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QubitTech shapes the future of quantum computing – IBTimes India

§ December 27th, 2020 § Filed under Quantum Computer Comments Off on QubitTech shapes the future of quantum computing – IBTimes India

We still think of quantum computing as of science fiction, but in fact, it is already there. The quantum computing industry was worth $507.1 million in 2019. Experts from the McKinsey consulting company estimate that the quantum computing industry may exceed $65 billion by 2030, and reach an unprecedented $1 trillion by 2035. So, basically, in a few years, quantum computing will become mainstream. But how does business react to this eventuality?

Tech giants like IBM, Google, Honeywell and many others are in for the race to be the first to implement quantum computing on a massive scale. There is no clear leader yet, but recently Honeywell made a bold move: the company announced that its newest quantum computer has reached a quantum volume of 64 - twice as much as computers of IBM and Google.

And while the giants are at each other's throats, smaller companies look for alternative approaches. One of the first minor companies to showcase real-life use cases for the technology is QubitTechthat has demonstrated application of quantum computing in asset management. Thus quantum computing becomes not a theoretical breakthrough, but a financially viable and useful technology for everyone.

QubitTech is a company founded by a group of independent experts in algorithmic and traditional asset management. QubitTech CEO Greg Limon, also co-founder and shareholder of Toronto-based DigiMax Globa,l is known to have conducted two successful IPOs and participated in numerous venture projects with over $2 billion funds raised. His market expertise is second to none, as he has personally raised over $300 million for a series of successful startups that have grown to become global names.

Application of quantum technologies

The QubitTech platform makes use of quantum technologies that were initially fielded by IBM and offered a unique set of tools based on machine learning methods, quantum algorithms, and quantum neural networks.

Continuous improvements and testing have allowed the algorithmic systems used by QubitTech to advance into more sophisticated areas of application and offer their users a host of adjustable settings for achieving better risk to reward ratios in financial operations.

QubitTech has a clearly defined internal structure with dedicated workgroups for separate departments. Apart from having a healthy mix of experts on the team from financial, consulting, investment banking and other areas, QubitTech designs its own software solutions using internal resources.

The technological products offered by QubitTech give users the ability to select from a variety of balanced strategies based on smart diversification achieved by the use of algorithmic and traditional methods that are applied on the Bitfinex and Binance exchange platforms. More traditional approaches are also available for clients considering their strategies conservative.

The constructs have been proven to deliver up to 7% monthly yields. The simultaneous use of several strategies has been proven to deliver more promising results and QubitTech delivers.

Apart from trading bots and quantum computing constructs, QubitTech offers a host of other products as well, underscoring the platform's title as a full-fledged ecosystem of interconnected applications. Among the products is the P2P platform CryptoLocal are:

Other services that QubitTech plans to release in 2021 include a marketplace, a dedicated gaming platform, a venture fund, and an accelerator powered by the efforts of the project community.

The company has been making headway in its global expansion and is already represented in 13 countries with 150,000 active users.

The merger of quantum computing and the cryptocurrency industry may be a novel practice, but time has proven that advanced technologies often benefit each other. And while the two industries seem to be developed separately, some companies like QubitTech are taking leaps of faith and technological development, showing audiences what combined efforts can deliver.

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Beam me up: long-distance quantum teleportation has happened for the first time ever – SYFY WIRE

§ December 27th, 2020 § Filed under Quantum Computer Comments Off on Beam me up: long-distance quantum teleportation has happened for the first time ever – SYFY WIRE

Raise your hand if you ever wanted to get beamed onto the transport deck of the USS Enterprise. Maybe we havent reached the point of teleporting entire human beings yet (sorry Scotty), but what we have achieved is a huge breakthrough towards quantum internet.

Led by Caltech, a collaborative team from Fermilab, NASAs Jet Propulsion Lab, Harvard University, the University of Calgary and AT&T have now successfully teleported qubits (basic units of quantum info) across almost 14 miles of fiber optic cables with 90 percentprecision. This is because of quantum entanglement, the phenomenon in which quantum particles which are mysteriously entangled behave exactly the same even when far away from each other.

When quantum internet is finally a thing, it will make Wifi look obsolete and dial-up even more ancient than it already is. We achieved sustained, high-fidelity quantum teleportation utilizing time-bin (time-of-arrival_ qubits of light, at the telecommunication wavelength of 1.5 microns, over fiber optic cables, Panagiotis Spentzouris, Head of Quantum Science at the Fermilab Quantum Institute, told SYFY WIRE. This type of qubit is compatible with several devices that are required for the deployment of quantum networks.

What you might recognize is the fiber optic cables used in the experiment, since they are everywhere in telecommunication tech today. Lasers, electronics and optical equipment which were also used for the experiments at Caltech (CQNET) and Fermilab (FQNET) that could someday evolve into the next iteration of internet. Though this is equipment you probably also recognize, what it did for these experiments was enable them to go off without a glitch. Information traveled across the cables at warp speed with the help of semi-autonomous systems that monitored it while while managing control and synchronization of the entangled particles. The system could run for up to a week without human intervention.

So if entangled qubits are inextricably linked despite the distance between them, is there even a limit to how far information can travel? Hypothetically, they could go on forever. What limits exist in reality are not in the qubits but the effects of their surroundings. While one of the qubits containing information stays where it is, the other one has to zoom over to wherever it needs to transfer that information. It could run into obstacles on the way.

What limits the distance that information can be transmitted is loss and noise: either from the properties of the medium we use to send the information or the effects of the environment on the medium, or imperfections on the various operations we need to perform to realize the information transfer, Spentzouris, who coauthored a study recently published in PRX Qunatum, said.

To keep quantum internet running at high precision and over distances around what it was able to cover in this experiment, the quantum teleportation that powers it needs quantum memory and quantum repeaters. Quantum memory is basically the quantum version of the memory your computer and smartphone use now. Instead of storing memory as something like 100101011, it stores it in the form of qubits. To make it possible for entangled qubits to travel as far as possible, quantum repeaters make it easier for those qubits to traverse by splitting it into sections over which they are teleported.

With this system, Spentzouris and his team are planning to lay out the epic Illinois Express Quantum Network (IEQNET), which will use the same technologies that the CQNET and FQNET experiments so successfully pulled off. More tech will obviously needed to realize this sci-fi brainchild. It will combine quantum and non-quantum functions for its quantum nodes and controls. The only thing missing will be the repeaters, since they will need more development to operate over such an expanse. Spentzouris believes quantum computing itself reaches far beyond internet.

Fully distributed quantum computing includes applications include GPS, secure computation beyond anything that can be achieved now, all the way to enabling advances in designing new materials and medicine, as well basic science discoveries, he said. It will unleash the full power of quantum computing and have a profound impact on our lives.

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Beam me up: long-distance quantum teleportation has happened for the first time ever - SYFY WIRE

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Two Years into the Government’s National Quantum Initiative – Nextgov

§ December 27th, 2020 § Filed under Quantum Computer Comments Off on Two Years into the Government’s National Quantum Initiative – Nextgov

Monday markedtwo years since the passage of the National Quantum Initiative, or NQI Actand in that time, federal agencies followed through on its early calls and helped lay the groundwork for new breakthroughs across the U.S. quantum realm.

Now, the sights of those helping implement the law are set on the future.

I would say in five years, something we'd love to see is ... a better idea of, What are the applications for a quantum computer thats buildable in the next fiveto 10 years, that would be beneficial to society? the Office of Science and Technology Policy Assistant Director for Quantum Information Science Dr. Charles Tahan told Nextgov in an interview Friday. He also serves as the director of the National Quantum Coordination Officea cooperation-pushing hub established by the legislation.

Tahan reflected on some foundational moves made over the last 24 months and offered a glimpse into his teams big-ticket priorities for 2021.

Quantum devices and technologies are among an ever-evolving field that hones in on phenomena at the atomic scale. Potential applications are coming to light, and are expected to radically reshape science, engineering, computing, networking, sensing, communication and more. They offer promises like unhackable internet or navigation support in places disconnected from GPS.

Federal agencies have a long history of exploring physical sciences and quantum-related pursuitsbut previous efforts were often siloed. Signed by President Donald Trump in 2018, the NQI Act sought to provide for a coordinated federal program to accelerate quantum research and development for the economic and national security of America. It assigned specific jobs for the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Energy Department and National Science Foundation, among others, and mandated new collaborations to boost the nations quantum workforce talent pipeline and strengthen societys grasp of this relatively fresh area of investment. The functions of the National Quantum Coordination Office, or NQCO, were also set forth in the bill, and it was officially instituted in early 2019. Since then, the group has helped connect an array of relevant stakeholders and facilitate new initiatives proposed by the law.

Now, everything that's been called out in the act has been establishedits started up, Tahan explained. He noted the three agencies with weighty responsibilities spent 2019 planning out their courses of action within their communities, and this year, subsequently launched weighty new efforts.

One of the latest was unveiled in August by the Energy Department, which awarded $625 million over five yearssubject to appropriationsto its Argonne, Brookhaven, Fermi, Oak Ridge and Lawrence Berkeley national laboratories to establish QIS Research Centers. In each, top thinkers will link up to push forward collaborative research spanning many disciplines. Academic and private-sector institutions also pledged to provide $340 million in contributions for the work.

These are about $25 million eachthat's a tremendous amount of students, and postdocs, and researchers, Tahan said. And those are spread out across the country, focusing on all different areas of quantum: computing, sensing and networking.

NSF this summer also revealed the formation of new Quantum Leap Challenge Institutes to tackle fundamental research hurdles in quantum information science and engineering over the next half-decade. The University of Colorado, University of Illinois-Urbana-Champaign, and University of California, Berkeley are set to head and house the first three institutes, though Tahan confirmed more could be launched next year. The initiative is backed by $75 million in federal fundingand while it will take advantage of existing infrastructures, non-governmental entities involved are also making their own investments and constructing new facilities.

That's the foundation, you know, Tahan said. The teams have been formed, the research plans have been writtenthat's a tremendous amount of workand now they're off actually working. So now, we start to reap the rewards because all the heavy lifting of getting people organized has been done.

Together with NSF, OSTP also helped set in motion the National Q-12 Education Partnership. It intends to connect public, private and academic sector quantum players and cohesively create and release learning materials to help U.S. educators produce new courses to engage students with quantum fields. The work is ultimately meant to spur K-12 students' interest in the emerging areas earlier into their education, and NSF will award nearly $1 million across QIS education efforts through the work.

And beyond the governments walls and those of academia, the NQI Act also presented new opportunities for industry. Meeting the laws requirements, NIST helped convene a consortium of cross-sector stakeholders to strategically confront existing quantum-related technology, standards and workforce gaps, and needs. This year, that groupthe Quantum Economic Development Consortium, or QED-Cbloomed in size, established a more formal membership structure and announced companies that make up its steering committee.

It took a year or more to get all these companies together and then write partnership agreements. So, that partnership agreement was completed towards the beginning of summer, and the steering committee signed it over the summer, and now there are I think 100 companies or so who have signed it, Tahan said. So, it's up and running. It's a real economic development consortiumthats a technical thingand that's a big deal. And how big it is, and how fast it's growing is really, really remarkable.

This fall also brought the launch of, a one-stop website streamlining federal work and policies. The quantum coordination office simultaneously released a comprehensive roadmap pinpointing crucial areas of needed research, deemed the Quantum Frontiers Report.

That assessment incorporates data collected from many workshops, and prior efforts OSTP held to promote the national initiative and establishes eight frontiers that contain core problems with fundamental questions confronting QIS today and must be addressed to push forward research and development breakthroughs in the space. They include expanding opportunities for quantum technologies to benefit society, characterizing and mitigating quantum errors, and more.

It tries to cut through the hype a little bit, Tahan explained. It's a field that requires deep technical expertise. So, it's easy to be led in the wrong direction if you don't have all the data. So we try to narrow it down into here are the important problems, here's what we really don't know, heres what we do know, and go this way, and that will, hopefully benefit the whole enterprise.

Quantum-focused strides have also been made by the U.S. on the international front. Tahan pointed to the first quantum cooperation agreement signed between America and Japan late last year, which laid out basic core values guiding their working together.

We've been using that as a model to engage with other countries. We've had high-level meetings with Australia, industry collaborations with the U.K., and we're engaging with other countries. So, that's progressing, Tahan said. Many countries are interested in quantum as you can guesstheres a lot of investments around the worldand many want to work with us on going faster together.

China had also made its own notable quantum investments (some predating the NQI Act), and touted new claims of quantum supremacy, following Google, on the global stage this year.

I wouldn't frame it as a competition ... We are still very much in the research phase here, and we'll see how those things pan out, Tahan said. I think we're taking the right steps, collectively. The U.S. ecosystem of companies, nonprofits and governments arebased on our strategy, both technical and policiesgoing in the right direction and making the right investments.

Vice President-elect Kamala Harris previously put forthlegislationto broadly advance quantum research, but at this point, the Biden administration hasnt publicly shared any intentions to prioritize government-steered ongoing or future quantum efforts.

[One of] the big things we're looking towards in the next year, is workforce development. We have a critical shortage or need for talent in this space. Its a very diverse set of skills. With these new centers, just do the math. How many students and postdocs are you going to need to fill up those, to do all that research? It's a very large number, Tahan said. And so we're working on something to create that pipeline.

In that light, the team will work to continue to develop NSFs ongoing, Q-12 partnership. Theyll also reflect on whats been built so far through the national initiative to identify any crucial needs that may have been looked over.

As you stand something up thats really big, you're always going to make some mistakes. What have you missed? Tahan noted.

And going forward, the group plans to hone deeper in on balancing the economic and security implications of the burgeoning fields.

As the technology gets more and more advanced, how do we be first to realize everything but also protect our investments? Tahan said. And getting that balance right is going to require careful policy thinking about how to update the way the United States does things.

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What the Hell Is Quantum Chess? | IE – Interesting Engineering

§ December 27th, 2020 § Filed under Quantum Computer Comments Off on What the Hell Is Quantum Chess? | IE – Interesting Engineering

You won't believe you eyes when you play quantum chess, literally.

Have you ever heard of Quantum Chess? If not, we are confident you are in for a real treat.

Read on to find out more about this interesting take on a very ancient strategy game. But brace yourself, things are about to get a little "spooky".


Quantum Chess is a variant of the classical strategy game. It incorporates the principles of quantum physics. For example, unlike traditional chess, the piecescan be placed into a superposition of two locations, meaning that a piece can occupy more than one square.

Unlike chesspieces in the conventional game where, for example, a pawn is always a pawn, aquantum chesspiece is a superposition of "states", with each state representing a different conventional piece.

