Page 4«..3456..1020..»

The science stories that shaped 2019 – The Guardian

§ December 23rd, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on The science stories that shaped 2019 – The Guardian

The world awoke to the need to combat global heating

Was 2019 the year people finally started to listen to climate scientists on global heating? The previous year, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) had laid out the monumental challenge of limiting warming to 1.5C. Global CO2 emissions would need to halve within 12 years, and reach zero around 2050. But emissions are still rising, while UN summits make tiny steps towards agreeing how to reduce them. The emissions gap between target and reality grows ever wider and becomes ever harder to close.

This struck a chord with vast numbers of people, especially the young, who are thinking ahead to what their world could look like. Greta Thunberg kickstarted a global movement of school strikers, demanding that governments listen to the science and act as if the house is on fire. Although some countries have ramped up their own emissions cuts targets the UK now officially aims for net zero emissions by 2050 public concern and frustration has kept growing. More and more members of the public have taken extreme steps to call for urgent action on climate, with Extinction Rebellion protesters being arrested en masse and controversially keeping the issue in the news.

What if we dont turn things around quickly? Major impacts are already baked in, with glaciers melting worldwide, Greenland losing ice rapidly, and heatwaves and fires happening more often and more severely. Heavy rainfall is increasing, as is drought in some places. We already need to live with a different climate. Although some campaigners rhetoric is not scientific (we dont seriously expect 6 billion deaths), unchecked warming would still expose tens or even hundreds of millions to extreme heat stress conditions and flooding from the sea. The worst can still be avoided, but the longer we keep heating the planet, the harder it gets. Prof Richard Betts, climate scientist, University of Exeter and Met Office Hadley Centre

Right now, on top of the world, a ship is frozen into the Arctic sea ice at the north pole. The RV Polarstern is pirouetting on the spot in the dark, with no prospect of sunlight for months to come. This region of Earth, the Arctic Ocean, is still one of the most remote and inaccessible places on our planet. We know very little about what happens here during the polar night, when temperatures can easily drop to -30C, and thick sea ice crunches and bends in the darkness. But this region is critical to Earths climate, and its essential to understand more.

The Polarstern is here on a once-in-for-ever opportunity to fill that data gap. Its the centrepiece of the Mosaic expedition, probably the biggest polar expedition that will ever be launched. Twenty years from now, it may not be possible to do this: to freeze into the sea ice for an entire year and to drift inside this vast cold environment to watch and learn from the inside. Its taken 20 years to organise, and over the year of the expedition (September 2019 to September 2020), 600 scientists will rotate on and off the ship, supported by many more in research institutes around the world. There is no question that the data being gathered now will drive a revolution in our understanding of the north pole and our climate, and every one of us will be affected by what they find. Helen Czerski, physicist and oceanographer

The laws of physics can be expressed in a handful of compact equations, but their reach is simply breathtaking. A stunning demonstration of this came with our first picture of a black hole, captured by the Event Horizon Telescope.

The black hole is situated at the centre of the Messier 87 galaxy, 54m light years away. The glowing ring of radiation, emitted by tortured matter spinning through warped space-time, is already iconic. The matter is plunging towards an event horizon as big as the solar system, containing the mass of 6.5bn suns.

Remarkable aspects of the image abound. The theory of general relativity, published by Einstein a hundred years ago, predicted the existence and features of this beast remarkably well. The cataclysmic whirlpool may be beyond our imagination, but it is not beyond our mathematics.

The singularity predicted at the heart of a black hole is a different story though. That is where quantum mechanics and relativity conflict and break down. We would love to know what answers lie there, and we will be scouring the image for any clues.

Finally, the global collaboration necessary to capture the image shows we can work together on a worldwide scale to a common goal something that our science tells us we need to do more of, if we want to survive as a species and continue our exploration of the amazing universe in which we find ourselves. Jon Butterworth, professor of physics, University College London

Ebola in 2019 highlights both the achievements of scientific progress and the persistent deep-rooted challenges of improving health in the most difficult settings. The 2014 Ebola outbreak in west Africa killed more than 11,000 people and alerted the world to its dangers. It highlighted the rich worlds neglect of research and development for infectious diseases that only rarely present a global risk.

At the end of 2019 we have a licensed Ebola vaccine, another hopefully soon to be licensed, and two effective therapeutic drugs. We can now treat those infected as well as prevent spread of the disease, allowing us to move from reactive containment to primary prevention, as a result of large and innovative collaborations that demonstrate how to help develop new and effective technologies, now and in the future.

But the current outbreak in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has lasted more than 15 months and killed more than 2,000 people. Treatment and control continues to be hugely difficult in a setting characterised by political, economic and social fragility. Effective vaccines and drugs are part of what is needed for epidemic prevention, but we must continue to strive to address the fundamental causes of ill health in these settings. Anne Mills, professor of health economics and policy, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine

Remember that time when we were young, and we had those nice neat family trees about human evolution? Lucy, Homo erectus, skip a few, Neanderthals and finally us? That whole scheme has been thoroughly binned in the last decade, with more fossil discoveries and the addition of ancient DNA to the armoury. We now have less confidence in the relationships between many more members of the human family, apart from the ones whose legacy we can see in our own DNA our Neanderthal and Denisovan ancestors. Others will be found soon enough.

We remain an African species. Homo sapiens evolved in multiple places in Africa, and a few thousand left some 70,000 years ago to populate the rest of the world. But now we know that there were earlier diasporas from the motherland. This year, we discovered that we had made it all the way to Greece. Embedded in the roof of a cave in the southern Peloponnese, two crushed skulls were found by Katerina Harvati and her team, one a sprightly 170,000-year-old Neanderthal, but the other is us, Homo sapiens, and is more than 210,000 years old. This is far older and much farther afield than we had previously found. The revolution in the story of how we got here shows no signs of calming down. Dr Adam Rutherford is a geneticist and author. His book How to Argue With a Racist is out in February (W&N, 12.99)

Although announced in November 2018, the shock waves from the announcement by the Chinese scientist He Jiankui that two girls had been born from embryos that were genetically modified using genome editing have been reverberating throughout 2019, and will no doubt continue to do so for years to come. This was a misguided and badly conducted attempt to make children resistant to infection by HIV, the virus that causes Aids, by mutating the CCR5 gene, which encodes a protein expressed on the surface of white blood cells that the virus uses to gain entry. He showed disregard for normal scientific and clinical practice, ignored risks to the children born and potentially to subsequent generations.

But the work made the prospect of altering our genetic makeup more immediate rather than theoretical. It also raised concerns about where to draw the line with the possibility of not just avoiding genetic and perhaps infectious disease, but ultimately carrying out forms of enhancement. However, it had the positive benefit of stimulating debate worldwide and it has led to the launch of international efforts, notably a science academies panel to judge the science, clinical need, and the conditions that would have to be met for germline (potentially heritable) genome editing to be carried out; and a WHO-appointed committee to develop a framework of governance that can be adopted to control the use of the genome editing methods in treating or avoiding disease. Both of these efforts will report next year.

Meanwhile, the science of genome editing and its application in both the field and clinic are progressing rapidly. A novel and ingenious new method termed prime editing, published by David Liu and colleagues, can efficiently make precise, small changes in DNA, without the problems associated with earlier methods, such as those used by He Jiankui. Given that about 85% of disease-causing mutations in humans could, in theory, be corrected by prime editing, it clearly offers great promise. Ways to make animals and plants resistant to disease and to allow plants to cope with climate change have been developed using genome editing, and this year we have seen a huge jump in the number of clinical trials using the methods to treat patients with genetic diseases (somatic or non-heritable gene therapy), including cancers, blindness and sickle cell disease. Robin Lovell-Badge, group leader, the Francis Crick Institute, London

The rechargeable lithium-ion battery has helped power the global revolution in portable electronics, and, indeed, many of you will be reading this article on a mobile phone, laptop or tablet computer. In October this year, the three pioneers of the lithium-ion battery, John Goodenough from the University of Texas at Austin, Stan Whittingham from Binghamton University, New York, and Akira Yoshino from Japans Meijo University, were awarded the Nobel prize in chemistry.

For me, this award was long overdue and finally recognised an exciting area of materials chemistry. There are lots of reasons to welcome this news. For the sheer beauty of literally holding the result of their fundamental research in our hands. For the celebration of John Goodenough, who at 97 is the oldest person ever awarded any Nobel prize. For the fact that new materials lie at the heart of developing green technologies that can change the way we live and work. For spurring further development of better batteries for electric vehicles and for storing energy from wind and solar.

Perhaps most of all because it helps to shine a light on one of the most urgent challenges of our time: a low-carbon future to deal with climate change. Saiful Islam, professor of materials chemistry at the University of Bath

Menabe, a dry forest in western Madagascar, is on fire. The only habitat of the worlds smallest primate (Berthes mouse lemur) is going up in flames as hungry people, many escaping droughts in the south, clear land for agriculture (despite the area being officially protected). Worryingly, we learned in October that this is far from an isolated problem and protected areas are less effective than previously thought.

Using a global data set of population density, night-time light and agriculture, researchers compared the changes in human pressures over time in more than 12,000 protected areas with similar unprotected areas. On average, pressures have increased faster inside than outside protected areas and those in poorer countries are particularly likely to suffer higher pressures. A decade ago, governments agreed a target to increase the proportion of the globe under conservation by 2020. Next year they gather to review progress and, potentially, commit to new targets.

The evidence is clear; when it comes to protecting sites for conservation, quality matters. Designating protected areas without effective management (including support for local communities) wont stop the fires, hold back the expansions of farms, or, ultimately, protect species from extinction. Julia Jones, professor in conservation science, Bangor University

Games of hide-and-seek are among my favourite childhood memories, and I still case novel environments for good hiding places. Researchers in Germany studied how rats can learn to play hide-and-seek with humans. All the rats learned to look for the hiding experimenter and all but one learned to hide from her. The only reward the rats received was the experimenter tickling and playing with them.

The data suggests that the rats were enthusiastically engaging in the game, looking frantically for the experimenter, squeaking and executing Freudensprnge (joy jumps) when they found her. They seemed to understand what it means to hide, preferring opaque boxes rather than clear boxes, and remaining silent (no squeals) until found. Frequently when they were found, they would tease the experimenter by running away and hiding again.

Its worth bearing in mind how complex this hide-and-seek is involving changes in role (hider or seeker) and theory of mind, and its almost alarming how well these rats learned to do this, all in the absence of classic psychological rewards like food. The experimenters conclude that the rats learn to play this game for the sheer joy of playing the game, and this is disconcertingly similar to the way human children play. Sophie Scott, professor of cognitive neuroscience, University College London

Once, during an ill-judged holiday in Borneo, I tried to climb a small mountain. While I crawled, panted and coughed on the slopes, my Malaysian guide, Miki, shuffled around politely, hands in his pockets, playing football with small rocks to slow his pace enough to match mine. Unacclimatised to altitude, it took me a day and a half to get to the summit. When I asked Miki how long it would normally take him to do the same he told me that, unencumbered by tourists like me, he could run up and down the mountain in just over three hours.

The molecular mechanisms that underpin Mikis apparently superhuman adaptation to high-altitude life revolve around a family of proteins known as hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). These substances trigger alterations in a host of genes, which together help regulate oxygen levels in the human body. Their discovery helped explain how oxygen levels could be sensed and gave scientists insight into the mechanisms that allow the body to adapt and survive when demand for oxygen greatly outstrips supply.

This year Sir Peter Ratcliffe, Gregg Semenza and William Kaelin shared a Nobel prize for their part in unpicking that mystery.

Their work informs more than ill-advised summit attempts. HIFs and the regulation of oxygen levels are together central to almost all aspects of human life, whether in health or disease. The work has already been applied to develop drugs to treat anaemia and may one day lead to new treatments for stroke, spinal cord injury, chronic inflammation and even cancer. Prof Kevin Fong is a consultant anaesthetist at University College London Hospital

My choice is a venture that failed but was a heroic failure: the Israeli effort to land a small robotic vehicle on the moon. This project, named Beresheet (Hebrew for in the beginning), was supported by private and philanthropic funding. It attracted wide interest among the young, and showed what can be achieved with hi-tech ingenuity. To minimise the weight of fuel, it didnt follow a direct track but was boosted into successively higher orbits around the Earth until it was captured by the moons gravity. It was launched on 22 February and was planned to soft-land on 10 April. But a gyroscope malfunctioned; the retro-jets didnt ignite soon enough, and it crash-landed. I highlight Beresheet because its a precursor of a new style of space ventures small scale, privately funded, and genuinely involving the public. (Indeed, Beresheet carried, as a school project, hundreds of tardigrades, microscopic water bears, which may have survived the impact.) Were moving beyond an era when all space projects must involve national agencies or large commercial conglomerates.

Groups from many nations will be able to launch follow-ups similar in concept to Beresheet. Sophisticated, privately funded miniaturised probes will gather data about the moon as well as the Earth. Some may go deeper into space, using advanced robotics, and the sophisticated electronics developed for smartphones. There will still be scope for big projects maybe even some carrying humans. But space will become an arena for independent experimenters even hobbyists. Martin Rees, Astronomer Royal

There have been so many significant science stories in 2019 that I have been spoilt for choice. I could have gone with the climate crisis (David Attenboroughs speech at Davos or Greta Thunbergs at the UN); or maybe the announcement of the first image of a black hole by scientists on the Event Horizon Telescope project, which seems to have already achieved iconic status. Or I could have chosen Googles recent announcement that they had achieved quantum supremacy with their new quantum computer. But instead, Ive gone with quirky rather than significant. In May, it was announced that the international SI units of measurement had been redefined. For example, the kilogram will no longer be compared with a cylinder of metal sitting under a bell jar outside Paris. Instead check this out it can be fixed just by knowing the frequency of vibration of an atom of caesium. That frequency defines the length of a second, which together with the speed of light defines the length of a metre, which in turn, together with knowing Plancks constant of quantum theory, allows us to calculate what a kilogram is. It is so utterly cool, but probably only fascinating to geeky physicists like me. Still, I make no apology. Jim Al-Khalili, professor of physics and public engagement in science at the University of Surrey and presenter of The Life Scientific (BBC Radio 4)

Excerpt from:
The science stories that shaped 2019 - The Guardian

Read the Rest...

