you to find out what someone has published, a traditional index function, but also what other papers have cited them. The idea is this: if you know a paper or book that is related to your own interests, then other papers that cite that publication may be important to you as well. In this schematic diagram, you see how a paper by Harold Urey has been indexed in the SCI. I used this slide recently to remind people that the question of life on Mars was hot news 35 years ago too!

The SCI offered researchers a new way of searching the literature. The method had been utilized in American case law for decades. Let me emphasize that both Current Contents and the Science Citation Index were created for purposes of information retrieval and dissemination -- not research analysis or evaluation. The latter use came to the fore as computer technology advanced and ISI's indexes reached "critical mass." But even a few years after we started the SCI, and Social Sciences Citation Index(r) in the late 1960s, the files were already used for evaluation.

Sociologists of science and, soon after them, research administrators and science-policy analysts, went to the library shelves to use the printed Science Citation Index. This group sensed that citations were useful indicators of the utility, significance, and influence of scientific work: Simply, the more citations a paper received, the more useful it probably had been to the scientific community. Citation scores were seen as akin to polling figures; as with polling data, one can and does encounter artifacts in the data (negative citation, self citations, citation circles or cabals, wherein friends cite friends). Time does not permit me to discuss all the pros and cons of citation analysis. There is a vast literature on it. Today I am going to concentrate on showing you real data that leave little room for debate. You can judge whether the tabulations I'll show you match your perceptions of what is important or significant in the field of sports medicine.

Let me close this introduction by referring you to the recent voluminous report of the National Research Council which ranked over 5,000 academic departments in the United States:

"The clearest relationship between ratings of the 'scholarly quality of program faculty' and these productivity measures occurred with respect to 'citation' - with faculty in top-rated programs cited much more often than faculty in lower-rated programs who published."

Thirty years of detailed studies have demonstrated the validity of citation analysis. Citation analyses correlate well with peer judgments of significance. Thus, citation analysis should generally bring to light which papers, people, institutions, nations, and journals have contributed in greatest measure to the advance of research in a specific field. That's the approach we've taken with sports medicine.

There is a fundamental distinction that must be made in a multi-disciplinary field like sports medicine. On the one hand, there is what we can call the literature of sports medicine. Then there is the literature of interest to sports medicine researchers.

The first part of my presentation utilizes the literature of sports medicine -- narrowly defined by the top 53 sports medicine journals. The second part of my talk concerns the additional scientific journals that sports researchers depend upon from fields like physiology, nutrition, cardiology and orthopedics. Citation analysis is controversial but its relevance is rarely disputed when it draws on large aggregations of data. In this talk, I will provide a global macro-perspective by nation, institution, or journal. Then we'll take a microview of the most-published and most-cited authors. At an even more specific level, we'll look at long-term, high-impact papers and then more recent hot papers.

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Sports medicine research paper

§ June 19th, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Sports medicine research paper

Though these are very useful devices many 3rd grade homework help patients find the use cumbersome and do not easily get used to the Orthotic.Additionally, orthotics provide even weight distribution and take the pressure of sore spots from heels, ball of the foot, corns and between toes, and sports medicine research paper bunions.This article will help you understand:- What Orthotics branding dissertation are- Different types of Orthotics available- Difference between Orthotic Insoles and writing experience essay regular Footbeds- How Orthotics work- Which common ailments can be treated with OrthoticsWhat exactly is an 'Orthotic'?An Orthotic is a generic explanatory essay name for Orthotic Insoles/Shoe inserts or Orthoses used as a device that can be placed inside shoes to correct and restore the normal function of our feet.It is anticipated that how i write essay nearly 70 percent of the population suffer from over-pronation.Laszlo suggests that assessment of such children in second standard is why should i do my homework essay very helpful in reaching to a diagnosis to establish if the child needs therapy or mere lifestyle modification is enough.Research has shown that for 80% of people sports medicine research paper suffering from over-pronation, a pre-fabricated Orthotic will provide sufficient correction.Previously, pediatric occupational therapists worked only with the children with known history of autism, developmental delays or evident cognitive impairments; however, now pediatric occupational therapists work in schools, with child psychologists and in communities i need help with my essay to sports medicine research paper assess, identify and improve mild to moderate disabilities and learning deficits at an early age in order to devise optimal treatment plans.Improper pencil grip is the leading cause of poor handwriting as a result of impaired motor skills.Most importantly, in order to ensure proper visual stimulation, occupational therapists also work with teachers and parents to establish the correct posture based on the height, weight and development of the child.Most grading scales are based on loss of consciousness (LOC), and post-traumatic help with school homework amnesia, both of which occur infrequently in MTBI.Three to four sports medicine research paper weeks after conception, one of the two cell layers of the gelatin-like human embryo, now about one-tenth of an inch long, starts to thicken and build up along homework help for free the middle.What are the different types of Orthotics available?Generally speaking there are 3 different types of Orthotics.People will get used i don't wanna do my homework to such Orthotics almost immediately and the cost ranges from $30 to $50 per pair.Whereas orthotics argumentative essay for school uniforms are functional devices designed to correct and optimise our foot function. There are a number of parameters that are used by educators and teachers to determine the hand-writing and pencil grip in school- aged children as young as 9 to 10 years. pay someone to do my term paper . Research conducted by Carter and Synolds suggested that majority of the children with handwriting abnormalities develop symptoms of learning disabilities in coming years. Supinators need custom-made Orthotic devices that correct the malfunction. There is still no agreement upon diagnosis and there is no known treatment for this injury besides the passage of time. write my essay discount code .Therefore Foot Orthoses users may not be sports medicine research paper worried through these unsupported statements. The top of the tube thickens into three bulges that form the hindbrain, midbrain and forebrain.A study from the USA "identified the nature of a person's walk as sports medicine research paper a source of chronic lower back pain," The study further showed more than a fifty percent improvement in alleviation of back pain after wearing orthotics