Conventional chess is a very complex game, although it is possible for computer algorithmsto beat the world's greatest chess playersby accurately determining the moves necessary to win the game at any point.

The main rationale behind the creation of Quantum Chess is to introduce an element of unpredictability into the game, and thereby place the computer and the human on a more equal footing. The game can also help "level the playing field" somewhat between human players of widely different skills and experience with chess.

Its like youre playing in a multiverse but the different boards [in different universes] are connected to each other, said Caltech physicist Spiros Michalakis during aLivestreamof a recent Quantum Chess tournament. It makes 3D chess fromStar Treklook silly.

But don't let the term intimidate you. New players to the game don't need to be experts in quantum physics a basic understanding of chess is more important actually.

While it might sound like something of a gimmick, Quantum Chess is an interesting and entertaining spin on the classic game that many find enjoyable. Unless, of course, you cannot live without knowing for sure what and where each piece is at any given time.

If that is the case, you might find this one of the most frustrating games ever created!

Quantum Chess, as you have probably already worked out, is not like any game of classical chess you have ever played. But, it is important to note that there are also several variants of Quantum Chess.

The best known is probably the one created by Chris Cantwell when he was a graduate student at theUniversity of Southern California.This variant differs from other examples by the fact that it is more "truly quantum" than others.

My initial goal was to create a version of quantum chess that was truly quantum in nature, so you get to play with the phenomenon,Cantwell said in an interview with Gizmodoback in 2016.

I didnt want it to just be a game that taught people, quantum mechanics. The idea is that by playing the game, a player will slowly develop an intuitive sense of the rules governing the quantum realm. In fact, I feel like Ive come to more intuitively understand quantum phenomena myself, just by making the game, he added.

In Cantwell's version of Quantum Chess, this superposition of pieces is indicated by a ring that details the probability that the piece can actually be found in a given square. Not only that, but when moving a piece, each action can also be governed by probability.

You can think of the pieces of the game existing on multiple boards in which their numbers are also not fixed. The board you see is a kind of overview of all of these other boards and a single move acts on other boards at the same time.

Whenever a piece moves, many calculations are made behind the scenes to determine the actual outcome, which could be completely unexpected.

That being said, moves do follow the basic rules of traditional chess, including things like castling and en passant. However, there are a few important differences:

Pieces in this version of Quantum Chess can make a series of either "quantum moves" (except for pawns) or regular chess moves. In this sense, the pieces can occupy more than one square on the multiverse of boards simultaneously.

These moves also come in a variety of "flavors".

The first is a move called a "split move". This can be performed by all non-pawn pieces and allows a piece to actually occupy two different target squares that it could traditionally reach in normal chess.

But, this can only be done if the target square is unoccupied or is occupied by pieces of the same color and type. A white knight, for example, could use this kind of move to occupy the space of another white knight.

Such a move cannot; however, be used to capture an opponent's piece.

Another interesting move is called a "merge move". This can be performed by all pieces except pawns and, like a split move, can only be performed on an unoccupied square or one occupied by a piece of the same type and color.

Using our previous example of a white knight, this would mean that two white knights could merge together on the same square. Again, this move cannot be used to capture enemy pieces.

So how do you take pieces in Quantum Chess?

Well, when two pieces of different colors meet on the same square the game makes a series of measurements.These measurements are designed to answer a specific yes or no question.

For example, the game's mechanics will look at certain squares to determine if they are occupied or not.The outcome of this can be to cause a piece's "superposition" state to "collapse".

If the superposition state collapses, then the desired move will be performed. If not, the move is not made and the player's turn ends.

Capturing is also very different in a game of Quantum Chess. When a player attempts to do this, the game will make calculations for the square where the piece is situated and for its target square, as well as any other squares in its path, to answer the question, "is the attacking piece present and can it reach the target?".

If the answer is no, it is important to note that this doesn't necessarily mean the attacking piece is not present. Nor does it mean that its path is blocked.

Another interesting concept of Quantum Chess is called "exclusion". If a moving target is occupied and is in superposition by a piece that cannot be captured by the move, it is called an exclusion move.

Again, calculations are made for the target square and any squares in the path of an allowed move by a piece in superposition. This is done to answer the same question as capturing, with similar outcomes.

Castling is also very different in Quantum Chess. This move always involves two targets, and the same measurements are made for both targets. Castling cannot be used to capture, and will always be an exclusion move.

So, you might be wondering how you actually win a game of Quantum Chess?

Just like traditional chess, the aim of the game is to capture the opponent's king. However, unlike in traditional chess, the concept of checkmate does not exist.

To win, the enemy king must no longer actually exist on the board. As any piece, including the king, exist in a state of superposition, they can either be captured or not which further complicates the issue.

The game, therefore, continues until it is known, with certainty, that a particular player has no king left. For this reason, it is possible for both players to lose their king at the same time and the game would then be considered a draw.

Another important thing to note is that each player has a set amount of time for the game. For this reason, you can also win by running an opponent's time out.

How you play Quantum Chess depends on the variant of the game you are playing. We have already covered the rules of one variant above, and that game can be played throughQuantum Realm Games. But another version created byAlice Wismath at theSchool of Computing at Queen's University in Californiahas some slightly different rules.

You can try that game for yourself here.

In her version, each player has sixteen pieces. These pieces are in a quantum state of superposition of two types: a primary and a secondary type.

They are also in an unknown (quantum) type or a known (classical) type.When a piece is "touched" it collapses into its classical state and has an equal probability of becoming either a primary or secondary type. The king, however, is an exception, and is always in a classical state.

Each player has one king and its position is always known.

All other pieces are assigned the following primary piece types: left rook, left bishop, left knight, queen, right knight, right bishop, right rook, and pawns one through eight. Secondary piece types are then randomly assigned from this same list of piece types so that each type occurs exactly twice in the player's pieces.

Each piece is created at the start of each game and superpositions are not changed throughout the game. Pieces also start as they would in regular chess, on the first two rows, according to their primary piece type with all, except the king, in a state of superposition.

Once a quantum state piece is touched (i.e. chosen to move), it collapses into one of its two predetermined states, and this state is suddenly revealed to both players.

This can mean that a pawn in the front row can suddenly become a white knight once the piece has been "touched". You won't know until the piece's quantum state collapses.

Quantum Chess boards are the same as regular chess boards except that when a piece lands on a white square it remains in its classical state. When pieces land on black squares, however, they undergo a quantum transformation and regain, if lost, their quantum superposition.

This means that a previously "revealed" pawn can also suddenly transform into a queen if that was one of its predetermined primary or secondary types. A very interesting concept indeed.

To play the game, each player chooses a piece to move and must move it. If the quantum piece collapses into a piece type with no possible moves, then the player's move is over.

Pieces in classical states with no possible moves cannot be chosen. All pieces move as they would in classical chess with some of the following exceptions:

Pieces can also be captured as normal, and quantum pieces collapse from their superposition state and are removed from play.

If a player touches a quantum piece that collapses into a state that puts the opponent's king in check, their move is over. The opponent, however, is not required to get out of check in such circumstances.

Pawns that reach the opposite side of the board can be promoted to aqueen, bishop, rook, or knight, regardless of the number of pieces of that type already in the game. Also, if a piece in the quantum state on the far row is touched and revealed to be a pawn, it is promoted, but the promotion takes up the turn. The superimposed piece type is not affected.

To win the game, each player must capture the enemy's king, as a checkmate does not happen in Quantum Chess. For this reason, kings can actually move into a position that would normally be considered check.

Games are considered a draw if both opponents are left with only their king in play or 100 consecutive moves have been made with no captures or pawn movements by either player.

It was recently announced that the world's first Quantum Chess tournament had been won by Aleksander Kubica, a postdoctoral fellow at Canada's Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics and Institute for Quantum Computing. The tournament was held on the 9th of December 2020 at the Q2B 2020 conference.

The tournament games are timed, and Kubica managed to beat his opponent, Google's Doug Strain, by letting him run out of time. This currently makes Kubica officially the best Quantum Chess player in the world.

Not a bad way to see out one of the worst years in living memory.

And that, ladies and gentlemen, is a wrap.

If you like the sound of playing Quantum Chess, why not check out either of the versions we have discussed above in this article. Who knows, you might get proficient enough to challenge Kubica for the title in the not too distant future?

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Scaling the heights of quantum computing to deliver real results – – China Daily

§ December 27th, 2020 § Filed under Quantum Computer Comments Off on Scaling the heights of quantum computing to deliver real results – – China Daily

Jiuzhang, a quantum computer prototype developed at the University of Science and Technology of China, represents such a giant leap forward in computing that just 200 seconds of its time dedicated to a specific task would equal 600 million years of computing time for today's current most powerful supercomputer.

On Dec 4, Science magazine announced a major breakthrough made by a team from USTC headed by renowned physicist Pan Jianwei. The team had jointly developed a 76-photon Jiuzhang, realizing an initial milestone on the path to full-scale quantum computing.

This quantum computational advantage, also known as "quantum supremacy", established China's leading position in the sphere of quantum computing research in the world.

USTC has produced a string of wonders: Sending Wukong, China-'s first dark matter particle explorer, and Mozi, the world's first quantum communication satellite, into space; and witnessing the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory sending off light from the Hefei Light Source.

During the past 50 years, USTC has made significant achievements in the fields of quantum physics, high-temperature superconductivity, thermonuclear fusion, artificial intelligence and nanomaterials.

Technology is the foundation of a country's prosperity, while innovation is the soul of national progress.

Since 1970, when USTC was relocated to Hefei, Anhui province, it has focused on research and innovation, targeting basic and strategic work in a bid to fulfill its oath to scale "the peak of sciences".

The large number of world-renowned innovative achievements shined glory on USTC, exhibiting its courage to innovate, daring to surpass its peers and unremitting pursuit of striving to be a top university in the world.

Although USTC was set up only 62 years ago, it established the country's first national laboratory and also the first national research center. It has obtained the largest number of achievements selected among China's Top 10 News for Scientific and Technological Progress each year since its founding.

Its reputation as an "important stronghold of innovation" has become stronger over the years.

While facing the frontiers of world science and technology, the main economic battlefield, the major needs of China and people's healthcare, USTC focuses on cultivating high-level scientific and technological innovation talents and teams, and shoulders national tasks.

It has used innovation to generate transformative technologies and develop strategic emerging industries, perfecting its ability to serve national strategic demand, and regional economic and social development.

Facing sci-tech frontiers

USTC has top disciplines covering mathematics, physics, chemistry, Earth and space sciences, biology and materials science. While based on basic research, USTC pays close attention to cutting-edge exploration, encouraging innovative achievements.

Serving major needs

In response to major national needs, USTC has led and participated in a number of significant scientific and technological projects that showcase the nation's strategic aims.

For example, sending the Mozi satellite and Wukong probe into space. Meanwhile, it also participated in the development of core components of Tiangong-2, China's first space lab, and Tianwen-1, the nation's first Mars exploration mission.

Main economic battlefield

In the face of economic and social development needs, USTC has balanced meeting national needs and boosting exploration in frontier spheres.

It has witnessed a series of innovative achievements in the fields of materials science, energy, environment, advanced manufacturing, AI, big data and security.

Safeguarding health

USTC's School of Life Sciences was founded in 1958 with emphasis on biophysics. In recent years, this flourished into many branches of biological sciences.

The new School of Life Sciences was established in Hefei in 1998. Based on its years of cultivation in the field of life sciences, the university has contributed much to China's medical science.

In 2020, the university developed the "USTC protocol" to treat COVID-19 patients, which has been introduced to more than 20 countries and regions.

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The Interview Issue: Eisgruber is trying to reshape the meaning of a Princeton education even as his school, and higher ed as a whole, grapples with…

§ December 27th, 2020 § Filed under Quantum Computer Comments Off on The Interview Issue: Eisgruber is trying to reshape the meaning of a Princeton education even as his school, and higher ed as a whole, grapples with…

Princeton University has discussed plans to create an additional campus across Lake Carnegie a campus that would potentially create an innovation center that could attract companies seeking the next great technological advancement. (More on that later.)

President Chris Eisgruber is just as excited to talk about the schools commitment to a different kind of expansion: One that would increase the number of low-income and first-generation students attending the nations premier university.

Its just such a passion for me, he said. One of the things Im proudest of is that we have become a national leader in terms of attracting students from low-income backgrounds and graduating them and seeing them go off and do spectacular things, with, I hope, many of them staying here in the state of New Jersey.

As we continue to look to elevate and nurture talent, it will be important to what Princeton University is doing going forward.

Going forward is a relative phrase these days. Princeton like all universities and much of society is eager to just return to the way it was. Few parts of society were as impacted as greatly by COVID-19 as higher education.

Princeton will bring its students back to campus next semester and do it with a rigorous testing system, while school officials await the day when everyone will be vaccinated. But, even then, Eisgruber knows the school will be different.

While the COVID-19 pandemic impacted how students learn, the murder of George Floyd led to a reexamination of how everyone thinks about racial equity and equality. At Princeton, that meant another look at the racist views of one of its former presidents, Woodrow Wilson, and the removal of his name from a number of prominent places.

Eisgruber discussed all of this and more in a recent chat for the Interview Issue, our annual year-end give-and-take with some of the most inspiring and intriguing people around the state.

Heres a look at the conversation, edited for space and clarity.

ROI-NJ: We have to start with COVID-19. Give us an overview of how that has impacted Princeton?

Chris Eisgruber: Education depends on engagement and personal interaction; thats what we try to provide. Thats the key to teaching that really inspires. But, the same kind of engagement and intimacy thats so valuable to education is also what spreads this virus. So, weve had the problem that the thing that is at our core of education has suddenly become dangerous in the midst of this pandemic, and weve had to adapt to that.

We made the tough decision to go online in the fall, and Ive been so impressed by the way our staff and our students and our faculty have worked together to find possibilities for making online education real and meaningful. And then, weve been working hard to find ways to bring back people to campus and do it safely. Im grateful to lots of people around this campus and to our alumni, who made it possible for us to set up a testing laboratory on the campus, so we can test our students twice a week, every week, even if the entire population looks asymptomatic.

We are working to de-densify, so that, in our housing system, well be able to have students one per room. Weve established a culture of masking and social distancing. So, Im confident that we can bring back students in the spring and bring them back safely. But Im among the many people who are looking forward to the day when we can get everybody vaccinated and we can go back to the in-person elements that add so much more to our education.

ROI: We have to think that virtual learning will continue in some fashion. How could that work?