A Healthier New Year Starts in the Gut – WholeFoods Magazine

§ December 22nd, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on A Healthier New Year Starts in the Gut – WholeFoods Magazine

As we enter a new year and the beginning of a new decade, theres no better time to make sure your digestive health aisle is well-stocked: Products that heal and nourish the gut are likely the helping hand your customers will need to achieve all their health resolutions in 2020. The composition of the gut microbiome influences every aspect of our physiology and regulatory processes, which affects not only digestive health but also systemic health and ones risk for developing diseases, asserts Samantha Ford, Business Development Director, AIDP Inc.

Indeed, over the past decade, study after study has uncovered new ways that the trillions of bacteria in the gut can influence everything from nutrition absorption to hormone balance to protection against pathogens like the flu virus. People typically consider probiotics for digestive health. However, based on scientific research it is becoming increasingly clear that they have other health benefits as well, notes Andrew G. Swick, M.S., Ph.D., Chief Scientific Officer, Life Extension. A healthy gut microbiome promotes healthy immunity, metabolism, mood, heart, liver and other organ systems.

All told, this growing awareness of the microbiome has the digestive health market booming, and it stands to soar even higher in the coming decade: A report by Grand View Research Inc. projects global sales of digestive health products will reach $57.5 billion by 2025a big jump from the $31.2 billion of 2017 (1). Significant growth is anticipated in the digestive health category, affirms Hank Cheatham, Vice President, Daiwa Health Development. With the awareness of the connection between gut health, overall health and cognitive function as well as athletic performance, growth seems to be a sure thing. In addition, researchers have only just begun to identify methodology to define a healthy microbiome; as this investigation evolves, growth in the market will occur, not only in personalized medicine, but overall.

That said, its not just probiotics and other microbiome-nourishing supplements fueling the market. Theres also a big opportunity to gain loyal customers who are dealing with specific digestive complaints like IBS, GERD and leaky gut and want to avoid the side effects and costs associated with traditional OTC and prescription treatments. According to the Natural Marketing Institutes (NMI)/Nielsens recently published report Opportunities in Digestive Health, 37% of consumers consider themselves to be managing some type of digestive health issue, Cheatham notes. People look to digestive remedies to help with the side effects of unhealthy diets and stressful lifestyles.

To help you navigate this increasingly flooded market so you can point your customers in the right direction to optimize their health, we tapped leading industry insiders for the low-down on the most promising new trends and technological advances in probiotics and microbiome support, as well as the research-backed natural options for the most common digestive concerns.

A study published in the journal Frontiers in Pharmacology posited that if everyone in the U.S. took probiotics, health care payers would save an estimated $373 million in medical bills and sick days would be reduced by 54.5 million, saving the economy approximately $1.4 billion per year in medical costs and lost productivity (2). And thats just savings associated with probiotics immune-boosting ability to fend off respiratory tract infections that cause cold and flu-like symptoms in healthy individuals.

With recent scientific advances, probiotics for obesity, dental health, diabetes and even heart disease could become a reality over the next decade. A wide variety of probiotic strains are being investigated for viability in specific health areas, such as oral health, mood/cognitive support, cholesterol management and more, notes Sam Michini, Vice President of Marketing & Strategy, Deerland Probiotics & Enzymes. Condition-specific action and support is the future of probiotics.

Dr. Swick agrees. With advancing technology, scientists have been able to select specific strains of organisms to accomplish precise tasks. Here, just a few strains shown to deliver targeted benefits that are already on the market:

Immune support. More than 70% of your immune system is in your gut, says Dr. Swick. He recommends a probiotic blend like Life Extensions Immune Support that combines B. lactis BS01, L. plantarum LP01, L. plantarum LP02, L. rhamnosus LR04, and L. rhamnosus LR05, which have been demonstrated to promote a healthy immune response.

Mood support. Experts estimate that up to 90% of the bodys serotonin is produced in the gut. Clinical and pre-clinical studies indicate that gut microbes can support mood and behavior by affecting the gut-brain axis, a complex communication network that links your gut with your brain, explains Dr. Swick, noting that innovative probiotic strains, L.helveticus Rosell-52 and B. longum Rosell-17, which are found in Life Extensions Florassist Mood Improve, are particularly helpful here: In two randomized controlled trials, study participants given these strains reported significant mood, stress response and emotional balance support as compared to placebo.

Also of interest for women who are pregnant or have recently given birth: The probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 is backed by clinical data in mood and anxiety support post-partum, says Ford. AIDPs Actazin in combination with HN001 has been shown to fuel the growth by as much as 140% in-vitro.

Fitness performance: Our spore-forming probiotic strain, Bacillus subtilis DE111, has the science to show its viability in fitness and athletic achievement, notes Michini. He points to a recent study published in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research that showed DE111, in conjunction with adequate post-workout nutrition, produced statistically significant improvements in the reduction of body fat percentage, and a strong trend indicating improved performance of the deadlift exercise (3.) In a separate study, DE111 was also found to promote tissue recovery and reduce the likelihood of injury.Weight management.Studies have suggested that there is an association between gut bacterial diversity and body weight, notes Dr. Swick. While specific strains are still being investigated, L. rhamnosus and L. gasseri show great promise in preliminary studies.

Whether your customers are shopping for a general health probiotic or a benefit-specific one, its better to focus on getting a diverse mix of bacteria strains rather the quantity or number of live active cultures, advises Neil E. Levin, CCN, DANLA, Senior Nutrition Education Manager, NOW Foods. Diversity and variety are important for gut health. A healthy gut will have no fewer than 50 to 100 probiotic strains present and that amount is actually at the low end of whats required. He notes that NOW Foods generally provides between at least 8 to 10 strains in their probiotic formulas to help foster this diversity.

Diversity can also be achieved by combining targeted strains found in a supplement along with probiotic food sources like yogurt, kimchi, kombucha and kefir, as well as functional snacks enriched with heat-resistant microbes like Kerrys spore-forming probiotic GanedenBC30. Some experts also recommend changing up the brand or formula of your probiotic supplement every few months to introduce new strains to the microbiome.

Trisha Sugarek MacDonald, BS, MS, Sr. Director of Research & Development/National Educator, Bluebonnet Nutrition Corporation, adds that its also critical to understand the quality of the probiotic, and each strains specific applications. Genetic DNA identification is the only way to ensure that you are getting the most effective probiotic strains, she says, noting that all probiotic strains in Bluebonnets Advanced Choice SingleDaily Probiotic formulas have been genetically identified and characterized by the Pasteur Institute, the scientific non-profit foundation dedicated to the study of microorganisms. Depending on ones food sensitivities, dietary benefits, such as made with non-GMO ingredients and free of most allergens, may also be important to look for on the label.

Survivability through the GI tract is also a consideration, but Levin believes theres little need to sweat it. We all know that probiotic foods are often effective without special delivery systems, and fortunately for both consumers and manufacturers, many modern probiotics are robustly acid-tolerant. For example, acidophilus literally means acid loving, he notes. Acidophilus and other common strains such as bifidobacteria have been tested for their ability to survive stomach acid for an hour at body temperature, and are rated at over 90% survivability. That can eliminate the need for enteric coatings, which contain some controversial ingredients and add to costs.

Many of the health-promoting effects of a balanced microbiome come not from the probiotics themselves, but from the short-chain fatty acids that are produced when bacteria ferment indigestible fibers, dubbed prebiotics, as food. Fermentation of certain fibers leads to the production of short-chain fatty acids, other metabolites and some vitamins, explains Kyle Krause, Product Manager, Functional Fiber and Carbohydrates, Beneo. Science demonstrates that short-chain fatty acids, achieved through this prebiotic fermentation, can reach the brain and other organs directly through the blood, or indirectly via the stimulation of immune cells, the hormonal or nervous system and the release of messenger substances. As a result, the gut microbiota can influence digestive health, an individuals inner well-being and overall health.

These prebiotic fibers play a critical role in helping good gut bacteria to thrive and multiply. While its possible to get sufficient prebiotics from food sources (onion, garlic, artichokes, bananas, barley, oats, beans and apples are all good sources of inulin and other soluble fibers and resistant starches), Michael Bush, President and CEO, Prenexus Health and Executive Board Member of the International Probiotics Association (IPA), cautions that most people struggle to get enough through diet alone. Dietary fiber is great but only 5% of Americans consume the recommended amount of dietary fiber, so supplemental prebiotics are necessary to properly feed the good bacteria that is already found in the gut. Plus, notes Cheryl Myers, Chief of Scientific Affairs and Education at EuroPharma, Inc., Supplemental prebiotics have the benefit of being consistentwhich is exactly what probiotics need to thrive.

Fortunately, theres no shortage of ingredients on the market that are effective in small doses and can be easily snuck into functional food and beverage. For instance, inulin and oligofructose, such as BENEOs chicory root fiber-derived Orafti Inulin and Oligofructose, can be easily and undetectably added to food and drink products, and have been shown to contribute to better digestive health and inner well-being by first and foremost selectively promoting the growth of beneficial microbiota, notes Krause. Studies also show improvements in bowel regularity as well as in calcium absorption and thus bone health. BENEOs prebiotic fibers have been proven to support weight management. This all results in an improved quality of life.

Xylooligoscacharides, or XOS, found in AIDPs propeitary ingredient PreticX, also show promising health perks. PreticX selectively feeds beneficial bacteria, without feeding the bad bacteriacausing a favorable alteration in gut microbiome, notes Ford. This is a tremendous advantage over other, higher dose prebiotics, which tend to feed all the bacteria, without a meaningful impact in the gut ratio. She points to a clinical trial which found that a dose of 2 grams of PreticX daily significantly increased levels of the bacteroidete B. fragilis strain, without increasing the firmicutes strain Lactobacillus. This suggests that PreticX may foster a more beneficial Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio, which has been linked to improved metabolic response and benefits to weight management.

Consumers who are sensitive to starch or fiber based prebiotics may want to consider emerging phage technology, advises Michini. Phages are minuscule bundles of DNA or RNA enrobed in a protein shell. Phages are diverse and abundant: there are 10-fold more phages than bacteria populations in the human body. The role of each type of phage is to overtake a specific bacterium. He explains that phages, like those found in Deerlands PreforPro, work as a dual action prebiotic. These compounds destabilize the cell wall of the bad bacteria, which then provides nutrients as well as space for the good bacteria to grow. Whats more, he notes, PreforPro is effective in a small dose (15 mg) and does not incur bloating or flatulence because it doesnt become fermented.

Also showing promise as a prebiotic: Antioxidants like anthocyanins from berries, notes Melanie Bush, Director of Science, Artemis International, Inc. Studies have shown that flavonoids essentially behave as prebiotics and modulate a healthy balance of good bacteria in the gut. Additionally, researchers studied how gut microbes can metabolize berry flavonoids into metabolites that have significant health benefits.

SOS for digestive distress

Chronic digestive issues, including inflammatory bowel disease, acid reflux and food intolerances, can be painful, frustrating and downright embarrassing. And often, the long-term side effects of the OTC and prescription treatments can be as troubling as the condition itself. Case in point: An alarming new study published in the BMJ found that extended use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), which are routinely prescribed to treat heartburn, ulcers and acid reflux, was associated with a 17% increased risk of early death (4). No wonder so many Americans are trying to get off their PPIs. A new survey from the University of Michigan Medical School revealed that 79% of patients had at least some concern about PPI side effects, even if they couldnt necessarily name any specific side effects, and 83% had attempted to get off of the meds without a doctors recommendation (5).

If customers come in looking for a natural solution to digestive problems, be sure to advise them to talk to their healthcare practitioner about transitioning off meds, notes Levin. But there is natural help to be found for GERD and IBD, and its largely compatible with OTC meds, notes Myers. Some consumers choose to take their OTC and the natural product together for a week or two, then slowly wean off the OTC drug. Once inflammation (especially 5-LOX inflammation, seen in many inflammatory bowel diseases) is under control or eliminated with natural products, the digestive relief and symptom remission is going to be much more sustainablewithout the potential side effects of OTCs.

Help for heartburn, acid reflux or GERD. Myers notes that the PPIs typically used to treat reflux and heartburn shut down acid production, which may temporarily stop the pain, but used long term, it leaves users vulnerable to other problems, including increased susceptibility to food poisoning, bone density loss, and increased rates of other infections. Stomach acidity is a natural barrier against microbes entering the body along with food or liquids since the low pH discourages the growth or most organisms, explains Levin. If the acidity level is too weak, foods wont be properly digested and that immune barrier would be compromised.

Whats more, Levin notes, its been estimated that perhaps half of those taking antacids have insufficient stomach acid production to enable digestion (and provide a proper immune barrier). The clinical pearl that clinical nutritionists learn is to consider the timing of heartburn after a meal. Delayed onset heartburn is an indication to look at the probability of the acid being too weak to actually digest the food, especially protein. When this is the case, he recommends exploring a supplement with betaine HCl to supplement the stomachs own acid production and pepsin, the stomach main digestive enzyme.

Other reflux soothers: Two of the best ingredients to fight heartburn and GERD naturally are d-limonene and sea buckthorn, says Myers. D-limonene is a clinically tested component of citrus oil that appears to coat and protect the stomach walls and mucosa from the potential damage of stomach acid (without interfering with acid production), and supports healthy peristalsisthe muscle action of the intestines that moves food through the digestive system. In one study, she notes, 19 adults with a history of mild to moderate symptoms of heartburn or GERD were asked to discontinue their OTC or prescription medications and take d-limonene instead. By the second day of taking d-limonene, 32% of the participants experienced symptom relief. After 14 days, 89% of the participants were symptom free.

