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Integrated Quantum Optical Circuits Market : Industry Analysis and Forecast (2018-2026) Material Type, Application and Region. – LionLowdown

§ January 5th, 2021 § Filed under Quantum Medicine Comments Off on Integrated Quantum Optical Circuits Market : Industry Analysis and Forecast (2018-2026) Material Type, Application and Region. – LionLowdown

Global Integrated Quantum Optical Circuits Market was valued at US$ 426 Mn in 2017 and is expected to reach US$ 1450 Mn by 2026 at CAGR of 16.55% during a forecast period.

North America generated the highest revenue share in 2017 and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 14.6% during the forecast period.

Integrated Quantum Optical Circuit is a device that combines multiple optical devices to form a single photonic circuit. This device takes light instead of electricity for signal processing and computing. It consists of a complex circuit design due to the integration of various optical devices including a multiplexer, amplifier, modulator and other into a small compact circuit. Usually, integrated circuits work by conducting electricity whereas the photonic circuit uses quantum of lights for the signal processing.

Hybrid photonic and monolithic integration are the two different kinds of photonic integration methods. The hybrid photonic circuit consists of a package of photonic devices, which are used for the same function whereas a lot of optical devices of different function are integrated to form a single IC. The application of Integrated Quantum Optical Circuits includes fiber-optic communication, biomedical, computing, and optical sensors.

Increase in demand for high-speed internet connectivity, multiplication of app-based solution in personal & professional services and an increase in demand for powerful and enhanced alternative for usual technology are key factors that drive the growth of the globally integrated quantum optical circuits market. Currently, the developing countries such as India, China, Brazil, and others are focusing on constructing a high-speed internet infrastructure. Hence, an increase in investment by IT & telecom industry over these countries is expected to raise the demand for high-speed internet connectivity. Therefore, different developed economies are investing in these countries to build their business globally.

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Although, the high initial cost and design complexity associated with the fabrication of circuits are expected to restrain the growth of the global market. Also, the rise in investment on building a 5G network is anticipated to provide gainful growth opportunities for the global integrated quantum optical circuits market in near future.

Optical fiber sensors segment dominated the global integrated quantum fiber circuits market in 2017 and is expected to continue dominant during the forecast period. Optical sensors application is the other hopeful application in this market. It is used in fields like defense, aerospace, energy, transportation, medicine, and further appearing fields. Quantum computing is another application of Photonic Integrated circuits (PICs) which is forecasted to be commercialized in 2017. This technology is expected to entirely transform the computing industry. PICs are also used in the biomedical field.

In 2017, North America generated the highest revenue in the globally integrated quantum optical circuits market and it is expected to dominate during the forecast period, due to at present North America has the largest market for PIC based products, especially in data centers and WAN applications of optical fiber communication. However, Asia Pacific (APAC) is the immense player in the access network application of optical fiber communications right now. North America is the leader in a PIC market with 49% market share still it is estimated that APAC will appear as the market leader by 2026 growing at a CAGR of 35.9% from 2018 to 2026.

In 2017, the silicon photonics segment generated the highest revenue in the globally integrated quantum optical circuits market, it is expected to remain dominant during the forecast period due to it is simple to fabricate and multiple functions can be combined in the chip whereas the Indium Phosphide segment also expected to dominate the globally integrated quantum optical circuits market during the forecast period due to Indium Phosphide has the capability of cost-productive mass production using standard high-yield, batch semiconductor forming processes.

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The key players operating in the global integrated quantum optical circuits market are Infinera (U.S.), Alcatel Liucent (U.S.), Neophotonics (U.S.), JDSU (U.S.) Kotura (U.S.), Aifotec AG, Ciena Corporation, Finisar Corporation, Intel Corporation, Infinera Corporation, Neophotonics Corporation, TE Connectivity, Oclaro Inc., Luxtera, Inc., and Emcore Corporation. These key players have adopted strategies such as product portfolio expansion, mergers & acquisitions, agreements, geographical expansion, and collaborations to enhance their market penetration. Scope of the Global Integrated Quantum Optical Circuits Market

Global Integrated Quantum Optical Circuits Market, by Material Type

Indium Phosphide Silica Glass Silicon Photonics Lithium Niobate Gallium Arsenide Global Integrated Quantum Optical Circuits Market, by Application

Optical Fiber Communication Optical Sensors Bio Medical Quantum Computing Global Integrated Quantum Optical Circuits Market, by Region

North America Europe Asia-Pacific Middle East & Africa South America Key Players operating in the Global Integrated Quantum Optical Circuits Market

Infinera (U.S.) Alcatel Liucent (U.S.) Neophotonics (U.S.) JDSU (U.S.) Kotura (U.S.) Aifotec AG Ciena Corporation Finisar Corporation Intel Corporation Infinera Corporation Neophotonics Corporation TE Connectivity Oclaro Inc. Luxtera, Inc. Emcore Corporation

Major Table Integrated Quantum Optical Circuits Market of Contents Report

1. Preface 1.1. Research Objectives 1.2. Report Scope and Market Segmentation

2. Assumptions and Research Methodology 2.1. Abbreviations 3. Executive Summary 3.1. Global Integrated Quantum Optical Circuits Market Size, by Market Value (US$ Mn) and Market

4. Market Overview 4.1. Introduction 4.2. Market Dynamics 4.2.1. Drivers and Restraints Snapshot Analysis 4.2.2. Drivers 4.2.3. Restraints 4.2.4. Opportunities 4.2.5. Porters Analysis 4.2.6. Value Chain Analysis 4.2.7. SWOT Analysis 4.3. Global Integrated Quantum Optical Circuits Market Industry Trends

5. Global Integrated Quantum Optical Circuits Market Analysis and Forecast 5.1. Global Integrated Quantum Optical Circuits Market Size& Y-o-Y Growth Analysis 5.1.1. North America 5.1.2. Europe 5.1.3. Asia Pacific 5.1.4. Middle East & Africa 5.1.5. South America

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Turkish scientists say they’ve developed a 10-second COVID-19 test that is 99% accurate – Euronews

§ January 4th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotechnology Comments Off on Turkish scientists say they’ve developed a 10-second COVID-19 test that is 99% accurate – Euronews

Scientists at a university research centre in Turkey claim they have developed an ultra-rapid coronavirus test with 99% accuracy that can return results within 10 seconds - all without needing to take a nasal swab.

The Diagnovir, developed by researchers at Bilkent University, is a diagnostic kit said to use nanotechnology to detect COVID-19 in a patient.

First, a swab is taken from the patient's mouth before being mixed with a solution and added to a pathogen detection chip.

"It detects the presence of pathogens with high accuracy by receiving a fluorescent signal," said Ali Aytac Seyman, a researcher at the National Nanotechnology Research Centre (UNAM).

He then pointed out that, unlike the widely-used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, which detects specific genetic material in a sample before amplifying it, the Diagnovir "focuses on the existence or non-existence of the virus using advanced optical methods."

This, he says, can give a patient a positive result within 5-10 seconds, but would take up to 20 seconds if the result is negative. A PCR test, meanwhile, can take much longer.

The researchers are now aiming to get approval from Turkish authorities to begin mass-producing the kits within the next two months. They hope these will eventually replace PCR tests.

"Finding out rapidly that a person is [COVID-19] positive to then quarantine them is very important to bring the pandemic under control," Bilkent University Rector Abdullah Atalar told Anadolu Agency. He then suggested that similar technology could also be used to detect other coronaviruses.

Yes, and other experts around the world have been using this line of research to develop their own rapid tests for COVID-19.

"The coronavirus is a particle with a diameter of 150 nanometres," said Atalar, who added that UNAM researchers had been working on nanoparticles for years. "This is exactly their field of expertise. After the first cases were reported in Turkey, they started working on the project."

In 2019, scientists in South Korea also published details on using gold nanoparticles to test for MERS-CoV, the coronavirus that causes Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). Such a test takes 10 minutes for the results to be visible and can be carried out in the early stages of the disease.

Using this logic, researchers from the University of Maryland School of Medicine and University of Naples Federico II have separately conducted their own studies to create a test for COVID-19.

The PCR test is said to be the gold standard for COVID-19; however, results can take some time as samples must be sent to a lab for analysis with specialist equipment.

More recently have been the trialling of lateral flow tests, which are supposed to give a patient a COVID-19 test result within 30 minutes. There have, however, been concerns about the accuracy of such a test, and some are advised not to take them.

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Nanotechnology in Packaging Market Size, Share, Growth Trends, Revenue, Top Companies, Regional Outlook, and Forecast, 2020-2027 – LionLowdown

§ January 4th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotechnology Comments Off on Nanotechnology in Packaging Market Size, Share, Growth Trends, Revenue, Top Companies, Regional Outlook, and Forecast, 2020-2027 – LionLowdown

New Jersey, United States,- The report, titled Nanotechnology in Packaging Market Research Report is based on the extensive analysis of analysts and contains detailed information on the global market area. A detailed examination of the business landscape, as well as the essential parameters that shape the marketing matrix of the market, is included.

A thorough qualitative and quantitative study of the global market has been conducted in this report. The study takes into account various important aspects of the market by focusing on historical and forecast data. The report provides information on the SWOT analysis as well as Porters Five Forces Model and the PESTEL analysis.

The Nanotechnology in Packaging Market research documentation provides details on drivers and restraints, regional growth opportunities, market size, as well as the spectrum of competition, prominent market candidates, and segment analysis.

The following Manufacturers are covered in this report:

The report aims to enumerate various data and updates related to the World Market while developing various growth opportunities that are believed to support the market growth at a significant rate during the forecast period. The report provides an insightful overview of the Nanotechnology in Packaging market along with a well-summarized market definition and detailed industry scenario.

A comprehensive summary revolves around market dynamics. The segment encompasses insights into the drivers driving the growth of the Nanotechnology in Packaging market, restrictive parameters, existing growth opportunities in the industry, and the numerous trends that define the global marketplace. The report also includes data on pricing models and a value chain analysis. The expected growth of the market during the analysis period based on the estimates and historical figures has also been factored into the study.

The Nanotechnology in Packaging market report provides details of the expected CAGR recorded by the industry during the investigation period. Additionally, the report includes a number of technological advances and innovations that will boost the industrys prospects over the estimated period.

The report further studies the segmentation of the market based on product types offered in the market and their end-use/applications.

Global Nanotechnology in Packaging Market by Type

Global Nanotechnology in Packaging Market by Application

Geographic Segmentation

The report offers an exhaustive assessment of different region-wise and country-wise Nanotechnology in Packaging markets such as the U.S., Canada, Germany, France, U.K., Italy, Russia, China, Japan, South Korea, India, Australia, Taiwan, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam, Mexico, Brazil, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, U.A.E, etc.

North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, The Middle East and Africa

What are the main takeaways from this report?

A comprehensive price analysis was carried out in relation to product area, range of applications and regional landscape A comprehensive round up of the key market players and leading companies operating in the Nanotechnology in Packaging Market to understand the competitive perspective of the global marketplace Important information on the regulatory scenario that defines the market, as well as the inflow of investments from majority stakeholders in the world market An in-depth assessment of the various trends that are fueling overall market growth and their impact on global market projection and dynamics A descriptive guide that identifies the key aspects along with the many growth opportunities in the Nanotechnology in Packaging market A detailed documentation of a wide variety of ongoing issues in the world market that will encourage important developments

Some Points from Table of Content

1. Study coverage 2. Summary 3. Nanotechnology in Packaging Market Size by Manufacturer 4. Production by region 5. Consumption by region 6.Nanotechnology in Packaging Market Size by Type 7. Nanotechnology in Packaging Market size according to application 8. Manufacturer profiles 9. Production forecasts 10. Consumption forecasts 11. Analysis of customers upstream, industrial chain and downstream 12. Opportunities and challenges, threats and influencing factors 13. Main results 14. Appendix

Verified Market Intelligence is a BI enabled database service with forecasted trends and accurate market insights on over 20,000+ tracked markets helping organizations globally with their market research needs. VMI provides a holistic overview and global competitive landscape with respect to Region, Country, Segment and Key players for emerging and niche markets.

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Our 250 Analysts and SMEs offer a high level of expertise in data collection and governance use industrial techniques to collect and analyze data on more than 15,000 high impact and niche markets. Our analysts are trained to combine modern data collection techniques, superior research methodology, expertise, and years of collective experience to produce informative and accurate research.

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Nanotechnology Market Includes Important Growth Factor with Regional Forecast , Organization Sizes, Top Vendors, Industry Research and End User…

§ January 4th, 2021 § Filed under Nanotechnology Comments Off on Nanotechnology Market Includes Important Growth Factor with Regional Forecast , Organization Sizes, Top Vendors, Industry Research and End User…

The research study of the global Nanotechnology market provides the market size information and market trends along with the factors and parameters impacting it in both the short and long term. The report ensures a 360-degree assessment, bringing out the complete key insights of the industry. These insights help the business decision-makers to make better business plans and informed decisions for the future business. In addition, the study helps the venture capitalist in understanding the companies better and take informed decisions.

The Nanotechnology market research report provides essential statistics on the market position of the Nanotechnology manufacturers and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the industry. The report provides a basic summary of theNanotechnology industry including its definition, applications and manufacturing technology. The report presents the company profile, product specifications, capacity, production value, and market shares for key vendors.

The overall market is split by the company, by country, and by application/type for the competitive landscape analysis. The report estimates market development trends of Nanotechnology industry. Analysis of upstream raw materials, downstream demand and current market dynamics is also carried out. The Nanotechnology market report makes some important proposals for a new project of Nanotechnology Industry before evaluating its feasibility.

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Key segments covered in Nanotechnology market report: Major key companies, product type segment, end use/application segment and geography segment.

The information for each competitor includes:

Company segment, the report includes global key players of Nanotechnology as well as some small players:

For product type segment, this report listed the main product type of Nanotechnology market

For end use/application segment, this report focuses on the status and outlook for key applications. End users are also listed.