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Clinical Sports Medicine | Voted Sports Medicine Book of …

§ June 14th, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Clinical Sports Medicine | Voted Sports Medicine Book of …

Does artificial turf (AT) affect injury rates in football (soccer)? It is a question widely debated. Robust data states that artificial turf does not affect the general injury rate for acute injuries. Few studies, however, have included overuse injuries when comparing injury rates with AT and natural grass (NT). Also, the aspect of rapid change between surfaces is often discussed among football players, trainers and clinicians, but no previous studies have evaluated whether this actually affect injury rates.

With this background, our research group (Football Research Group, Linkping Sweden) and The Oslo Sports Trauma Research Group (Oslo, Norway) initiated a research project. We thought that a study setting in the Swedish and Norwegian first male leagues was appropriate since a) artificial turf is common in the Nordic countries, and b) the leagues are similar in climate and standards. In this way, we could collect a larger data set, which is a prerequisite to be able to analyze injury pattern, such as the injury rate for different specific muscle groups.

Photo by See-ming Lee. Used with permission. All rights reserved. Source: flickr

During two full football seasons (2010 and 2011), we recorded injuries that led to absence from football as well as players individual exposure to football on grass and AT. In November 2011, we could sum up that 32/37 clubs playing in the first leagues during this period had participated for the full study period. This resulted in 1063 match injuries and 1178 training injuries registered during 48,922 match and 318,568 training hours.

We compared the acute injury rates on AT and NG at the individual player level (to see if this study would replicate the findings from previous studies). Also, in this study setting we were able to compare acute and overuse injury rates between clubs that have artificial turf at their home venue (AT clubs) and clubs that have natural grass (NG clubs).

Interestingly, the result we found was that professional football clubs with AT installed at their home venue had a higher acute training injury rate and overuse injury rate compared to clubs with NG. In particular, AT clubs had a higher rate of overuse injuries to the hip/adductors (60% increase) and calf (four-fold increase).

Also, AT clubs had a higher match injury rate during the competitive season, while no differences between AT clubs and NG clubs were found during pre-season. Still, at the individual level, no differences in acute injury rates were found when playing on AT compared to NG in the total cohort analysis.

Consequently, our study replicated the findings from previous research that there is no difference in the acute injury rate at the two surfaces, yet clubs playing home matches on AT have a higher injury rate. Why is that?

Our hypothesis is that the AT clubs higher injury rates could be due to a rapid switching between playing surfaces and inadequate adaptation to a new surface. Since there were fewer AT clubs than NG clubs in this cohort, players from AT clubs had to alternate between surfaces more often when playing away matches.

It is possible that such frequent shifts between surfaces could lead to a greater load on musculoskeletal tissues and an increased overuse injury rate. This could explain why a higher match injury rate for AT clubs was only evident during the competitive season when switching between surfaces at away matches occurred frequently, while match injury rates were similar during the pre-season, when most friendly matches were played on AT.