Seabuckthorn works another way, Myers continues. It has a protective effect on the stomach and actually helps prevent and heal gastric ulcers. It also soothes the mucosal in the digestive tract. Similarly protective of the esophagus is deglycyrrhizinated licorice (DGL) extract, adds Levin. Licorice has been shown to support healthy concentrations of compounds that promote mucus production, which may provide an improved protective barrier between the delicate lining of the esophagus and the acidic stomach contents.

Help for inflammatory bowel disease. One of the most effective botanicals for dealing with IBS or other digestive issues is boswellia, says Myers. She notes that this botanical, found in BosMed Intestinal Bowel Support, fights 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inflammation. Inflammation through the small bowel and colon may be one of the physical causes and effects of IBS and other diseases. Because boswellia stops the 5-LOX cascade, it is a valuable ally. For example, in the case of Crohns disease, individuals were treated with either boswellia or the drug mesalazine (a drug commonly used to treat Crohns, ulcerative colitis, and IBS). Boswellia performed as well as the drug, but without the dangerous side effects.

Another smart supplement: Zinc L-carnosine offers a comprehensive approach to protect your stomach lining and promote gastric health, notes Levin. Several clinical studies showed that 150mg daily of zinc L-carnosine significantly reduced factors associated with gastric discomfort within eight weeks.

Help for food sensitivities or intolerances. A broad-spectrum enzyme blend can be a great solution for those who experience digestive discomfort when they eat, as it helps facilitate better digestion of the many components of a mealfats, carbohydrates and proteins, says Michini. But if a food sensitivity is claimed by your customer to be an issue, point them to supplements containing specific enzymes. Deerland makes a trio of targeted enzyme ingredients, ProHydrolase, Dairylytic and Glutalytic, that can help customers consume hard-to-digest protein peptides (like those in meat or protein powders), dairy and gluten with fewer digestive symptoms. Glutalytic is also clinically proven to reduce levels of IgA and CRP, supporting a proper immune response, he notes.

Help for leaky gut. Leaky gut is caused when inflammatory compounds (like gluten in people with gluten intolerances) and other toxins damage the digestive tract lining, creating microscopic tears that allow endotoxins and waste to leak out of the GI tract and into the bloodstream. This is notoriously difficult to treat, but Miles Sarill, National Educator, CV Sciences, sees big potential for a raw CBD component called cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) for speedier healing. He explains that this compound, which is found in CV Sciences new raw CBD oil, is a non-psychoactive precursor to CBD that has been shown in preliminary animal studies to actually facilitate healing of the digestive health tract. CBDA cant cross the blood-brain barrier, so it goes to work within the body along with 500 other anti-inflammatory compounds in a full spectrum oil, he explains. Full spectrum raw CBD oil can be deeply supportive for both inflammation response, as well as that gut barrier and the microbiome.

When it comes to growing your digestive health sales, Dr. Swick notes, It is important to educate consumers about the importance of probiotics and how they play a beneficial role within and outside the gut. Specifically, with respect to condition specific probiotic strains and how they can complement other interventions. For example if you are promoting mood support with traditional herbs or amino acids, also consider a probiotic product that has been studied and demonstrated to support the same health concern.

Myers agrees, Having printed materials that explain the connection between gut health and overall wellness are essential, too. It gives customers something to think aboutand ideally, some other lifestyle and supplemental optionsthat can encourage them to return to the store. Also, stores can invite guest speakers and experts to talk about the connection between gut health and well-being that may resonate in more direct ways than printed material.

Dont be afraid to make use of the complexity of the digestive health in illustrations or imagesthey can draw customers in, adds Michini. The gut is the bodys main manufacturing facilityit processes all the raw materials taken in from food, beverages, supplements to pharmaceuticals. This concept works well for visual storytelling, which can be used in store on a white board or other display, as well as in social media. Get the consumer involved in a way that rewards him or her. WF

References

Grand View Research, Digestive Health Products Market Size Worth $57.54 Billion By 2025,GrandViewResearch.com. Posted 2/19. Accessed 12/3/19. https://www.grandviewresearch.com/press-release/global-digestive-health-products-market

Lenoir-Wijnkoop, et al. Probiotics Reduce Health Care Cost and Societal Impact of Flu-Like Respiratory Tract Infections in USA,Frontiers in Pharmacology. Published 8/28/19. Accessed 12/3/2019. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2019.00980/full

Toohey, et al. Effects of Probiotic (Bacillus subtilis) Supplementation During Offseason Resistance Training in Female Division I Athletes,The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. Published 06/26/18. Accessed 12/3/2019. https://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/Abstract/publishahead/Effects_of_Probiotic__Bacillus_subtilis_.95273.aspx

Kristina Sauerwein, Heartburn drugs linked to fatal heart and kidney disease, stomach cancer, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. Publised 5/30/19. Accessed 12/3/19. https://medicine.wustl.edu/news/popular-heartburn-drugs-linked-to-fatal-heart-disease-chronic-kidney-disease-stomach-cancer/

Jina Sawani, Many Americans Are Worried About Taking PPIs and Have Tried Stopping Them Without Doctor Approval, University of Michigan Health Lab. Published 5/22/19. Accessed 12/3/19. https://labblog.uofmhealth.org/industry-dx/many-americans-are-worried-about-taking-ppis-and-have-tried-stopping-them-without

See the original post:
A Healthier New Year Starts in the Gut - WholeFoods Magazine

Read the Rest...

Innovations Transforming the Global Healthcare IT, Biomarker, Biologics, and Small Molecule Landscape, 2019 Research Report – ResearchAndMarkets.com -…

§ December 21st, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Innovations Transforming the Global Healthcare IT, Biomarker, Biologics, and Small Molecule Landscape, 2019 Research Report – ResearchAndMarkets.com -…

The "Innovations Transforming the Global Healthcare IT, Biomarker, Biologics, and Small Molecule Landscape" report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering.

This edition of the Life Science, Health & Wellness TechVision Opportunity Engine (TOE) provides technological insights across 26 global healthcare innovations.

The technologies analyzed include advances in digital health, biologics, small molecules, medical imaging, dental caries and precision oncology platforms. The TOE also covers application and megatrends impact, apart from exclusive analyst insights for each innovation.

The Life Science, Health & Wellness TOE will feature disruptive technology advances in the global life sciences industry. The technologies and innovations profiled will encompass developments across genetic engineering, drug discovery and development, biomarkers, tissue engineering, synthetic biology, microbiome, disease management, as well as health and wellness among several other platforms.

The Health & Wellness cluster tracks developments in a myriad of areas including genetic engineering, regenerative medicine, drug discovery and development, nanomedicine, nutrition, cosmetic procedures, pain and disease management and therapies, drug delivery, personalized medicine, and smart healthcare.

Companies featured:

For more information about this report visit https://www.researchandmarkets.com/r/98ey4z

View source version on businesswire.com: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20191218005393/en/

Contacts

ResearchAndMarkets.comLaura Wood, Senior Press Managerpress@researchandmarkets.com For E.S.T Office Hours Call 1-917-300-0470For U.S./CAN Toll Free Call 1-800-526-8630For GMT Office Hours Call +353-1-416-8900

Follow this link:
Innovations Transforming the Global Healthcare IT, Biomarker, Biologics, and Small Molecule Landscape, 2019 Research Report - ResearchAndMarkets.com -...

Read the Rest...

First patient treated with ‘acoustic cluster therapy’ – PharmaTimes

§ December 21st, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on First patient treated with ‘acoustic cluster therapy’ – PharmaTimes

The worlds first patient has been treated with an innovative new technology dubbed acoustic cluster therapy, a technology that uses microscopic clusters of bubbles and liquid droplets to enhance the delivery of chemotherapy drugs to tumours.

The new treatment, which is now being trialled by The Institute of Cancer Research, London, and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, promises to improve the effectiveness of the chemotherapy by better targeting it to the cancer site, and could potentially be explored with reduced doses of drug in order to reduce the severity of side effects.

Moving forward, the phase I/II clinical trial of the acoustic cluster therapy will aim to provide early data on the effectiveness of the therapy as well as establish its safety. The treatment will then be used to treat patients with tumours in the liver that have spread from the bowel or pancreas.

If the trial is successful, acoustic cluster therapy could enter larger clinical trials or trials in other cancer types. The researchers say that they aim, eventually, to use acoustic cluster therapy to boost the chemotherapy used to reduce the size of a tumour before surgery potentially helping to cure some people with cancer.

Professor Jeffrey Bamber, professor in physics applied to medicine at The Institute of Cancer Research is delighted that the work has progressed to the point where the technology is now being assessed in patients for the first time. Its a very exciting door opening technology which concentrates more of the drug in the tumour.

He went on to explain that the researchers expect eventually to be able to both treat tumours more effectively and reduce the rate and severity of side effects. In the long term we hope this technology will be of particular benefit in difficult-to-treat tumours, such as those of the pancreas. It may also assist new types of treatments such as immunotherapy.

The clinical trial is largely funded by Phoenix Solutions with additional funding from the Research Council of Norway, as well as support from the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at The Royal Marsden and the ICR.

Read more:
First patient treated with 'acoustic cluster therapy' - PharmaTimes

Read the Rest...

Amgen And Allergan Submit Biologics License Application For ABP 798, Biosimilar Candidate To Rituxan (rituximab), To US Food And Drug Administration |…

§ December 21st, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Amgen And Allergan Submit Biologics License Application For ABP 798, Biosimilar Candidate To Rituxan (rituximab), To US Food And Drug Administration |…

DetailsCategory: AntibodiesPublished on Friday, 20 December 2019 11:40Hits: 262

Filing for ABP 798 Supported by Two Comparative Clinical Studies

THOUSAND OAKS, CA, USA I December 19, 2019 I Amgen (NASDAQ:AMGN) and Allergan plc. (NYSE:AGN)today announced the submission of a Biologics License Application (BLA) to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for ABP 798, a biosimilar candidate to Rituxan (rituximab). Amgen and Allergan are collaborating on four oncology biosimilar medicines, two of which have already been approved by the FDA.

"The U.S. filing for ABP 798 marks an important milestone for Amgen, as it affirms our commitment to providing high quality biosimilars that offer more life-altering biological treatment options and contribute to the sustainability of healthcare systems," said David M. Reese, M.D., executive vice president of Research and Development at Amgen. "We look forward to working with the FDA to bring ABP 798 to market."

ABP 798 has been developed as a biosimilar candidate to Rituxan. Rituxan is a CD20-directed cytolytic antibody that has been approved in many regions for, among other things, the treatment of adult patients alone or in combination with chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, in combination with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis with glucocorticoids.

"We are excited about the progress that we've made to date through our partnership with Amgen, which includes the launch of the first two oncology therapeutic biosimilars in the U.S.," said David Nicholson, Ph.D., chief research and development officer at Allergan. "With ABP 798, we look forward to the opportunity to continue to provide additional treatment options to patients suffering from serious illnesses."

The BLA submission includes analytical, pharmacokinetic and clinical data, as well as pharmacology and toxicology data generated in two clinical studies. The results of these studies confirmed no clinically meaningful differences between ABP 798 and Rituxan.

Amgen has a total of 10 biosimilars in its portfolio, four of which have been approved in the U.S. and three that are approved in the European Union (EU).

AboutABP 798ABP 798 has been developed as a biosimilar candidate to Rituxan. Rituxan is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that has been approved in many regions for the treatment of, among other things, adult patients alone or in combination with chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, in combination with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide forchronic lymphocytic leukemia, granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis with glucocorticoids. The active ingredient of ABP 798 is a monoclonal antibody that has the same amino acid sequence as Rituxan.

About theAmgenand Allergan CollaborationInDecember 2011,AmgenandAllergan plc. (thenWatson Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) formed a collaboration to develop and commercialize, on a worldwide basis, four oncology antibody biosimilar medicines. This collaboration reflects the shared belief that the development and commercialization of biosimilar products will not follow a pure brand or generic model and will require significant expertise, infrastructure, and investment to ensure safe, reliably supplied therapies for patients. Under the terms of the agreement,Amgen assumes primary responsibility for developing, manufacturing and initially commercializing the oncology antibody products.

About Amgen BiosimilarsAmgenis committed to building uponAmgen'sexperience in the development and manufacturing of innovative human therapeutics to expandAmgen'sreach to patients with serious illnesses. Biosimilars will help to maintainAmgen's commitment to connect patients with vital medicines, andAmgenis well positioned to leverage its nearly four decades of experience in biotechnology to create high-quality biosimilars and reliably supply them to patients worldwide.

For more information, visitwww.amgenbiosimilars.comand follow us on http://www.twitter.com/amgenbiosim.

About Amgen OncologyAmgen is searching for and finding answers to incredibly complex questions that will advance care and improve lives for cancer patients and their families. Our research drives us to understand the disease in the context of the patient's life not just their cancer journey so they can take control of their lives.

For the last four decades, we have been dedicated to discovering the firsts that matter in oncology and to finding ways to reduce the burden of cancer. Building on our heritage, Amgen continues to advance the largest pipeline in the Company's history, moving with great speed to advance those innovations for the patients who need them.

At Amgen, we are driven by our commitment to transform the lives of cancer patients and keep them at the center of everything we do.

For more information, follow us on http://www.twitter.com/amgenoncology

AboutAmgenAmgenis committed to unlocking the potential of biology for patients suffering from serious illnesses by discovering, developing, manufacturing and delivering innovative human therapeutics. This approach begins by using tools like advanced human genetics to unravel the complexities of disease and understand the fundamentals of human biology.