Any Questions/Queries or need help? Speak with our analyst:https://www.in4research.com/speak-to-analyst/574

This report covers the following regions:

Key Questions Answered in the Report:

We also can offer a customized report to fulfill the special requirements of our clients. Regional and Countries report can be provided as well.

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Viewpoint: Do we really need GM fish? The case for growing (and eating) AquaBounty’s biotech, fast-growing salmon – Genetic Literacy Project

§ January 4th, 2021 § Filed under Genetically Modified Humans Comments Off on Viewpoint: Do we really need GM fish? The case for growing (and eating) AquaBounty’s biotech, fast-growing salmon – Genetic Literacy Project

Innovation and creative thinking in the protein industry is ever-evolving. You may have read some of our posts on the perils of overfishing our oceans and rivers. So when I heard about the genetically-modified AquAdvantage salmon that addresses sustainability issues as well as the potential to bring income to rural America, I was immediately curious. Of course, I wondered whether it was regulated and what the testing looked like. So I dug deeper and learned a lot about how this fish is grown.

AquAdvantage Salmon is the first genetically-modified salmon approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Health Canada.AquaBounty, the company behind AquAdvantage, has its unlikely farm in Indiana. Yes the Midwest can grow salmon!

This fish is more sustainable and unique because it can grow to maturity in just 18 months, compared to 36 months for a traditionally farmed salmon. Both take significantly less time than their wild cousins, which can take 7 years.

Farmed and wild Atlantic salmon stop growing during the winter and when they are environmentally stressed. Wild salmon take so long to reach maturity because they are foraging for food, avoiding predators, and dealing with tough environmental conditions. Farmed salmon also have a tough time growing because, even though they are swimming in enclosed sea nets, they are still exposed to diseases, parasites, and sometimes water that is too warm.

30 years ago, the AquaBounty salmon was genetically modified to help survive their early, most vulnerable stages of growth. Just like a labradoodle dog a cross between a Labrador Retriever and a Poodle an AquAdvantage salmon is a combination of the Atlantic salmon, the Chinook salmons growth gene, and agene promoterfrom an ocean pout. Not the most attractive fish in the ocean, the major benefit of the ocean pout is that their promoters turn on the Chinook growth gene to make the fish grow all the time, as opposed to seasonal growth with the Atlanticsalmons promoters. And if an ocean pout was on the menu, I would certainly try one, growth promoter and all.

The FDA approved the AquAdvantage salmon as safe and effective under the new animal drug provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act in November 2015.

TheFDAstudied this fish for over 25 years. The first 10 years were setting up the prenotification process before filing for approval. For the next 15 years, they wanted to prove three things:Is it safe for the fish? Is it safe for humans? Is it safe for the environment?The answer to all three was yes.

Finally, after all these years of research development and regulatory evaluation, the first fish is expected to be harvested in December 2020 at AquaBountys farm in Indiana.

There is no mystery involved here. You will know when you are eating an AquaBounty fish when you buy your fish at a market or grocery store. TheUSDA National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Actrequires mandatory standards for disclosing foods that are or may be bioengineered. However, restaurants are not under an obligation to highlight genetically modified salmon on their menu.

One of the most remarkable attributes of this breed is that, despite its continual growth, it requires less daily food. The on-farm results with AquAdvantage salmon have confirmed the scientific studies and demonstrated thatit is possible toproduce one pound of fish with less than one pound of feed. This is compared to most farmed Atlantic salmon which take one pound of fish feed to grow one pound of fish.

All of these fish are and will be grown in highly-regulated fish farms. If you ever had a fish tank, this is not the same thing. Biofiltration units keep the water clean, fresh, and provide great conditions where this salmon can thrive. Because of the clean environment, the fish do not get sick or acquire sea lice,so they are always grown without antibiotics.

The tanks are completely contained without the possibility of a fish escaping into the wild. Yet they are big enough for the fish to jump and swim in schools allowing them to be their natural selves. They do not have to forage for food as they are fed just enough for them to grow and not too much to stimulate excessive waste.

So much of rural America has lost the benefits of agriculture.Bringing fish farms to parts of America is a way to boost economic growth, especially in the mountainous areas such as West Virginia, Tennessee, Kentucky, and Pennsylvania. It is an opportunity to bring jobs and income to areas that havelost their income in part due to bankruptcies in the farming sector, many in the dairy industry.

AquaBounty has found that Indiana, where the company has its current U.S. farm, and other mid-west locations, are great examples of states committed to AgriTech.

AquaBounty actively works with local and state governments and agencies that are committed to AgriTech. They believe this is the future of agriculture as well as their states economic and employment growth.

AquaBounty also closely monitors the USDA Rural Economic Development Program as part of the site selection process.

In 2018, Atlantic salmon, second to shrimp, was the most valued farmed fish in the world. The upward projections continue and is expected to grow to 4 million tons by just 2023, from about 3.5 million tons in 2019. The U.S. imports about 400,000 tons of salmon every year. About 70% come from farms mostly in Norway, Chile, Scotland, and Canada.

Salmon is particularly healthy it is rich in minerals, micronutrients, omega-3 fatty acids, protein, and many vitamins. Not only is salmon good for you, but it is easy to cook for dinner, throw together in a salad, or even have as sushi. More and more consumers are enjoying the health, taste, and ease of cooking it at home.

However, we cannot catch them all with a fishing pole or a fishing boat or we will not have any left.

Remember theAtlantic Codoff the coast of Maine? As a D2D reader, you may have read about the sustainable importance of farmed fish versus wild-caught.

As the oceans become over-fished, there are many benefits to eating fish grown from responsibly managed fish farms and ocean fisheries.

With diligent oversight, these operations help meet demand while natural aquatic habitats improve from current overfished conditions.

Concerned about whether consumers would embrace a genetically engineered fish, the AquaBounty management team conducted extensive research to determine their reaction. Here are key points from Quantitative Research Executive Summary:

When the news came out, even our local fish market had loud NO GMO SALMON HERE signs posted everywhere. Of course, it was not sold here because the salmon was a couple of years away from being available.

Concern:Anti-GMO, NGOs, and other groups filed a legal challenge in March 2016 in the San Francisco federal court. The first challenge was whether the FDAs animal drug authority could oversee genetically-engineered animals and fish. The second claim said that the FDA violated core environmental laws in the event these fish escaped into the wild.

Response:Judge Vince Chhabria of San Francisco affirmed that the FDA had the authority to oversee genetically-engineered animals and fish. For the second claim, while he understood that the FDA had thoroughly analyzed the exceptionally low probability of escape, they did not address the consequences if this breed of salmon were to establish a persistent population in the wild. Judge Chhabria ruled that AquaBounty can continue its operations in Prince Edward Island, Canada and Indiana. Nor did the Judge prevent AquaBounty from harvesting in December 2020.

AquAdvantage salmon cannot make the leap from a land-based indoor tank to the wild. All these facilities have tightly-closed septic and water systems to prevent eggs or fish from escaping.

In addition, all the fish will be sterile females and, unlike theprotogynous sea bass, a female salmon cannot turn into a productive male, thus procreating with wild salmon or any other fish for that matter. Once a salmon is sterile it is sterile.

Other concerns such as those fromThe Consumers Unionare worth mentioning as their issues are similar to GMOs overall.

Concern:More and more children are getting allergic reactions to different types of foods, like nuts and eggs. Since these salmon are GMOs, they must contribute to childrens allergies. They are also an advocate of labeling.

Response:As we have mentioned inprevious postsregarding GMOs,allGMOs are tested for allergiesin fact, every single allergy known to humans. AquAdvantage fish are no exception. It is also worth noting that the gene brought into the salmon is a growth promoter.There are no known allergies to naturally occurring growth hormones.

These GMOs are required to be labeled if they are sold at the fish market or grocery store. However, not at a restaurant.

Concern:GM Watchsays that these hormones can cause cancer and the fish could have different protein levels. The concern is that the additional hormones create a hormone called IGF-1 that increases insulin and causes cancer.

Response:When you eat an AquAdvantage salmon, the growth gene from the Chinook salmon and the growth promoter from the ocean pout could not affect you or change your genes. It is the same as eating any type of seafood. They all have growth hormones otherwise, they would not grow!

The IGF-1 hormone is necessary for all vertebrae and mammals to mature. While the ocean pout hormone is different than the salmon hormone, this hormone does not produce more insulin in the human body. In truth, the IGF-1 hormone is present in humans already and a toolow levelmight cause diabetes and otherhealth issues.

Concern:This fish has a higher ratio of omega-6 fats to omega-3 fats, compared to other salmon that have more omega 3s.

Response:A different growth hormone does not affect the nutritional quality of this salmon. Also, most farmed fish are fed with by-catch. In this case, they are working with an algae product that produces the same fatty acid profile as fish.

Aquaculture is one of many necessary solutions to meet the high global demand for healthy protein. At D2D, we believe that anything with a different gene inserted into its DNA should be regulated. This fish is no exception and we take comfort in knowing that the FDA took 15 years to ensure this is safe for human consumption.

Lucy M. Stitzer is a food writer and regular contributor at Dirt to Dinner. She served on the Board at the food company Cargill for many years.

A version of this article was originally posted at Dirt To Dinner and has been reposted here with permission. Dirt To Dinner can be found on Twitter @Dirt_To_Dinner

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Finding facts in a post-truth world – The Telegram

§ January 4th, 2021 § Filed under Genetically Modified Humans Comments Off on Finding facts in a post-truth world – The Telegram

This somewhat tongue-in-cheek meme was posted on the Facebook site Genetically Modified Humans for Monsanto in 2016. - Contributed

In a post-truth world, social media can be both saviour and devil. As the latter, it provides refuge for paranoia and prejudice in an endless swamp of disinformation.

In this province, health leaders have lamented more than once how misinformation has made their lives so much harder especially in the age of COVID-19.

Its been fascinating to see what impact social media has on peoples thoughts, beliefs and actions around this pandemic, Dr. Natalie Bridger told The Telegram recently.

Bridger, clinical chief of infection prevention and control for Eastern Health, says there are plenty of reliable sources for information on COVID-19.

But, unfortunately, you also have people who are interpreting things in their own way. Its just been so polarized and so political that its been difficult to deal with sometimes, the undoing of misinformation.

Newfoundland and Labradors chief medical officer of health says shes more troubled by anti-science attacks than she is by personal attacks on herself.

What upsets me the most is when people try to question the science, or try to say that the science is invalid or that theres some motive behind the science, Dr. Janice Fitzgerald said in a recent year-end interview. The science is the science. It is what it is.

Four years ago, a Facebook group called Genetically Modified Humans for Monsanto posted a new proposition called Badgers Law: Websites with the word truth in the URL have none in the posted content.

Its not a hard and fast rule, of course, but examples abound. A British site called Truth in Science is actually a front for Creationism. An Australian site called Truth News similarly falls afoul of legitimate science.

Appeals to truth and patriotism are a mainstay of alt-right domain names in the U.S.

Is there a way to discern whats credible and whats not?

There certainly is, says MediaSmarts Matthew Johnson.

MediaSmarts is a non-profit Canadian organization thats been providing digital literacy programs and resources for homes, schools and communities since 1996.

Last spring, they launched a campaign called Check First, Share After to help fight the miasma of conflicting information being spread on social media.

The longer the pandemic goes on, obviously, the more opportunity there is for misinformation to spread, Johnson, director of education, said in a phone interview. And, of course, now that the vaccines are being rolled out, thats a whole new situation where theres a lot of different information going out.

Here are his four steps to checking facts.

Track the information to its original source.

When you find what appears to be the source, make sure its the original source, that its not just a re-packager of news. Anti-vaxxers will often cherry-pick headlines and facts from legitimate news stories and remove the context, he says.

Verify the source.

If its one you recognize as being reliable already, then you just need to confirm that youre on the real website, he says. You need to check to make sure it has the right web address for that source. When the source is unfamiliar, do a quick search or check Wikipedia. You need to check to see if it has a track record of generally being reliable and whether it has a reputation for verifying its own information and correcting mistakes.

Check other sources.

For public health information, check sites you know are trusted, expert sources. Even clicking on the news tab in Google helps, because those results are curated to omit fake news.

Use fact-checking tools such as Snopes.

Their job is to verify claims and debunk false ones. In fact, MediaSmarts (mediasmarts.ca) has a custom search engine that searches 10 such sites, including Canadian ones.

A final point can be taken from British journalist Brian Deer, who doggedly uncovered the fraud behind a study published in The Lancet in 1998.

Deers expos of Dr. Andrew Wakefield was published as an editorial in the medical journal more than 10 years later, the same day the journal formally retracted it.

Wakefields study supposedly found a link between the MMR vaccine and autism. In fact, the 12 study participants were selectively picked, the data was manipulated and even faked, and Wakefield was awash in conflicts of interest. No subsequent research has ever established a link, but the anti-vax damage was done.

Stripped of his credentials, Wakefield fled to the U.S., where he thrives in a world where anyone with seemingly believable credentials can easily whip up a following.

In his new book, The Doctor Who Fooled the World, Deer succinctly explains how real scientists seek truth, while pseudoscientists more often seek notoriety.

Medical science is a mix of inspiration and collaboration, most productive when its leaders show courage. (Wakefield) had all of that behind him plus a calm determination to prove his ideas were right, Deer wrote.

But courage in science isnt proving yourself right. Its in your efforts to prove yourself wrong. And there, (Wakefield) had an issue with himself that would scar more lives than his own.

There was a time when the user-generated site Wikipedia was considered an unreliable source of information.

Times have changed.

Theyve done a really good job in the last decade of improving the quality, and particularly improving the stability of it, says Matthew Johnson, director of education for the non-profit online literacy group MediaSmarts. In many cases, controversial articles are locked so they cant be changed, or only certain verified users can change them.

And any changes that are made can be seen by the user.

Johnson cites the example of the House Hippo, an awareness campaign the agency launched in the 1990s that showed what seemed to be mouse-sized hippos interacting with pets and household furniture at night.

The idea was to get people to think about what theyre seeing on TV.