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Prostate Cancer Research, Urology at UCLA

§ June 14th, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Prostate Cancer Research, Urology at UCLA

William Aronson, MD

Dr. William Aronson's laboratory and clinical research focuses on translational research in nutrition and prostate cancer. His work focuses on quantity of dietary fat, omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil, caloric restriction, green tea and lycopene. He conducts basic science and clinical research studying the role of these nutritional components for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. His present clinical research trials are evaluating a low-fat fish oil diet, a weight loss intervention and green and black tea formulations in men with prostate cancer. This research evaluates both the potential efficacy of these dietary interventions for prostate cancer prevention and treatment and potential serum and tissue biomarkers for a future large-scale nutrition trial in men with prostate cancer.

Aronson also has an extensive clinical research program focusing on multiple important aspects in prostate cancer, including prostate cancer prevention and treatment for early and late stage disease. At present he is conducting a trial evaluating docetaxel for high risk prostate cancer patients following radical prostatectomy. His clinical research also focuses on predictors of prostate cancer progression in early and late stage prostate cancer. He has also published extensively on obesity and prostate cancer and on the aggressive nature of prostate cancer in African American Men.

Dr. Aronsons research is funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Veterans Administration.

Dr. Belldegrun is internationally recognized in the field of surgical and medical management of urological cancers, designing and conducting large-scale clinical trials, and in the development of innovative therapies for patients with localized and metastatic kidney, bladder, and prostate cancer. Dr. Belldegruns research laboratory at UCLA has been a pioneer in the fields of genetic cancer therapy, immunotherapy, cancer vaccines, and targeted molecular therapy for urological malignancies.

Dr. Arie Belldegrun's research focuses on targeted specific therapy and immunotherapy of kidney and prostate cancers. Belldegrun's laboratory reported on the cloning of a tissue specific and androgen responsive novel 620 bp PSA promoter sequence and upstream sequence. The enhanced gene expression of the resulting construct, combined with its tissue specificity and androgen responsiveness, provide the foundation for the development of tissue specific vectors for prostate cancer gene therapy.

Belldegrun's laboratory also has studied the feasibility of isolating functional dentrictic cells from the peripheral blood of renal cell carcinoma patients and has compared their transduction efficiency using various methods of transferring gene markers into dentritic cells.

Arnold Chin, M.D., Ph.D, is a physician-scientist dedicated to improving the lives of patients with urologic malignancies. Focused on bladder and prostate cancer, his research team studies how the immune system recognizes and modulates cancer growth, invasion, and metastases.

Current projects include understanding the mechanisms that distinct immune pathways use to regulate tumor growth and spread, which will be important in identifying targets for novel immune-based therapies. A second area is focused on understanding bladder cancer stem cells, which may be the origin of the cancer. These cells may be resistant to current therapies. Targeting the cancer stem cell population, the team is studying the molecular and genetic mechanisms and is developing a personalized therapy program for bladder cancer patients to match specific treatments with patients. Chin hopes his studies will determine which tumors may respond to specific treatments and design novel therapeutics that optimize the bodys own immune system to fight cancer.

Dr. Isla Garraway is the Principal Investigator of a basic science laboratory in the Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center. Her current projects are focused on human prostate stem cells and prostate tumor-initiating cells, as well as development of human prostate tumor models. Specifically, Dr. Garraway is developing ways to isolate specific stem cells from patients with prostate cancer.

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Urology – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

§ June 14th, 2015 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Urology – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Urology (from Greek ouron "urine" and - -logia "study of"), also known as genitourinary surgery, is the branch of medicine that focuses on the surgical and medical diseases of the male and female urinary tract system and the male reproductive organs. The organs under the domain of urology include the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, and the male reproductive organs (testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate and penis).

The urinary and reproductive tracts are closely linked, and disorders of one often affect the other. Thus a major spectrum of the conditions managed in urology exists under the domain of genitourinary disorders. Urology combines the management of medical (i.e., non-surgical) conditions such as urinary tract infections and benign prostatic hyperplasia, with the management of surgical conditions such as bladder or prostate cancer, kidney stones, congenital abnormalities, traumatic injury, and stress incontinence.