Amgenfocuses on areas of high unmet medical need and leverages its expertise to strive for solutions that improve health outcomes and dramatically improve people's lives. A biotechnology pioneer since 1980,Amgenhas grown to be one of the world's leading independent biotechnology companies, has reached millions of patients around the world and is developing a pipeline of medicines with breakaway potential.

For more information, visitwww.amgen.comand follow us on http://www.twitter.com/amgen.

About Allergan plcAllergan plc (NYSE: AGN), headquartered in Dublin, Ireland, is a bold, global pharmaceutical leader.Allergan is focused on developing, manufacturing and commercializing branded pharmaceutical, device, biologic, surgical and regenerative medicine products for patients around the world.

Allergan markets a portfolio of leading brands and best-in-class products primarily focused on four key therapeutic areas including central nervous system, eye care, medical aesthetics and gastroenterology.

Allergan is an industry leader in Open Science,a model of research and development, which defines our approach to identifying and developing game-changing ideas and innovation for better patient care. With this approach, Allergan has built one of the broadest development pipelines in the pharmaceutical industry.

Allergan's success is powered by our global colleagues' commitment to being Bold for Life. Together, we build bridges, power ideas, act fast and drive results for our customers and patients around the world by always doing what is right.

With commercial operations in approximately 100 countries, Allergan is committed to working with physicians, healthcare providers and patients to deliver innovative and meaningful treatments that help people around the world live longer, healthier lives every day.

For more information, visit Allergan's website atwww.Allergan.com.

SOURCE: Amgen

See original here:
Amgen And Allergan Submit Biologics License Application For ABP 798, Biosimilar Candidate To Rituxan (rituximab), To US Food And Drug Administration |...

Read the Rest...

Get a flu shot to help stay healthy – Cumberland Times-News

§ December 21st, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Get a flu shot to help stay healthy – Cumberland Times-News

Hello dear readers and welcome to the its-almost-winter edition of our monthly letters column. The weather has changed, and so have your concerns, moving from the ticks and mosquitoes of summer, to colds and the dreaded flu. Speaking of which:

Many of you have asked whether its time for a flu shot, and the answer is an emphatic YES! After vaccination, it will take your body a few weeks to build up immunity. Considering all the travel and shopping and visiting the holidays bring much of it in crowded and under-ventilated spaces we need all the help we can get in staying healthy.

In a recent column about age-related insulin resistance, we cited research that links a decrease in a gut bacterium known as A. muciniphila, or Akk, to an increase in insulin resistance. A reader from Pennsylvania asked how levels of Akk in the gut can be restored. Unfortunately, as with many gut bacteria that have been revealed to play important roles in health and metabolism, we dont yet have a way to affect specific populations. The best course at this time is to eat for your gut. That is, choose from a wide range of fresh fruits and vegetables, beans, grains, legumes, healthy fats and fermented foods to provide a diverse range of nutrients for the trillions of microscopic organisms that make our guts their homes.

We heard from a reader who has begun to struggle with leg cramps at night. The outside muscles of my leg from the knee to the ankle abruptly harden for a few minutes while I am sleeping, which wakes me up several times during the night, she wrote. None of the meds I take list this as a side effect. What can I do?

Nocturnal leg cramps, which become more common as we age, affect up to 60% of adults. They tend to be more common in women than men. For most people, the condition is occasional, but some experience leg cramps on a nightly basis.

The onset of the cramp is sudden, and the experience is quite painful. It can take anywhere from a few seconds to several minutes for the muscle to finally relax. For immediate relief, try gentle massage and topical heat at the site of the cramp. Many of our readers swear by drinking a spoonful of apple cider vinegar mixed with a glass of water. For the long term, strength and stretching exercises have been shown to be beneficial. There is some evidence that supplements like magnesium, calcium, potassium and coQ10 may help, but the results are still unclear.

Thank you for all of your letters, your kind words and, yes, the occasional criticism. We love hearing from you and are always working to make this column more useful. Just a reminder that while we can address the big picture on medical issues, news and conditions, we cant offer a diagnosis or second opinion. For comments, tips or other suggestions, our mailbox is always open.

Eve Glazier, M.D., MBA, is an internist and associate professor of medicine at UCLA Health. Elizabeth Ko, M.D., is an internist and assistant professor of medicine at UCLA Health. Send your questions to askthedoctors@mednet.ucla.edu, or write: Ask the Doctors, c/o UCLA Health Sciences Media Relations, 10880 Wilshire Blvd., Suite 1450, Los Angeles, CA, 90024. Owing to the volume of mail, personal replies cannot be provided.

Here is the original post:
Get a flu shot to help stay healthy - Cumberland Times-News

Read the Rest...

Nanomedicines Market 2019 Global Analysis, Opportunities and Forecast To 2026 – Market Research Sheets

§ December 20th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Nanomedicines Market 2019 Global Analysis, Opportunities and Forecast To 2026 – Market Research Sheets

The Global Nanomedicines Market has witnessed continuous growth in the past few years and is projected to grow even further during the forecast period (2019-2026). The research presents a complete assessment of the market and contains Future trends, Current Growth Factors, attentive opinions, facts, historical data, and statistically supported and industry-validated market data.

Nanomedicines Market report presents a detailed analysis of the parent market based on elite players, present, past and futuristic data which will serve as a profitable guide for all the industry competitors. Key players in the Nanomedicines market have been identified through secondary research, and their market shares have been determined through primary and secondary research. All measurement shares split, and breakdowns have been resolute using secondary sources and verified primary sources. The Nanomedicines Market report begins with a basic overview of the industry lifecycle, definitions, classifications, applications, and industry chain structure and all these together will help leading players understand the scope of the Market, what characteristics it offers and how it will fulfill customers requirements.

Download the FREE Sample Copy Of Report with Table of Contents and Figures @ https://www.coherentmarketinsights.com/insight/request-pdf/393

The study also covers market status, share, future patterns, development rate, deals, SWOT examination, channels, merchants, and improvement gets ready for an anticipated year between 2019-2026. It aims to strategically analyze the market with respect to individual growth trends, prospects, and their contribution to the market. The report attempts to forecast the market size for 5 major regions, namely, North America, Europe, Asia Pacific (APAC), Middle East and Africa (MEA), and Latin America.

What Nanomedicines Market report offers: Nanomedicines Market share assessments for the regional and country-level segments Market share analysis of the top industry players Nanomedicines Market Trends (Drivers, Constraints, Opportunities, Threats, Challenges, Investment Opportunities, and recommendations) Strategic recommendations in key business segments based on the market estimations Competitive landscape covering the following points: Company Overview Product Portfolio Financial Performance Recent Highlights Strategies

The complete knowledge of the Nanomedicines Market is based on the latest industry news, opportunities, and trends. The keyword Market research report offers a clear insight into the influential factors that are expected to transform the global market in the near future. Both top-down and bottom-up approaches have been used to estimate and validate the market size of the Nanomedicines market, to estimate the size of various other dependent submarkets in the overall market.

Receive FREE Sample of Nanomedicines Research Industry @ https://www.coherentmarketinsights.com/insight/request-sample/393

Remarkable Attributes of Nanomedicines Market Report: The current status of the global Nanomedicines market, current market & the two regional and region levels. In-Depth Understanding of Facets Activating the Development of the global Nanomedicines marketplace. Current market isolation Relating to Identifying portions like Nanomedicines Merchandise Sort, end-use Software The innovative perspective of this global Nanomedicines current market with layouts that are standard, and also prime chances. The research of this market enticing place regarding product sales of Nanomedicines. Various stakeholders in this industry, including investors, product manufacturers, distributors, and suppliers for Nanomedicines market, research and consulting firms, new entrants, and financial analysts.

About Coherent Market Insights:

Coherent Market Insights is a prominent market research and consulting firm offering action-ready syndicated research reports, custom market analysis, consulting services, and competitive analysis through various recommendations related to emerging market trends, technologies, and potential absolute dollar opportunity.

Media Contact:

Name: Mr. Raj ShahEmail: [emailprotected]Phone: US +12067016702Country: United StatesWebsite: https://www.coherentmarketinsights.com/Visit Blog: https://globalindustryresearchblog.wordpress.com/

Go here to see the original:
Nanomedicines Market 2019 Global Analysis, Opportunities and Forecast To 2026 - Market Research Sheets

Read the Rest...

Aducanumab isn’t the simple solution to the Alzheimer’s crisis – STAT – STAT

§ December 20th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Aducanumab isn’t the simple solution to the Alzheimer’s crisis – STAT – STAT

This years Clinical Trials on Alzheimers Disease meeting began in mid-December with a bang and ended a few days later with hallway conversations laced with worry. The topic, in both cases, was aducanumab, an experimental drug for treating people with Alzheimers disease.

The meeting got off to celebratory start as a top Biogen scientist presented results showing that the highest dose of aducanumab may benefit people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and elevated amounts of a protein called amyloid in the brain. That presentation represented an about-face for the company, which had pulled the plug on two trials of the drug in March.

Yet even the most enthusiastic interpreters of the drugs effects on measures of cognition and function agreed that the benefit to patients was a mild slowing, not a halt, and it was certainly not a cure for Alzheimers disease.

advertisement

But we also learned that as aducanumab clears amyloid from the brain, it can cause both microscopic hemorrhages and swelling in the brain, particularly in individuals who have a heightened genetic risk of developing Alzheimers disease dementia.

With these facts in hand, aducanumab becomes a kind of thought experiment. What if we could treat mild cognitive impairment caused by Alzheimers disease with a somewhat effective but costly and risky drug? The answers are discomforting.

For much of the 20th century, America largely ignored dementia. It was widely believed that its most common cause was senility, an extreme stage of aging. That changed in April 1976 with a 1,200-word essay titled The Prevalence and Malignancy of Alzheimer Disease: A Major Killer in the Archives of Neurology. In it, neurologist Robert Katzman argued that older adults with disabling cognitive and behavioral problems did not have senility but had Alzheimers disease, a medical problem in need of the full force of American medicine to diagnose, treat, and ideally prevent.

Nearly half a century later, America hasnt come close to solving the problem of Alzheimers disease and other causes of dementia: We dont have effective treatments and we also dont have an effective physician workforce to prescribe and administer them.

Parsing out age-related cognitive complaints from mild cognitive impairment and explaining that diagnosis is a challenging task. There arent currently enough clinicians skilled to evaluate the millions of older adults with cognitive complaints, care for those with MCI and dementia, and prescribe a costly drug that slows but does not cure Alzheimers disease and poses risks to the very same brain they are trying to treat.

Imagine that the FDA approves aducanumab, or a drug like it. Individuals with mild memory problems who dont have MCI should be sent home with reassurance or with treatments for the problems causing their memory complaints, such as anxiety, too much alcohol, or poor sleep. Those with MCI thats about 15% of older Americans would be candidates for PET scans to measure the amount of amyloid in the brain.

To evaluate the millions of Americans who see a doctor because my memory isnt as good as it used to be, overworked and underskilled clinicians are likely to take shortcuts: Never mind diagnosing mild cognitive impairment. Just order the amyloid test. If its positive, prescribe the drug. Otherwise, dont prescribe it.

That approach will be costly. A PET scan for brain amyloid costs around $4,000. Less-costly spinal fluid tests could substitute, but few clinicians are skilled at performing them. Aducanumab, as a manufactured and injected monoclonal antibody, will be expensive. The risk of small swellings and bleeds in the brain would require MRIs to assess safety, which would increase the need for clinicians skilled in interpreting the scans and adjusting treatment plans.

A drug like aducanumab presents clinicians with other novel challenges. It is one of several drugs whose risks, and possibly its benefits as well, are associated with having the ApoE4 gene a gene known to increase an individuals lifetime risk of developing Alzheimers disease dementia. The decision to start the drug may well include ApoE testing so individuals can better understand their risks and possibly responses to the drug.

Genetic testing means that clinicians will have to practice genetic counseling at visits that may need to expand from the dyad of patient and caregiver to include an extended and worried family. A prescription for aducanumab would be startling news for a patients siblings, adult children, and grandchildren: You too may have the Alzheimers gene. You too may want to have an amyloid test.

A treatment that slows Alzheimers disease, that delays the onset of dementia, promises to reduce disability and preserve autonomy. The failure to properly prescribe it could, however, increase the spectacular tallies of the time and costs of caregiving that define much of the Alzheimers crisis.

Lets assume that additional studies show that aducanumab does indeed slow the progression of Alzheimers disease with benefits that exceed its risks. Some of those who take the drug will die of other causes, such as heart disease or cancer, before dementia takes hold. But others will, in time, experience more and more disabling cognitive impairments. As they do, theyll need care.

Some will be cared for in nursing homes or facilities devoted to dementia care. Most will be cared for at home. The Alzheimers Association estimates that in 2018, 16.3 million family members and friends provided 18.5 billion hours of unpaid care to people with Alzheimers and other dementias.

This care ought to include education and training for patients and caregivers. It should also include activity programs tailored to patients abilities and disabilities. These include memory cafs, where people come together not as patients but persons, and centers whose staff members are skilled at creating days that are safe, social, and engaging, with activities such as reminiscence, music, theater, art, and exercise.

Although these ought to be the standard of care, few of them are routinely available to caregivers and patients. Doctors dont typically prescribe them, and their costs are mostly paid out of pocket. A 2013 report estimated that these out-of-pocket costs, together with the time caregivers devote to care, make up as much as half of the diseases annual $200 billion-plus cost.

A disease-slowing treatment that reduces disability ought to reduce the time spent on caregiving. But it will not allow the U.S. to ignore its fractured and disorganized system of dementia care and how this nonsystem offloads much of the costs onto patients and families. Medicare, which was created in 1965, does not pay for long-term care. We must update this antiquated law and support long-term care.