When an article showed up on Wikipedia, someone edited it to suggest the imaginary creatures were real.

That edit only lasted 10 minutes before one of the automated Wikipedia bots reverted it, says Johnson. It recognized that it was a malicious edit, that it was misinformation in this case. Wikipedia articles usually provide good sources, references and context, he said.

Its also a really good place to get the consensus on a topic, because every Wikipedia article has gone through a process of consensus building, he said. Youll very rarely now see fringe scientific beliefs represented in Wikipedia articles.

While he doesnt want to see bad information spread, Johnson encourages people to share good information when they see it.

One of the things that we really all have to recognize is that were not just consumers of news and information anymore were broadcasters, as well. So what we choose to do can either make things worse or make them better.

Peter Jackson is a Local Journalism Initiative reporter covering health for The Telegram.

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Information for Healthcare Professionals on COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca – GOV.UK

§ January 4th, 2021 § Filed under Genetically Modified Humans Comments Off on Information for Healthcare Professionals on COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca – GOV.UK

Regulation 174 Information for UK healthcare professionals

This medicinal product has been given authorisation for temporary supply by the UK Department of Health and Social Care and the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. It does not have a marketing authorisation, but this temporary authorisation grants permission for the medicine to be used for active immunisation of individuals aged 18 years and older for the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

As with any new medicine in the UK, this product will be closely monitored to allow quick identification of new safety information. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions. See section 4.8 for how to report adverse reactions.

COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca, solution for injection in multidose container

COVID-19 Vaccine (ChAdOx1 S [recombinant])

One dose (0.5 ml) contains:

COVID-19 Vaccine (ChAdOx1-S* recombinant) 5 1010 viral particles (vp)

*Recombinant, replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vector encoding the SARS CoV 2 Spike (S) glycoprotein. Produced in genetically modified human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells.

This product contains genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

Solution for injection.

The solution is colourless to slightly brown, clear to slightly opaque and particle free with a pH of 6.6.

COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca is indicated for active immunisation of individuals 18 years old for the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

The use of COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca should be in accordance with official guidance.

The COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca vaccination course consists of two separate doses of 0.5 ml each. The second dose should be administered between 4 and 12 weeks after the first dose (see section 5.1).

It is recommended that individuals who receive a first dose of COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca complete the vaccination course with COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca (see section 4.4).

Efficacy and safety data are currently limited in individuals 65 years of age (see sections 4.8 and 5.1). No dosage adjustment is required.

The safety and efficacy of COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca in children and adolescents (aged <18 years old) have not yet been established. No data are available.

COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca is for intramuscular (IM) injection only, preferably in the deltoid muscle.

For instructions on administration, see section 6.6.

Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1

In order to improve the traceability of biological medicinal products, the name and the batch number of the administered product should be clearly recorded.

As with all injectable vaccines, appropriate medical treatment and supervision should always be readily available in case of an anaphylactic event following the administration of the vaccine.

As with other vaccines, administration of COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca should be postponed in individuals suffering from an acute severe febrile illness. However, the presence of a minor infection, such as cold, and/or low-grade fever should not delay vaccination.

As with other intramuscular injections, COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca should be given with caution to individuals with thrombocytopenia, any coagulation disorder or to persons on anticoagulation therapy, because bleeding or bruising may occur following an intramuscular administration in these individuals.

It is not known whether individuals with impaired immune responsiveness, including individuals receiving immunosuppressant therapy, will elicit the same response as immunocompetent individuals to the vaccine regimen.

The duration of protection has not yet been established. As with any vaccine, vaccination with COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca may not protect all vaccine recipients.

No data are available on the use of COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca in persons that have previously received a full or partial vaccine series with another COVID-19 vaccine.

This medicinal product contains less than 1 mmol sodium (23 mg) per dose, and is considered to be essentially sodium-free.

No interaction studies have been performed.

Concomitant administration of COVID-19Vaccine AstraZeneca with other vaccines has not been studied (see section 5.1).

There is a limited experience with the use of COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca in pregnant women.

Preliminary animal studies do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects with respect to pregnancy, embryofetal development, parturition or post natal development; definitive animal studies have not been completed yet. The full relevance of animal studies to human risk with vaccines for COVID-19 remains to be established.

Administration of COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca in pregnancy should only be considered when the potential benefits outweigh any potential risks for the mother and fetus.

It is unknown whether COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca is excreted in human milk.

Preliminary animal studies do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects with respect to fertility.

COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines. However, some of the adverse reactions mentioned under section 4.8 may temporarily affect the ability to drive or use machines.

The overall safety of COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca is based on an interim analysis of pooled data from four clinical trials conducted in the United Kingdom, Brazil, and South Africa. At the time of analysis, 23,745 participants 18 years old had been randomised and received either COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca or control. Out of these, 12,021 received at least one dose of COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca. The median duration of follow-up in the COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca group was 105 days post dose 1, and 62 days post dose 2.

Demographic characteristics were generally similar among participants who received COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca and those who received control. Overall, among the participants who received COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca, 90.3% were aged 18 to 64 years and 9.7% were 65 years of age or older. The majority of recipients were White (75.5%), 10.1% were Black and 3.5% were Asian; 55.8% were female and 44.2% male.

The most frequently reported adverse reactions were injection site tenderness (>60%); injection site pain, headache, fatigue (>50%); myalgia, malaise (>40%); pyrexia, chills (>30%); and arthralgia, nausea (>20%). The majority of adverse reactions were mild to moderate in severity and usually resolved within a few days of vaccination. By day 7 the incidence of subjects with at least one local or systemic reaction was 4% and 13% respectively. When compared with the first dose, adverse reactions reported after the second dose were milder and reported less frequently.

Adverse reactions were generally milder and reported less frequently in older adults (65 years old).

If required, analgesic and/or anti-pyretic medicinal products (e.g. paracetamol-containing products) may be used to provide symptomatic relief from post-vaccination adverse reactions.

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are organised by MedDRA System Organ Class (SOC). Within each SOC, preferred terms are arranged by decreasing frequency and then by decreasing seriousness. Frequencies of occurrence of adverse reactions are defined as: very common (1/10); common (1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (1/10,000 to <1/1000); very rare (<1/10,000) and not known (cannot be estimated from available data).

MedDRA SOC: Blood and lymphatic system disorders

MedDRA SOC: Metabolism and nutrition disorders

MedDRA SOC: Nervous system disorders

MedDRA SOC: Nervous system disorders

MedDRA SOC: Gastrointestinal disorders

MedDRA SOC: Gastrointestinal disorders

MedDRA SOC: Gastrointestinal disorders

MedDRA SOC: Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

MedDRA SOC: Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

MedDRA SOC: General disorders and administration site conditions

MedDRA SOC: General disorders and administration site conditions

(a) Unsolicited adverse reaction

(b) Injection site bruising includes injection site haematoma (uncommon, unsolicited adverse reaction)

(c) Pyrexia includes feverishness (very common) and fever 38C (common)

Very rare events of neuroinflammatory disorders have been reported following vaccination with COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca. A causal relationship has not been established.

If you are concerned about an adverse event, it should be reported on a Yellow Card. Reporting forms and information can be found at the Coronavirus Yellow Card reporting site search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store and include the vaccine brand and batch/Lot number if available.

Alternatively, adverse events of concern in association with COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca can be reported to AstraZeneca on 08000541028 or via the AstraZeneca website.

Please do not report the same adverse event(s) to both systems as all reports will be shared between AstraZeneca and the MHRA (in an anonymised form) and dual reporting will create unnecessary duplicates.

Experience of overdose is limited.

There is no specific treatment for an overdose with COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca. In the event of an overdose, the individual should be monitored and provided with symptomatic treatment as appropriate.

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Vaccine, other viral vaccines, ATC code: J07BX03

COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca is a monovalent vaccine composed of a single recombinant, replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus (ChAdOx1) vector encoding the S glycoprotein of SARS CoV 2. Following administration, the S glycoprotein of SARS CoV 2 is expressed locally stimulating neutralising antibody and cellular immune responses.

COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca has been evaluated based on an interim analysis of pooled data from four on-going randomised, blinded, controlled trials: a Phase I/II Study, COV001, in healthy adults 18 to 55 years of age in the UK; a Phase II/III Study, COV002, in adults 18 years of age (including the elderly) in the UK; a Phase III Study, COV003, in adults 18 years of age (including the elderly) in Brazil; and a Phase I/II study, COV005, in adults aged 18 to 65 years of age in South Africa. The studies excluded participants with history of anaphylaxis or angioedema; participants with severe and/or uncontrolled cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, liver, renal, endocrine/metabolic disease, and neurological illnesses; as well as those with immunosuppression. In studies COV001 and COV002, licensed seasonal influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations were permitted (at least 7 days before or after their study vaccine).

All participants are planned to be followed for up to 12 months, for assessments of safety and efficacy against COVID-19 disease.

Based on the pre-defined criteria for interim efficacy analysis, COV002 and COV003 exceeded the threshold of 5 virologically confirmed COVID-19 cases per study and therefore contributed to the efficacy analysis; COV001 and COV005 were excluded.

In the pooled analysis for efficacy (COV002 and COV003), participants 18 years of age received two doses of COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca (N=5,807) or control (meningococcal vaccine or saline) (N=5,829). Because of logistical constraints, the interval between dose 1 and dose 2 ranged from 4 to 26 weeks.

Baseline demographics were well balanced across COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca and control treatment groups. Overall, among the participants who received COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca, 94.1% of participants were 18 to 64 years old (with 5.9% aged 65 or older); 60.7% of subjects were female; 82.8% were White, 4.6% were Asian, and 4.4% were Black. A total of 2,070 (35.6%) participants had at least one pre-existing comorbidity (defined as a BMI 30 kg/m2, cardiovascular disorder, respiratory disease or diabetes). The median follow-up time post-dose 1 and post-dose 2 was 132 days and 63 days, respectively.

Final determination of COVID-19 cases were made by an adjudication committee, who also assigned disease severity according to the WHO clinical progression scale. A total of 131 participants had SARS CoV 2 virologically confirmed (by nucleic acid amplification tests) COVID-19 occurring 15 days post dose 2 with at least one COVID-19 symptom (objective fever (defined as 37.8C), cough, shortness of breath, anosmia, or ageusia) and were without evidence of previous SARS CoV 2 infection. COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca significantly decreased the incidence of COVID-19 compared to control (see Table 2).

N = Number of subjects included in each group

n = Number of subjects having a confirmed event

CI = Confidence Interval

a 95.84% CI

b WHO severity grading 4

c WHO severity grading 6

d 95% CI

e Two cases of hospitalisation occurred on Days 1 and 10 post vaccination.

The level of protection gained from a single dose of COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca was assessed in an exploratory analysis that included participants who had received one dose. Participants were censored from the analysis at the earliest time point of when they received a second dose or at 12 weeks post dose 1. In this population, vaccine efficacy from 22 days post dose 1 was 73.00% (95% CI: 48.79; 85.76 [COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca 12/7,998 vs control 44/7,982]).

Exploratory analyses showed that increased immunogenicity was associated with a longer dose interval (see Immunogenicity Table 3). Efficacy is currently demonstrated with more certainty for dose intervals from 8 to 12 weeks. Data for intervals longer than 12 weeks are limited.

Participants who had one or more comorbidities had a vaccine efficacy of 73.43% [95% CI: 48.49; 86.29]; 11 (0.53%) vs 43 (2.02%) for COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca (N=2,070) and control (N=2,113), respectively; which was similar to the vaccine efficacy observed in the overall population.

The number of COVID-19 cases (2) in 660 participants 65 years old were too few to draw conclusions on efficacy. However, in this subpopulation, immunogenicity data are available, see below.

Following vaccination with COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca, in participants who were seronegative at baseline, seroconversion (as measured by a 4 fold increase from baseline in S binding antibodies) was demonstrated in 98% of participants at 28 days after the first dose and >99% at 28 days after the second. Higher S binding antibodies were observed with increasing dose interval (Table 3).

Generally similar trends were observed between analyses of neutralising antibodies and S binding antibodies. An immunological correlate of protection has not been established; therefore the level of immune response that provides protection against COVID-19 is unknown.

N = Number of subjects included in each group

GMT = Geometric mean titre

CI = Confidence interval

S = Spike

a Immune response evaluated using a multiplex immunoassay

b in individuals who received two recommended doses of vaccine.

The immune response observed in participants with one or more comorbidities was consistent with the overall population.

High seroconversion rates were observed in older adults (65 years) after the first (97.8%; N=136) and the second recommended dose (100.0%; N=111). The increase in S binding antibodies was lower for participants 65 years old (28 days after second dose: GMT=20,727.02 [N=116, 95% CI: 17,646.6; 24,345.2]) when compared to participants aged 18 64 years (28 days after second dose: GMT=30,695.30 [N=703, 95% CI: 28,496.2; 33,064.1]). The majority of participants 65 years old had a dose interval of <6 weeks, which may have contributed to the lower titres observed.

In participants with serological evidence of prior SARS CoV 2 infection at baseline (GMT=13,137.97 [N=29; 95% CI: 7,441.8; 23,194.1]), S antibody titres peaked 28 days after dose 1 (GMT=175,120.84 [N=28; 95% CI: 120,096.9; 255,354.8]).

Spike specific T cell responses as measured by IFN enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assay were induced after a first dose of COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca. These did not rise further after a second dose.

Not applicable.

Non-clinical data reveal no special hazard for humans based on a conventional study of repeat dose toxicity. Animal studies into potential toxicity to reproduction and development have not yet been completed.

In the absence of compatibility studies, this vaccine must not be mixed with other medicinal products.

6 months

Use as soon as practically possible and within 6 hours. The vaccine may be stored between 2C and 25C during the in-use period.