Urology has traditionally been on the cutting-edge of surgical technology in the field of medicine; including minimally invasive robotic and laparoscopic surgery, laser assisted surgeries, and a host of other unique scope-guided-procedures. Urologists are well-trained in open and minimally-invasive techniques, employing real-time ultrasound guidance, fiber-optic endoscopic equipment, and various lasers in the treatment of multiple benign and malignant conditions.[1] In addition, urologists are pioneers in the use of robotics in laparoscopic surgery. Urology is closely related to (and urologists often collaborate with the practitioners of) the medical fields of oncology, nephrology, gynaecology, andrology, pediatric surgery, colorectal surgery, gastroenterology, and endocrinology.

Urology is one of the most competitive and a highly sought-after surgical specialty to enter for physicians, with new urologists comprising less than 1.5% of U.S. medical school graduates each year.[2][3] In Canada, Urology is an exceedingly difficult specialty to match, with less than 0.1% of the position dedicated to Urology.

Urologic surgeons, or urologists, undergo a very rigorous post-graduate surgical training period for a minimum duration of five years, of which 12 months must be completed in general surgery and 36 months must be completed in clinical urology. The remaining 12 months are spent in general surgery, urology or other clinical disciplines relevant to urology.[4] Upon successful completion of a residency program, many urologists choose to undergo further advanced training in a sub-specialty area of expertise through a fellowship lasting an additional 12 to 36 months. These may include: urologic surgery, urologic oncology and urologic oncological surgery, endourology and endourologic surgery, urogynecology and urogynecologic surgery, reconstructive urologic surgery (a form of reconstructive surgery), minimally-invasive urologic surgery, pediatric urology and pediatric urologic surgery (including adolescent urology, the treatment of premature or delayed puberty, and the treatment of congenital urological syndromes, malformations, and deformations), transplant urology (the field of transplant medicine and surgery concerned with transplantation of organs such as the kidneys, bladder tissue, ureters, and, recently penises), voiding dysfunction, neurourology, and androurology and sexual medicine. Additionally, some urologists supplement their fellowships with an additional Masters (2-3 years) or a PhD (4-6 years) in related topics to prepare them for an academic as well as a focused clinical job.

As a medical discipline that involves the care of many organs and physiological systems, urology can be broken down into several subdisciplines. At many larger academic centers and university hospitals that excel in patient care and clinical research, urologists often specialize within a particular subdiscipline of urology.

Endourology is the branch of urology that deals with the closed manipulation of the urinary tract.[5] It has lately grown to include all urologic minimally invasive surgical procedures. As opposed to open surgery, endourology is performed using small cameras and instruments inserted into the urinary tract. Transurethral surgery has been the cornerstone of endourology. Most of the urinary tract can be reached via the urethra, enabling prostate surgery, surgery of tumors of the urothelium, stone surgery, and simple urethral and ureteral procedures. Recently, the addition of laparoscopy and robotics has further subdivided this branch of urology.

Laparoscopy is a rapidly evolving branch of urology and has replaced some open surgical procedures. Robot-assisted surgery of the prostate, kidney, and ureter has been expanding this field. Today, many prostatectomies in the United States are carried out by so-called robotic assistance. This has created controversy, however, as robotics greatly increase the cost of surgery and the benefit for the patient may or may not proportional to the extra cost. Moreover, current (2011) market situation for robotic equipment is a de facto monopoly of one publicly held corporation[6] which further fuels the cost-effectiveness controversy.

Urologic oncology concerns the surgical treatment of malignant genitourinary diseases such as cancer of the prostate, adrenal glands, bladder, kidneys, ureters, testicles, and penis. The treatment of genitourinary cancer is managed by either a urologist or an oncologist, depending on the treatment type (surgical or medical). Most urologic oncologists in western countries use minimally invasive techniques (laparoscopy or endourology, robotic-assisted surgery) to manage urologic cancers amenable to surgical management.

Neurourology concerns nervous system control of the genitourinary system, and of conditions causing abnormal urination. Neurological diseases and disorders such as a stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and spinal cord injury can disrupt the lower urinary tract and result in conditions such as urinary incontinence, detrusor overactivity, urinary retention, and detrusor sphincter dyssynergia. Urodynamic studies play an important diagnostic role in neurourology. Therapy for nervous system disorders includes clean intermittent self-catheterization of the bladder, anticholinergic drugs, injection of Botulinum toxin into the bladder wall and advanced and less commonly used therapies such as sacral neuromodulation. Less marked neurological abnormalities can cause urological disorders as wellfor example, abnormalities of the sensory nervous system are thought by many researchers to play a role in disorders of painful or frequent urination (e.g. painful bladder syndrome also known as interstitial cystitis).

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