The ability to control Alzheimers disease with a drug will also demand that we engage with difficult issues regarding life and death. Disease-slowing treatments for Alzheimers will challenge our criteria for access to hospice care, as well as to physician aid in dying. Individuals with a chronic and progressive disease like Alzheimers may, in time, decide they no longer want treatment. A robust ethic of respect for persons supports their right to stop treatment. It is entirely possible that some patients, as they decline, may decide: Enough. This disease has progressed. I want to stop treatment.

After that decision or if the drug doesnt work what kind of palliative care is available when death is not in six months away but may be six years away, or longer? Medicares hospice benefit is available only to individuals with six months or fewer to live.

Physician aid in dying, which is available to residents of nine states and the District of Columbia, is also not an option. Individuals who choose this route must have a prognosis of living six months or fewer, be able to decide to end their life, and be able to take the lethal dose of medication.

We ought to be deeply concerned that the limited access to care and its cost are not perverse incentives to seek aid in dying.

We should also expect that the more we control the natural history of Alzheimers disease, the more well begin to question when were dying of it and how we should die.

Katzman foreshadowed this in closing his 1976 essay: In focusing attention on the mortality associated with Alzheimer disease, our goal is not to prolong the lives of severely demented persons, but rather to call attention to a disease whose etiology must be determined, whose course must be aborted, and ultimately a disease to be prevented.

In 2012, the National Plan to Address Alzheimers Disease premiered a strategy to achieve Katzmans vision. Goal number one was that by 2025 we will prevent and effectively treat the disease. Research on aducanumab and other drugs in the pipeline that target amyloid and other causes of neurodegeneration is one route to achieving this. Equally important is disseminating strategies that promote brain health exercise, education, smoking cessation, and the like that have been decreasing the risk of developing dementia since the 1970s.

We do this research with hope that drug interventions will help address the economic and moral costs that have transformed Alzheimers from Katzmans common disease into a crisis. At the same time, we must be mindful that these interventions will present new economic and moral costs. If we fail to address them, the crisis will endure.

Jason Karlawish, M.D., is co-director of the Penn Memory Center and a site investigator for clinical trials sponsored jointly by the National Institute on Aging and Novartis (Generations program) and the NIA and Eli Lilly (the A4 Study). You can follow him on twitter @jasonkarlawish.

See original here:
Aducanumab isn't the simple solution to the Alzheimer's crisis - STAT - STAT

Read the Rest...

First Patient Treated With Acoustic Cluster Therapy Designed To Improve Chemo Delivery – Technology Networks

§ December 20th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on First Patient Treated With Acoustic Cluster Therapy Designed To Improve Chemo Delivery – Technology Networks

The first patient has been treated with an innovative new technology that uses microscopic clusters of bubbles and liquid droplets to enhance the delivery of chemotherapy drugs to tumours.

The clusters of microdroplets and microbubbles are injected along with the patients chemotherapy and the technology, called acoustic cluster therapy, uses a standard ultrasound scan to convert the clusters into an activated form within the tumour.

Once activated, with further ultrasound the clusters help to pump the drug into the tumour, greatly increasing the amount of drug which reaches the cancer cells.

This new treatment, which is now being trialled by The Institute of Cancer Research, London, andThe Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, promises to improve the effectiveness of the chemotherapy by better targeting it to the cancer site, and could potentially be explored with reduced doses of drug in order to reduce the severity of side effects.

Acoustic cluster therapywas invented by the Norwegian companyPhoenix Solutions. It was further developed with proof-of-concept studies by scientists at The Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) and theNorwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim.

The phase I/II clinical trial of acoustic cluster therapy will aim to provide early data on the effectiveness of the therapy as well as establish its safety. The treatment will be used to treat patients with tumours in the liver that have spread from the bowel or pancreas.

If the trial is successful, acoustic cluster therapy could enter larger clinical trials or trials in other cancer types. The researchers aim, eventually, to use acoustic cluster therapy to boost the chemotherapy used to reduce the size of a tumour before surgery potentially helping to cure some people with cancer.

The clinical trial is largely funded by Phoenix Solutions with additional funding from theResearch Council of Norway. It is also supported by theNIHR Biomedical Research Centre at The Royal Marsden and the ICR.

Professor Jeffrey Bamber, Professor inPhysics Applied to Medicine, who led the work to further develop and evaluate the technology at The Institute of Cancer Research, London, said:

Were delighted that our work on innovative acoustic cluster therapy which is designed to overcome barriers to drug delivery that tumours develop has progressed to the point where the technology is now being assessed in patients for the first time. Its a very exciting door opening technology which concentrates more of the drug in the tumour.

We expect eventually to be able to both treat tumours more effectively and reduce the rate and severity of side effects. In the long term we hope this technology will be of particular benefit in difficult-to-treat tumours, such as those of the pancreas. It may also assist new types of treatments such as immunotherapy.

The joint development and evaluation of this technology is testament to the strength ofthe ICRs industry collaborationsin medical imaging, within an environment where were able to bring our research discoveries into clinical trials. The trial itself is yet another example of the ICRs strength in working with The Royal Marsden to take research from bench to bedside.

Professor Udai Banerji, Deputy Director ofDrug Developmentat The Institute of Cancer Research, London, and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, said:

Our new clinical trial follows on from promising preclinical research that shows this acoustic cluster technology could help to increase the dose of chemotherapy to tumours, potentially allowing a reduced dose to the rest of the body. Were hopeful we can help open up a much-needed new option for patients with hard-to-treat advanced cancers.

This trial is a real cross-team effort involving radiologists, physicists and nurses who all work together to provide the treatment and support the patient throughout the process.

Karen Childs, from North West London is the first patient to receive this innovative new treatment, as part of a new clinical trial. She is currently being treated at The Royal Marsden for secondary cancer in her liver following her diagnosis in November 2013. Karen said:

Im not sure its sunk in yet that Im the very first patient in the world to be receiving this new treatment! This trial is an exciting step for the hospital and a huge step for patients like me. It really would make a big difference to patients lives if side effects could be reduced in the future using more targeted treatments like this. Its an incredible opportunity to be on this trial and the staff at The Royal Marsden have been amazing and very supportive.

Dr Per Sontum, Chief Executive of Phoenix Solutions, which invented the technology, said:

We are extremely pleased to announce that Phoenix Solutions has initiated the clinical development of Acoustic Cluster Therapy (ACT). After six years of technical work and pre-clinical development with Professor Jeff Bambers Ultrasound and Optics Team, our partners at the ICR and The Royal Marsden, the transition to clinical phase is a very exciting moment for all of us, team and collaborators. We look forward to moving to the next phase of the ACTivate study whose goal is to evaluate the clinical benefits of ACT.

The ICR has a very strong track record in physics applied to medicine, particularly in radiotherapy and imaging. For example, alongside clinicians at our partner hospital, The Royal Marsden, our physics researchers have developed new approaches to imaging such as ultrasound abdominal grey-scale imaging, ultrasound speckle noise reduction and elastography, all of which are part of medical scanners today.

They are also international leaders in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) cancer treatment and they pioneered intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for use in cancer treatment which is a mainstay of cancer treatment today.

This article has been republished from the following materials. Note: material may have been edited for length and content. For further information, please contact the cited source.

Go here to see the original:
First Patient Treated With Acoustic Cluster Therapy Designed To Improve Chemo Delivery - Technology Networks

Read the Rest...

MR Solutions participates in the first nanomedicine joint annual meeting in Dijon – BioSpace

§ December 18th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on MR Solutions participates in the first nanomedicine joint annual meeting in Dijon – BioSpace

UK based MR Solutions presented a simultaneous 7T PET/MRI preclinical imaging system optimized for nanoparticle imaging to the first joint annual congress of the French Nanomedicine Society (SFNano), and the French national Competency Cluster in Nanoscience CNano which was held in Dijon in early December.

Nanoparticles (NPs) have demonstrated great potential in diagnostic medicine particularly as contrast agents using MRI scanners. Iron oxide, gold, and gadolinium NPs have been used in preclinical and clinical studies as contrast enhancing agents.

The participants at the SFNano CNano 2019 joint meeting work in the scientific areas of nanomedicine, nanotechnology and nanoscience. MR Solutions presented the technology in a talk to the scientific community and displayed the PET/MRI system at the accompanying exhibition.

MR Solutions 7T PET/MR preclinical imaging system uses dry magnet, or liquid-helium free technology facilitating a compact system for multi-modality imaging. Researchers are able to combine high resolution MRI data with the high sensitivity of PET data for anatomical and quantitative studies.

Fabrice Chaumard, MR Solutions sales and marketing director commented: We were delighted that there was so much interest from the scientific community in our preclinical PET/MRI systems for nanoparticle imaging. This system provides much better imaging data and at a fraction of the cost of two separate systems.

The PET capability is provided by solid state detectors which are incorporated in the bore of the MRI scanner. The scanner combines the exquisite structural and functional characterisation of tissue provided by MRI with the extreme sensitivity of PET imaging for metabolism and tracking of uniquely labelled cell types or cell receptors. This is particularly useful in oncology, cardiology, and neurology research.

MR Solutions is the worlds leading independent developer and manufacturer of preclinical multi-modality MRI technology and remains the only company to deliver a commercial cryogen-free 3T to 9.4T range of compact MRI scanners. In recognition of the companys innovation and business acumen the company has received three Queens Awards for Enterprise for innovation in 2016 and 2019 and for international trade in 2017.

MR Solutions has over 30 years experience and in excess of 2000 installations across the world. This includes sales of their MRI spectrometers. Its scanners are renowned for their excellence in terms of superior soft tissue contrast and molecular imaging ability.

http://www.mrsolutions.com .

< Ends

Visit link:
MR Solutions participates in the first nanomedicine joint annual meeting in Dijon - BioSpace

Read the Rest...

World first treatment with ‘acoustic cluster therapy’ to improve chemotherapy delivery – The Institute of Cancer Research

§ December 18th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on World first treatment with ‘acoustic cluster therapy’ to improve chemotherapy delivery – The Institute of Cancer Research

The first patient has been treated with an innovative new technology that uses microscopic clusters of bubbles and liquid droplets to enhance the delivery of chemotherapy drugs to tumours.

The clusters of microdroplets and microbubbles are injected along with the patients chemotherapy and the technology, called acoustic cluster therapy, uses a standard ultrasound scan to convert the clusters into an activated form within the tumour.

Once activated, with further ultrasound the clusters help to pump the drug into the tumour, greatly increasing the amount of drug which reaches the cancer cells.

This new treatment, which is now being trialled by The Institute of Cancer Research, London, and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, promises to improve the effectiveness of the chemotherapy by better targeting it to the cancer site, and could potentially be explored with reduced doses of drug in order to reduce the severity of side effects.

Acoustic cluster therapy was invented by the Norwegian company Phoenix Solutions. It was further developed with proof-of-concept studies by scientists at The Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim.

The phase I/II clinical trial of acoustic cluster therapy will aim to provide early data on the effectiveness of the therapy as well as establish its safety. The treatment will be used to treat patients with tumours in the liver that have spread from the bowel or pancreas.

If the trial is successful, acoustic cluster therapy could enter larger clinical trials or trials in other cancer types. The researchers aim, eventually, to use acoustic cluster therapy to boost the chemotherapy used to reduce the size of a tumour before surgery potentially helping to cure some people with cancer.

The clinical trial is largely funded by Phoenix Solutions with additional funding from the Research Council of Norway. It is also supported by the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at The Royal Marsden and the ICR.

Lets finish it:help us revolutionise cancer treatment. We aim to discover a new generation of cancer treatments so smart and targeted, that more patients will defeat their cancer and finish what they started.

Support our work

Professor Jeffrey Bamber, Professor in Physics Applied to Medicine, who led the work to further develop and evaluate the technology at The Institute of Cancer Research, London, said:

Were delighted that our work on innovative acoustic cluster therapy which is designed to overcome barriers to drug delivery that tumours develop has progressed to the point where the technology is now being assessed in patients for the first time. Its a very exciting door opening technology which concentrates more of the drug in the tumour.

We expect eventually to be able to both treat tumours more effectively and reduce the rate and severity of side effects. In the long term we hope this technology will be of particular benefit in difficult-to-treat tumours, such as those of the pancreas. It may also assist new types of treatments such as immunotherapy.

The joint development and evaluation of this technology is testament to the strength of the ICRs industry collaborationsin medical imaging, within an environment where were able to bring our research discoveries into clinical trials. The trial itself is yet another example of the ICRs strength in working with The Royal Marsden to take research from bench to bedside.

Professor Udai Banerji, Deputy Director of Drug Developmentat The Institute of Cancer Research, London, and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, said:

Our new clinical trial follows on from promising preclinical research that shows this acoustic cluster technology could help to increase the dose of chemotherapy to tumours, potentially allowing a reduced dose to the rest of the body. Were hopeful we can help open up a much-needed new option for patients with hard-to-treat advanced cancers.

This trial is a real cross-team effort involving radiologists, physicists and nurses who all work together to provide the treatment and support the patient throughout the process.

Karen Childs, from North West London is the first patient to receive this innovative new treatment, as part of a new clinical trial. She is currently being treated at The Royal Marsden for secondary cancer in her liver following her diagnosis in November 2013. Karen said:Im not sure its sunk in yet that Im the very first patient in the world to be receiving this new treatment! This trial is an exciting step for the hospital and a huge step for patients like me. It really would make a big difference to patients lives if side effects could be reduced in the future using more targeted treatments like this. Its an incredible opportunity to be on this trial and the staff at The Royal Marsden have been amazing and very supportive.