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New nanomaterial supports enhanced and stabilized hydrogen production from methanol – Green Car Congress

§ January 4th, 2021 § Filed under Nanomaterials Comments Off on New nanomaterial supports enhanced and stabilized hydrogen production from methanol – Green Car Congress

A team led by researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratorys (Berkeley Lab) Molecular Foundry has designed and synthesized ultrasmall nickel nanoclusters (1.5 nm) deposited on defect-rich BN nanosheet (Ni/BN) catalysts with excellent methanol dehydrogenation activity and selectivity.

In an open-access paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), the researchers report that the catalyst can cleanly and efficiently accelerate the reaction that removes hydrogen atoms from a liquid chemical carrier such as methanol. The material is robust and made from earth-abundant metals rather than existing options made from precious metals, and could help make hydrogen a viable energy source for a wide range of applications.

We present here not merely a catalyst with higher activity than other nickel catalysts that we tested, for an important renewable energy fuel, but also a broader strategy toward using affordable metals in a broad range of reactions.

Jeff Urban, the Inorganic Nanostructures Facility director at the Molecular Foundry who led the work

The research is part of the Hydrogen Materials Advanced Research Consortium (HyMARC), a consortium funded by the US Department of Energys Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Office (EERE). Through this effort, five national laboratories work towards the goal to address the scientific gaps blocking the advancement of solid hydrogen storage materials. Outputs from this work will directly feed into EEREs H2@Scale vision for affordable hydrogen production, storage, distribution and utilization across multiple sectors in the economy.

Chemical compounds that act as catalysts such as the one developed by Urban and his team are commonly used to increase the rate of a chemical reaction without the compound itself being consumed; they might hold a particular molecule in a stable position, or serve as an intermediary that allows an important step to be reliably to completed.

For the chemical reaction that produces hydrogen from liquid carriers, the most effective catalysts are made from precious metals. However, those catalysts are associated with high costs and low abundance, and are susceptible to contamination. Other less expensive catalysts, made from more common metals, tend to be less effective and less stable, which limits their activity and their practical deployment into hydrogen production industries.

To improve the performance and stability of these earth-abundant metal-based catalysts, Urban and his colleagues modified a strategy that focuses on tiny, uniform clusters of nickel metal. Tiny clusters are important because they maximize the exposure of reactive surface in a given amount of material. But they also tend to clump together, which inhibits their reactivity.

Postdoctoral research assistant Zhuolei Zhang and project scientist Ji Su, both at the Molecular Foundry and co-lead authors on the paper, designed and performed an experiment that combatted clumping by depositing 1.5-nanometer-diameter nickel clusters onto a 2D substrate made of boron and nitrogen engineered to host a grid of atomic-scale dimples. The nickel clusters became evenly dispersed and securely anchored in the dimples.

Not only did this design prevent clumping, but its thermal and chemical properties greatly improved the catalysts overall performance by directly interacting with the nickel clusters.

Illustration of the 2D boron nitride substrate with imperfections that host tiny nickel clusters. The catalyst aids the chemical reaction that removes hydrogen from liquid chemical carriers, making it available for use as a fuel. (Credit: Jeff Urban/Berkeley Lab)

The role of the underlying surface during the cluster formation and deposition stage has been found to be critical, and may provide clues to understanding their role in other processes.

Jeff Urban

Detailed X-ray and spectroscopy measurements, combined with theoretical calculations, revealed much about the underlying surfaces and their role in catalysis. Using tools at the Advanced Light Source, a DOE user facility at Berkeley Lab, and computational modeling methods, the researchers identified changes in the physical and chemical properties of the 2D sheets while tiny nickel clusters formed and deposited on them.

The team proposed that the material forms while metal clusters occupy pristine regions of the sheets and interact with nearby edges, thus preserving the tiny size of the clusters. The tiny, stable clusters facilitated the action in the processes through which hydrogen is separated from its liquid carrier, endowing the catalyst with excellent selectivity, productivity, and stable performance.

Calculations showed that the catalysts size was the reason its activity was among the best relative to others that have recently been reported. David Prendergast, director of the Theory of Nanostructured Materials Facility at the Molecular Foundry, along with postdoctoral research assistant and co-lead author Ana Sanz-Matias, used models and computational methods to uncover the unique geometric and electronic structure of the tiny metal clusters.

Bare metal atoms, abundant on these tiny clusters, more readily attracted the liquid carrier than did larger metal particles. These exposed atoms also eased the steps of the chemical reaction that strips hydrogen from the carrier, while preventing the formation of contaminants that may clog the surface of the cluster. Hence, the material remained free of pollution during key steps in the hydrogen production reaction. These catalytic and anti-contamination properties emerged from the imperfections that had been deliberately introduced to the 2D sheets and ultimately helped keep the cluster size small.

Contamination can render possible non-precious metal catalysts unviable. Our platform here opens a new door to engineering those systems.

Jeff Urban

In their catalyst, the researchers achieved the goal of creating a relatively inexpensive, readily available, and stable material that helps to strip hydrogen from liquid carriers for use as a fuel. This work came out of a DOE effort to develop hydrogen storage materials to meet the targets of EEREs Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Office and to optimize the materials for future use in vehicles.

Future work by the Berkeley Lab team will further hone the strategy of modifying 2D substrates in ways that support tiny metal clusters, to develop even more efficient catalysts. The technique could help to optimize the process of extracting hydrogen from liquid chemical carriers.

The Molecular Foundry and the Advanced Light Source are DOE Office of Science user facilities at Berkeley Lab. The research was supported by the DOE Office of Science and EEREs Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Office.

Resources

Zhuolei Zhang, Ji Su, Ana Sanz Matias, Madeleine Gordon, Yi-Sheng Liu, Jinghua Guo, Chengyu Song, Chaochao Dun, David Prendergast, Gabor A. Somorjai, Jeffrey J. Urban (2020) Enhanced and stabilized hydrogen production from methanol by ultrasmall Ni nanoclusters immobilized on defect-rich h-BN nanosheets Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 117 (47) 29442-29452 doi: 10.1073/pnas.2015897117

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Global Non-Polymeric Organic Nanomaterial Market Proceeds To Witness Huge Upswing Over Assessment Period by 2025 – The Courier

§ January 4th, 2021 § Filed under Nanomaterials Comments Off on Global Non-Polymeric Organic Nanomaterial Market Proceeds To Witness Huge Upswing Over Assessment Period by 2025 – The Courier

The globalNon-Polymeric Organic Nanomaterial Marketresearch report enlists the vital and practical information with regards to market situation. The present scenario of Non-Polymeric Organic Nanomaterial market, along with its previous performance as well as future scope are covered in the report. This eases the users understanding of the market thoroughly, while also gaining knowledge about market opportunities and the dominant players Carbon Solutions, Cabot, CNT, Arkema, CNano technology, Catalyx Nanotech, Nanocyl, Showa Denko, Carbon NT&F, Evonik Industries, Bayer MaterialScience, Us Research Nanomaterials Inc in the Non-Polymeric Organic Nanomaterial market.

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The Global Non-Polymeric Organic Nanomaterial Market Research Report Details

The beginning of the report summarizes the market with the definition of the overall Non-Polymeric Organic Nanomaterial market.

The following section includes Non-Polymeric Organic Nanomaterial market segmentation Carbon Black, Carbon Nanotubes, Aptamers, Small Molecule OLED, Activated Carbon, Carbon Nanotubes Composites. Segmentation is done on the basis of application, type, end-user industries, and several such factors among others.

We have strived to include sub-segments Cosmetics, Health, Tires, Plastics, Air and water Treatment, Mobiles, Others in segmentation section, wherever possible. Also included are details regarding the dominant segments in the worldwide Non-Polymeric Organic Nanomaterial market.

The global Non-Polymeric Organic Nanomaterial market has also been classified on the basis of regions. On the basis of the regional diversification, details regarding market share and size have also been obtained.

In the succeeding part, growth factors for the Non-Polymeric Organic Nanomaterial market have been elucidated. This section also explains the technological advancements made to improve market size and position. Also enlisted is the information pertaining to the end-use industries for the Non-Polymeric Organic Nanomaterial market.

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Non-Polymeric Organic Nanomaterial Market COVID-19 Impact Analysis

As the world is still dealing with COVID-19 situation, many of the countries have slowly started to revive its economic situation by starting its trade and businesses. There has been enormous loss in these few months both in terms of economy and human lives. As the WHO has already suggested that there are very less chances that the virus will completely go, hence we will have start living with it. Many of the drug companies are getting positive response of their COVID-19 vaccines, but there is still time for its availability in the global market.

There are 15 Sections to show the global Non-Polymeric Organic Nanomaterial market

Sections 1, Definition, Specifications and Classification of Non-Polymeric Organic Nanomaterial , Applications of Non-Polymeric Organic Nanomaterial , Market Segment by Regions; Section 2, Assembling Cost Structure, Crude Material and Providers, Assembling Procedure, Industry Chain Structure; Sections 3,Technical Data and Manufacturing Plants Analysis of Non-Polymeric Organic Nanomaterial , Capacity and Commercial Production Date, Manufacturing Plants Distribution, R&D Status and Technology Source, Raw Materials Sources Analysis; Sections 4, Generally Market Analysis, Limit Examination (Organization Fragment), Sales Examination (Organization Portion), sales Value Investigation (Organization Section); Sections 5 and Six, Regional Market Investigation that incorporates United States, China, Europe, Japan, Korea and Taiwan, Non-Polymeric Organic Nanomaterial segment Market Examination (by Sort); Sections 7 and Eight, The Non-Polymeric Organic Nanomaterial Segment Market Analysis (by Application) Major Manufacturers Analysis of Non-Polymeric Organic Nanomaterial ; Sections Nine, Market Trend Analysis, Regional Market Trend, Market Trend by Product Type Carbon Black, Carbon Nanotubes, Aptamers, Small Molecule OLED, Activated Carbon, Carbon Nanotubes Composites Market Trend by Application Cosmetics, Health, Tires, Plastics, Air and water Treatment, Mobiles, Others; Sections 10, Regional Promoting Type Investigation, Worldwide Exchange Type Examination, Inventory network Investigation; Sections 11, The Customers Examination of global Non-Polymeric Organic Nanomaterial; Sections 12, Non-Polymeric Organic Nanomaterial Research Findings and Conclusion, Appendix, system and information source; Sections 13, 14 and 15, Non-Polymeric Organic Nanomaterial deals channel, wholesalers, merchants, traders, Exploration Discoveries and End, appendix and data source.

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Particulars Of The Global Non-Polymeric Organic Nanomaterial Market Research Report

Further part in the report enlists the restraining factors for the Non-Polymeric Organic Nanomaterial market growth. The restraints are explained comprehensively and with details in order that the client can comprehend how these factors are affecting the global Non-Polymeric Organic Nanomaterial market and how such factors can be tackled effectively using suitable measures.

Also, regional study and analysis of global Non-Polymeric Organic Nanomaterial market focused on in the report. Here, the major regions with Non-Polymeric Organic Nanomaterial market establishment have been explained thoroughly. Due to this, our clients will have clarity in understanding the booming markets as well as the potential Non-Polymeric Organic Nanomaterial markets in the near future.

The concluding section relates to the conclusions and observations regarding the global Non-Polymeric Organic Nanomaterial market.

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The science of looking ahead – Deccan Herald

§ January 4th, 2021 § Filed under Nanomaterials Comments Off on The science of looking ahead – Deccan Herald

At the turn of the millennium, when scientists sequenced the human genome, its full implications escaped popular imagination. Amid debates over its possible benefits and risks, genome science gave an unprecedented push to advances in biology, never as evident as now, two decades later, as the world battles a pandemic.

No one, after the coronavirus pandemic, can deny the capacity of science to surpass human imagination. Never before in the history ofsciencehave multiple vaccines emerged within months after the discovery of a newvirus.Production and even immunisation started even before 2020 ended. What the past year has shown us is what science can do if research advances, political will and coordinated global efforts merge.

With this backdrop in mind,we do some crystal gazing to explore what might become the reality in the next 10 yearsin select scientific areas. All may not fructify, but many could, particularly if science is backed by society.

SPACE: Are we alone in this universe?

This is a query that has enamoured scientists for decades. It received a boost half-a-century ago when Cornell University physicist Frank Drake, in a famous formula, demonstrated the theoretical possibility of having millions of such advanced civilisations just in the Milky Way galaxy alone. Soon the search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI) began and till date, there is no dearth of excitement. The cigar-shaped Oumuamua that zipped through the solar system two years ago has added more fuel to the interest.

The next decade is likely to provide several crucial clues to answer this long-standing query. Astrophysicists are of the opinion that it would be an epoch-breaking decade in human understanding of the cosmos, because of the 6-meter class James Webb Space Telescope that will bethree times more powerful than the Hubble space telescope and would probe deep space as never before. The James Webb Space Telescope is expected to provide unprecedented information about atmospheres of extrasolar planets and perhaps help identify the molecular building blocks necessary for life there.

The grandiose space telescope would receive able support from three giant ground-based telescopes European Extra Large Telescope, Thirty Meter Telescope and the Giant Magellanic Telescope that will allow astronomers to penetrate the farthest part of the visible universe and probe the faintest objects in our own galaxy. The next generation radio telescope Square Kilometre Array will add heft to the quest by unveiling the most enigmatic, yet to be discovered radio signals from the universe.

Some discoveries that are likely include bio-signatures in the atmosphere of Earth-like exo-planets, implying the presence of life, discovery of the elusive ninth solar planet, exo-moons, first generation stars and better understanding of dark matter and dark energy that comprises the bulk of the universe.

But a human landing on Mars or colonisation of the moon are unlikely. More travel to the moon is possible, but is there a chance of settling there? Certainly notin the coming decade.

NANOTECHNOLOGY: 'Plenty of room at the bottom'

The late AmericanNobel laureate Richard Feynmanhadobservedin a 1959 lecture that there is plenty of room at the bottom, spawning the genesis of nanotechnologyor the science of the ultra small, but the beauty of Feynmans staggeringly small worldhas become evident only overthe last two decadeswith the realisation of the tools to see, measure and manipulate matter at the nanoscale.And to give you an idea about the scale that we are talking about, a single strand of human hair measures 50,000 nanometres across.