CE: I think it will vary from institution to institution. I do think, for all of us, this will give us additional arrows in our quiver. The obvious place is in terms of guest speakers or when students are studying abroad or when a faculty member has to travel someplace. Its one thing when everything has to be on Zoom all the time. Its another if you suddenly realize, OK, distance doesnt have to be a barrier.

I still think in-person instruction will be the dominant mode of delivery, but, yes, you will still see (some virtual instruction) where we cant deliver the in-person experience.

ROI: Lets move to other big event of 2020, the killing of George Floyd and the long overdue discussion of racial equity, opportunity and justice that came about. The issue, of course, was reflected at Princeton in the removal of Woodrow Wilsons name from a number of key spots. Talk about how Princeton attempted to address all of these issues.

CE: I think we and other colleges and universities have a responsibility to be sites for honest confrontation with the right and wrongs of history and for conversations about very difficult subjects. And, obviously, race is a very hard subject to talk about in the United States and to talk about on our college campus. And we havent always done well with that.

Weve had to wrestle with Woodrow Wilsons legacy. I will say, personally, that, when I took office, I wasnt aware that he had resegregated the federal civil service. We talked about him on this campus in a way that didnt recognize that or acknowledge it. And I think that has been part of this problem of indifference thats held us back as a country and as a university as we reach for our highest aspirations.

ROI: How do we address this?

CE: This moment remains a moment of great challenge. These issues are so hard, and the problems have been so longstanding, but it also is a moment of opportunity for us. I think there is a greater and wider recognition of the need to do more affirmatively, even more than weve done. I know the state of New Jersey has been a leader in a lot of things. This university has tried to be a leader on a lot of things, but we need to do even more in order to reach our highest aspirations.

I assign a book to the incoming students every year. This year, it was a book by the historian Jill Lepore called This America: The Case for the Nation, which tries to tell the story of both the great triumphs and aspirations, but also the story of the failures. And she starts, to that end, with this quotation from W.E.B. Du Bois, which I now find myself quoting again and again to our students and alumni. In 1935, W.E.B. Du Bois said: Nations reel and stagger on their way. They make hideous mistakes. They commit frightful wrongs. They do great and beautiful things, and shall we not best guide humanity by telling the truth about all this so far as the truth is ascertainable?

And thats what I think we have tried to hold ourselves to do. And it is incredibly hard. And depending on who the audience is, they may hear or want to hear only one side of this. I think we have to tell it all, and thats the challenge.

Oswald Veblen. He was a mathematician here in the early 20th century. And he basically transformed the math and physics departments in this university and helped to start the Institute for Advanced Study. Hes not well known, but he should be. He realized early on what was happening in Nazi Germany and helped to bring over a number of Jewish refugees who otherwise would have perished. I think hes one of the unsung heroes. He just stands for so many things, from academic excellence to being a great citizen of the university to being somebody who helps the refugee in a time of need. So, he gets my vote.

Its humanity: One of the things that I love about New Jersey is that the people are real and theyre not pretentious.

One of the things were really going to want after this pandemic is to bring back the restaurants that have been badly affected. Thats going to matter to attracting young talent and keeping it here. One thing that stands in the way of aspiring chefs that might want to start interesting places that are cool and attractive to young people are the states liquor laws in particular, the difficulty that restaurants have in getting licenses in the state. I think it puts us at a real competitive disadvantage, by comparison to New York and Pennsylvania. So, Im going to put in a plug for our restaurant industry on that, and for the importance of having cool places that attract young people.

ROI: This challenge reaches all areas of the university. Sometimes in good ways. Princeton has had some successes in fundraising this year one was a gift from Mellody Hobson, a businesswomen, philanthropist and alumna that will have significance beyond the dollars and cents. Talk about her gift.

CE: Fundamentally, the process of fundraising at Princeton is about a desire of our friends and our alumni to pay it forward to future generations to do things that will make a difference at the university and beyond it. What we want to do right now, as we think about our current capital campaign, is to enable more students from more backgrounds to make a difference for the better in the world. And I think that message continues to resonate with our alumni.

One of our happiest moments during this difficult year was when we were able to announce the gift that will create Mellody Hobson College on the site where Wilson College was previously located. And I know, for many of our alumni and many of our students, the idea that they would be able to identify with an alum like Mellody Hobson, with her story of coming from Chicago as a first-generation Black student to Princeton University, then going on to this career of extraordinary national significance, means a lot. I think its a symbol for us. Its a symbol for students who will make a difference later in their lives. And its a symbol for higher education.

ROI: We are a business journal at heart. So, lets talk about how the university is connected to the business community in the state.

CE: Increasing Princetons connection to the New Jersey economic environment is important for us and the state of New Jersey because of its connections to our teaching and research mission. This is a change from the days when Albert Einstein was kind of the paradigmatic Princeton professor, thinking thoughts to win Nobel Prizes, but thoughts that didnt have immediate application in the business world. Nowadays, my top researchers, some of them who get whispered about in terms of winning Nobel Prizes, say their research is going to be better if they have more connection to the applied world, because theyre going to learn more about which problems need their attention, or where the really interesting issues are. And they want their research to have an application to the world.

One example of that, which really connects directly back to Einstein, is around quantum computing. We have an initiative in quantum computing. Some of our faculty are associated with a multiuniversity partnership that has a lot of government funding behind it. The Plasma Physics Laboratory is working on expanding into the area of nanochip technology. This is applying some of the most theoretical and worldly ideas that Einstein thought about. It is now the critical technology in terms of the next advances in computing. We would love to see all of that happen right here in central New Jersey. If we could be recognized as the place to go when it comes to quantum computing, thats going to be really good for the intellectual environment around Princeton University and really good for the state of New Jersey.

I think weve got the edge in terms of having the talent and the fundamentals here. And I think there are a number of other areas, like what were doing in bioengineering, what were doing in computer science. So, weve been really pleased that the New Jersey business community seems to have responded well to that. Its been a priority for Gov. (Phil) Murphys administration. And we hope that these initiatives will continue to grow.

ROI: Like the Princeton campus. This takes us back to an expansion across the lake.

CE: We want to expand gradually, because we want to make sure that were preserving the character of a Princeton education. So, one of the things were doing as were building these two new residential colleges is making sure that, as we start renovating some of our existing space, we will have the capacity to expand down the line.

We have land across the lake that is as large as our current campus. And part of what we have started to do is to put in place a general development plan for that land. Our belief is that the campus, as it develops over time, can be an important site for innovation and entrepreneurship. And part of what were thinking about is that the campus should develop with a character on the other side of the lake that provides a home to joint ventures of a sort that we cant quite imagine yet.

The example that I always give folks is, back in the 80s, Microsoft came to Cambridge University in England and said, Were interested in doing something jointly with your computer science department. And Cambridge, which has a lot of similarities to Princeton, was able to say Yes, because they had the equivalent of our land across the lake and they were ready to go and they were able to green-light it.

We want to be able to do that in New Jersey. If we get the right kind of project that advances our mission, and that could be good here for the innovation ecosystem, we want to be able to say, Yes, and that is one of the reasons why we are moving forward with planning for that.

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Satoshis Bitcoin Fortune Will Be Easiest Batch for Quantum Computers to Hack, Says Andreas Antonopoulos – The Daily Hodl

§ December 27th, 2020 § Filed under Quantum Computer Comments Off on Satoshis Bitcoin Fortune Will Be Easiest Batch for Quantum Computers to Hack, Says Andreas Antonopoulos – The Daily Hodl

Bitcoin evangelist and influencer Andreas Antonopoulos says Satoshi Nakamotos massive Bitcoin trove will be an easy target for quantum computers.

In a Bitcoin HARDTalk interview, Antonopoulos says that investors should keep a close watch on Nakamotos BTC fortune. If the dormant coins start moving, Antonopoulos says it is likely not the doing of the anonymous Bitcoin creator.

Especially with some of the early keys, they are pay-to-public keys, the public keys are visible and the money is sitting in them.

Therefore, a quantum computer, its first target, its juiciest target, its easiest to attack target is the Satoshi stash. How do we know if a quantum computer exists that can break ECDSA (elliptic curve digital algorithm). Simple, Satoshis coins start moving, and in fact at some point after a decade or so it might actually be the more likely explanation.

So you see the coins moving and youre like Did Satoshi come back from the dead? or Did a quantum computer emerge that can break [ECDSA keys]? As the years go by, I start leaning more towards, Okay, it appears a quantum computer has emerged that can do this, but I think were still a decade away from that.

However, the movement of Satoshis huge BTC stash is not a nail in the coffin for the leading cryptocurrency, says Antonopoulos.

It would cause a massive amount of volatility in the space by injecting an enormous amount of liquidity on the supply side of Bitcoin, but it would also once and for all resolve the question This is characteristic of markets which is, Sell the rumor, buy the fact

If something starts happening that is unexpected the market reacts badly, but as soon as that becomes expected, you get the opposite reaction. The markets go, Oh well, I guess Satoshis coins moved. Bitcoin didnt die completely, its price dipped. Well, now Bitcoin at whatever price its priced in now is a Bitcoin in which Satoshis coins have moved and are therefore part of the supply and priced in. Therefore, its future is now certain. That is no longer hanging over it

Sometimes having the bad news confirmed leads to a rally in the markets because you went from uncertainty to confirmation even though whats been confirmed is bad news.


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Beyond Supply And Demand: Charting The Bitcoin Mining Industry’s – Bitcoin Magazine

§ December 27th, 2020 § Filed under Quantum Computer Comments Off on Beyond Supply And Demand: Charting The Bitcoin Mining Industry’s – Bitcoin Magazine

Last week, bitcoin finally surpassed its all-time price high, exceeding $23,000 for the first time, seeing year-to-date gains of over 180 percent.

This was largely attributed to growing institutional interest, with established names such as Square, Galaxy Digital and Grayscale Investments all helping to push bitcoins scarcity to new heights. Meanwhile, renowned market index providers have made promising announcements, with S&P Dow Jones Indices announcing the launch of crypto indices in the coming year, signalling greater interest within the world of traditional finance. When bolstered by prominent consumer-facing players such as PayPal catalyzing renewed interest in cryptocurrencies, this recognition in the form of financial legitimacy as well as commercial promise is extremely valuable in charting the path to bitcoins long-term future.

But if we pull back the curtain looking behind the scenes into the very mechanics that have anchored Bitcoin over the years success has rested on an ever-growing ecosystem of miners and their trusty hardware. Over the years, Bitcoin mining has fast cemented its position as a lucrative industry, with the global mining industry generating $5.4 billion in revenue in 2019 alone. In a space where success is determined by the delicate balance of cost, performance and efficiency, mining hardware firms have certainly felt the effects of the innovation crunch as they look to develop infrastructures that can deliver on the computing needs of the future.

Rewinding back to 2009, where the first peak of innovation took place, lets take a look at whats changed and where the industry is headed as the year draws to a close.

When Satoshi Nakamoto mined Bitcoins genesis block in 2009, mining was arguably a more accessible task. Far from the computationally-intensive image that Bitcoin is associated with today, the earliest days of mining merely required the use of a computers central processing unit (CPU).

This changed in October 2010, when 1 bitcoin was unbelievably valued at $0.10 and the very first mining hardware made with graphics processing units (GPUs) was developed. GPU devices are distinguished for their comparative specificity often associated with the gaming industry, GPUs are optimized to compute single mathematical operations in parallel, leading to an efficiency uptick of six times compared to CPUs.

However, in spite of their speed, GPUs were later overshadowed by field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). Though far more labor intensive to develop due to their specificity on a software and hardware level, requiring the ability to run custom code, this specificity is what led to the success in the application of FGPAs for bitcoin mining.

In 2013, innovation struck once more with the invention of the worlds first application-specific-integrated-circuit- (ASIC) based miner. After years of research and development, the industry now had its first form of specialized hardware, especially developed for the sole purpose of bitcoin mining. No longer limited to general purpose software and infrastructure, these ASIC-based miners offered unparalleled gains in terms of power and efficiency.

Meanwhile, with competition intensifying to grab a significant share of the network, profit-sharing schemes came into being. Individuals rallied together to form mining pools, sharing the costs and resources to operate miners but also reaping block rewards as a collective team. On the other hand, larger players began to enter the Bitcoin mining space as full-fledged mining farms, catalyzing additional considerations such as access to capital, location and regulation for todays generation of miners.

Years on, in a space dominated by several players, mining hardware firms are now competing in terms of chip size and, therefore, efficiency. As chips decrease in size, mining rigs are able to process climbing hash rates in line with the Bitcoin networks growth without compromising on cost- and power-efficiency.

Amid the bear market of 2019 and the earlier pandemic-prompted struggles of the year, past instances have shown the mining sectors capacity for resilience amid turbulent times and this cannot be overstated.

Since 2013, however, developments in mining technology continue to be based on ASIC hardware alone. Miners may soon choose to compete on other terms beyond that of hardware, be it in terms of energy efficiency and sustainability or geographical dominance. Smaller chip sizes certainly represent significant technological milestones in the grand scheme of things, but in terms of competitive advantages, is this enough?

For one, amid bitcoins steady price rally, mining profitability has grown in the recent months. Miners still have the incentives to continue to invest in ASIC-based mining hardware at a profit whether it be new models or even older variants on the secondhand market that can be reused and repurposed. This past November alone, miners saw daily revenues returning to pre-halving levels, seeing highs of $21.7 million in a single day.

Simultaneously, while there are other mining machines on the market that cater to specific altcoins, ASIC-based miners continue to dominate. With projected optimism for bitcoin continuing into the new year, the mining sectors future is secure. Reflective of the credibility of proof of work (PoW) as the most tried and tested consensus model in the past decade, ASIC mining machines remain best positioned to deliver on this ever-increasing demand for computing power.

Yet, throughout the peaks and troughs of innovation, something wholly new as we learned with ASICs is often required to jumpstart further progress. Beyond chips, bitcoin mining players are keeping watch of emerging fields in supercomputing. These technologies have the potential to challenge existing hardware in terms of speed, but also in terms of security posing a threat to the cryptography that underpins bitcoin and the majority of crypto assets today.

In the case of Bitcoin, the security of asymmetric cryptography is intrinsic to its overall security functions as much as being one of its core value propositions. However, as early as 1994, the publication of Shors quantum algorithm posed an existential threat to any systems leveraging asymmetric encryption due to its ability to break the latters security assumptions. With a quantum computer, Shors algorithm could be used to extract a private key from the corresponding public key, thereby falsifying a digital signature and threatening the integrity of a system.

In fact, research from Deloitte found that 25 percent of all bitcoin in circulation are potentially vulnerable to a quantum algorithm attack provided that quantum computers can meet the Bitcoin networks current transaction throughput of approximately 10 minutes. Thankfully, todays ASICs currently maintain a 10-year speed advantage over quantum computers. That being said, should quantum computing play a part in writing the next phase of crypto mining, benefits are likely to emerge in the case of a long-term reduction in operational costs.