Dr Per Sontum, Chief Executive of Phoenix Solutions, which invented the technology, said:

We are extremely pleased to announce that Phoenix Solutions has initiated the clinical development of Acoustic Cluster Therapy (ACT). After six years of technical work and pre-clinical development with Professor Jeff Bambers Ultrasound and Optics Team, our partners at the ICR and The Royal Marsden, the transition to clinical phase is a very exciting moment for all of us, team and collaborators. We look forward to moving to the next phase of the ACTivate study whose goal is to evaluate the clinical benefits of ACT.

The ICR has a very strong track record in physics applied to medicine, particularly in radiotherapy and imaging. For example, alongside clinicians at our partner hospital, The Royal Marsden, our physics researchers have developed new approaches to imaging such as ultrasound abdominal grey-scale imaging, ultrasound speckle noise reduction and elastography, all of which are part of medical scanners today.

They are also international leaders in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) cancer treatment and they pioneered intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for use in cancer treatment which is a mainstay of cancer treatment today.

There are a wide range of opportunities for companies to partner with ICR scientists in medical physics, imaging and radiotherapy.

The ICRs interactions with industry partners are led by our Enterprise Unit, a UK-leading technology transfer office which oversees a large portfolio of partnership and licensing opportunities across a wide range of basic and oncology research.

Contact the Enterprise Unit for more information on the types of opportunities available at the ICR for partnering with industry.

Read more about our commercialisation workand sign up for our industry email newsletter.

Go here to read the rest:
World first treatment with 'acoustic cluster therapy' to improve chemotherapy delivery - The Institute of Cancer Research

Read the Rest...

Putting a suitcase on your bed may be disgusting, but is it actually dangerous? – Independent.ie

§ December 18th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Putting a suitcase on your bed may be disgusting, but is it actually dangerous? – Independent.ie

Putting a suitcase on your bed may be disgusting, but is it actually dangerous?

Independent.ie

It's unlikely that you come home from a trip and stand on top of your bed still wearing your street shoes. Why would you? Your shoes are covered in God-knows-what, and your bed is a sacred space.

https://www.independent.ie/life/travel/travel-talk/putting-a-suitcase-on-your-bed-may-be-disgusting-but-is-it-actually-dangerous-38767137.html

https://www.independent.ie/life/travel/article38767136.ece/b13e3/AUTOCROP/h342/suitcase%20bag.jpg

It's unlikely that you come home from a trip and stand on top of your bed still wearing your street shoes. Why would you? Your shoes are covered in God-knows-what, and your bed is a sacred space.

For some travellers, putting their suitcase on their bed is just as offensive.

The wheels of our luggage tread the same soiled path as our shoes, rolling through airport bathrooms, sidewalks and public transportation. To these travellers, the thought of plopping said suitcase atop the same place for sleeping is an affront to humanity.

While it might sound gross to put a worldly bag on your bed, is it actually harmful to your health?

According to Phyllis Kozarsky, an expert travel health consultant for the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's travellers' health branch and the chief medical editor of the CDC reference guide Health Information for the International Traveler, most public health professionals don't consider luggage a major transmitter of disease.

"We have not identified outbreaks related to dirty luggage," Kozarsky says.

Where travellers may benefit from cleaning their luggage is if there's a suspicion that their hotel room has a bedbug infestation.

"Then they certainly would benefit by vacuuming out their luggage or cleaning it after they returned home," Kozarsky says. But otherwise, she says, the bag is "not typically a source of transmission of illness."

Even if your luggage touching your bed won't hurt you, you might still be plain old revolted. After all, travel is a germ-addled experience.

"You have people ... carrying all types of different germs. Some of them are sick, and you now have them populating these public travel places," says Colleen Costello, CEO of Vital Vio, a company that makes antibacterial LED lights.

Your fellow travellers have to touch all the same things you have to touch, from the TSA checkpoint to the airplane, the train ticketing machine to the handrail in your train car.

"They have microscopic germs on them. And, realistically, [janitorial staff] may be getting to clean them rather infrequently," Costello says of the many touch points involved in travel.

"Everything you bring into these public spaces can basically pick up or drop off different germs, and you can't see them. There's no way to really know when you or your personal belongings are exposed."

For your peace of mind, Costello recommends giving your bag a quick disinfection or storing it on a luggage rack. Technically speaking, you could go beyond disinfecting your luggage wheels and sanitise the rest of your travel experience - the airplane tray table, entertainment screen, armrests, hotel room door and remote control.

But Kozarsky, the CDC travel medicine expert, doesn't vouch for that lifestyle.

"It's hard to keep up with every doorknob, every railing. Think of what you do between your home and your destination," Kozarsky says. "You can become a little neurotic that way."

We live in a germ-filled world. Coming into contact with bacteria is part of life, and trying to sanitise every travel accessory or surface we touch can turn into a Sisyphean task.

Instead, make sure you're washing your hands with soap and water after using the restroom and before you eat. Carry hand sanitiser for the times you don't have access to soap and water. Avoid touching your eyes and mouth as much as possible.

And remember: Dodging illness isn't a perfect science. Getting a cold from time to time is human.

(c) 2019, The Washington Post

Online Editors

Visit link:
Putting a suitcase on your bed may be disgusting, but is it actually dangerous? - Independent.ie

Read the Rest...

Researchers ID Potential Cause of Elevated Nighttime Blood Pressure in Patients with Sleep Apnea – Sleep Review

§ December 18th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Researchers ID Potential Cause of Elevated Nighttime Blood Pressure in Patients with Sleep Apnea – Sleep Review

In addition to sleep problems, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can cause other health issues, including high blood pressure, chronic heart failure, and stroke. Some patients with OSA are at an even higher risk of cardiovascular problems because of a phenomenon called reverse dipping that causes blood pressure to rise rather than lower during sleep. Most people experience lower blood pressure at night. Now, University of Missouri School of Medicine researchers have found a potential cause for reverse dipping that may help patients with OSA get the help they need before cardiovascular disease develops.

We can now identify those with OSA at the highest risk of cardiovascular problems in order to prevent them from developing additional complications, says David Gozal, MD, the Marie M. and Harry L. Smith Endowed Chair of Child Health at the MU School of Medicine, in a release. We can treat those patients more aggressively to ensure they adhere to therapy and use their continuous positive airway pressure device (CPAP) properly.

Gozal and fellow MU collaborator Abdelnaby Khalyfa, PhD, studied 46 patients diagnosed with OSA. They ranged in age from 18 to 70. Fifteen participants were identified to have a rise in blood pressure during sleep, while the remaining 31 participants had blood pressure readings that either remained the same or declined at night. The researchers collected blood from each participant to study the messages cells produce and send to each other through microscopic packages called exosomes.

We found that the cell messages coming from participants with night-time elevated blood pressure were different than those transmitted in subjects with normal blood pressure, Gozal says. The altered messages caused the cells that line the blood vessels to become dysfunctional. Those disturbed vessels allowed inflammatory cells to enter the vessels walls, causing hardening of those vessels and leading to cardiovascular disease.

Gozal says the cell message discovery will help clinicians personalize treatment for each patient diagnosed with OSA. A simple blood test administered at the beginning of a sleep study could indicate each patients cardiovascular risk.

Gozal says additional research is needed to study the patients at highest risk of cardiovascular complications from OSA to see if CPAP compliance can actually reduce blood pressure or normalize the cell messages used to determine a patients risk.

The study, Circulating Plasma Exosomes in Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Reverse-Dipping Blood Pressure, was recently published in theEuropean Respiratory Journal.

Link:
Researchers ID Potential Cause of Elevated Nighttime Blood Pressure in Patients with Sleep Apnea - Sleep Review

Read the Rest...

Westmead advanced manufacturing to transform lives – News – The University of Sydney

§ December 17th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Westmead advanced manufacturing to transform lives – News – The University of Sydney

A vector is a microscopic carrier of pieces of DNA. It is used to deliver healthy copies of genes to tissues and organs within patients or deliver the ability to correct the genetic errors. While the technology is moving rapidly, production of vectors is not.

NSW, and in particular the Westmead Precinct, is already at the forefront of international gene therapy research. The aim of this project is to speed up research and translate it into cures for serious genetic diseases affecting children.

The facility will produce vectors to treat illnesses impacting everything from those with life-threatening liver disease to children going blind. Currently the vectors need to imported and its extremely costly to get them to Australia.

Professor Ian Alexander, Head of the Gene Therapy Research Unit at Childrens Medical Research Institute, senior clinician at The Childrens Hospital at Westmead and Professor of Paediatric and Molecular Medicine at the University of Sydney, said the manufacturing facility would be a boost to translation of academic research in NSW.

We see it as the beginning of something much greater, Professor Alexander said.

It is about moving technology into the clinic, which, in future, will benefit many more patients by offering new and better treatment opportunities. This technology could translate into saving the lives of infants with life-threatening conditions.

Dr Leszek Lisowski heads the Translational Vectorology Group at CMRI and is Conjoint Senior Lecturer at the University of Sydney. His team will play a key role in the new facility, through training of staff and developing the manufacturing processes that will underpin operations. In addition, his team specialises in the development of novel vectors optimised for clinical applications targeting liver, eye and many other clinically important organs and tissues.

Dr Lisowski said that this new facility will allow Australian investigators to get around the "bottleneck" of getting vectors from overseas.

The biggest bottleneck that slows down translation of gene therapy tools to the patient is a global lack of vector manufacturing capacity, which significantly extends the timeline and increases the cost of translational studies," he said.

This facility will give Australian researchers prioritised and cost-effective access to clinical gene therapy reagents and will facilitate translation of a large number of exciting preclinical programs from bench to bedside.

The team is excited by this vital investment and looks forward to partnering with government and other funders to enable the facility to achieve its full potential.

The Westmead Precinct is one of the largest health, education, research and training precincts in Australia and a key provider of jobs for the greater Parramatta and western Sydney region. Spanning 75 hectares, the Precinct includes four hospitals, four world-leading medical research institutes, two multidisciplinary university campuses and the largest research-intensive pathology service in NSW.

The University of Sydney has long been a proud partner of the Precinct and is in negotiations about developing a second major campus in the area. By 2050, that campus will include 25,000 students; 1000 staff and researchers; generate $21.7 billion for the NSW economy and support up to 20,000 jobs.

University of Sydney Vice-Chancellor and Principal Dr Michael Spence said that as part of our collaborative work in building a western Sydney global centre of excellence, Precinct partners are growing Australias advanced manufacturing capability.

These developments will strengthen crucial collaborations in the Precinct from R&D and design to distribution in areas such as prevention and wellbeing, biomedical engineering, AI and personalised medicine, Dr Spence said.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Executive Dean Professor Robyn Ward said: This technology will scale up gene therapy using viral vectors from single-condition, life changing successes, for example in spinal muscle atrophy, to a national service.

We are so proud of this leadership at the Westmead Precinct and with our health partners. It is a whole-of-lifespan, true bench-to-clinic approach."

Go here to see the original:
Westmead advanced manufacturing to transform lives - News - The University of Sydney

Read the Rest...

MR Solutions participates in the first nanomedicine joint annual meeting in Dijon – DOTmed HealthCare Business News

§ December 17th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on MR Solutions participates in the first nanomedicine joint annual meeting in Dijon – DOTmed HealthCare Business News

UK based MR Solutions presented a simultaneous 7T PET/MRI preclinical imaging system optimized for nanoparticle imaging to the first joint annual congress of the French Nanomedicine Society (SFNano), and the French national Competency Cluster in Nanoscience CNano which was held in Dijon in early December.

Nanoparticles (NPs) have demonstrated great potential in diagnostic medicine particularly as contrast agents using MRI scanners. Iron oxide, gold, and gadolinium NPs have been used in preclinical and clinical studies as contrast enhancing agents.

The participants at the SFNano CNano 2019 joint meeting work in the scientific areas of nanomedicine, nanotechnology and nanoscience. MR Solutions presented the technology in a talk to the scientific community and displayed the PET/MRI system at the accompanying exhibition.

Ad StatisticsTimes Displayed: 924985Times Visited: 8011

Special-Pricing Available on Medical Displays, Patient Monitors, Recorders, Printers, Media, Ultrasound Machines, and Cameras.This includes Top Brands such as SONY, BARCO, NDS, NEC, LG, EDAN, EIZO, ELO, FSN, PANASONIC, MITSUBISHI, OLYMPUS, & WIDE.

Fabrice Chaumard, MR Solutions sales and marketing director commented: We were delighted that there was so much interest from the scientific community in our preclinical PET/MRI systems for nanoparticle imaging. This system provides much better imaging data and at a fraction of the cost of two separate systems.

The PET capability is provided by solid state detectors which are incorporated in the bore of the MRI scanner. The scanner combines the exquisite structural and functional characterisation of tissue provided by MRI with the extreme sensitivity of PET imaging for metabolism and tracking of uniquely labelled cell types or cell receptors. This is particularly useful in oncology, cardiology, and neurology research.

MR Solutions is the worlds leading independent developer and manufacturer of preclinical multi-modality MRI technology and remains the only company to deliver a commercial cryogen-free 3T to 9.4T range of compact MRI scanners. In recognition of the companys innovation and business acumen the company has received three Queens Awards for Enterprise for innovation in 2016 and 2019 and for international trade in 2017.

About:MR Solutions has over 30 years experience and in excess of 2000 installations across the world. This includes sales of their MRI spectrometers. Its scanners are renowned for their excellence in terms of superior soft tissue contrast and molecular imaging ability.

Back to HCB News

The rest is here:
MR Solutions participates in the first nanomedicine joint annual meeting in Dijon - DOTmed HealthCare Business News

Read the Rest...