Research in nanotechnology has diversified enormously, fuelled by massive improvement inelectron microscopy, physical and chemical synthesis routes, emergence of the new class of materials (starting from graphene in 2004), and device technology to translate nano materials to product.Thegeneral physical properties of matter at nano-scale are relatively well-understood now, and there is a global efforttoexploit these properties to achieve unique therapeutic methodologies, as well as materials and devices that can impact life directly.

Medicine is one area where the technology holds enormous promises.Breakthroughs are likely in areas ranging from wearable fitness technology that would monitor our health daily to electronic tattoos to sense vital signs.There could even be sensors inside the body and multi-billion pharmaceutical firm GSK is alreadypursuing researchon electroceuticals. Also, scientists envision havingnano-robots inside the blood. Such nanobots will swim in the bloodstream to deliver cancer drugs to the targeted cellswithout damaging others. This, however, is unlikely to be realised in the next 10 years as scientists have to overcome the challenge ofunderstanding the toxic effects ofsuchswarms of nanobots inside the blood and how to mitigate them.

More realistic possibilities areadvancementsindeviceminiaturisation andimprovement in their performance. Its entirely possible to have computers with storage capacity 10 times more or completely foldable laptops and mobile screens as well as foldable electronic newspapers.There could be nano-sensors on aircraft, bridges or nuclear power plants to monitor health so that minor problems dont turn into a major operational issues.Paint industry is also an area that may be transformedas there would bepaintswith nanomaterials to keep your walls dry even in rain,resist scratches andmake a tankvanish before the eyes of the enemy.

WATER:The hunt to harvest

Nanotechnologywillplay a crucial role in improving peoples access to water. Although oceans fill uptwo-thirdsof the planet, scarcity of fresh water is severely threatening both agriculture and the availability of drinking water for regular household usage.Thesolutions that may be realised in the next decadewill depend largely on nanotechnology and nanomaterials.Technological breakthroughs are expected to lower the energy requirement of the desalination process so that they become commercially viable. Removal of arsenic and fluoride using new materials and technology is entirely doable. Scientists have made progress in harvesting water from natural sources like humidity and fog, which may come closer to reality in the next 10 years.

With the advancementof artificial intelligence and better solutions to big data problems, what is likely to be realised is a Google Earth kind of platform on water resources, mapping the water usageof everyhouseholdin the world and the nature of spending. Scientists believe this wouldnot onlyautomaticallylead to enormous savings in water use, but alsoconvert everycivil infrastructure intoa placeto harvest and conserve water.

COMPUTATION: The big wave is coming

There are several low-hanging fruits to be realised within the next 10 years, but it would take decades to witness the full potential of quantum computing the holy grail of computing. A foundation of the quantum computings backbone may be laid in the next 10 years.

Artificial intelligence, big data processing and IoT are beginning to change urban lives, even though their potential is far more. AI is the next big thing, which would result in self-driving vehicles, swarms of drones and rockets, robotic manufacturing, managing complex logistics and vertical farming. From stock markets to healthcare, AI will rule everywhere.

Riding on a 5G backbone, Internet of Things will make smart homes and offices a reality with remote and intelligent operations. In such homes and offices, every home appliance is connected and can be operated remotely. By 2025, it is projected that nearly 100 trillion devices will be connected through smart interfaces with an economic impact between $2.7 to $6.2 trillion annually and IoT will change the fundamental nature of business. But all of them will pale before quantum communication technologies.

A future quantum computer could, for example, crack any of the modern common security systems such as 128-bit AES encryption, the best one in the market in seconds. Even the best supercomputer would take millions of years to do the same job. However, it would not be easy to get there, even though the US National Institute of Standards and Technology has predicted that quantum computers will be able to crack the 128-bit AES encryption by 2029. Scientists hope, in the next 10 years, a backbone for a global secure quantum communication network would be in place, but problems like what materials are to be used in quantum computers, what architecture is to follow and what types of protocols are needed in quantum communication may take a far longer time to resolve. A better understanding of the quantum world would also equip the scientists with weapons to cross the final frontier the brain.

BRAIN: Cracking the cerebral codes

Every advancement in biology in the last century was aimed at the ultimate goal of treating diseases of the body.Theongoing centurywill see an equal,if not more,thrust on treating diseases of the mind aswell, withan increasing pool oftop-classbiologists, physicists and computer scientistsjoininghandstounravel the mysteries of the brain.

Dementia is one such area that would progress enormouslyin the next 10 yearsas thedisease now gets worldwide attentiondue to itshuge economicconsequence. Thegoal isnowtoidentifyearlybiomarkersthat get activatedtwo to three decades before the disease sets in.Earlydetectionwould lead toearlyintervention and better management ofmany such neurological illnesses.

As scientists try to crack the cerebralcodes,they often face a handicap due to theabsence of relevant disease models tocome out withnewdrugs and diagnostics.Advancement in stem cell technologyand creationof organoids provided good leadsso far, but the next decade will witnessrapidprogress leading to an accelerated pace of drug development.An increasingly more number of scientists wouldalso explorethe brain as an integrated system along with thebody'simmune system or microbiome.The aim, once again, would be tofind out thecurefordiseases of the mind.

Morefundamentalquestions likewhatdefinescognition orwhether there is free will, would have to wait longer for an answer.

GENETIC ENGINEERING: Look before you leap

Now, this one is aminefield. No doubt engineered microbes would bring revolutions in chemical and industrial processes, while advancements in RNA technology (as seen in Covid-19 vaccines) will overhaul vaccine development with its potential to create life-saving shots within weeks. But the big fear is whether technological progress would usher in an era of eugenics 2.0.

At the core lies CRISPR gene-editing technology a tool so powerful that humans can even think of playing God. Chinese scientist He Jiankuis feat of producing designer babies exacerbated such fears. There are two ways to use gene-alterations. It can be done through somatic editing to cure a particular disease or disorder caused by defective genes. This, in all probability, would emerge as a therapy. But, more dangerous would be germline editing, which would allow genetic changes to transmit to the next generation. Just think what would happen if traits like good looks, athleticism and intelligence become modifiable and hereditary. It's a complete no-no at the global scale and there are really tough scientific challenges to overcome, but scientists do fear the creation of a grey market for such designer babies somewhere in the world.

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Architectured Therapeutic and Diagnostic Nanoplatforms for Combating SARS-CoV-2: Role of Inorganic, Organic, and Radioactive Materials – DocWire News

§ January 4th, 2021 § Filed under Nanomaterials Comments Off on Architectured Therapeutic and Diagnostic Nanoplatforms for Combating SARS-CoV-2: Role of Inorganic, Organic, and Radioactive Materials – DocWire News

This article was originally published here

ACS Biomater Sci Eng. 2020 Dec 28. doi: 10.1021/acsbiomaterials.0c01243. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Although extensive research is being done to combat SARS-CoV-2, we are yet far away from a robust conclusion or strategy. With an increased amount of vaccine research, nanotechnology has found its way into vaccine technology. Researchers have explored the use of various nanostructures for delivering the vaccines for enhanced efficacy. Apart from acting as delivery platforms, multiple studies have shown the application of inorganic nanoparticles in suppressing the growth as well as transmission of the virus. The present review gives a detailed description of various inorganic nanomaterials which are being explored for combating SARS-CoV-2 along with their role in suppressing the transmission of the virus either through air or by contact with inanimate surfaces. The review further discusses the use of nanoparticles for development of an antiviral coating that may decrease adhesion of SARS-CoV-2. A separate section has been included describing the role of nanostructures in biosensing and diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2. The role of nanotechnology in providing an alternative therapeutic platform along with the role of radionuclides in SARS-CoV-2 has been described briefly. Based on ongoing research and commercialization of this nanoplatform for a viral disease, the nanomaterials show the potential in therapy, biosensing, and diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2.

PMID:33371667 | DOI:10.1021/acsbiomaterials.0c01243

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Madurai Kamaraj University professor develops respirator that picks up atmospheric oxygen – The Hindu

§ January 4th, 2021 § Filed under Nanomaterials Comments Off on Madurai Kamaraj University professor develops respirator that picks up atmospheric oxygen – The Hindu

An assistant professor of Physics at Madurai Kamaraj University says he has come up with a prototype of a unique respiratory mask that can pick up oxygen from the atmosphere for the wearer.

T. Arockiadass says he has developed a ventilator-cum-respiratory mask that ensures more than 40% of atmospheric oxygen is available within the mask.

Called LIDS-VR mask, it contains sensors to regulate the level of oxygen. The present LIDS ventilator-cum-respirator (LIDS-VR) works by providing a high concentration of oxygen into the available air within the mask, he said.

The atmosphere has 20.9% of oxygen. I have developed a nanomaterial that can absorb oxygen. It requires energy to release the oxygen for the wearer. For this, we use 1.5-cm-2-cm lipo 3.7 volt battery. The mask can be charged like a mobile phone, he said.

The mask weighs around 100 gm. The use of battery does not make it heavier.

Mr. Arockiadass said the respirator could be used when a sick patient is waiting for ambulance or by festival shoppers at a heavily crowded mall. An ambulance can take 5 to 10 minutes to arrive. A person who has difficulty in breathing can use it till then. This is particularly helpful for asthmatic persons. It can also be used in aeroplanes, he said.

When necessary, the respirator can double up as a ventilator. Where more oxygen is needed we can attach a cartridge to supply oxygen externally, Mr. Arockiadass said. He said he had used masks from the market and modified them to develop his respirator version. He is working with a company to transfer the technology.

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Comprehensive Report on Nanoparticle Market 2020 | Size, Growth, Demand, Opportunities & Forecast To 2026 | US Research Nanomaterials,…

§ January 4th, 2021 § Filed under Nanomaterials Comments Off on Comprehensive Report on Nanoparticle Market 2020 | Size, Growth, Demand, Opportunities & Forecast To 2026 | US Research Nanomaterials,…

Nanoparticle Market research report is the new statistical data source added by A2Z Market Research.

Nanoparticle Market is growing at a High CAGR during the forecast period 2020-2026. The increasing interest of the individuals in this industry is that the major reason for the expansion of this market.

Nanoparticle Market research is an intelligence report with meticulous efforts undertaken to study the right and valuable information. The data which has been looked upon is done considering both, the existing top players and the upcoming competitors. Business strategies of the key players and the new entering market industries are studied in detail. Well explained SWOT analysis, revenue share and contact information are shared in this report analysis.

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US Research Nanomaterials, nanoComposix, Meliorum Technologies, Strem Chemicals, Nanoshel, Nanostructured & Amorphous Materials, Tanaka Holdings, Nanocs, American Elements, BBI Group

The key questions answered in this report:

Various factors are responsible for the markets growth trajectory, which are studied at length in the report. In addition, the report lists down the restraints that are posing threat to the global Nanoparticle market. It also gauges the bargaining power of suppliers and buyers, threat from new entrants and product substitute, and the degree of competition prevailing in the market. The influence of the latest government guidelines is also analyzed in detail in the report. It studies the Nanoparticle markets trajectory between forecast periods.

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Global Nanoparticle Market Segmentation:

Market Segmentation by Type:

Platinum Gold Silver Copper Nickel Titanium Iron Others

Market Segmentation by Application:

Pharmaceutical & healthcare Electrical & electronics Catalyst Personal care & cosmetics Others

Regions Covered in the Global Nanoparticle Market Report 2020: The Middle East and Africa(GCC Countries and Egypt) North America(the United States, Mexico, and Canada) South America(Brazil etc.) Europe(Turkey, Germany, Russia UK, Italy, France, etc.) Asia-Pacific(Vietnam, China, Malaysia, Japan, Philippines, Korea, Thailand, India, Indonesia, and Australia)

The report provides insights on the following pointers:

Table of Contents

Global Nanoparticle Market Research Report 2020 2026

Chapter 1 Nanoparticle Market Overview

Chapter 2 Global Economic Impact on Industry

Chapter 3 Global Market Competition by Manufacturers

Chapter 4 Global Production, Revenue (Value) by Region

Chapter 5 Global Supply (Production), Consumption, Export, Import by Regions

Chapter 6 Global Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type

Chapter 7 Global Market Analysis by Application

Chapter 8 Manufacturing Cost Analysis

Chapter 9 Industrial Chain, Sourcing Strategy and Downstream Buyers

Chapter 10 Marketing Strategy Analysis, Distributors/Traders

Chapter 11 Market Effect Factors Analysis

Chapter 12 Global Nanoparticle Market Forecast

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Quantum computers’ power will remake competition in industries from technology to finance – MarketWatch

§ December 31st, 2020 § Filed under Quantum Medicine Comments Off on Quantum computers’ power will remake competition in industries from technology to finance – MarketWatch

Quantum computers, once fully scaled, could lead to breakthroughs on many fronts medicine, finance, architecture, logistics.

First, its important to understand why quantum computers are superior to the conventional ones weve been using for years:

In conventional electronic devices, memory consists of bits with only one value, either 0 or 1. In quantum computing, a quantum bit (qubit) exhibits both values in varying degrees at the same time. This is called quantum superposition. These ubiquitous states of each qubit are then used in complex calculations, which read like regular bits: 0 and 1.

Since qubits can store more information than regular bits, this also means quantum computers are capable of processing greater quantities of information. Having four bits enables 16 possibilities, but only one at a time. Four qubits in quantum superposition, however, let you calculate all 16 states at once. This means that four qubits equal 65,500 regular bits. Each qubit added to the quantum computing system increases its power exponentially.

To put things in perspective, a top supercomputer can currently accomplish as much as a five- to 20-qubit computer, but its estimated that a 50-qubit quantum computer will be able to solve computational problems no other conventional device can in any feasible amount of time.

This quantum supremacy has been achieved many times so far. Its important to mention that this doesnt mean the quantum computer can beat a traditional one in every task rather, it shines only in a limited set of tasks specially tailored to outline its strengths. Also, a quantum computer still needs to overcome many obstacles before it can become a mainstream device.