As the bitcoin mining sector contemplates its future, threats are undoubtedly on the horizon: from the growing appeal of less computationally-intensive consensus models such as proof of stake (PoS) to sophisticated cases of crypto jacking, where ones computing power is illicitly obtained for the purposes of mining cryptocurrencies, which are fast seeing favor compared to traditional ransomware schemes. Though risks abound, the past years have shown that a stringent commitment to research and development across the board has enabled the technology to mature, ushering in a fresh wave of institutional and commercial interest and this growing demand is set to catalyze a new phase of growth in bitcoin mining.

If theres anything we know for sure: its far from the end of the road.

This is a guest post by Nangeng Zhang. Opinions expressed are entirely their own and do not necessarily reflect those of BTC Inc or Bitcoin Magazine.

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Pandemic revived demand for nanotech protection, says Luxor Group MD – The Hindu

§ December 27th, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Comments Off on Pandemic revived demand for nanotech protection, says Luxor Group MD – The Hindu

We plan to introduce more product categories for home and personal hygiene, says Pooja Jain Gupta

The Luxor Group has expanded the scope of its business by unveiling nanotechnology-based products for long-term protection in the health and hygiene space under the brand Luxor Nano. Pooja Jain Gupta, MD, says the firm would make a difference in this segment as it did with writing products. Excerpts from an interview:

The concept was envisioned by my late father D.K. Jain. He dreamed of making India a cleaner and healthier country by bringing in nanotechnology products for long- term protection against bacteria.

He had thought about these products in 2008 and had engaged scientists. We had discussed the broad strategy but back then it was very complex. Bringing about a habit change in the end consumer was an uphill task.

Having realised that altering consumer habit would be an uphill task, we put this project on the back burner.

We recently revived the project as the pandemic had created fear in the minds of consumers who were now looking for enhanced safety and protection, creating a much stronger need for this category. We were convinced that our products would make a difference.

We have already introduced five products in the category of All in One disinfectants for hard and soft surfaces with long-lasting protection and also some products in the Protection On the Go category which are convenient sizes of hand sanitisers and disinfectants that can be carried by people of all ages at all times.

The investment has been around 50 crore, including in R&D. We have partnered with a German company. We plan to introduce more product categories for home and personal hygiene.

We plan to make Luxor Nano a 100-crore revenue business in the four years. We have introduced it through the digital route but with our strong distribution network we will cater to the entire country by next year.

Luxor Nano will also foray into international markets.

Luxor Nano is based on nanotechnology wherein molecular structures are conducted at nanoscale metres Extremely small particles bind together to create a layer of impregnation on any surface protecting it from bacteria, viruses and dust particles. Luxor Nano will be bringing in technology for long-term protection.

We are planning products for gadgets cleaning, specifically for mobile cleaning. People use the mobile all the time and touch the screens regularly. At any time a mobile phone has 30,000 microorganisms per square inch area. At times it changes multiple hands and it cant be cleaned with soap and water. We are going to introduce categories of products which will give long-lasting protection by cleaning and disinfecting.

This is an evolving category. We are unique and the category size is limitless as it is used in multiple industries. Health and hygiene was never a priority for Indian consumers, as awareness level was extremely low. The pandemic has taught us even the basic hygiene routine of hand wash which should have been a habit. It has gone into the users mind now.

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Dr. Maro: Swim, PRP and physical therapies highlight pet health successes in 2020 – The Times

§ December 27th, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Comments Off on Dr. Maro: Swim, PRP and physical therapies highlight pet health successes in 2020 – The Times

Dr. Cynthia Maro | For The Times

No one can deny that 2020 has been full of emotional, physical, social and financial challenges.

Fortunately, there have been many blessings, Fur-Kid kisses, licks and paw hugs, and grateful pet owners who have brought joy, kindness and warmth to the staff and me throughout the year. We are so appreciative for having had the opportunity to offer hope and healing and share in our clients lives.

The dedication of pet parents, in assuring their companions stay healthy, has been a testament to the value animals have in supporting their people, especially during this pandemic. The entire veterinary community has noted the real commitment clients have made to keep pets healthy.

Highlights in my part of the veterinary world this year, include:

More than 30 pets were able to avoid undergoing costly and invasive surgeries for cruciate ligament ruptures, with faster return to full functions. They achieved this through the use of a treatment that utilizes their own platelet-rich plasma, prolotherapy injections to cause proliferation of the support structures surrounding the injured joint and ozone injections to reduce pain and accelerate healing.

Many of the pets we treated were poor surgical risks, because of age, other illnesses and autoimmune problems. None of the pets treated had any negative side effects.

Another group of pets underwent the treatment combination for hip disorders, including dysplasia, chronic spinal pain and complications of prior surgical repairs which did not heal successfully. We are happy to see so many animals become pain-free, enjoying walks, runs and a return to health. As one owner said, I never imagined there was a way to rewind the clock, but my dog acts at least 5 years younger. She plays and makes me tired from throwing the ball so much. For the past year, I couldnt get her to go for a walk, and now, she wants to play every time I get up from the chair.

Maya, an 80-pound Doberman, had torn both of her anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL). Her owner was hesitant to put foreign implants into her knees, because of the possibility of long-term reactions to the metal and exercise restriction concerns. Maya had a full recovery after her alternative prolozone treatments and laser therapy. And she has no foreign material in her body.

The underwater treadmill and support exercises have helped post-surgical pets get fully back on their feet.When coupled with other alternative treatments, including acupuncture and chiropractic care, pets with slow or poor healing can get back to the business of protecting their families, patrolling the yard and entertaining the family.

Schatzi, a 105-pound German shepherd who had undergone TPLO surgery at a specialists office, never regained full function of his limb after his implant healing was complete.

His owner brought him to the office for physical therapy and treadmill exercises. After eight weeks, he was back to playing.

Breakthroughs in cancer care for several pets who achieved remissions of their cancer, both complete and palliative, due to a device called the Innovarius Sanawave. This treatment allows us to, non-invasively, treat pets with inoperable cancer.

One pet, who had a remarkable extension of life expectancy and pain-free quality of life with this therapy includes Vita, an 8-year-old brindle pit bull rescue. She was diagnosed with a large, invasive sarcoma of the shoulder that was inoperable. Within a few weeks of beginning Sanawave therapy, visible reduction in tumor size, increased mobility and decreased pain were all evident.

Daisy, a 10-year-old tabby cat, also benefitted from Sanawave therapy. She was diagnosed with transitional cell carcinoma of her urinary bladder in March 2019. The non-invasive therapy has kept her comfortable without the use of pain meds and her tumor has not grown, thanks to management with a device that allows her to lay on a warm treatment pad, unaware that radio frequencies are causing tumor cell apoptosis. Without this treatment, her life expectancy would have been less than 6 months from the original diagnosis.

The use of Chinese herbs for cancer, in addition to dietary management, helps many patients enjoy pain-free time with their owners. My own dog (who I wrote about in my last column), Lollipop, is still thriving, at almost 16 years of age, after she was diagnosed with a hemangiosarcoma of the spleen in October this year. She has received nanotechnology-prepared herbs, clinical nutrition and nano-vitalight therapy. These non-invasive treatments got her stable enough to undergo surgery this past month. Not only did she make a full recovery, but my family will enjoy another holiday with our special pet.

Animals mean so much to us, and this years events have helped us all appreciate the lessons and love they share. I look forward to caring for these precious angels in 2021 and hope for a healthy coming year for you, your pets and families.

Dr. Cynthia Maro is a veterinarian at the Ellwood Animal Hospital in Ellwood City and the Chippewa Animal Hospital in Chippewa Township. She writes a biweekly column on pet care and health issues. If you have a topic youd like to have addressed,

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EPA awards Nearly $100000 for innovative technology projects –

§ December 26th, 2020 § Filed under Nanomaterials Comments Off on EPA awards Nearly $100000 for innovative technology projects –

CHICAGO On Dec. 16, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced nearly $100,000 in funding to four student teams through its People, Prosperity and the Planet (P3) grants program. The teams from the University of Toledo, Baldwin Wallace University, Miami University, and University of Akron, will receive funding to develop and demonstrate projects that help address environmental and public health challenges.

Advancements in scientific knowledge and technology come from innovative projects like these, said EPA Regional Administrator Kurt Thiede. EPA is pleased to advance the work of the student teams from Baldwin Wallace University, Miami University, University of Akron, and University of Toledo as they work towards finding solutions to protect the environment and our communities.

As EPA celebrates its 50th anniversary, this month, we are highlighting ways the agency supports the next generation of environmental leaders, said Jennifer Orme-Zavaleta, EPAs Principal Deputy Assistant Administrator for Science and EPA Science Advisor. The P3 program helps foster environmental education among students to support the next generation of scientists and engineers working to tackle some of todays most pressing environmental issues.

The Phase I teams will receive grants of up to $25,000 each which serve as their proof of concept. Across the nation, this years winners are addressing a variety of research topics including efforts to reduce microplastics waste and food waste, creating innovative and solar-driven nanomaterials, building a stand-alone water treatment system that can provide potable water for indoor use in single family homes, and removing PFAS from water using liquid extractions.

These teams are also eligible to compete for a Phase II grant of up to $100,000 to further implement their design in a real-world setting.

Phase I grantees include student teams from the following universities:

University of Toledo: A student team will aim to develop wet wipes that rapidly dissolve when flushed, safeguarding the sewer/wastewater treatment system and reducing the emissions of plastic debris.

Baldwin Wallace University: A student team from Baldwin Wallace University will develop a mobile application that will allow food to be listed and recovered on a college campus. The team aims for the sustainable food app to result in the recovery of 5-10% of all food at institutional events during the first year of use.

Miami University: A team from Miami University will research a novel approach to removing perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFAS) from water. Additionally, the project will design a process to remove PFAS from water on a commercial scale and evaluate it for economic viability.

University of Akron: A student team from University of Akron will develop an alternative to polyurethane coatings which are produced using hazardous and toxic chemicals. The new approach will also reduce Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) by using water as a solvent.

UT student team receives grant


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Global Nanosensor Market : Industry Analysis And Forecast (2019-2026) By Type, Technology, Application, And Region. – LionLowdown

§ December 26th, 2020 § Filed under Nanotechnology Comments Off on Global Nanosensor Market : Industry Analysis And Forecast (2019-2026) By Type, Technology, Application, And Region. – LionLowdown

Global Nanosensor Marketwas valued US$ XX Mn in 2018 and is expected to reach US$ 5967.8 Mn by 2026, at CAGR of XX% during forecast period.

In recent year, the rapidly increasing investments in nanotechnology have made the world to succeed in developing nanosensors for various applications. The industries using nanosensors hold great potential for future success in nanosensors include robotics and the Internet-of-Things (IoT), construction, transportation and energy storage, food management, environmental monitoring; and security, surveillance, and military. Furthermore, with the rising significance of intelligent packaging, adoption of nanosensors is expected to increase. Also, the key improvements in the agricultural and food sector are expecting the huge penetration of nanotechnology and nanosensors, including feed and nutrient components, intelligent packaging and quick detection systems.The report study has analyzed revenue impact of COVID -19 pandemic on the sales revenue of market leaders, market followers and market disrupters in the report and same is reflected in our analysis.

Additionally, nanotechnology has emerged across the developed nations on account of these advancements highly supported by the government regulations. For instance, the Cabinet Office of Japan, MEXT and METI have recognized the necessity and have dedicated divisions in the ministries focused only on nanotechnology. The U.S. government R&D initiative to develop the new technology using nanosensor, the National Nanotechnology Initiative established in 2001 is still active and driving the market in the region.

The major factors that drive the growth of the global nanosensors market are increasingusage of nanosensors in various technology, and growing demand for optimum and cost-efficient quality products in the emerging economies. Also features of nanosensors such as low cost, compact size, increased reliability, and reduced power consumption have also supported the market growth. Furthermore, limited availability of sensors supporting consumer electronics is the major hindrance for the growth of the market. Moreover, technological advancement is expected to generate new growth opportunities for the market in the coming years.

The healthcare and the biomedical sector is expected to hold the largest initial market for nanosensors on account of rapidly increasing demand for nanotechnology in healthcare and the biomedical sector with compact, accurate and portable diagnostic sensing systems. As Urgent Care Centers (UCC) and Retail Clinics Centers (RC) have become widely held as the need for convenient care continues to grow because of the long waits seen by the emergency departments.

Among the regions, North America accounted for 41.33% of the global military expenditure, in 2017. And it is expected to hold the largest share among all regions during the forecast period. North America also has benefited the military by helping in the development of advanced Warfield gear, such as lighter vehicles and self-repairing tents. This will help to increase the demand for nanosensor market in this region. Furthermore, with the increased defence budget of the region specifically the U. S., the demand for nanomaterials and components is projected to increase. The U.S. military spending dropped in 2013, it recovered from 2017 and is expected to increase in future due to the advancement needs in military and defence sector of the region.

The Nanosensor market report contains in-depth analysis of major drivers, opportunities, challenges, industry trends and their impact on the market. The Nanosensor market report also provides data about the company and its strategy. This research report also adds a snapshot of key competition, market trends during the forecast period, expected growth rates and the primary factors driving and impacting growth market data. This information will be beneficial or helpful to the decision makers.

The objective of the report is to present a comprehensive assessment of the market and contains thoughtful insights, facts, historical data, industry-validated market data and projections with a suitable set of assumptions and methodology. The report also helps in understanding the global Nanosensor market dynamics, structure by identifying and analysing the market segments and project the global market size. Further, the report also focuses on the competitive analysis of key players by product, price, financial position, product portfolio, growth strategies, and regional presence. The report also provides PEST analysis, PORTERs analysis, and SWOT analysis to address questions of shareholders to prioritizing the efforts and investment in the near future to the emerging segment in the global Nanosensor market.