NANOBIOTIX Receives the 2019 Prix Galien Award for First-in-Class HENSIFY – Business Wire

§ December 17th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on NANOBIOTIX Receives the 2019 Prix Galien Award for First-in-Class HENSIFY – Business Wire

PARIS & CAMBRIDGE, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Regulatory News:

NANOBIOTIX (Paris:NANO) (Euronext: NANO - ISIN: FR0011341205 the Company), a clinical-stage nanomedicine company pioneering new approaches to the treatment of cancer, today announced receipt of the French 2019 Prix Galien Award for Most Innovative MedTech. The Companys lead product, HENSIFY (NBTXR3) brand name for the treatment of locally advanced Soft Tissue Sarcoma (STS), was recognized after receiving European market approval (CE marking, DM class III, on April 2, 2019) earlier this year. The Prix Galien Award recognizes outstanding biomedical and medical technology product achievements that improve the human condition.

HENSIFY is a first-in-class radioenhancer consisting of an aqueous suspension of crystalline hafnium oxide nanoparticles. The product is administered only once, directly into the tumor, before a patients first radiotherapy session. After intratumoral injection, the nanoparticles penetrate the tumor cells and, when activated by ionizing radiation, deliver a larger energy deposit within the tumor where the nanoparticles are present, thereby increasing the tumor-killing effect of treatment without increasing damage to surrounding healthy tissues. HENSIFY has a universal, physical mode of action and is inert within the human body outside of the presence of ionizing radiation.

The product is approved in Europe for the treatment of Soft Tissue Sarcoma (STS). Positive results from the Companys phase III STS study were featured the August 2019 edition of The Lancet Oncology.

Moving forward, the Company is engaged in global clinical development of the product across fifteen (15) clinical trials in STS and other indications with a primary focus on global registration for the treatment of Head and Neck cancers. These trials include the expansion phase of a European phase I evaluating the safety and feasibility of NBTXR3 activated by radiation therapy(Study NBTXR3-102); an immuno-oncology (I/O) basket trial (Study NBTXR3-1100) which evaluates NBTXR3 in combination with anti-PD-1 in the United States (US); phase I trials evaluating NBTXR3 activated by radiation therapy for the treatment of liver and prostate cancer; a partnership with PharmaEngine in Asia evaluating NBTXR3 in combination with cisplatin; and a clinical collaboration with The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (MD Anderson) including nine (9) trials across several indications.

About the PRIX GALIEN

Created in France in 1970, the Prix Galien is the most prestigious award in the field of pharmaceutical research and innovation. Referred to as the Nobel Prize of pharmaceutical research, it recognizes the efforts and achievements of pharmaceutical research and development.

About NBTXR3

NBTXR3 is a first-in-class product designed to destroy tumors through physical cell death when activated by radiotherapy. NBTXR3 has a high degree of biocompatibility, requires one single administration before the first radiotherapy treatment session, and has the ability to fit into current worldwide standards of radiation care. The physical mode of action of NBTXR3 makes it applicable across solid tumors such as lung, prostate, liver, glioblastoma, and breast cancers.

NBTXR3 is actively being evaluated in head and neck cancer with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity or oropharynx in elderly and frail patients unable to receive chemotherapy or cetuximab with limited therapeutic options. Promising results have been observed in the phase I/II trial regarding local control. In the United States, the company has started the regulatory process in regard to the clinical authorization to the phase II/III in locally advanced head and neck cancers.

Nanobiotix is also running an Immuno-Oncology development program. The Company received approval FDA to launch a clinical trial of NBTXR3 activated by radiotherapy in combination with anti-PD-1 antibodies in locoregional recurrent (LRR) or recurrent and metastatic (R/M) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and lung or liver metastasis (mets) with HNSCC not amenable to re-irradiation or non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as the primary tumor.

The other ongoing NBTXR3 trials are treating patients with liver cancers (hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastasis), locally advanced or unresectable rectal cancer in combination with chemotherapy, head and neck cancer in combination with concurrent chemotherapy, and prostate adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, the company has a large-scale, comprehensive clinical research collaboration with The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (9 new phase I/II clinical trials in the United States) to evaluate NBTXR3 across head and neck, pancreatic, thoracic, lung, gastrointestinal and genitourinary cancers.

About NANOBIOTIX: http://www.nanobiotix.com

Incorporated in 2003, Nanobiotix is a leading, clinical-stage nanomedicine company pioneering new approaches to significantly change patient outcomes by bringing nanophysics to the heart of the cell.

The Nanobiotix philosophy is rooted in designing pioneering, physical-based approaches to bring highly effective and generalized solutions to address unmet medical needs and challenges.

Nanobiotixs first-in-class, proprietary lead technology, NBTXR3, aims to expand radiotherapy benefits for millions of cancer patients. Nanobiotixs Immuno-Oncology program has the potential to bring a new dimension to cancer immunotherapies.

Nanobiotix is listed on the regulated market of Euronext in Paris (Euronext: NANO / ISIN: FR0011341205; Bloomberg: NANO: FP). The Companys headquarters are in Paris, France, with a U.S. affiliate in Cambridge, MA, and European affiliates in Spain and Germany

Disclaimer

This press release contains certain forward-looking statements concerning Nanobiotix and its business, including its prospects and product candidate development. Such forward-looking statements are based on assumptions that Nanobiotix considers to be reasonable. However, there can be no assurance that the estimates contained in such forward-looking statements will be verified, which estimates are subject to numerous risks including the risks set forth in the reference document of Nanobiotix registered with the French Financial Markets Authority (Autorit des Marchs Financiers) under number R.19-018 on April 30, 2019 (a copy of which is available on http://www.nanobiotix.com) and to the development of economic conditions, financial markets and the markets in which Nanobiotix operates. The forward-looking statements contained in this press release are also subject to risks not yet known to Nanobiotix or not currently considered material by Nanobiotix. The occurrence of all or part of such risks could cause actual results, financial conditions, performance or achievements of Nanobiotix to be materially different from such forward-looking statements.

See the original post here:
NANOBIOTIX Receives the 2019 Prix Galien Award for First-in-Class HENSIFY - Business Wire

Read the Rest...

Immix adds Biotech VC Mesa Verde to Investor Syndicate and Receives IRB Approval to Enroll Patients in Phase 1b/2a Cancer Study in the United States -…

§ December 17th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Immix adds Biotech VC Mesa Verde to Investor Syndicate and Receives IRB Approval to Enroll Patients in Phase 1b/2a Cancer Study in the United States -…

LOS ANGELES, Dec. 17, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- Immix Biopharma, Inc., announced today the first closing of a convertible note financing to support the clinical testing of its lead compound Imx-110 in advanced solid tumors. Mesa Verde managing director, Carey Ng, PhD, MBA, also joined the Board.

Immix CEO, Ilya Rachman, MD, PhD, MBA, shared, "We are thrilled to bring on Mesa Verde and Carey as we continue to build our team with executives and board members with successful experience in guiding early-stage clinical companies through similar phases of rapid growth."

With this additional funding, Immix will begin enrolling patients at US-based sites in its study testing Imx-110 in a Phase 1b/2a trial in advanced solid tumors. Immix received IRB approval to begin dosing patients at Synergy Hematology Oncology with offices in Los Angeles and Encino, CA. Dr. Levon Qasabian, MD will be the principal investigator, who stated that, "We are excited to explore the potential of this promising drug and offer it to patients with advanced tumors and limited treatment options."

Interim readouts from the Phase 1b/2a trial in Australia are 100% clinical benefit rate (akin to disease control rate) for all patients who completed the 5th cohort and at least 2 cycles as scheduled - with the longest duration of response being 8-months of stable disease. No treatment-related serious adverse events have been observed to-date and dose escalation is continuing. For information about participating in this study, please visit clinicaltrials.gov: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03382340

Immix is also opening a call for investigator initiated studies where the company will provide its lead compound Imx-110 at no charge.

About Imx-110Imx-110 is a first-in-class combination therapy designed to inhibit cancer resistance and evolvability while inducing apoptosis. Imx-110 contains NF-kB/Stat3/pan-kinase inhibitor curcumin combined with a small amount of doxorubicin encased in a nano-sized delivery system for optimal tumor penetration. The nanoparticle is tunable in that it can be bound to various targeting moieties, allowing it to deliver even more payload to tumors or other cell populations of interest, if needed. Imx-110 showed preclinical efficacy in glioblastoma, multiple myeloma, triple-negative breast, colorectal, ovarian, and pancreatic tumor models with the mechanism of action being a 5x increase in cancer cell apoptosis compared to doxorubicin alone, and a wholesale shift in the tumor microenvironment post administration.

About the CompanyImmix Biopharma, Inc. is a privately-held, biopharmaceutical firm focused on developing safe and effective therapies for cancer patients. The company was founded by Vladimir Torchilin, Ph.D., D.Sc., Director of the Center for Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Nanomedicine at Northeastern University; physician-scientist and clinical researcher Ilya Rachman, MD, PhD, MBA; and Sean D. Senn, JD, MSc., MBA, a senior biotechnology patent attorney. Immix's founding investor is a family office focused on harnessing scientific advances in order to engineer transformative and effective cancer treatments. For more information visit http://www.immixbio.com.

Media ContactRyan Witt+1 (888) 958-1084info@immixbio.com

View original content:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/immix-adds-biotech-vc-mesa-verde-to-investor-syndicate-and-receives-irb-approval-to-enroll-patients-in-phase-1b2a-cancer-study-in-the-united-states-300975006.html

SOURCE Immix Biopharma, Inc.

Excerpt from:
Immix adds Biotech VC Mesa Verde to Investor Syndicate and Receives IRB Approval to Enroll Patients in Phase 1b/2a Cancer Study in the United States -...

Read the Rest...

Research at the ends of the earth – AAMC

§ December 16th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on Research at the ends of the earth – AAMC

Think biomedical research and you may envision test tubes, microscopes, and rows of petri dishes. But for some scientists, conducting research instead means strapping on scuba gear, scaling the slopes of Mount Everest, joining foraging tribes on a South Asian hillside, or embarking on other equally remote adventures. Sometimes, the work involved is uncomfortable or downright dangerous. But these researchers say it also can be exhilarating to advance medical knowledge in ways that arent feasible without such severe conditions or far-flung treks.

Here are profiles of several scientists who went to extremes, not just for a change in scenery, but because as Martin Cetron, MD, an Emory University School of Medicine professor and supervisor at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), says Thats where you had to go to do the work.

It was a simple question. During a presentation, Richard Moon, MD, a professor of anesthesiology and medicine at Duke University School of Medicine, was asked, Why study people at high altitudes?

Moon, who also directs Dukes Hyperbaric Center, recited a boilerplate explanation: At high altitudes, blood oxygen concentrations are often far below normal. This potentially dangerous condition, called hypoxia, also crops up in medical contexts from anesthesiology to critical care.

As Moon sat down, a colleague leaned over to critique his answer. What you should have said is that [at high altitudes] people expose themselves voluntarily to degrees of hypoxia that no human experimentation committee would ever allow.

That, Moon concedes, was right. Im sure if I went to the Duke Institutional Review Board and proposed lowering peoples oxygen saturation to below 60%, it would never be approved. But on our Everest trek we found that people were at that level all the time.

In 2013 and again in 2017, Moon and several Duke colleagues took advantage of an opportunity to join Mount Everest hikes organized by British scientists, where they would study high-altitude trekkers under field conditions.

One of the questions that is very important clinically is how low can you go in blood oxygenation without causing serious damage, Moon explains.

During his recent trek, Moon asked fellow hikers to strap on a pulse oximeter a watch-like devicewith a probe that connects to the wearers finger or forehead so he could monitortheir oxygen saturation. He instantly had more subjects than he could stuff into a hyperbaric chamber.

Several hikers were treated for acute mountain sickness and altitude-related cerebral edema, but others suffered no serious problems. At the highest camp, at an altitude of more than 18,000 feet, Moon recorded his own lowest reading: below 60% oxygen saturation. Others recorded even lower readings, Moon noted, which, if seen in any of our hospital patients, would elicit panic. Now, he believes, low levels in some circumstances may not be as dangerous as once thought.

Also on Moon's agenda has been recruiting volunteers primarily mountaineering guides for a project with British investigators on epigenetic changes in people whose bodies adapt to the lower oxygen levels of high altitudes.

Imagine if we had a drug that could induce that adaptation, says Moon. If patients needing oxygen treatments could manage with lower levels, they might avoid some of the treatments risks, which include nerve, eye, and lung damage. For people who are in the ICU with lung failure, we wouldnt have to give them as much oxygen,he notes. "What a huge advance that would be.

To better understand how human physiology from brain function to the gut microbiome responds in a pressurized environment, Dominic DAgostino, PhD, dove 62 feet beneath the surface to an undersea laboratory called the Aquarius Reef Base, off Key Largo, Florida.

DAgostino is an associate professor of molecular pharmacology and physiology at the University of South Florida Morsani College of Medicine. A trained diver, his research interests include how to prevent oxygen toxicity seizures, which can occur when a person breathes concentrated oxygen. The seizures threaten patients undergoing hyperbaric therapy for such medical issues as decompression sickness and wounds that wont heal and they can be fatal.

As DAgostino dove deeper literally and figuratively into physiology in extreme environments, he met NASA workers who replicate the weightlessness of space by going under water. Those connections got him invited on a 2017 NEEMO (NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations) mission to the Aquarius lab, which is run by Florida International University.

I was about jumping out of my skin and pinching myself. I wanted to incorporate as much science as possible into that mission, DAgostino says.

After strapping on scuba gear, the crew members swam down to Aquarius and popped up in a chamber where trapped air prevented the sea from rushing in. The air is more than twice as dense as at sea level, explains DAgostino. You feel it when youre breathing it, and you feel it when you talk.

For ten days, the crew followed a packed schedule. We would do about half the science inside the habitat and about half outside, DAgostino explains. Among his tasks was collecting data on pressure-related changes in sleep, skin microbiomes, metabolic markers, strength, and decision-making.