But once it does, its computational power will boost science and industries that profit from it.

Large companies working on quantum computing in their respective industries include AT&T T, -0.18%, Google holding company Alphabet GOOG, -1.09% GOOGL, -1.22%, IBM IBM, +0.44% and Microsoft MSFT, -1.10%.

Here are a few industries that could benefit the most:

Quantum chemistry, also called molecular quantum mechanics, is a branch of chemistry focused on the application of quantum mechanics to chemical systems. Here, quantum computers help in molecule modeling, taking into account all of their possible quantum states a feat that is beyond the power of conventional computing.

That, in turn, helps us understand their properties, which is invaluable for new material and medicine research.

Quantum cryptography, also known as quantum encryption, employs principles of quantum mechanics to facilitate encryption and protection of encrypted data from tampering. Using the peculiar behavior of subatomic particles, it enables the reliable detection of tampering or eavesdropping (via the Quantum Key Distribution method).

Quantum encryption is also used for secure encryption key transfer, which is based on the entanglement principle. Both methods are currently available, but due to their complexity and price, only governments and institutions handling delicate data (most notably in China and the U.S.) can afford them for the time being.

Quantum financeis an interdisciplinary research field that applies theories and methods developed by quantum physicists and economists to solve problems in finance.This especially includes complex calculations, such as the pricing of various financial instruments and other computational finance problems.

Some scientists argue that quantum pricing models will provide more accuracy than classical ones because theyre able to take into account market inefficiency, which is something classical models disregard.

Quantum computing will also enhance analysis of large and unstructured data sets, which will improve decision making across different areas from better-timed offers to risk assessment. Many of these calculations will require a quantum computer with thousands of qubits to resolve, but the way things have been progressing recently, its not unrealistic to see quantum computers reach this processing potential in a matter of years, rather than decades.

Although still in the domain of conceptual research, principles of quantum mechanics will help quantum computers achieve a markedly greater speed and efficiency than what is currently possible on classical computers when executing AI algorithms this goes especially for machine learning.

Current computational models used in weather forecasting employ dynamic variables, from air temperature, pressure and density to historic data and other factors that go into creating climate prediction models. Due to limited available processing power, classical computers and even conventional supercomputers are the bottlenecks that limit the speed and efficacy of forecasting calculations.

To predict extreme weather events and limit the loss of life and property, we need faster and more robust forecasting models. By harnessing the power of qubits, quantum computing is capable of providing necessary the raw processing power to make that happen. Furthermore, machine learning provided by the quantum AI can additionally improve these forecasting models.

Despite its rapid progress, quantum computing is still in its infancy, but its clearly a game changer, capable of solving problems previously deemed insurmountable for classical computers.

This power will provide most benefits not only to science and medicine, but also to businesses and industries where fast processing of large datasets is paramount.

As a marketing specialist, I can see a huge advantage for my industry, but others, especially finance and cryptography, will undoubtedly find the quantum boost to their decision-making processes and quality of their final product hugely beneficial.

The real question is who will be the first to harness this power and use quantum computing as a part of their unique value proposition and competitive advantage? The race is on.

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Invest In Interns To Build Hawaii’s Future – Honolulu Civil Beat

§ December 31st, 2020 § Filed under Quantum Medicine Comments Off on Invest In Interns To Build Hawaii’s Future – Honolulu Civil Beat

Ive been accused of being an optimist. Im guilty as charged but for good reason.

Like most, I follow the news and realize that there are many valid reasons to be pessimistic:Hawaiis cargo cult tourist economy. The ALICE report, detailing the struggles of those who are Asset Limited, Income Constrained and Employed. Incomplete or absent government policies. Outmigration. The global pandemic. And so on.

Over the last 30-plus years, we have conducted a summer intern program at Oceanit, the mind to market company I run, where we begin with ideas and bring them to life in the world.

The majority of our interns are from Hawaii and are working on their undergraduate or graduate college educations. We build cohorts of people from diverse backgrounds some students from public schools, some from private schools, some from economically or socially challenged upbringings, others with unique life experiences.

When we started this program, we hoped to make a small contribution to building Hawaiis future. Each year we are overwhelmed by the number of qualified applicants. So far, we have hosted over 700 paid summer interns, investing many millions of dollars.

We expect a high level of professionalism and performance, and our interns invariably respond with quality contributions. The tragedy is that each year we receive way too many high-quality applicants, most of them from Hawaii.

Our summer intern program is very structured and includes weekly seminars on topics such as innovation, community, inequality, the environment, etc. The last thing the interns do before returning to school is an innovation project.

It is an open-ended challenge to explore an idea their idea, any idea to make the world a better place. We dont tell interns what to focus on but do encourage them to consider something that they care deeply about.

We also encourage interns to think big thoughts about the future and what could be what technology, science or engineering breakthroughs could make the world a better place.

Conversations range from digital medicine to quantum encrypted communication. Interns see the jagged edges of science unfold, revealing fantastic possibilities that feed the future, enabled by changing methods and materials what was once impossible becomes possible.

Consider the impact of penicillin on surgery or the jet engine on trans-Pacific flight and how these and other innovations changed the world.

These young people are a lens into the future and its always interesting and informative to learn what they care about.

Their ideas are incredibly diverse too: ways to remove plastics from the ocean, reduce the risk of falls by the elderly, recycle batteries, remove birds from airport runways, breathe underwater like Aquaman, manage toxic waste, regrow amputated limbs, help socially disadvantaged kids improve their English, reinvent agriculture with artificial intelligence, sequester carbon, etc.

Each innovation is presented and defended with scientific, economic and business analyses arguing why the idea is worth pursuing and how it will affect the world.

What we consistently see is that contrary to what local folks may think, local talent is of a very high quality. These young people have both the education and the imagination to create the future. Each year we watch them transform from being uncertain to finding focus and drive to pursue the things that matter to them.

What strikes me is that while these young people see the future, there is little community interest in understanding what they see. After many years, Ive concluded that when it comes to building Hawaiis future, the kids are fine its the grownups that leave something to be desired.

Today, the Hawaii business community focuses almost entirely on the tourism and related industries at the exclusion of just about everything else.

While this has been economically beneficial for some and has enabled Hawaiis economy to grow, it has cultivated economic Group Think that believes tourism is the only economic option for Hawaii.

This hyper-focus creates few high-paying jobs and further underscores a lack of interest or trust in young people, their ideas or their interests. In fact, many teachers and parents implicitly communicate that to be successful, you must leave Hawaii.

Moreover, policies developed by government rarely address the minimum investment of attention, support or capital needed to entertain diverse industries.

Instead, these industries are given only enough attention to say, We tried, but not enough to actually open the aperture of the future. Its no wonder that many talented young people dont see their future selves building careers in Hawaii.

An unexpected consequence of the coronavirus pandemic is that its accelerating time, and the future is coming into focus faster than it would under normal circumstances.

A spotlight is shining on the frailty of tourism, illuminating both the industrys lack of long-term sustainability and its contribution to chronic inequality.

The pandemic has given us the opportunity to think deeply about our future the future we all want. A future that creates diverse jobs that provide a living wage. A future where our economic ecosystem values education and imagination. A future where kids dont have to leave to find their own success.

In my opinion, Hawaiis future is not limited as much by the physical world as it is by our imagination.

I see a future version of Hawaii where we create solutions from Hawaii to the world, rather than the present approach where we spend resources to import goods and services and bring in experts while we export our most precious resource: our kids.

When I talk like this, its pretty common to hear, That sounds good, but how does that actually happen? Could you be more specific?

If I were to name just a few areas that are ripe for opportunity, I would include artificial intelligence, green hydrogen energy, quantum computation and communication. I explored innovation and the ways we think in depth in a book I published this year, Intellectual Anarchy, The Art of Disruptive Innovation.

In the immediate, having found ourselves in a pandemic with an urgent global need for accurate and fast testing, we pivoted to inventing and manufacturing a COVID-19 rapid saliva test. We are seeking to address an enormous global need for 20 to 50 million tests per day.

Were in the midst of a real-life example of how we can do more than tourism in Hawaii. In the ideal, we would have the manufacturing infrastructure in place in the islands to make these billions of tests in Hawaii, thereby creating and growing quality manufacturing jobs.

Also, note that two prior Oceanit interns are currently part of the team working on this technology. One earned a Ph.D. in engineering, the other earned a masters degree in engineering and both came back to Hawaii.

To find our future, we need to do more than imitate Silicon Valley, copy Singapore or search for a silver bullet or magic formula.

To discover our better future, we need to begin by looking into the mirror, we need to take responsibility, we need to bet on Hawaii.

It boils down to a choice. Do we decide to bet on Hawaiis people or hope that someone shows up to save us? Our future is what we choose.

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It will take five to seven years for us to double the number of intensivists if we start work from today – Express Healthcare

§ December 31st, 2020 § Filed under Quantum Medicine Comments Off on It will take five to seven years for us to double the number of intensivists if we start work from today – Express Healthcare

Recently, Fortis Hospital, Kalyan announced plans to transform its critical care unit into a Centre of Excellence with a focus on evidence-based protocols, training, and capacity building of critical care specialists. Dr Rahul Pandit,Director-Critical Care, Fortis Hospitals Mumbai and Member of Maharashtras COVID-19 Task Forceshares more details about the endeavour, the gaps and challenges in Indias existing critical care system, lessons learnt from the COVID-19 pandemic, need stronger collaborations between private and public healthcare sectors and more, in an interview with Lakshmipriya Nair

The COVID-19 pandemic strained our critical care systems and infrastructure. What are the biggest gaps and challenges in our existing systems?

The pandemic inflicted a huge strain on the countrys critical care infrastructure. Critical care services throughout the nation were challenged and stretched beyond limits. We were three times short of trained doctors to look after critical patients and those in need of intensive management. The number of trained nurses and paramedical staff to support this pandemic were even shorter than doctors. Also, in the rural parts of the country, there are hardly any critical care specialists to contribute to COVID-19 care.

In India, training for healthcare professionals in critical care management picked pace in the past ten to 15 years, therefore it has not percolated to rural India. There is huge scope for improvement in the training of critical care specialists. A comprehensive process needs to be established to train doctors and other medical professionals to cater to the critically ill population.

How do we need to transform our healthcare system to be more future-ready in terms of critical care, especially for contagious/infectious diseases?

During the pandemic, the biggest gap was seen in trained manpower. So, firstly we need to establish critical care as a super-speciality discipline in medical colleges and teaching institutes. Currently, we have a handful of colleges that provide this super-speciality training in India. We need to have super-speciality training across all the medical colleges in India. Secondly, the attitude towards critical care as an independent speciality needs to change. The role and importance of critical care and an intensivist has changed quite significantly due to the pandemic. Thirdly, in metro cities, there should be independent or separate hospitals and units catering to patients suffering from infectious diseases. As far as India is concerned, we need to upgrade and revamp infectious disease services to address the many gaps in our system.

If we look at the last 20 years, the world has gone through several infectious disease episodes. In 2003- 2004 the SARS epidemic in Hong Kong and China was followed by H1N1, Avian influenza, Ebola, and now the COVID-19 pandemic. We also experience tuberculosis endemic in India. Therefore, in India, the need of the hour is to build robust critical care and infectious disease centres which can cater to a large number of patients.

What role does Fortis envisage for itself in this transformation? How are these goals inculcated in the new Centre of Excellence at Fortis Kalyan?

Fortis Hospitals have always been at the forefront as far as critical care services are concerned. Fortis Mulund unit has been recognised for training by the Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine for both diploma and fellowship courses, Diplomat of National Board, (DNB) for DNB Critical Care medicine, and by the College of Intensive Care Medicine of Australia for training. They found our standards and treatment protocols at par with the Australian hospitals and teaching institutes.

What we intend to do in Kalyan is to not only ramp up our expertise for critical care but also to inculcate a culture of education and introduce new training programmes. Also, we would like to enhance our protocols for caregiving and make it standardised across all units. We would like to bring across a quantum change in which patients who come to any centre can find the same kind of quality care standards. We would also like to bring about a sense of responsibility and empowerment among our nursing staff to ensure high-quality care at all levels.

Some of the infection control policies and as well as key performance indicators (KPIs) will be enhanced bloodstream infections, surgical site infections, reincubation rates etc., will be looked at; alongside, protocols will be put in place to achieve better outcomes.

What are the short-term and long-term steps needed to build our capabilities in terms of our workforce and their skills for critical care services?

Workforce capability training is never a short-term goal, it is always a long-term goal. To build-up for the future, it takes up one to two years before we can have an ongoing teaching programme. A long-term plan not only looks at training medical professionals but also looks at establishing career growth for those enrolling for the programme. The beauty of this programme lies in the fact that it is designed in such a way that in future, our specialist-to-patient ratio will be 1:15 in the ICU unit, which is the internationally accepted ratio for optimal patient outcomes.

What are the biggest lessons for critical care management (protocols, policies) from the pandemic?

The biggest lessons for critical care management learnt during the pandemic is that India needs to strengthen its critical care workforce and put all the patient doubts and anxieties to rest. There were these pressing concerns and various rumours that patients on life support for COVID-19 care werent doing well and that there is a delay in treatment. It took us a good four to five months to convince people and gain their trust in the quality of care provided and the outcomes were good. It is not the ventilator which treats the patient, it is the care that is provided that helps the patient recover faster.

There is a lot of ignorance among patients and doctors alike about critical care management. But the efforts taken to upgrade and train professionals in critical care made a big difference in management and outcomes.

How should hospitals of the future adopt and implement digital solutions within their OTs and ICUs to transform critical care?

One of the big opportunities in critical care is the use of digital platforms. Electronic ICUs are no more things of the past. We have a lot of solutions where physicians can remotely monitor patients. They act as a second safety net and can support doctors with critical health information. They also help in enhancing clinical outcomes through connect health services. For instance, if you have on-ground medical personnel trained to do the procedure, the Intensive Care Specialist can guide reasonable therapy even from a far off place. This improves clinical and patient outcomes. Timely referral to a special care unit is extremely important as well.