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Scope of Global Nanosensor Market:

Global Nanosensor Market, By Type:

Optical Nano Sensors Electrochemical Nano Sensors Electromagnetic Nano Sensors Global Nanosensor Market, By Technology:

Top-Down Lithography Bottom-Up Assembly Molecular Self-Assembly Global Nanosensor Market, By Application:

Security & Surveillance Aerospace, Defense, & Military Automotive Biomedical and Healthcare Food Management Environmental Monitoring Others Global Nanosensor Market, By Region:

North America Europe Asia-Pacific South America Middle East & Africa Key Players Operated in Market Include:

Honeywell International, Inc. Texas Instruments, Inc. N5 Sensor, Inc. Tracense Systems Ltd. T2 Biosystems Ltd BreathDX Ltd Inanon Bio Inc. Applied Nanotech Inc. LamdaGen Corporation Applied Nanodetectors Ltd. Vista Thatapeutics Inc. NanomixInc Nano Detection Technologies Inc. Affymetrix Inc. attocube systems AG Altair Nanotechnologies Inc. Bayer AG BioCrystal Ltd. Debiotech S.A. Thermo Fischer Scientific

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Global Nanosensor Market : Industry Analysis And Forecast (2019-2026) By Type, Technology, Application, And Region. - LionLowdown

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Nanomedicine Market Forecast Estimation & Approach 2020-2026 | GE Healthcare, Johnson & Johnson, Mallinckrodt plc, Merck & Co. Inc.,…

§ December 26th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanomedicine Market Forecast Estimation & Approach 2020-2026 | GE Healthcare, Johnson & Johnson, Mallinckrodt plc, Merck & Co. Inc.,…

The Global Nanomedicine Market report provides information by Top Players, Geography, End users, Applications, Competitor analysis, Sales, Revenue, Price, Gross Margin, Market Share, Import-Export, Trends and Forecast.

Initially, the report provides a basic overview of the industry including definitions, classifications, applications, and industry chain structure. The Nanomedicine market analysis is provided for the international markets including development trends, competitive landscape analysis, and key regions development status.

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2020 Global Nanomedicine Market Report is a professional and in-depth research report on the worlds major regional market conditions of the Nanomedicine industry, focusing on the main regions and the main countries (United States, Europe, Japan and China).

Global Nanomedicine market competition by top manufacturers, with production, price, revenue (value) and market share for each manufacturer.

The Top players are

Nanomedicine Market Report based on Product Type:

Nanomedicine Market Report based on Applications:

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The report introduces Nanomedicine basic information including definition, classification, application, industry chain structure, industry overview, policy analysis, and news analysis. Insightful predictions for the Nanomedicine market for the coming few years have also been included in the report.

The report focuses on global major leading Nanomedicine Market players providing information such as company profiles, product picture and specification, capacity, production, price, cost, revenue and contact information. Upstream raw materials and equipment and downstream demand analysis is also carried out.

The Nanomedicine industry development trends and marketing channels are analyzed. Finally, the feasibility of new investment projects is assessed, and overall research conclusions offered.



Chapter 1: Nanomedicine Market Overview, Product Overview, Market Segmentation, Market Overview of Regions, Market Dynamics, Limitations, Opportunities and Industry News and Policies.

Chapter 2: Nanomedicine Industry Chain Analysis, Upstream Raw Material Suppliers, Major Players, Production Process Analysis, Cost Analysis, Market Channels and Major Downstream Buyers.

Chapter 3: Value Analysis, Production, Growth Rate and Price Analysis by Type of Nanomedicine.

Chapter 4: Downstream Characteristics, Consumption and Market Share by Application of Nanomedicine.

Chapter 5: Production Volume, Price, Gross Margin, and Revenue ($) of Nanomedicine by Regions (2014-2020).

Chapter 6: Nanomedicine Production, Consumption, Export and Import by Regions (2014-2020).

Chapter 7: Nanomedicine Market Status and SWOT Analysis by Regions.

Chapter 8: Competitive Landscape, Product Introduction, Company Profiles, Market Distribution Status by Players of Nanomedicine.

Chapter 9: Nanomedicine Market Analysis and Forecast by Type and Application (2020-2026).

Chapter 10: Market Analysis and Forecast by Regions (2020-2026).

Chapter 11: Industry Characteristics, Key Factors, New Entrants SWOT Analysis, Investment Feasibility Analysis.

Chapter 12: Market Conclusion of the Whole Report.

Chapter 13: Appendix Such as Methodology and Data Resources of This Research.

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Nanomedicine Market Forecast Estimation & Approach 2020-2026 | GE Healthcare, Johnson & Johnson, Mallinckrodt plc, Merck & Co. Inc.,...

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Nanomedicine Market With Size, Status, Demand, Current And Future Investments Forecast Till 2026: GE Healthcare, Johnson & Johnson, Mallinckrodt…

§ December 26th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanomedicine Market With Size, Status, Demand, Current And Future Investments Forecast Till 2026: GE Healthcare, Johnson & Johnson, Mallinckrodt…

WMR added the Most up-to-date research on Nanomedicine Market Forecast to 2026 to its huge collection of research reports database. An insight into the important factors and trends influencing the market competition and opportunities in Investment. This Report compiled byWorldwide Market Reports features a succinct analysis of the latest market trends.

Nanomedicine market reports provide a comprehensive overview of the global market size and share. Nanomedicine market data reports also provide a 5 year pre-historic and forecast for the sector and include data on socio-economic data of global. Key stakeholders can consider statistics, tables & figures mentioned in this report for strategic planning which leads to the success of the organization.

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New business opportunities and rising demand for Nanomedicine market activates are the primary factors expected to drive the growth of the Nanomedicine market in the United States, EU, Japan, China, India, Africa, Southeast Asia are the major region leading the Nanomedicine market.

The major players profiled in this report include

Impact of COVID-19:

Nanomedicine Market report analyses the impact of Coronavirus (COVID-19) on the Nanomedicine industry. Since the COVID-19 virus outbreak in December 2019, the disease has spread to almost 180+ countries around the globe with the World Health Organization declaring it a public health emergency. The global impacts of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are already starting to be felt, and will significantly affect the Nanomedicine market in 2020.

COVID-19 can affect the global economy in 3 main ways: by directly affecting production and demand, by creating supply chain and market disturbance, and by its financial impact on firms and financial markets.

Further in the Nanomedicine Market research reports, following points are included along with in-depth study of each point:

Production Analysis: Production of the Nanomedicine is analyzed with respect to different regions, types, and applications. Here, price analysis of various Nanomedicine Market key players is also covered.

Supply and Consumption: In continuation with sales, this section studies supply and consumption for the Nanomedicine Market. This part also sheds light on the gap between supply and consumption. Import and export figures are also given in this report.

Key Strategic Developments: The study also includes the key strategic developments of the Nanomedicine market, comprising R&D, new product launch, M&A, agreements, collaborations, partnerships, joint ventures, Global and regional growth of the leading competitors operating in the market on a global and regional scale.

Get Sample ToC to understand the CORONA Virus/COVID19 impact and be smart in redefining business strategies.

In this report, the global Nanomedicine market is valued at USD XX million in 2019 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2026, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2019 and 2026.

The report provides an in-detail list of drivers and restraints in the market, which are influencing the market growth. Additionally, provides expected opportunities and emerging trends in the market.

The report includes a detailed study of Porters Five Forces model to analyze the different factors affecting the growth of the market. Moreover, the study also covers a market attractiveness analysis, PESTLE analysis, Value Chain Analysis, and SWOT analysis. The report also includes detailed abstracts about statistics, revenue forecasts, and market valuation, which additionally highlights its status in the competitive landscape and growth trends accepted by major industry players.

The report is a collection of first-hand information, qualitative assessment by industry analysts, and inputs from industry experts. Moreover, the report also maps the qualitative impact of various market factors on market segments and geographies. The major factor driving the adoption of Nanomedicine is the formation of a data encryption feature and data privacy feature. The major industry changing factors for the Nanomedicine market segments are explored in this report. This report also covers the growth factors of the global market based on end-users.

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Customers Satisfaction: Our expert team will assist with all your research needs and customize the report.

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Assured Quality: We focus on the quality and accuracy of the report.

This report includes the estimation of market size for value (million US$) and volume (K Units). Both top-down and bottom-up approaches have been used to estimate and validate the market size of Nanomedicine market, to estimate the size of various other dependent submarkets in the overall market. Key players in the market have been identified through secondary research, and their market shares have been determined through primary and secondary research. All percentage shares split, and breakdowns have been determined using secondary sources and verified primary sources.

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** The Values marked with XX is confidential data. To know more about CAGR figures fill in your information so that our business development executive can get in touch with you.

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Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market Size By Type, By Application, By Geography, By Top Companies And Forecast To 2027 – The Monitor

§ December 26th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market Size By Type, By Application, By Geography, By Top Companies And Forecast To 2027 – The Monitor

New Jersey, United States,- A new market research report on the Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market sheds light on effective survey techniques in the Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine). This report summarizes the technologies that can help grow businesses in the near future. The report also provides detailed insights into the global market in terms of revenue and various dynamic aspects of economic growth. The annual market volume is examined from 2020 to 2027. The market overview comprises the applications of the latest technologies to grow the businesses rapidly.

The Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market research report presents an in-depth assessment of trends affecting industry dynamics with respect to regional terrain and competitive area. The study also sheds light on the challenges this industry faces and provides insight into the opportunities available. Additionally, the report includes COVID-19 case studies to provide an accurate picture of this business landscape for all industry participants.

NOTE: Our Research Analyst implemented a Free PDF Sample Report copy as per your Research Requirement, also including impact analysis of COVID-19 on Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market Size.

The following manufacturers are covered in this report:

Competitive Landscape:

The report contains the profiles of various prominent players in the Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market. Different strategies implemented by these vendors have been analyzed and studied to gain a competitive edge, create unique product portfolios and increase their market share. The study also sheds light on major global industry vendors. Such essential vendors consist of both new and well-known players. Besides, the business report contains important data relating to the launch of new products on the market, specific licenses, domestic scenarios and the strategies of the organization implemented on the market.

The report further studies the segmentation of the market based on product types offered in the market and their end-use/applications.

Geographic Segmentation

The report offers an exhaustive assessment of different region-wise and country-wise Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) markets such as the U.S., Canada, Germany, France, U.K., Italy, Russia, China, Japan, South Korea, India, Australia, Taiwan, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam, Mexico, Brazil, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, U.A.E, etc. Key regions covered in the report are North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, and the Middle East and Africa.

Points Covered in the Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market Report:

Significant details regarding production models, market remuneration, company profile, and manufactured products is given.

The study encloses data regarding the market share that each firm holds, along with their pricing models and gross margins.

Vital information about volume predictions along with the revenue of each product type is documented.

Important insights pertaining to production models, market share, and growth rate of each product segment over the assessment period are provided.

It examines the market share for every application as well as estimates the growth rate during the study period.

The study enumerates the competition trends and offers a granular systematic review of the industry supply chain.

It also mentions Porters five forces assessment and SWOT analysis to deduce the practicability of a new project.

Some Points from Table of Content

Chapter 1 Report Overview

Chapter 2 Global Market Growth Trends

Chapter 3 Value Chain of Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market

Chapter 4 Players Profiles

Chapter 5 Global Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market Analysis by Regions

Chapter 6 North America Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter 7 Europe Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter 8 Asia-Pacific Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter 9 Middle East and Africa Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter 10 South America Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter 11 Global Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market Segment by Types

Chapter 12 Global Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market Segment by Applications

Chapter 13 Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market Forecast by Regions (2020-2027)

Chapter 14 Appendix

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Healthcare Nanotechnology (Nanomedicine) Market Size By Type, By Application, By Geography, By Top Companies And Forecast To 2027 - The Monitor

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The Cheshire scientists working Christmas Day to analyse thousands of coronavirus tests – Cheshire Live

§ December 26th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on The Cheshire scientists working Christmas Day to analyse thousands of coronavirus tests – Cheshire Live

Many Cheshire residents will be looking forward to a well-deserved break over Christmas and New Year and saying a fond farewell to what has undoubtedly been a tumultuous 2020.

But for many Cheshire residents including doctors, care workers, midwives and nurses, they will be pulling lengthy shifts on Christmas Day to keep us safe throughout the holidays.

But this year more than ever, the appreciation is also being extended to include the scientists who have been working tirelessly throughout the pandemic, and who are set to continue in their resolve to keep us safe over the festive period.

For the scientists at Cheshires Lighthouse Lab at Alderley Park in Nether Alderley, just outside Macclesfield, the 25th will be business as usual.

They will be working to process the thousands of coronavirus samples the site receives daily, a key component of the governments COVID-19 testing programme in the battle against the virus.

The scientists at Alderley Park can process more than 50,000 samples daily.

Alongside 70 colleagues, a local scientist who will be working at the lab on Christmas Day is Dr Cai Astley.

As a bioscience lead at the site, Cai joined the lab from his PhD in Nanomedicine and Vascular Pathology from The Manchester Metropolitan University earlier in the year to support the team in testing Covid samples.

Cai said: Covid doesnt take a break over Christmas, which is why we shouldnt be letting our guard down over the festive period in the fight against Covid.

Although Ill be missing out on the turkey and the trimmings this year, itll be a small sacrifice to pay if it means we can continue to process the Covid samples to meet demand over the Christmas period.

Doctors and nurses will be on the front line on the 25th battling the effects of Covid, and well be doing exactly the same, helping to play our bit in the governments testing programme.

The Alderley Park Lighthouse Lab was set up from scratch in March, when 1,000 individuals from across the national life sciences sector joined to volunteer their time in battling the pandemic.

Medicines Discovery Catapult (MDC) runs the Lighthouse Lab on a non-for-profit basis following a request from the Department for Health to rapidly expand Covid-19 testing.

Cai continued: Theres over 500 staff members at the site sampling up to 50,000 tests a day and weve just recently processed our 5 millionth sample.

"Weve got to where we are through the hard work and dogged determination of the team, which would have been an impossible achievement were it not for their ethos and commitment to help eradicate Covid.

Itll be tough being without family this year, but all the more worth it if it will enable me to see more family members next year.

"I might treat myself to a turkey sandwich at lunchtime, but Ill certainly be raising a glass to the team at Alderley Park at the end of the shift!

Mark Wigglesworth, Site Director at the Alderley Park Lighthouse Lab, paid tribute to the scientists who will be working over the festive period.

Mark said: With hundreds of volunteers answering the initial call to action here at Alderley Park, we were astounded by the sheer number of volunteers who stepped forward at the start of the year to dedicate their time and energy towards a common goal; how the application of technology and science can contribute towards the eradication of the terrible pandemic weve all had to endure this year.

Following the launch, weve had a great deal of these volunteers join the team as employed staff, who have again demonstrated their determination and eagerness to continue that fight, regardless of the festivities in the coming weeks.

"Id like to show my appreciation to the entire team for their hard work this year and wish them a very Merry Christmas.

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The Cheshire scientists working Christmas Day to analyse thousands of coronavirus tests - Cheshire Live

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The hospital autopsy, a fading practice, revealed secrets of COVID-19 – Modern Healthcare

§ December 26th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on The hospital autopsy, a fading practice, revealed secrets of COVID-19 – Modern Healthcare

The COVID-19 pandemic has helped revive the autopsy.