The work, which included studying their own bodies under demanding conditions, was worth the effort, DAgostino notes. I can say without reservation that the NASA NEEMO mission was the most intense, amazing experience of my life, he says. Its the only habitat really in the world that can allow us to do this kind of science.

One day, while studying the gut microbiome in rural tribes in Nepal, Aashish Jha, PhD, was apportioning human waste into glass vials. A villager expressed concern. She knew he had gone to college for many years. If we send our children to college, will they have to do something like this also? she asked.

But Jha, a post-doctoral researcher at the Stanford University School of Medicine, was delighted to spend many months collecting stool samples.

For the stint in 2016, Jha selected several tribes far from major roads and markets. All had been nomadic hunter-gatherers, but some had changed over time. The Tharu, for example, had developed agriculture about 300 years ago, and the Raji had begun farming more recently. The Chepang were the hardest to reach. Still foraging wild fruits and vegetables, they lived on a barren hill accessible only by four-wheel drive.

Because these tribes were exposed to similar bacteria in a close geographic area, and because their lifestyles diverged only recently, they provided very nice comparison groups to understand how the human gut microbiome deviates from a traditional foraging type as humans move closer and closer to agriculture, says Jha.

A stranger asking for human waste might be a difficult sell, but Jha worked with anthropologists and others who already had ties with the groups.

The concept of microscopic bugs in the digestive tract wasnt very difficult to explain. It wasnt that foreign a concept for people, because people in Nepal get helminth infections all the time, Jha says. Helminths are visible parasitic worms. So when we tell them there are little tiny bugs in their gut, they think of helminths.

Jha found that the villagers microbiomes lined up on a very nice gradient of microbial shift, with the foraging Chepang at one end and the agricultural Tharu at the other. Bacterial species common in foragers were scarce or nonexistent among farmers and vice-versa. Many of the bacteria found among the tribes were absent from the American microbiome, which is representative of people who rely on industrial agriculture.

Jha hopes that additional studies will clarify the possible role of missing bacteria in conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease that appear to be mediated by the microbiome.

A big question is what role the missing bacteria play. Whether they are medically relevant, we dont know, says Jha. That is the next step that we are exploring.

As a professor of emergency medicine at the University of Colorado School of Medicine, Ben Easter, MD, is, quite naturally, concerned about emergencies.

But the emergencies that most interest Easter will occur on Mars.

To help anticipate problems that humans could encounter on the red planet, Easter works at the Mars Desert Research Station, located in a barren stretch of Utah he describes as absolutely Martian. There he dons a spacesuit, communicates via a radio in his helmet, and leads students, physicians, and engineers in simulated life-and-death struggles on week-long missions. Since 2015, Easter has led a half-dozen courses at the station, which is run by the nonprofit Mars Society.

Ive always been interested in space, long before I ever wanted to be a doctor, he says.

The Mars crew lives in a habitat equipped with solar panels, a research dome for lab work, and electric vehicles for traveling outside. They periodically pull on spacesuits, sit patiently in a simulated airlock, and exit the station for extravehicular activities, such as collecting soil samples.

But sometimes someone often Easter suddenly comes sliding down a rocky outcrop feigning a broken limb and bearing a tear in his spacesuit thats gushing oxygen.

So the group has to find and isolate the leak and patch the leak to prevent the person from getting decompression sickness. In addition to taking care of the suit, they have to figure out how theyre going to evacuate their injured crew member back to the habitat, says Easter. The amazing thing is how much we were able to create scenarios where the crew really buy into their environment.

The Mars simulations provide a helpful supplement to Easters other work as a researcher at Johnson Space Center, where he uses mathematical models to anticipate extraterrestrial emergencies. But Easter most values the missions chance to educate and inspire.

Weve had some of our students and physicians significantly alter their careers to pursue work in space medicine or a space industry-related field, he says. Being able to put together a week-long course that people are really excited about and then give them that spark to change what theyre doing with their life and pursue something that they really enjoy, I think thats what Im most proud of.

Among his research efforts, Martin Cetron, MD, developed field tests in southern India for the early diagnosis of leprosy and collaborated with local teams in northeastern Brazil to uncover the source of a protozoan that was causing the sometimes fatal disease leishmaniasis.

Along the way, he contracted intestinal diseases, malaria, and schistosomiasis, which he calls a poignant reminder of the connection between field research and the patient experience.

But a bit of medical detective work for the CDC in Africas Lake Malawi in 1992 changed the course of his career.

I thought I was coming here for a two-year stint to learn more about parasitic infections from the worlds experts and would go back to an academic research and clinical career, he says.

Instead, he found himself solving mysterious instances of schistosomiasis, which is caused by a snail-based parasitic flatworm. The cases involved a complex, tangled story: After drought ravaged corn crops, desperate villagers turned malaria bed nets into fishing gear, and they then overfished a predator that usually reduces the snail population. Cetron ultimately discovered that 90% of village schoolchildren had been infected without anyone realizing.

He marvels at the irony that the intended public health intervention of bed nets to prevent hyperendemic malaria enabled the schistosomiasis epidemic. I was so dumbfounded that I spent the rest of my working life at CDC exploring the intersection of pathogens, hosts, human behavior, and the environment.

Cetron is now director of the CDC Division of Global Migration and Quarantine and an adjunct associate professor at the Emory University School of Medicine. His work involves overseeing several international efforts, including a project that detects disease outbreaks by collecting data from a network of clinics that serve international travelers. Human migration is complex and challenging in the context of disease emergence and spread, says Cetron. When it comes to germs, he notes, travelers are essentially sampling the world.

Networks allow much surveillance to be done from afar, but if a disease is particularly worrisome or complex, Cetron will dispatch a field team.

Among the newsworthy epidemics he and his staff have investigated are the H1N1 influenza pandemic of 2009, Ebola outbreaks from 2014 to the present, and the 2015 Zika virus outbreak.

You need to have a global surveillance network that provides eyes and ears and is constantly taking the pulse of whats happening out there in a world that is highly mobile and interconnected, he says. Those networks are much bigger, more robust, and more enduring than what any one individual can do alone.

Read the rest here:
Research at the ends of the earth - AAMC

Read the Rest...

UB-led team awarded $2 million to study brain, motor-skill learning – UB Now: News and views for UB faculty and staff – University at Buffalo Reporter

§ December 16th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on UB-led team awarded $2 million to study brain, motor-skill learning – UB Now: News and views for UB faculty and staff – University at Buffalo Reporter

If you think of the human brain as a computer, its hard not to be impressed.

It can perform well over a trillion logical operations per second. Its compact, fitting neatly inside the skull. It uses as much power as a light bulb, and it has a seemingly endless capacity for data storage.

Despite massive investment in recent years, humanitys knowledge of the brain, which has about 86 billion neurons and more than a quadrillion synapses (or connections), is relatively limited.

To better understand the organ, a UB-led research team has been awarded a $2 million National Science Foundation grant to build an interdisciplinary research program that explores how the brain learns and stores information.

Our brains provide us with near-infinite capacity to learn and better understand our world, yet its the organ that we know least about, says the projects lead investigator Rudiyanto Gunawan, associate professor of chemical and biological engineering in the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences.

Gunawan says the project could ultimately inspire new computer architectures, leading to more powerful and efficient supercomputers, as well as new treatments for disorders responsible for memory loss, such as Alzheimers disease.

Co-principal investigators (in alphabetical order) are Takaki Komiyama, professor in the Division of Biological Sciences at University of California, San Diego; Claudia Mewes, associate professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Alabama; Linbing Wang, professor of transportation infrastructure and systems engineering in the Charles E. Via Jr. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Virginia Tech; and Ying Zhang, associate professor of cell and molecular biology in the College of Environment and Life Sciences at University of Rhode Island.

The team will focus on the motor cortex, a portion of the brain responsible for the planning, control and execution of voluntary movements. Research in this region of the brain in mice has shown neuronal activity associated with motor skill learning.

When presented with a new task, the firing of connections between neurons appears random. As the task is repeated, neuronal activity in this second phase of learning spikes. That is followed by a third phase in which a consistent pattern of neuronal activity emerges that is unique for each mouse.

As the brain learns, it finds the most efficient networks to process and store information, says Gunawan. We want to know how this happens so we can incorporate this knowledge into artificial devices that will help us solve some of societys most pressing problems.

To accomplish this, researchers are planning whats been described as a neuromorphic platform, which essentially is a system that simulates the brain, or parts of it.

The platform the team intends to create will focus on hundreds of neurons. Eventually, the researchers hope to expand this model to 10,000 neurons.

There has been an explosion of neuroscience data in recent years thanks to major initiatives underway in the U.S., Europe, Japan and elsewhere that will aid the teams work.

The team will develop artificial intelligence algorithms to analyze countless microscopic images and single neuron molecular profiles that have been generated from brain networks in mice.

From this data, researchers plan to create large-scale biochemical models that illustrate neuronal activity. To further validate and emulate how neurons behave, the team also plans to develop a spintronic device thats capable of producing complex computer simulations of brain activity.

The overarching goal, Gunawan says, is to create a multidisciplinary and robust platform for studying the brain. This could lead to brain-inspired devices for information processing, data storage, computing and decision-making.

The human brain is roughly 12 orders of magnitude more efficient than state-of-the-art supercomputers. Imagine if we could translate that efficiency in computer architectures, he says.

While advanced supercomputing has endless possibilities, especially as it relates to medicine and pharmaceuticals, the platform itself could be beneficial for researchers studying brain disorders, he says.

The ability to accurately simulate neuronal activity as it relates to memory loss, cognition and other behaviors is of paramount importance to developing new treatments for many of the most devastating neurological disorders facing society, he says.

Read this article:
UB-led team awarded $2 million to study brain, motor-skill learning - UB Now: News and views for UB faculty and staff - University at Buffalo Reporter

Read the Rest...

‘DNA-of-Things’ Technology Can Store Bitcoin Passwords in Everyday Objects – Bitcoin News

§ December 16th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine Comments Off on ‘DNA-of-Things’ Technology Can Store Bitcoin Passwords in Everyday Objects – Bitcoin News

Talk of bitcoin passwords being encoded and stored in synthetic DNA is not new, but in a recent development scientists have announced that DNA-encoded information can now be stored in everyday objects such as eye glasses or a shirt button, instead of a vial or test tube.

Also Read: Cryptosteel Capsule Will Keep Your Wallet Seed Safe and Out of Sight

Bitcoin seed phrases and other private information can now be stored in the clothes you wear, or any number of other inconspicuous, everyday objects. While previous reports have detailed the process for encoding data via synthetic DNA, and storage in a test tube, a new study entitled A DNA-of-things storage architecture to create materials with embedded memory claims that the code can now be embedded within everyday objects. The authors state:

We devised a DNA-of-things (DoT) storage architecture to produce materials with immutable memory DNA molecules record the data, and these molecules are then encapsulated in nanometer silica beads, which are fused into various materials that are used to print or cast objects in any shape.

The process conceptually is straightforward. As DNA consists of four bases, adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) and thymine (T), an algorithm can be used to convert digital information of ones and zeroes into sequences of these DNA bases called oligos. The researchers first detail how they were able to encode a Stanford Bunny with information needed to reproduce itself, loosely mimicking biology. The bunny is a common 3D test model used in computer graphics. First we compressed the binary stereolithography (stl) file of the bunny from 100kB to 45kB. Next, we used DNA Fountain [encoding protocol] to encode the file in 12,000 DNA oligo-nucleotides (oligos), the paper states.

The oligos are encapsulated in microscopic beads and then placed in a filament, which is used as material for the 3D printing of an object. After the object is created, the data can be extracted and decoded. Due to the high redundancy of the information contained in the object, the researchers note that we can tolerate a dropout of even 80% of the DNA oligos and still correctly decode the file.

Lets say that someone is thinking that youre trying to take information out from a facility or from a border, and they capture you and screen all your electronic devices, the head author of the study, Yang Erlich, recently related to vice.com. The report suggests that steganography might be a useful application of the technology. If this process can be made affordable for the average person, current discussion and debate about data encryption could be taken to a whole new level. The report emphasizes:

The DoT architecture enables a wide range of everyday objects, from a keychain to a bottle lid, to be turned into concealed storage devices that can secretly carry data.

Perhaps even more compelling for privacy advocates is the difficulty bad actors would face in attempting to extract embedded info. As the report notes, not only would an invasive party first have to confirm which, if any, physical objects on ones person contained embedded data (theres no visible way to know), but they would then have to extract that data using the same technology and protocols which encoded it. Just imagine the lines at customs.

The DNA-of-things study finally details how the scientists embedded a Youtube video into a pair of glasses. Erlich noted to Vice that beyond international espionage, the tech could have applications in security and medicine, and Good people need to hide information, so why not give them more options? As it stands, the process is still very expensive, with just the production of the rabbits DNA sequence alone setting the team back $2,500. That notwithstanding, at the rate tech is moving, cryptocurrency lovers might find themselves wearing crypto specs and drinking their morning coffee from a seed-phrase-infused mug before they can say oligo.

What are your thoughts on DNA-of-things and its potential applications for crypto? Let us know in the comments section below.

Images courtesy of Shutterstock, fair use.

Did you know you can buy and sell BCH privately using our noncustodial, peer-to-peer Local Bitcoin Cash trading platform? The local.Bitcoin.com marketplace has thousands of participants from all around the world trading BCH right now. And if you need a bitcoin wallet to securely store your coins, you can download one from us here.

Graham Smith is an American expat living in Japan, and the founder of Voluntary Japanan initiative dedicated to spreading the philosophies of unschooling, individual self-ownership, and economic freedom in the land of the rising sun.

Follow this link:
'DNA-of-Things' Technology Can Store Bitcoin Passwords in Everyday Objects - Bitcoin News

Read the Rest...

« Older Entries Newer Entries »



Page 4«..3456..1020..»