Stronger collaborations between private and public healthcare stakeholders will also be crucial to strengthening the countrys critical care system. In your opinion, how can such collaborations be facilitated?

Currently, modern intensive care practices are well established at some of the private hospitals in the country. Whereas many public hospitals, barring a few, lack basic critical care services. To improve this infrastructure, public-private partnerships (PPP) are the right way. The partnership basically should include manpower and resources enhancement. This can be done by way of involving private sector critical care specialists to work with the government as part of public programmes or on an honorary basis so that patients at government hospitals also get specialised care and these doctors can be a part of the upskilling and training programmes. It will take five to seven years for us to double the number of intensivists if we start work from today. If we dont work from today, then we might not be able to rebuild or save our crippling healthcare system.

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The Most Important Fact About Science Heading Into 2021 – Forbes

§ December 31st, 2020 § Filed under Quantum Medicine Comments Off on The Most Important Fact About Science Heading Into 2021 – Forbes

This image shows our fragile planet Earth, with clouds, ocean, land masses, and the border between ... [+] the atmosphere and space visible. The most remarkable fact about the Universe is that is can be understood, but we must take care to take advantage of that understanding.

In a nutshell, 2020 has been a unique year in human history. For the first time since the dawn of modern medicine, a pathogen that spreads through the air but whose spread can be contained with a few simple, straightforward public health intervention spread to all 7 continents across the globe, setting new records for infections and deaths in the process. All that weve suffered, from infections to deaths to long-term chronic conditions, to the accumulated economic damage and mental health struggles that have come along as unavoidable damage, to the impact on education, healthcare workers, and countless other areas of our society, was entirely preventable.

Make no mistake: it was not the virus itself, but rather our lack of responsible collective action on a global scale in response to the virus, that has resulted in the situation we now face. As various vaccines slowly roll out, most of us are expecting the pandemic to finally come to a gradual end as the majority of society acquires an immunity to this virus. But through it all, theres a scientific fact that should be guiding us in every aspect of our lives, a fact that we all too often ignore.

The Universe, and every physical thing within it, obeys the same fundamental, underlying rules. Discovering and understanding those rules, and how they apply to any particular phenomenon, is the most successful tool arguably, the only reliably successful tool humanity has ever developed to tackle the problems that face us. As 2020 comes to an end and we face the dawn of 2021, this is the one fact we should all not only embrace, but demand that we weave into the very fabric of our civilization.

The Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (XDF) may have observed a region of sky just 1/32,000,000th of the ... [+] total, but was able to uncover a whopping 5,500 galaxies within it: an estimated 10% of the total number of galaxies actually contained in this pencil-beam-style slice. The remaining 90% of galaxies are either too faint or too red or too obscured for Hubble to reveal, but perhaps the James Webb Space Telescope will reveal many of them.

I want you to imagine a very different Universe from our own: one where the laws of nature changed, randomly and chaotically, over time. Instead of the force of gravity tethering us to Earth, accelerating us towards its center at a constant 9.8 m/s2, you can imagine a Universe where gravitation got stronger or weaker at random, even reversing its sign periodically. The Sun could randomly cease shining, or just as easily burn so hot that it could cook all life on Earth in just a few minutes. In fact, the list of what could go wrong in a Universe where the rules are inconsistent in time or space is as long as our creative impulses allow.

The atoms in your body could suddenly begin to radioactively decay; your cellular matrix could spontaneously fall apart; the forces that prevent our planet from collapsing into a black hole could all instantaneously go away. The person next to you could fly off into space while you fell through the Earth, hurtling towards its center. In a Universe where the rules are arbitrary and change at random, all hope of making concrete predictions about the future is lost.

The first color movie of Jupiter from NASA's Cassini spacecraft shows what it would look like to ... [+] peel the entire globe of Jupiter, stretch it out on a wall into the form of a rectangular map, and watch its atmosphere evolve with time. Observations of many different phenomena show a Universe that evolves with time, but with rules that remain the same in all locations and at all times.

When we first began our scientific investigations of our physical reality, there was no guarantee that the laws of nature wouldnt be changing over time. There was no a priori reason that the rules our reality plays by had to be the same everywhere or at all times. And yet, when we examine the Universe down to the finest details that we can from biology to chemistry to physics, from subatomic to cosmic scales and everything in between we find that they are. The quantum rules governing atoms here on Earth are identical to the rules that govern them tens of billions of light-years away, as far away as were able to measure.

The rules that govern subatomic particles, from radioactive decays to nuclear reactions, havent changed in billions of years. We can look at our own planets geological history, at meteorites of various ages, and even of Earths natural nuclear reactor thats been inactive for nearly 2 billion years, and reconstruct just how constant the laws of physics have been. To the limits of our precision measurements, neither the rules governing reality nor the values of the fundamental constants have changed in any measurable fashion.

The absorption lines at a variety of redshifts show that the rules of fundamental physics and sizes ... [+] of atoms have not changed throughout the Universe, even as the light has redshifted due to its expansion. Unfortunately, the most light-blocking material exists at the earliest times, making finding the most distant galaxies an incredible challenge.

For many of us, thats where wed want science to stop. Ok, you say, science gives us the facts, and thats fine, but what we do with those facts is up to all of us, and goes beyond the scope of science.

Nonsense.

If that were the policy we adopted, it would be the equivalent of the legend of the ostrich burying its head in the sand, deliberately blinding itself to the approaching danger while it should be defending itself: either fighting or fleeing, as appropriate.

As it turns out, science even teaches us that common image is a myth. Ostriches do indeed bury their heads in the sand/dirt at times, but not as a response to impending danger. On the contrary, when an ostrich senses danger, its first instinct is to flee. If flight is impossible, it falls to the ground and remains still, attempting to blend in with the terrain. The sight of an ostrich with its head in the ground arises because they dig shallow holes to bury their eggs, which they must turn multiple times a day. Contrary to some humans, ostriches know better than to deliberately blind themselves to a very real danger.

Although we frequently deride ostriches as burying their head in the sand in response to approaching ... [+] danger, nothing of the sort is true. Instead, ostriches typically lay eggs in the sand, and rotate them many times a day, which requires sticking their heads in the sand and rotating them with their beaks. Here, a responsible future mother rotates one of her eggs.

The fact that the Universe, and all things in it, obey the same fundamental rules is a tremendous cause for celebration. It means that if we take the proper approach and interrogate the Universe by subjecting it to a variety of experiments, observations, and careful measurements under controlled conditions, we can uncover what those rules are. We can essentially learn what the instruction manual for the Universe is for any aspect of it that we sufficiently investigate and make accurate predictions about what will occur in the future given the initial conditions.

Its the simplest concept imaginable: if you can understand the rules and your starting conditions, you can predict how things will unfold. For many aspects of reality, there are complicating factors, as the predictions we obtain are only as good as the quality of the models and their ability to accurately reflect reality. Fortunately, were outstanding at quantifying which aspects of various models are successful and how successful they are; in instances where objections no longer have a scientifically valid leg to stand on, the overwhelming majority of scientists working in that field (95%+) will reach a consensus position.

The global surface average temperature for the years where such records reliably and directly exist: ... [+] 1880-2019 (at present). The zero line represents the long-term average temperature for the whole planet; blue and red bars show the difference above or below average for each year. The warming, on average, is by 0.07 C per decade, but has accelerated, warming at an average of 0.18 C since 1981.

If youve ever met a scientist, you have to realize what a remarkable feat this is. The job of a scientist is to be a professional skeptic, interrogating whatever aspect of the Universe theyre studying to the best of their abilities. While most of us formulate an idea of whats going on whether we call it a theory, a hypothesis, or just a hunch scientists go far beyond that. We take whatever ideas weve come up with and we work out the consequences.

If this idea were true, what would that imply, experimentally or observationally? What consequences could we go out and test or measure to compare with the predictions of our theory, and when those critical measurements are made, how did our hypothesis fare? How did it fare compared to other, competing hypotheses? What is the range of validity of our leading ideas, and under what conditions are those predictions no longer valid?

Only after passing every test we can throw at it over a particular range of validity can a scientific theory be accepted. And even though we can extrapolate beyond that range of validity for whatever comes next, the theory is only as good as the experimental or observational evidence indicates.

The particles and antiparticles of the Standard Model are predicted to exist as a consequence of the ... [+] laws of physics. The quarks and leptons are fermions and matter; the anti-quarks and anti-leptons are anti-fermions and antimatter. These particles have all been confirmed to exist; no other particles beyond this, although they are suspected to exist, have ever been directly discovered.

The fact that the Universe can be understood is remarkable, and we should be very careful not to undersell just how well-understood various phenomena truly are. Many have attempted to sow doubt about what science has established far beyond any reasonable doubt, using what can only be described as dirty tactics that appeal to our sense of distrust for what violates either our common sense or our ideologies.

Unfortunately, common sense is an extraordinarily poor predictor of scientific results. Darwins theory of evolution and the mechanism of natural selection was touted as violating common sense. Einsteins theory of relativity, the Big Bang origin of our Universe, and the notion of the germ theory of disease all defied the common sense of their time. If common sense were a good indicator for how the Universe worked, we wouldnt need science. The fact is that our common sense which typically derives from our own experience has a range of validity thats much narrower than we typically perceive, and learning to distrust your common sense in favor of what scientific results indicate is a mandatory lesson that every scientist-in-training must learn along the way.

The quantum fluctuations inherent to space, stretched across the Universe during cosmic inflation, ... [+] gave rise to the density fluctuations imprinted in the cosmic microwave background, which in turn gave rise to the stars, galaxies, and other large-scale structure in the Universe today. This is the best picture we have of how the entire Universe behaves, where inflation precedes and sets up the Big Bang.

Every so often, a study will come out that derides the level of scientific ignorance found among the general public. Most often, these studies come in the form of surveys, leading to headlines like 1 in 4 Americans believe that the Sun revolves around the Earth. This is used as a proxy to claim that Americans are not scientifically literate, as though memorizing a set of facts and being able to regurgitate them accurately and on demand is any metric of how well someone understands science.

If you put a particle physicist in a virology lab, they will fare just as poorly as the next non-scientist. You wouldnt put a polymer chemist at work in a nuclear reactor, and you wouldnt put a theoretical astrophysicist to work in the operating room. Although science is both the complete body of knowledge available to humanity at any point in time and a self-correcting process of investigation and a synthesis of the full suite of data, none of us are good enough polymaths to be a practicing scientist in all aspects of life. Instead, we rely on two underappreciated aspects of science literacy:

This is the inside of a nuclear reactor, shown emitting the characteristic blue glow from Cherenkov ... [+] radiation, created when particles move slower than light in vacuum, but faster than light in a medium such as water. The physics behind nuclear reactions is very well understood, but not by many people who themselves aren't experts: nuclear physicists.

The Universe can be understood. Any aspect that we care to investigate with the right tools and techniques, if it can be physically explained, scientific investigation is the path to unlocking its secrets. Simply being aware that science is both the full suite of information we have concerning a topic and the process of continued interrogation of the Universe under controlled conditions should be enough to instill a respect in each of us of our massive ignorance outside of our narrow area of expertise, while simultaneously instilling a respect for the expert opinions of those who have specialized in that particular aspect of reality.

Similarly, you are most likely reading this article on a device that takes advantage of numerous Nobel-winning technologies and scientific advances, at a time where humanity has more knowledge and understanding of the Universe than at any time in our history. It is through science that we have come to understand the root causes behind problems we face in our human society, on Earth, and beyond, and it is through science that we learn how to adequately address them. But only if we listen to it. As Galileo famously said,

I do not feel obliged to believe that the same God who has endowed us with sense, reason, and intellect has intended us to forgo their use.

As shown here, the International Space Station flies over a spectacular aurora on display in Earth's ... [+] atmosphere. Although the aurora may be a beautiful sight, it is no longer mysterious, as science has unlocked the physics that creates this phenomenon, as well as the technological advances capable of having humans observe it from above.

As 2020 draws to a close, its important to look not just at the most pressing issue of the day the novel coronavirus and the havoc it has wrought on our world but at all aspects of our society where the best advice of science is not heeded. From vaccines to climate change to clean air and potable water to public health and safety to hurricane warnings and much more, science is not some buffet where we get to pick-and-choose the various aspects were comfortable with, while rejecting the ones that offend our sensibilities.

The Universe does not care about our ideological preferences, our political leanings, or our notions of what our rights and freedoms are. It simply obeys the laws of nature, and we will be left to deal with the consequences of our actions and inactions. In many ways, science is our only light against the darkness of giving into our most base impulses, but listening to it requires us to find that humility within ourselves of what we dont know. Its time to not only incorporate that into our lives as individuals, but to weave that into the fabric of society. Without it, we risk being torn apart by our own intellectual prejudices.

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From virtual patient to electric planes, top emerging tech of 2020 – CRN.in

§ December 31st, 2020 § Filed under Quantum Medicine Comments Off on From virtual patient to electric planes, top emerging tech of 2020 – CRN.in

While scientists developed vaccines against Covid-19 in a record time this year, emerging technologies like high-tech replacements for human volunteers could make clinical trials even faster and safer in the future, according to a new report from the World Economic Forum and Scientific American magazine.

The report identified the top 10 emerging technologies after experts whittled down scores of nominations to a select group of new developments with the potential to spur real progress.

These technologies include the following:

Microneedles for painless injections and tests: These tiny needles could make injections and blood testing pain-free, said the report.

Microneedles at no more than the depth of a sheet of paper and the width of a human hair can be attached to syringes or patches, or even mixed into creams.

They penetrate the skin without troubling underlying nerve endings.

Sun-powered chemistry: Making many of the chemicals we use every day requires fossil fuels. By using sunlight to convert waste carbon dioxide into useful chemicals, a new approach holds the promise of reducing the sectors emissions.

Recent developments in the sunlight-activated catalysts needed for this process are a step towards creating solar refineries to produce useful compounds from the waste gas, said the report.