When the virus first arrived in U.S. hospitals, doctors could only guess what was causing its strange constellation of symptoms: What could explain why patients were losing their sense of smell and taste, developing skin rashes, struggling to breathe and reporting memory loss on top of flu-like coughs and aches?

At hospital morgues, which have been steadily losing prominence and funding over several decades, pathologists were busily dissecting the disease's first victims and finding some answers.

"We were getting emails from clinicians, kind of desperate, asking, 'What are you seeing?'" said NYU Langone's Dr. Amy Rapkiewicz. 'Autopsy,' she pointed out, means to see for yourself. "That's exactly what we had to do."

Early autopsies of deceased patients confirmed the coronavirus does not just cause respiratory disease, but can also attack other vital organs. They also led doctors to try blood thinners in some COVID-19 patients and reconsider how long others should be on ventilators.

"You can't treat what you don't know about," said Dr. Alex Williamson, a pathologist at Northwell Health in New York. "Many lives have been saved by looking closely at someone's death."

Autopsies have informed medicine for centuries most recently helping to reveal the extent of the opioid epidemic, improve cancer care and demystify AIDS and anthrax. Hospitals were once judged by how many autopsies they performed.

But they've lost stature over the years as the medical world instead turned to lab tests and imaging scans. In 1950, the practice was conducted on about half of deceased hospital patients. Today, those rates have shrunk to somewhere between 5% and 11%.

"It's really kind of a lost tool," said Louisiana State University pathologist Dr. Richard Vander Heide.

Some hospitals found it even harder this year. Safety concerns about transmission forced many hospital administrators to stop or seriously curb autopsies in 2020. The pandemic also led to a general dip in the total number patients at many hospitals, which drove down autopsy rates in some places. Large hospitals around the country have reported conducting fewer autopsies in 2020.

"Overall, our numbers are down, pretty significantly," from 270 autopsies in recent years to about 200 so far this year, said Dr. Allecia Wilson, director of autopsies and forensic services at Michigan Medicine in Ann Arbor.

At the University of Washington in Seattle, pathologist Dr. Desiree Marshall couldn't conduct COVID-19 autopsies in her usual suite because, as one of the hospital's oldest facilities, it lacks the proper ventilation to safely conduct the procedure. Marshall ended up borrowing the county medical examiner offices for a few cases early on, and has been working out of the school's animal research facilities since April.

Other hospitals went the opposite way, performing far more autopsies even under difficult circumstances to try to better understand the pandemic and keep up with a surge of deaths that has resulted in at least 400,000 more U.S. deaths than normal.

At New Orleans University Medical Center, where Vander Heide works, pathologists have performed about 50% more autopsies than they have in recent years. Other hospitals in Alabama, California, Tennessee, New York and Virginia say they'll also surpass their usual annual tally for the procedure.

Their results have shaped our understanding of what COVID-19 does to the body and how we might combat it.

In spring and early summer, for example, some seriously sick coronavirus patients were on ventilators for weeks at a time. Later, pathologists discovered such extended ventilation could cause extensive lung injury, leading doctors to rethink how they use ventilators during the pandemic.

Doctors are now exploring whether blood thinners can prevent microscopic blood clots that had been discovered in patients early in the pandemic.

Autopsy studies also indicated the virus may travel through the blood stream or hitch a ride on infected cells, spreading to and impacting a person's blood vessels, heart, brain, liver, kidneys and colon. This finding helped explain the virus's wide range of symptoms.

More findings are sure to come: Pathologists have stocked freezers with coronavirus-infected organs and tissues collected during autopsies, which will help researchers study the disease as well as possible cures and treatments. Future autopsies will also help them understand the disease's toll on long haulers, those who suffer symptoms for weeks or months after infection.

Despite these life-saving discoveries being made during the pandemic, financial realities and a dwindling workforce mean it's unlikely that the ancient medical practice will fully rebound when the outbreak wanes.

Hospitals are not required to provide autopsy services, and in those that do perform them, the procedure's costs are not directly covered by most private insurance or by Medicare.

"When you consider there's no reimbursement for this, it's almost an altruistic practice," said Rutgers University pathologist Dr. Billie Fyfe-Kirschner. "It's vitally important but we don't have to fund it."

Added into the mix: The number of experts who can actually perform autopsies is critically low. Estimates suggest the U.S. has only a few hundred forensic pathologists but could use several thousand and less than one in 100 graduating medical school students enters the profession each year.

Some in the field hope the 2020 pandemic could boost recruitment to the field just like the "CSI boom" of the early 2000s, Northwell's Williamson said.

Michigan Medicine's Wilson is more skeptical, but even still she can't imagine her work becoming totally obsolete. Learning from the dead to treat the living it's a pillar of medicine, she said.

It helped doctors understand the mysteries of 1918s influenza pandemic, just at is now helping them understand the mysteries of COVID-19 more than a century later.

"They were in the same situation," Vander Heide said of the doctors trying to save lives in 1918. "The only way to learn what was going on was to open up the body and see."

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Experts Reflect on Most Impactful FDA Moves of 2020 in Solid Tumors, Hematologic Malignancies – Targeted Oncology

§ December 26th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Experts Reflect on Most Impactful FDA Moves of 2020 in Solid Tumors, Hematologic Malignancies – Targeted Oncology

Despite the rapid spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that plagued not only the oncology field but the healthcare system as a whole, the treatment options for patients with countless different solid tumors and hematologic malignancies were expanded with a number of new FDA approvals indicated throughout 2020. These approvals cover updates in lung, breast, gastrointestinal (GI), and genitourinary (GU) cancers, as well as a variety of hematologic malignancies and other solid tumors.

On Twitter, Targeted Oncology asks in a poll, In what field do you think had the most impactful additions to its armamentarium? The options include lung cancer, breast cancer, hematologic malignancies, and gastrointestinal cancers.

As the year comes to a close, the FDA continues to advance the field with more approvals coming through. On Friday, December 18, 2020, alone, the FDA granted 5 indications approval. These include ponatinib (Iclusig) for treatment of adult patients withs chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia who have become resistant or intolerant to therapy following at least 2 prior tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), osimertinib (Tagrisso) as adjuvant treatment of patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose tumors harbor an EGFR exon 19 deletion or exon 21 L858R mutation for use following tumor resection, the triplet regimen selinexor (Xpovio) plus bortezomib (Velcade) and dexamethasone for the treatment of adult patients with multiple myeloma who have received at least 1 prior therapy, oral relugolix (Relumina) for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer, and a biosimilar to rituximab (Rituxan) was approved for the treatment of adult patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and microscopic polyangiitis.

These approvals follow many others that have provided hope throughout the year to physicians and healthcare providers across the United States, but 1 striking area of advancements worth noting this year is the recently approved Emergency Use Authorizations for 2 separate vaccinations for the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which plagued the world, particularly impacting oncology practices treating immunocompromised, sick patients. These approvals, including the BNT162b2 vaccination and the mRNA-1273 Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine on December 18, 2020, demonstrate a crucial step in overcoming the pandemic.

We've learned this year what we can do quickly without being overly hasty, and I think COVID-19 was the ultimate impetus for unity, Mark Lewis, MD, director, GI Oncology, Intermountain Healthcare, told Targeted Oncology. At my center, which is not primarily a research institution, we've run almost 40 trials around COVID-19, largely in-patient, but also largely driven by the clinical need and queries of our intensivists, among others. It's shown us that given the right prompt, you can actually move pretty fast, and learn things very quickly.

Despite the challenges brought on by the pandemic, the healthcare system remained dedicated to keeping patients with cancer safe. Telehealth played a major role in this, as well as other adjustments physicians and cancer centers have made in light of this pandemic. These changes are not only keeping patients safe during these unprecedented times, but they lay the groundwork for the future of treating these patients better in the community setting.

I think we've learned what has to be done at a major research institution and what can be done either at a [community] center or even in the patient's home, said Lewis. Oncology, for a long time, unfortunately, has not been very patient-centric. The idea has been, you're sick, but you need to come to us. Obviously, there are still patients that absolutely have to make that effort to come see us, but on the flipside, we've learned what we can you do remotely and what we can do to bring treatment and research to the patient rather than the other way around.

One important update in the field of oncology in light of the COVID-19 pandemic was the FDAs approval of a new dosage for pembrolizumab (Keytruda) in April 2020, reducing the frequency of clinic visits for patients with cancer. The prior dosage for this immune checkpoint inhibitor was 200 mg every 3 weeks, which remains an approved dosing option, but the newly approved dose of 400 mg is administered every 6 weeks, which is approved across all indications whether the PD-1 inhibitor is given as a monotherapy or in a combination regimen. Pembrolizumab is approved across many disease types and has also gained tumor agnostic approvals over the last few years as well.

We have these really sweeping histology agnostic approvals, and I think the biggest 1 that comes to mind for me is the FDA setting eligibility for immune therapy at a tumor mutational burden [TMB] of greater than 10 mutations/megabase. I think that was pretty amazing, said Lewis. Just in the last couple years, we've seen this shift towards histology agnosticism, whether it's about NTRK fusion proteins, which have become a unicorn in oncology that every oncologist looks for, or we're talking about microsatellite instability [MSI]-high status and eligibility for pembrolizumab.

The immune checkpoint inhibitor pembrolizumab received approval in June 2020, for use in adult and pediatric patients with unresectable or metastatic solid tumors with tissue TMBhigh who have progressed on prior therapy and have no satisfactory alternative treatment options. This marks the second tumor-agnostic approval for the agent, following a prior approval from 2017, for the treatment of patients with MSIhigh or mismatch repair deficient solid tumors.

While we have these very broad indications, now we're also seeing every cancer become a rare cancer. One thing I've seen [more of] this year is selecting out molecular subsets of disease, and a great example is the approval of pralsetinib [formerly BLU-667; Gavreto] for RET-positive tumors, whether of the lung or the thyroid, Lewis said. I think we're seeing that across the categories, which is just site of origin largely, and you can see these mutations that might occur in both lung and thyroid, for the example of RET, and presumably be targetable with the same agent.

Pralsetinib (Gavreto)gained approval in September 2020 for the treatment ofRETfusion-positive NSCLC based on findings from the phase 1/2 ARROW study (NCT03037385), and a few short months later, the RET inhibitor also received approval for use in patients with advanced or metastaticRET-mutant medullary thyroid cancer, as well as those with RET fusion-positive thyroid cancer, also supported by the ARROW data.

Similarly, selpercatinib (formerly LOXO-292; Retevmo) capsules, was approved the treatment of patients with either lung or thyroid cancer who harborRETalterations. This therapy received approval in May 2020, marking it the first approved treatment to target RET. Specifically, the indications for selpercatinib include adult patients with metastatic RET fusionpositive NSCLC, adult and pediatric patients 12 years of age and older with advanced or metastatic RET-mutant medullary thyroid cancer who require systemic therapy, or patients with advanced or metastatic RET fusion-positive thyroid cancer who require systemic therapy and who are radioactive iodine (RAI)refractory, if RAI was appropriate.

Several new therapies gained approval in lung cancer in 2020 across a variety of subsets. In particular, capmatinib (Tabrecta) was approved in May 2020, for the treatment of patients with metastatic NSCLC whose tumors have aMETexon 14 skipping mutation based on the findings from the phase 2 GEOMETRY mono-I study (NCT02414139). This approval fills a gap in the landscape for patients with NSCLC since no other approved therapies target the MET exon 14 mutation in advanced disease.

In March 2020, the FDA approved durvalumab (Imfinzi) as a frontline treatment for adult patients with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) in combination with standard-of-care chemotherapy, etoposide and carboplatin, or cisplatin, offering a new therapeutic approach to a population of patients who have had limited treatment options up until recently. The approval was based on findings from the phase 3 CASPIAN study (NCT03043872), which showed overall survival (OS) analyses favored the durvalumab arm across patient subgroups compared with chemotherapy alone.

The field of breast cancer saw a number of new advances during the year of 2020, many of which impacting patients with metastatic and advanced disease. The FDA granted approval across a number of subsets of patients, including those with HER2-positive disease, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), and hormone receptor (HR)-positive disease.

In each of these areas, in the very recent past, there's been a marked expansion of therapeutic options, William J. Gradishar, MD, chief of hematology and oncology, department of medicine, Betsy Bramsen Professorship of Breast Oncology, professor of medicine (hematology and oncology), Northwestern University's Feinberg School of Medicine, told Targeted Oncology. We still have a lot of work to do, patients are still dying of metastatic breast cancer, but we've made significant progress in not only preventing recurrences from developing in patients with early-stage disease, but we've also extended the survival of patients who have metastatic disease.

The FDA granted approval in February 2020 to neratinib (Nerlynx) in combination with capecitabine for the treatment of adult patients with advanced or metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer who received at least 2 prior anti-HER2-based regimens in the metastatic setting. This approval was based on supportive findings from the phase 3 NALA trial (NCT01808573). This study showed a 24% reduction in the risk of disease progression or death compared with lapatinib (Tykerb) and capecitabine. Prior to this, neratinib was approved for use as extended adjuvant treatment in adult patients with early-stage HER2-positive disease following adjuvant trastuzumab-based therapy.

In combination with trastuzumab (Herceptin) and capecitabine, tucatinib (Tukysa) received FDA approval for the treatment of adult patients with advanced unresectable or metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer in April 2020, including patients with brain metastases who have received at least 1 prior line of HER2-based therapy in the metastatic setting. This approval sparked a lot of excitement in the field, receiving its indication from the FDA 4 months ahead of the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA) target action date. The oral, small molecule TKI of HER2 received its approval based on the phase 2 HER2CLIMB study (NCT02614794), which showed a 46% reduction in the risk of disease progression or death among heavily pretreated patients with unresectable, locally advanced, or metastatic HER2-positive disease.

An abundance of new drugs in the HER2 space is a great thing because we can go from 1 therapy to the next. For patients with advanced disease, tucatinib and neratinib are examples of that; these all expand the number of options we have for patients, and tucatinib in particular shows clear evidence of activity in the brain, which is critically important, Gradishar said. In the triple-negative space, sacituzumab govitecan [Trodelvy] is an example of an antibody-drug conjugate [ADC] that has activity, and then, of course, the approval of pembrolizumab has expanded the number of treatment options we have for patients with triple-negative disease.

In April 2020, sacituzumab govitecan received accelerated approval for the treatment of adult patients with metastatic TNBC who have received at least 2 prior lines of therapy for metastatic disease, based on the findings from the phase 3 ASCENT study (NCT02574455). The study demonstrated that sacituzumab govitecan, the first ADC approved specifically in mTNBC, had induced an objective response rate (ORR) of 33.3% (95% CI, 24.6%-43.1%), and the clinical benefit rate was 45.4%, which included stable disease for at least 6 months.