These components could be turned into everything from medicines and detergents to fertilisers and textiles.

Virtual patients: The process of initial assessments of drugs and treatments could become faster with virtual patients, according to the report.

In this system, data taken from high-res images of a human organ is fed into a complex mathematical model of the mechanisms that control that organs function.

Then, computer algorithms resolve the resulting equations and generate a virtual organ that behaves like the real organ.

Spatial computing: Spatial computing is the next step of virtual-reality and augmented-reality technologies that bring physical and digital worlds together.

As with VR and AR, it digitizes objects that connect via the cloud, allows sensors and motors to react to one another and creates a digital representation of the real world, said the WEF and Scientific American magazine report.

But it goes even further, adding spatial mapping that lets a computer coordinator track and control the movements and interactions of objects as a person moves through the digital or physical world.

Digital medicine: While they will not replace doctors any time soon, apps that monitor conditions or administer therapies could enhance their care and support patients with limited access to health services.

Electric aviation: As a number of organisations including Airbus and NASA are working on the technology, air travel of the future could cut out carbon emissions significantly.

There are about 170 electric plane projects in development, mainly for private, corporate and commuter travel but Airbus says it could have 100-passenger electric planes ready for take-off in 2030, said the report.

Lower-carbon cement: Researchers and start-ups are working on lower-carbon approaches, including tweaking the balance of ingredients used in the process, employing carbon capture and storage technology to remove emissions, and taking cement out of concrete altogether.

Quantum sensing: Imagine self-driving cars that can see around corners, or portable scanners that can monitor a persons brain activity. Quantum sensing could make these things and much more a reality. Quantum sensors operate with extreme levels of precision by exploiting the quantum nature of matter for example, using the difference between electrons in different energy states as a base unit.

Green hydrogen: This technology could have a key role in energy transition by helping decarbonise sectors like shipping and manufacturing that are harder to electrify because they require high-energy fuel.

Whole-genome synthesis: Improvements in the technology can give insights into how viruses spread or help in producing vaccines and other treatments. In the future, it could help sustainably produce chemicals, fuels or construction materials from biomass or waste gases, said the report.

IANS

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Gemma Arterton says she had reservations about taking Bond girl role in 2008’s ‘Quantum of Solace’ – Yahoo Canada Shine On

§ December 31st, 2020 § Filed under Quantum Medicine Comments Off on Gemma Arterton says she had reservations about taking Bond girl role in 2008’s ‘Quantum of Solace’ – Yahoo Canada Shine On

Eat This, Not That!

Withcoronavirus casesandhospitalizationshitting record numbers, many stats are considering more robust restrictionsyet your favorite sushi joint, barbershop, or watering hole may still be open for business. Some places are riskier than others when it comes to potential coronavirus infection, and it is incredibly important to be educated about all aspects of exposure. Here are 20 places you where you're more likely to catch the coronavirus.Read on, and to ensure your health and the health of others, don't miss theseSure Signs You've Already Had Coronavirus. 1 Family Events or Gatherings "Large events and mass gatherings can contribute to the spread of COVID-19 in the United States via travelers who attend these events and introduce the virus to new communities," warns theCDC. Examples include conferences, festivals, parades, concerts, sporting events, weddings, and other types of assemblies, "planned not only by organizations and communities but also by individuals." In addition, small family gatherings are also causing major spread. Don't hold them. "You get one person who's asymptomatic and infected, and then all of a sudden, four or five people in that gathering are infected,"Dr. Anthony Fauci, the nation's top infectious disease doctor, says. "To me, that's the exact scenario that you're going to see on Thanksgiving." 2 Religious Services Whether you walk into a mosque, temple, shrine, or church, most religious services involve a lot of talking, singing, hand shaking, and even sometimes drinking from the same cup. And, there are generally high concentrations of peoplemany of an older agein an enclosed space. In fact, religious services have been linked to a number of community outbreaks across the world. "Larger gatherings (for example, more than 250 people) offer more opportunities for person-to-person contact and therefore pose greater risk of COVID-19 transmission," explains the CDC, who has formally issued guidance for community and faith-based gatherings. Until it is safe to practice religion with your peers in person, your safest option is attending a virtual service. 3 Hair and Nail Salons When you get your hair, nails, or any other salon service done, it is physically impossible to socially distance, which makes salons a potential hotspot for COVID-19. According to California Governor Gavin Newsom, the first community spread of coronavirus in the state started in a nail salon. 4 Cruise Ships As we all witnessed toward the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, cruise ships are definitely hotspots for the virus. "CDC recommends that all travelers defer all cruise ship travel worldwide. Recent reports of COVID-19 on cruise ships highlight the risk of infection to cruise ship passengers and crew. Like many other viruses, COVID-19 appears to spread more easily between people in close quarters aboard ships," the health organization warns. 5 The Doctor's Office/Hospital Call your medical professional the minute you think you need a COVID-19 test but remember the simple fact that sick people visit the doctor and hospital, so your chances of infection with COVID-19 (or any other virus for that matter) are higher in any sort of a medical setting.RELATED: The Unhealthiest Supplements You Shouldn't Take 6 Restaurants and Bars Other risky places, according to Erin S. Bromage, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Biology at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, are restaurants and bars. While the chances of catching COVID-19 via eating food are slim to none, dining or drinking in an indoor space is dangerous due to airflow. He explains that due to the fact that respiratory droplets can travel more than six feet through the air on their own, depending on where the AC is blowing, where you are sitting, and how long you are spending there. You might be a sitting target. 7 Theaters, Sporting Events, Concert Venues Large groups gathering in small, enclosed spaces mixed with potentially contaminated surfaces and a whole lot of eating and drinking going on, make theaters, sporting events, and concert venues places you want to stay away from during a pandemicwhich isn't hard, due to the fact that they are all closed. If you are desperate to go to the movies, find a drive-in theater near you instead. 8 Public Transportation Since the COVID-19 pandemic started, public transportation has been used less and less. Despite agencies taking preventative action, cleaning vessels and requesting riders to wear masks, there have been a number of casualties of transit workers across the nation. There are several reasons as to why public transportation can be a hotspot for the virus, but the two main issues have to do with airflow in the small, enclosed spaces and the fact that it isn't possible to disinfect contaminated surfaces in between riders. If you can, avoid taking public transportation at all costs during the pandemic. 9 Restrooms In a viral blog post, Bromage reveals that bathrooms are a hotspot for COVID-19and not just because of hypothetical transmission via feces. "Bathrooms have a lot of high touch surfaces, door handles, faucets, stall doors. So fomite transfer risk in this environment can be high," he writes. Then, there is the fact that "toilet flushing does aerosolize many droplets," he points out. He urges you to "Treat public bathrooms with extra caution (surface and air), until we know more about the risk" but you should also be careful about using the bathroom when visiting the homes of friends and family as well. 10 Your Office There's a reason why most of the country has been working from home for the last few months. Small, enclosed spaces filled with lots of peoplelikely talking, laughing, and collaboratingpaired with shared surfaces, such as kitchens and workspaces, make for a potential breeding ground for coronavirus. The CDC is urging workplaces to take into consideration a variety of factors before inviting workers back in. Obviously, if it is an option, you should continue to work from home as long as possible.RELATED: The Unhealthiest Things in Your Medicine Cabinet 11 Schools and Camps and Daycare Centers Because children are often asymptomatic carriers of coronavirus, schools and daycare centers can be risky environments for community spread. "Information about COVID-19 in children is somewhat limited, but the information that is available suggests that children with confirmed COVID-19 generally had mild symptoms. Person-to-person spread from or to children, as among adults, is thought to occur mainly via respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks. Recent studies indicate that people who are infected but do not have symptoms likely also play a role in the spread of COVID-19," the CDC explains. 12 Elevators A small, poorly ventilated, enclosed space holding several people at a time, with hundredsor even thousandscirculating daily is a recipe for disaster when it comes to germs. But, according to experts, the riskiest part of an elevator when it comes to COVID-19 is the buttons, which are touched by so many different fingers with no sanitizing in between. If you do touch them, make sure to wash your hands or sanitize them ASAPbut especially before touching your eyes, nose or mouth, warns the CDC. 13 Your Gym It should come as zero surprise that gyms are generally germy. When you take a bunch of people, pack them into a small space, and add in a bunch of touchable equipment difficult to clean between every use, it makes it incredibly hard to avoid transmission. If you do decide to return to a communal exercise setting, you should be incredibly diligent about social distancing in the space as well as sanitizing every piece of equipment that you use and practicing excelling hand hygiene. 14 Your Grocery Store While grocery store workers are at a high risk for coronavirus infection due to the amount of time they spend in the store, Dr. Bromage maintains that shoppers face a much lesser risk. While shopping make sure to wear a mask to prevent the spread, use a shopping cart that has been sanitized, and make sure to diligently practice hand hygiene during and after your shopping trip, making sure to avoid touching your face while at the store. 15 Airplanes Surprisingly, stepping onto an airplane is a lot safer than many other activities. According to the CDC, due to how air circulates and is filtered on airplanes, most viruses and other germs do not spread easily. "Although the risk of infection on an airplane is low, try to avoid contact with sick passengers, avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth with unwashed hands, and wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds or use hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol," they urge. 16 Hotels or Rental Properties The CDC discourages nonessential travel, which includes staying at hotels. "Staying in temporary accommodations (hotels, motels, and rental properties) may expose you to the virus through person-to-person contact and possibly through contact with contaminated surfaces and objects," they warn on their website. If you do decide to take the risk, they suggest taking the same steps you would in other public placeswhich include avoiding close contact with others, washing your hands often, and wearing a cloth face covering. 17 Campgrounds Even going camping can be dangerous, warns the CDC, "if you come in close contact with others or share public facilities at campsites or along the trails."RELATED: Dr. Fauci Says Most People Did This Before Catching COVID 18 Public Swimming Pools While there is "no evidence that the virus that causes COVID-19 can be spread to people through the water in pools, hot tubs, spas, or water play areas," per the CDC, it is difficult to maintain social distancing in these sorts of situations. This is why many public and community pools have opted to remain closed this summer. 19 The Beach Beaches have started reopening around the country, however, many people are worried about the risk of infection. The research is still out on whether or not COVID-19 can survive in saltwater. However, the Surfrider Foundation points out that while similar coronaviruses can "remain viable and infectious, at least temporarily, in natural freshwater environments including lakes and streams," it is unclear how it responds to the ocean. Your biggest concern at the beach, however, should be social distancing. 20 Outdoor Exercise Spots Walking, running, and hiking are the safest ways to exercise in public, mostly due to being outdoors and the fact that you are constantly moving. Just make sure to stay six feet away from other exercisers. "While joggers may be releasing more virus due to deep breathing, remember the exposure time is also less due to their speed," explains Dr. Bromage. "Please do maintain physical distance, but the risk of infection in these scenarios are low." And to get through this pandemic at your healthiest, don't miss these 35 Places You're Most Likely to Catch COVID.

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Gemma Arterton says she had reservations about taking Bond girl role in 2008's 'Quantum of Solace' - Yahoo Canada Shine On

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This is how long it takes for a Covid vaccine to work – and how long it might last – Worthing Herald

§ December 31st, 2020 § Filed under Genetically Modified Humans Comments Off on This is how long it takes for a Covid vaccine to work – and how long it might last – Worthing Herald

The Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine has been approved by the Medicines and Healthcare Regulatory Agency (MHRA), meaning millions of people in the UK will be able to be vaccinated.

Early in December, The Pfizer/BioNtech vaccine was approved, with vaccinations taking place across the UK, but how do the different vaccines currently being administered across the world work, and how long does it take for them to take effect?

The vaccine uses a weakened, harmless, version of a common virus which was found to be giving a cold to chimpanzees. The virus has been used previously to produce vaccines against the flu, Zika virus and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).

The virus is genetically modified for it to be able to grow in humans, and scientists have transferred the genetic instructions for the coronavirus spike protein (which it needs to invade cells) to the vaccine.

On entrance into the human body, the vaccine enters cells and uses the genetic code to produce the surface spike protein of the coronavirus.

Inducing an immune response, the body has now primed the immune system to attack coronavirus if it infects the body.

The double jabs from Pfizer and Moderna are messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines.

An mRNA vaccine differs from conventional vaccines as it only uses the viruss genetic code, instead of being produced using weakened forms of the virus.

The vaccine is injected into the body, entering the cells and instructing them to create antigens. The antigens are then recognised by the immune system, in order to prepare itself to fight against coronavirus.

Because no virus is needed to produce this vaccine, the production can be much quicker.

The Moderna vaccine is also an mRNA vaccine, meaning it doesn't contain any coronavirus and cannot cause infection.

The vaccine uses a piece of genetic code that trains the immune system to recognise the spike protein on the surface of the coronavirus, preparing it to attack the real thing if it arrives.

The Russian Gamaleya (Sputnik V) vaccine works in a similar way to the Oxford vaccine, with early results in November, suggesting it could be 92 per cent effective.

The vaccine uses a harmless virus that has been genetically modified to resemble the coronavirus. The vaccine would require two doses, but, unlike the Pfizer vaccine, it does not require low temperatures when stored.

Covid-19 vaccines are designed to teach your body how to fight and destabilise the coronavirus.

After injection, it takes time for your body to read the instructions from the vaccine to build up a defense system. This system will then be able to effectively kick away the coronavirus, limiting your chances of infection.

This is not an overnight process, so technically you will not be immune immediately after vaccination.

Generally the protection from the virus starts seven to 10 days after immunisation.

The Pfizer/BioNtech vaccine needs to be given in two doses, and immunity starts seven to ten days after the second dose.

One dose vaccines are thought to take about 29 days to prepare your body to build immunity against Covid-19.

We do not know how long protection from the vaccine will last, and it may vary between different vaccines.

Vaccine developers are currently looking at ways to boost the effectiveness of a vaccine so that it provides longer immune protection than a natural infection with the coronavirus.

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This is how long it takes for a Covid vaccine to work - and how long it might last - Worthing Herald

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