The immune checkpoint inhibitor pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy was approved for the treatment of patients with locally recurrent unresectable or metastatic TNBC whose tumors express PD-L1, and this news was joined by approval of the PD-L1 Immunohistochemistry (IHC) 22C3 pharmDx as a companion diagnostic for identifying patients likely to derive benefit from this therapy. The FDA granted this approval based on the findings from the phase 3 KEYNOTE-355 clinical trial (NCT02819518), which showed statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in the median progression-free survival (PFS) of 9.7 months with pembrolizumab and chemotherapy compared with 5.6 months in the chemotherapy-alone arm (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.49-0.86; one-sided P =.0012).

Among other updates in breast cancer, the combination of pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and hyaluronidase-zzxf (Phesgo) by subcutaneous injection was approved by the FDA in June 2020 for the treatment of patients with HER2-positive breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body, as well as for the treatment of adult patients with early HER2-positive breast cancer.This approval, which came 4 months ahead of the PDUFA date, is the first regimen approved for subcutaneous administration that contains 2 monoclonal antibodies. In the FeDeriCa study (NCT03493854), Phesgo was found to have comparable efficacy and safety to the intravenous regimen of pertuzumab and trastuzumab, meeting the studys primary end point of non-inferiority.

There have been a lot of fantastic FDA approvals in the hematologic malignancy space, and obviously, we have to think about multiple myeloma, said Naveen Pemmaraju, MD, associate professor, Department of Leukemia, Division of Cancer Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, in an interview with Targeted Oncology. When I started out as a faculty 10 years ago, there were just not that many drugs approved, and so in the multiple myeloma space now as a consequence of 5 to 10 years of clinical trials, many of which were negative, we are seeing the appearance of some of these drugs.

Multiple myeloma saw approval of a number of new indications throughout 2020, including the May 2020 approval ofdaratumumab in combination with hyaluronidase-fihj (Darzalex Faspro) as treatment of adult patients with newly diagnosed or relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma, allowing a subcutaneous dosing of daratumumab. The regimen is approved under several indications for patients with multiple myeloma based on findings from the phase 3 COLUMBIA (NCT03277105) and the PLEIADES (NCT03412565) clinical trials. This approval offers patients a more convenient therapeutic option as the fixed-dose injection is administered in approximately 3 to 5 minutes, considerably reducing the treatment burden for these patients.

The immunoconjugate targeting B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) belantamab mafodotin-blmf (GSK2857916; Blenrep) gained approval in August 2020, for the treatment of patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma who previously received at least 4 prior lines of therapy, which should include an immunomodulatory agent, a proteasome inhibitor, and an anti-CD38 antibody.This is the first anti-BCMA therapy available for these patients anywhere in the world, which was supported by a unanimous vote from the FDAs Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee. Based on findings from the phase 2 DREAMM 2 clinical trial (NCT03525678) exploring 2.5-mg/kg and 3.4-mg/kg doses, the lower dose received the FDAs recommendation as an intravenous infusion given over approximately 30 minutes once every 3 weeks.

Selinexor, the only nuclear export inhibitor approved by the FDA for use in 2 hematologic malignancies, generated excitement in the field. This includes the triplet regimen of selinexor with bortezomib/dexamethasone in multiple myeloma that gained approval in December 2020, as well as the accelerated approval for single-agent treatment with selinexor in adult patients with relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) not otherwise specified, who have had at least 2 prior systemic therapies, including patients with DLBCL arising from follicular lymphoma. This marks the only single-agent oral therapy approved for patients with relapsed/refractory DLBCL.

We saw a lot of movement in the DLBCL space. Up until before CAR T was approved, frankly, we had almost nothing besides chemotherapy. Now in the span of a year, we not only have CAR T-cell therapy, but we have a couple of other agents including tafasitamab which is in combination with lenalidomide and is an active antibody against CD19, Andrew M. Evens, DO, MSc, of the Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, told Targeted Oncology. Selinexor is the other FDA-approved agent that is an option for patients, so its promising to me in a very difficult disease, especially when relapsed/refractory, just to have now a multitude of agents approved.

The combination of tafasitamab-cxix (Monjuvi) with lenalidomide (Revlimid) was approved for the treatment of adultpatients with relapsed/refractory DLBCL not otherwise specified, including disease arising from low-grade lymphoma and patients who are not eligible for autologous stem cell transplant. The accelerated approval was granted on the basis of findings from the phase 2 L-MIND study (NCT02399085) on the safety and efficacy, as well as the observational retrospective cohort RE-MIND study (NCT04150328) on the real-world use of tafasitamab, the CD19-directed monoclonal antibody.

The approval of tafasitamab and lenalidomide came up this year, and that was certainly a very exciting approval. It is a very innovative chemotherapy-free approach to treatment of patients with relapsed/refractory DLBCL, Alexey V. Danilov, MD, PhD, associate professor of medicine at the Oregon Health & Science University, said to Targeted Oncology. CAR T-cell therapy in mantle cell lymphoma [MCL] has been approved this year as well, and that is also life changing for patients with MCL, where we've had very limited options in those who progressed on ibrutinib or ibrutinib and venetoclax. That's a life-changing option.

The autologous CD19-directed CAR T-cell therapy brexucabtagene autoleucel (formerly KTE-X19; Tecartus) received FDA approval for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory MCL in July 2020, based on findings from the phase 2 ZUMA-2 clinical trial (NCT02601313). According to Evens, the ORR among the first 60 patients treated and followed for at least 7 months was 93% (95% CI, 84%-98%), and the overall ORR was 85%. The 1-year PFS rate was 61%, and the estimated 1-year OS rate was 83%. Findings demonstrated cytokine release syndrome was observed in 91% of patients with 15% being grade 3 or higher in severity and none being fatal. Neurologic events, another notable side effect associated with CAR T-cell therapy, were observed in 63% with 31% being grade 3 and none being fatal.

Not every patient needs next-generation sequencing, but there are some cancer types where you can make a strong argument that is becoming almost mandatory, said Lewis. A great example from this also would be biliary tract cancers. With cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer, we know that they are underneath the umbrella groups of highly targetable mutations, whether it's IDH1 or FGFR2. Now, thankfully, it's not just an academic exercise to find the mutation because now we have a drug to pair with it, so another FDA approval I would call attention to was pemigatinib [Pemazyre] for FGFR2-driven cholangiocarcinoma because when I started, there was literally 1 drug for biliary tract cancer, gemcitabine, and now slightly over a decade later, there are a host of possibilities.

Pemigatinib received approval in April 2020, for the treatment of adult patients with previously treated, unresectable locally advanced or metastatic cholangiocarcinoma who harbor an FGFR2 fusion or rearrangement, representing the first approved treatment for this indication. Findings from cohort A of the phase 3 FIGHT-202 study (NCT02924376) supported this approval, demonstrating an ORR of 36% and a median duration of response of 9.1 months in the multicenter, open-label single-arm study.

The combination of atezolizumab (Tecentriq) plus bevacizumab (Avastin) was approved as treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who have not had a prior systemic therapy, based on findings from the phase 3 IMbrave150 study (NCT03434379). This study demonstrated a reduced risk of death by 42% with the combination compared with sorafenib (Nexavar) alone (HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.42-0.79; P =.0006). Compared with standard of care sorafenib, this regimen is the first to markedly improve survival in the frontline setting for patients with HCC in several years.

In addition, the treatment landscape for patients withHCC was enriched with an approval in March 2020 of nivolumab (Opdivo) in combination with ipilimumab (Yervoy) in patients who have been previously treated with sorafenib. This approval allows for a new second-line option for patients with advanced HCC that has demonstrated promising improvements in OS, according to findings from the phase 1/2 CheckMate-040 study (NCT01658878). This study showed the longest duration of OS in the second-line setting for advanced HCC tested in clinical trials.

Patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) also saw a couple of new additions to the armamentarium, with 1 notable approval being the combination of encorafenib (Braftovi) and cetuximab (Erbitux) as treatment for patients with metastatic CRC with aBRAFV600E mutation, as detected by an FDA-approved test, after prior therapy. The combination received its approval from the FDA based on findings from the phase 3 BEACON CRC study (NCT02928224), which showed significant improvements in OS and a higher response rate compared with standard treatment. Shortly after this news, the FDA granted approval to the therascreen BRAF V600E Kit (therascreen BRAF V600E RGQ PCR Kit) as a companion diagnostic for this regimen.

In the field of GU cancers, the FDA granted several approvals in 2020, providing more treatment options and hope for physicians treating patients with various diseases. In particular, several approvals in prostate cancer stood out, as well as the first and only approval of an immunotherapy that has demonstrated significant overall survival (OS) benefit in the frontline setting in a phase 3 study of bladder cancer; the FDA granted approval to frontline maintenance avelumab (Bavencio) as treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma who have not progressed with frontline platinum-based chemotherapy. Avelumab maintenance extended the OS by 50% compared with best supportive care in the phase 3 JAVELIN Bladder 100 study (NCT02603432).

Overall, in my opinion, this is practice-changing because right now instead of finishing chemotherapy frontline and waiting until progression happens, we can utilize avalumab based on this study as a switch maintenance frontline approach, Petros Grivas, MD, PhD, 1 of the principal investigators in the JAVELIN Bladder 100 trial, told Targeted Oncology.

The study demonstrated a 7.1-month improvement in the median OS with frontline avelumab maintenance and best supportive care versus best supportive care alone. The median OS was 21.4 months with avelumab (95% CI, 19.9-26.1) versus 14.3 months in the control arm (95% CI, 12.9-17.9), which was a statistically significant improvement with a 31% reduction in the risk of death in the overall population (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.56-0.86; 2-sidedP= .001).

In prostate cancer, the approval of 2 PARP inhibitors excited the field. In May 2020, the FDA approved olaparib (Lynparza) for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer(mCRPC) who have deleterious or suspected deleterious germline or somatic homologous recombination repair (HRR) gene mutations and have progressed following prior therapy with a new hormonal agent. The approval of this PARP inhibitor was based on findings from the phase 3 PROfound clinical trial, which demonstrated a 66% reduction in the risk of disease progression or death with olaparib versus enzalutamide (Xtandi) or abiraterone acetate (Zytiga) in patients with BRCA1/2 or ATM mutations.

A few days prior to this approval, rucaparib (Rubraca) received FDA approval for adult patients with mCRPC who have a deleterious BRCA mutation (germline and/or somatic)-associated disease and have received prior androgen receptor-directed therapy and a taxane-based chemotherapy. The TRITON trials provided supportive data for this approval, exploring the use of rucaparib in patients with mCRPC and alterations in HRR-related genes.

Olaparib was approved in prostate cancer, and rucaparib also, so around summertime, there were 2 approvals issued by the FDA. The companion diagnostic was also approved for testing for the patients, said Maha Hussain, MD, who is the Genevieve E. Teuton Professor of Medicine in the Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, and deputy director at the Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, in an interview with Targeted Oncology. What I'm looking forward to is more approvals from the FDA in prostate cancer. I have to say in my career time, the last 10 years have been really tremendous in terms of the approvals from the FDA in the castration-resistant space. It's exciting times. We've been set back by COVID-19, but I do think that we are on a move forward and an upward ladder, so to speak, in terms of better research, and looking forward to much better times and 2021 and onwards.

The FoundationOneLiquid CDx approval was expanded as a companion diagnostic for olaparib in November 2020. The test was initially granted approval in August 2020 for the indication of patients with any solid tumor. This olaparib indication followed news from October 2020, indicating FoundationOne CDx as a companion diagnostic to identify patients who may receive benefit from rucaparib, alectinib (Alecensa), or alpelisib (Piqray), which are approved in different solid tumors. In the prostate cancer space, the companion diagnostic is used to identify BRCA1/2 and ATM genes in patients with mCRPC who are eligible for treatment with olaparib.

There is a lot of excitement about PARP inhibitors, and there are many PARP inhibitors right now that are undergoing evaluation in prostate cancer, which is exciting, said Hussain. The research in prostate cancer has really blossomed in an incredible way at multiple fronts, and so I do think we're seeing acceleration in terms of the research and its outcomes.

Originally posted here:
Experts Reflect on Most Impactful FDA Moves of 2020 in Solid Tumors, Hematologic Malignancies - Targeted Oncology

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Forensic Botany and Its Applications – Legal Desire News Network

§ December 26th, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Forensic Botany and Its Applications – Legal Desire News Network


We are familiar with plants being used for pleasant and aesthetic purposes such as a source for food, fiber, medicine, etc. But the association of plants with cases such as poisoning (which can be suicidal, accidental, or homicidal), or its use as a trace/transfer evidence in criminal as well as civil cases is increasing with each passing day. When plants become linked to criminal activities, that is when Forensic Botany comes into play.

Forensic botany is the utilization of the plant sciences in matters related to law, i.e., using plants or plant products as evidence to help solve crimes such as murder, kidnapping, etc., and also to help determine the victims cause of death. Forensic Botany is an integration of Botany and Forensics. The botanical aspect majorly consists of anatomy, growth, development, taxonomy, classification of plants that help in the identification of the particular species of the plant, whereas the forensic aspect deals with the recognition of appropriate evidence at the crime scene, collection, and packaging of evidence, maintaining the chain of custody, conducting scientific tests on the samples collected and admissibility of the evidence in the court of law.

One of the most important reasons why plants are considered very good and useful evidence is that the cell wall of plant cells, as well as pollens and spores, are made of strong compounds such as cellulose, sporopollenin, and pectin which are resistant to destruction and thus can be identified even after a long period.

Forensic botany was first used to solve a crime in 1935. It was the Lindbergh Case in which a young boy named Charles Lindbergh had been kidnapped. The prime suspect of this case was Bruno Hauptmann. Arthur Koehler, an expert of wood anatomy was amongst the many people who testified. Even though the defense thought that the concept of the wood expert was too bizarre and ridiculous, but the Judge thought otherwise. Arthur Koehler presented evidence related to the ladder that was used in the kidnapping, stating that it was a homemade ladder and also stated the different types of wood that had been used to build the ladder. And one of the woods that was used to build the ladder was proved to be the same wood that was found at Hauptmanns house, thus linking him directly to the crime.

Since then forensic botany has gained a lot of importance and has been used more and more to solve many such crimes.


The various branches of forensic botany are applied during the determination of the identity of criminals. These branches help in doing so by focussing on either the composition of plants or the association of plants with the environment in which they are present.

Forensic Plant Morphology: Plant morphology is the study of the external features of the plants. The external features may aid in the identification of the species of the plant. Thus, Forensic Plant Morphology refers to the application of this knowledge in the investigation of crimes. Besides, these features or the external structures help in making a match between two leaf fragments, thus showing the continuity of leaf patterns on the surface of the leaf.

Forensic Plant Anatomy: Plant Anatomy refers to the study of the internal structure of plants. Plant Anatomy helps in the identification as well as classification of the plants based on specific patterns of arrangement of the cells, which are observed on dissecting the stem, root, or leaf. Forensic Plant Anatomy is the utilization of this knowledge in solving crimes.

Forensic Palynology: Palynology broadly deals with the study of pollen grains, spores, and microscopic plant bodies that possess a characteristic feature resistance to acidity. Palynology further helps in proving or disproving a possible link between particular people, objects, and places (crime scenes) that acts as vital information for the investigation of both civil as well as criminal cases. One of the reasons why pollen, spores, and acid-resistant microscopic plant bodies are considered to be very reliable evidence and can deduce whether there was a presence of a particular person or object is the fact that different countries or even different regions of a particular country will have their unique variety of pollen and spores.

Forensic Dendrochronology: Forensic Dendrochronology implies the scientific study of estimating the growth rings of the tree to calculate the exact year in which these rings were formed. In addition to acting as evidence, the estimation of the exact year of formation of the growth ring of the tree will act as a means of determining the period in which the criminal activity may have occurred. Also, it has been noted that different species of trees have a different pattern of ring formation depending upon various factors such as the period over which the ring formation takes place, climatic conditions, amount of water present in the soil during the ring formation, etc.

Forensic Limnology: Forensic Limnology is another important and crucial branch of forensic botany that involves the examination of the presence and type of diatoms that are found on victims as well as evidence samples that are collected from the scene of the crime. Diatoms are nothing but microscopic algae with a characteristic feature of having silica in their cell wall. Diatoms can be differentiated based on various features such as their size, shape, or colour. They are never found in domestic water due to the presence of cleaning agents in them and thus are only found in freshwater. Even though there are a variety of methods for collection of this data but each one of them involves the common procedure of comparing the diatoms present at the suspected scene of the crime with that of the diatoms present in the evidence sample collected.

Forensic Plant Systematics: Plant Systematics is a branch of Forensic Botany that includes the process of classification of plants into different classes and families based on their different morphological and genetic characteristics. Thus, forensic plant systematic as the name suggests is the application of the knowledge of plant classification in solving crimes.

Forensic Ecology: Ecology is the term that is used to refer to the study of the relationship between different plant and animal species in a particular ecosystem. Thus, forensic ecology as the name suggests is the application of the knowledge of this relationship between the plant and animal species in a habitat to investigate whether the suspect could be held guilty of the crime.


Commonly, the application of botanical knowledge in the investigation procedure is based on two main principles. The first principle is Locards exchange principle which states that any contact between two objects will result in an exchange of matter between them. Thus, it can be assumed that physical evidence such as botanical trace evidence can be used to prove a link between the scene of the crime, the victim, and the criminal. For instance, the pollen grains found in a suspects clothes or any other belonging can be compared to the pollens found at the scene of the crime to establish a link between the scene of the crime and the suspect. The second principle is related to the use of forensic botany methods in determining the distribution of plant species around the world. This is particularly useful as different species of plants would require different environmental conditions such as soil condition, temperature, water availability, etc. and the use of this knowledge would help us to easily create a link between the crime scene, the victim, and the criminal. For instance, the presence of pollens on the corpse that are not found at the scene of crime suggests that the corpse has been moved from one place to another.

Forensic Palynology being the most intensively developed branch of forensic botany has a very critical application in solving crimes. Pollens and spores are considered excellent evidence because of their high resistance to any extreme conditions and because they are very easily transferrable between objects pertaining to their small size. Pollens can adhere to any type of surface and due to their different shape and size can be easily identified and classified. Successful identification of species of pollens would eventually help in the determination of the place of occurrence of the crime since no two places would be having the same pollen profile. Moreover, Forensic Palynology also helps in the determination of the fact whether the corpse had been moved from one place to another after death. Palynology also helps in determining the authenticity of any particular document by analyzing the time of generation of the document with the help of pollens present on its surface.

Diatoms are another useful evidence and what adds to their value as good evidence is their occurrence throughout the year, a huge number of diatoms at a place, knowledge of their environmental occurrence, and incredible resistance to extreme conditions. Diatoms are mainly used to identify the cause, time, and place of death, especially in cases of drowning. They help in determining whether the death occurred due to drowning or the corpse was placed in the water body after death. It does so with the help of the principle that if death has occurred due to drowning, there would be asphyxiation resulting in rapid ingression of water through the respiratory tract and then through the pulmonary alveoli, thus there would be the presence of the diatoms in internal organs such as bone marrow and brain. But if the body has been placed in the water after death, the presence of diatoms would be seen only in the respiratory tract and not in any of the internal organs. Knowledge about the diatom assemblage and the comparison of the structure of assemblage of diatoms present on the suspected crime scene with that of the sample evidence helps in identifying the actual scene of occurrence.

Forensic Dendrochronology is another emerging branch of forensic botany that has great application in the determination of time since death. Estimation of the number of growth rings in the stem of various trees helps in determining the time of skeletonization of the corpse. Another use of forensic dendrochronology is in the determination of illegal logging. The government of various countries has banned the logging of certain trees as well as certain forests. The regions of the forests or trees from which the logs are obtained are determined with the help of dendrochronology.

Forensic Ecology helps in identifying any concealed or buried corpse. Whenever a corpse is concealed or buried in an ecosystem it causes structural changes in the vegetation of that area for a long time which can be easily identified. These changes help in identifying the site at which the corpse has been concealed.

The accuracy of forensic identification of various species of plants is majorly dependent on knowledge of all the above-mentioned branches of forensic botany. Physical evidence, particularly Botanical evidence should not be ignored or handled carelessly. Even a microscopic spore may prove to be vital evidence in linking the crime scene, victim, and criminal which in turn helps in solving the crime.


Forensic Botany is a new and growing field. It still needs a lot of improvements as even today, many criminal investigators, medical practitioners, and judges are unaware of its application. This is due to the little exposure to the field of botany.

The application of the knowledge of plants into legal matters has grown constantly since the 1930s and is now one of the most important branches of forensic science. But in many parts of the world, the testimony of a forensic botanist is still not accepted. To improve the acceptability of the testimony of forensic botanists in the court of law, the expert needs to improve his/her knowledge and skills and the authorities should take necessary action to increase the awareness about the importance of forensic botany amongst people. As advancement in the field of forensics is increasing, there is the introduction of many new technologies in the branch of forensic botany as well, such as the use of DNA analysis to identify the unique traits of a particular plant species. This is a new approach but once well-developed can be utilized to prove the innocence or guilt of the suspect unambiguously.


Coyle, Heather Miller, ed.Forensic botany: principles and applications to criminal casework. CRC Press, 2004.

Coyle, H. Miller, C. Lee, W. Lin, Henry C. Lee, and Timothy M. Palmbach. Forensic botany: using plant evidence to aid in forensic death investigation.Croatian Medical Journal46, no. 4 (2005).

Aquila, Isabella, Francesco Ausania, Ciro Di Nunzio, Arianna Serra, Silvia Boca, Arnaldo Capelli, Paola Magni, and Pietrantonio Ricci. The role of forensic botany in crime scene investigation: case report and review of literature.Journal of Forensic Sciences59, no. 3 (2014).

Bajerlein, Daria, Maria Wojterska, ukasz Grewling, and Mikoaj Kokociski. Forensic botany: current state of knowledge and possible applications in investigative practice.Issues of Forensics Science283 (2015).

Bandr Fakia The branches of forensic botany, International Journal of Development Research, 8 (2018).

Plant Sciences. . 16 Oct. 2020

Currently pursuing M.Sc Forensic Science from Lok Nayak Jayaprakash Narayan National Institute of Criminology and Forensic Science. Specialization in Forensic Biology and Serology.

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How Perimeter Medical aims to transform cancer surgery with its innovative tech – BNN

§ December 23rd, 2020 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on How Perimeter Medical aims to transform cancer surgery with its innovative tech – BNN

Every surgery leaves something behind. Often, its a scar or some temporary discomfort. For a patient who has undergone surgery to remove cancer, however, there is also doubt, anxiety, and fear and, sometimes, a few potentially deadly cells.

About one in eight women will develop invasive breast cancer over the course of her lifetime. And while treatment has come a long way from the days of routine radical mastectomies, there is the possibility that a surgery doesnt remove all cancerous tissue, which can mean a patient returns to the hospital for additional procedures once follow-up pathology reports are completed. Current estimates suggest that as many as one in four patients require additional surgeries after undergoing breast lumpectomy surgery.

Dr. Ted James, MD, MS, FACS, Chief of Breast Surgical Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School and Member of Perimeters Clinical and Scientific Advisory Board.

But what if microscopic information about the tissue could be acquired mid-procedure, while the patient is still on the operating table with the surgeon and other medical staff ready to act?

Thats the question Perimeter Medical Imaging AI (TSXV: PINK | FSE:4PC), a commercial-stage Toronto company with U.S. headquarters in Dallas, Texas, is answering with its innovative medical imaging platform based on optical coherence tomography, or OCT, technology, a technique commonly used in cardiovascular and ophthalmic applications.

The best time to deal with cancer

According to Dr. Ted James, MD, MS, FACS, who is Chief of Breast Cancer Surgery at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, Massachusetts, teaches at Harvard Medical School and is a member of Perimeters clinical and scientific advisory board, this is how Perimeters technology could help surgeons and their patients:

During tissue excision surgery for example, a lumpectomy, which is Dr. James specialty the surgeon carefully cuts away cancerous tissue, cutting around the diseased area to ensure they have removed it all.

The tissue that is removed can then be scanned by Perimeters ultra-high-resolution imaging system in minutes to enable the surgeon to visualize the margins of the excised tissue at a microscopic level.

An AI based algorithm, currently in development, will assist the surgeon in pinpointing regions which are suspicious for breast cancer. The surgeon then determines if there is cancer in that tissue, and whether there is a need to remove more, potentially reducing the need for a second or third procedure.

If theres a problem, thats the best time to make sure the problem is dealt with, Dr. James explains, noting that achieving cancer-free margins is key to decreasing the risk of cancer returning.

He adds, The current intraoperative imaging methodologies do not reliably give you that microscopic information and thats where Perimeter comes in. It could basically solve that dilemma.

He also notes that having to undergo additional surgeries, even if theyre relatively minor and even if they occur within a week or so of the initial procedure, can have negative effects on the cancer patient as well as carrying extra costs and the potential for complications.

Even that seems to have a long-lasting consequence on how patients feel about their recovery and the prognosis, even though they might be reassured, Dr. James says.

Removing some of the fear of cancer

Suzanne Foster knows about the physical, mental, and emotional consequences of a breast cancer diagnosis and subsequent treatment. The president of Cardinal Healths home health division and a member of Perimeters board since 2018, she has extensive healthcare and medical device experience and was leading a division at Medtronic that was charged with seeking and evaluating innovative breast cancer technologies when she was diagnosed with the disease in early 2015.

Suzanne Foster, President, Cardinal Health, and Member of Perimeters Board.

Foster explains that she was 44 and healthy, had no comorbidities and was confident her body would recover. But as she went through treatment, she realized that more than a physical challenge, dealing with the effects of cancer is an emotional battle.

Not only do you live in fear of, you know, Am I going to be here for my kids?, Am I going to survive this?, there is a real fear of What is my life like? Is the cancer going to come back?

Foster, who has become a patient advocate and public speaker, notes that she experienced the first wave of fear when she was approaching surgery. Because from the time youre diagnosed to the time that its taken out of your body, you just want it out. Thats all you can think about: Get this thing out.

Getting a call that not all the cancer was removed, and that another surgery was required Compounds that emotional ride that youre on.

She said the fact that Perimeter offers the possibility that fewer women will receive such a call was one key element that attracted her to the company. Another is that potentially reducing the number of additional surgeries and, thus, the amount of natural tissue removed from the breast could mean better cosmetic outcomes for patients.

When any breast cancer survivor checks herself in the mirror, And she doesnt have to be reminded she went through that, it allows you to move on with life. Because it takes a lot of years where you dont wake up every day fearful that it might come back, Foster says.

Ready to help, ready to grow

Jeremy Sobotta knows Fosters story is powerful, and that her story is the story of millions of women facing the most frightening time in their lives. The CEO of Perimeter also believes that his companys technology is a response to an unmet need inherent in that story.

And while the physical and emotional needs of patients are primary in the development of Perimeters medical technology, the potential financial impacts are also crucial to Perimeters success, Sobotta notes.

For hospitals, each additional operation represents an average USD$16,000 cost increase, according to a 2017 U.S. study a USD$560-million annual cost to the U.S. health care system and that doesnt include potential hard costs to cancer patients, such as insurance co-pays and lost wages. With a mission to reduce re-operation rates, Perimeters technology has the potential to deliver substantial savings on a per patient basis.

With Perimeter in the commercial stage of its operation, Sobotta notes that now its a question of Getting our technology into the hands of as many physicians as possible to impact as many patients lives as possible.

In addition, Sobotta explains that the company is developing artificial intelligence (AI) technology, called ImgAssist, helped in part by a USD$7.4-million grant from the Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas, a state government agency.

The company is building a body of clinical evidence under its ATLAS AI Project to further support its commercial launch with a 400-patient study currently underway at leading cancer centers, including MD Anderson Cancer Center and Baylor College of Medicine, to collect images of breast tumors in order to train its AI.

The next steps are to run a randomized, multi-site pivotal study in up to 600 patients to test Perimeters ImgAssist AI against the current standard of care to assess the impact on reoperation rates for patients undergoing breast conserving surgery.

Perimeters leadership is also optimistic about the potential use of its technology by physicians for areas beyond breast cancer, with the CEO noting the company its Atlas library covers a broad array of example tissue types with which to train surgeons.

As for training its AI to recognize these other tissue types and, thus, open up a larger market for Perimeters technology The building blocks are there. The foundation is there.

Watch the companys C-Suite interview to learn more about their technology and investment proposition.

Learn even more about Perimeter by visiting their website here.

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Perimeter Medical Imaging AI, Inc. trades on the TSX Venture Exchange under the stock symbol PINK and the Frankfurt Stock Exchange under the stock symbol 4PC.

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How Perimeter Medical aims to transform cancer surgery with its innovative tech - BNN

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