Page 11234..1020..»

Year in Review: Respiratory Infection – MedPage Today

§ December 7th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Year in Review: Respiratory Infection – MedPage Today

Continuing improvements in influenza prevention, including progress toward a "universal" flu vaccine, as well as newly approved treatment options for nosocomial pneumonia and new evidence about different methods to prevent or shorten the course of flu, dominated the headlines in infectious respiratory illnesses this year.

Inching Toward 'Universal' Flu Vaccine

An experimental candidate for a flu vaccine covering many strains, and that therefore wouldn't have to be reformulated every year, was announced by the NIH in April. The vaccine, developed at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, is designed to "display part of hemagglutinin (HA), an influenza protein, on the surface of a microscopic nanoparticle made of nonhuman ferritin," a protein found in all living cells, the agency said. HA comprises a head and a stem, but this candidate vaccine will contain a stem only. It's hoped to protect against influenza subtypes within "group 1," which includes both H1 and H5 influenza strains.

A universal flu vaccine is a major part of President Trump's initiative announced in September to overhaul flu vaccine development in the U.S. The order called for reduced reliance on current egg-based flu vaccines, and expanding capacity for alternative production methods such as cell-based vaccine technology, and also directed a search for more broadly protective vaccine candidates that can be used from year to year.

"What this [executive order] does is very useful, spells out the steps that can be taken and makes it a national priority," Andrew Pavia, MD, co-chair of the Infectious Diseases Society of America's Treatment Guidelines Panel, and chief of pediatric infectious diseases at the University of Utah, told MedPage Today. "But to make it happen, it's going to require money. That's the next step we need to hear about."

But for now, current flu shots are effective, according to research in February from Clinical Infectious Diseases, which estimated that vaccinations during the 2017-2018 flu season prevented 7 million infections and over 8,000 deaths. Despite this, the CDC found in October that only a little over half of pregnant women who were pregnant during flu season said they received the flu shot.

More Insights Into Flu Prevention

When it comes to preventing flu, choose antiseptic hand soap over alcohol-based hand sanitizers, according to research published in September in mSphere. The study examined samples of mucus from patients who tested positive for influenza A. While both the CDC and World Health Organization recommend hand hygiene practices with ethanol-based disinfectants for 15-30 seconds, the authors said this disinfection time is insufficient for not-yet-dried mucus, and current standard procedures calling for alcohol hand rubs to prevent flu outbreaks are not adequate.

For healthcare workers, ordinary medical masks were as effective in protecting against respiratory infections, including the flu as more expensive N95 respirators, according to a randomized trial published in JAMA in September, with researchers arguing that laboratory-confirmed respiratory infection was a "more relevant" endpoint compared to laboratory-confirmed influenza.

And once a patient has the flu, an earlier course of antiviral medication Tamiflu was found to cut the risk of death in some severe cases, according to research published in February in Clinical Infectious Diseases. While there was no decrease in overall influenza-associated mortality with an earlier course of oseltamivir versus a later course, there was an observed effect on patients with influenza A/H3N2.

New Treatment Options for Pneumonia

Several treatments showed promise for nosocomial pneumonia. Oral or intravenous Xenleta (lefamulin), a first-in-class, semi-synthetic pleuromutilin antibiotic, was approved for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in August. The FDA gave lefamulin its Qualified Infectious Disease Product Designation, speeding up the product's review.

A new indication for Zerbaxa (ceftolozane/tazobactam) for hospital-acquired and ventilator acquired pneumonia was approved in June. Zerbaxa was first approved in 2014 for complicated urinary tract and intra-abdominal infections.

In October, phase III data from cefiderocol, a new -lactam antibiotic, showed non-inferiority for 14-day all-cause mortality in hospitalized pneumonia patients compared to high-dose meropenem.

Cefiderocol was approved under the name Fetroja for complicated urinary tract infections in November, though it includes a warning about higher all-cause mortality in critically ill patients with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections, including among patients with nosocomial pneumonia -- an issue that an FDA advisory panel raised at an earlier meeting.

Earlier in the year, an FDA advisory panel voted that intramuscular bacitracin injections have no value for its recommended indication. Bacitracin injection once was a standard treatment for infants with pneumonia and collection of pus in the plural cavity, or empyema that are caused by staphylococci that are susceptible to the drug. But while clinicians largely abandoned it decades ago, the treatment technically remains approved. The committee didn't recommend that injectable bacitracin be pulled from the market entirely, though, because it still has use in some surgical applications.

Short Courses of Antibiotics and Pneumonia Outcomes

A study in the Annals of Internal Medicine in July provided some real world evidence behind the "shorter is better" theory for antibiotics when treating pneumonia. Researchers found that more than two-thirds of patients received antibiotics longer than the shortest duration consistent with recommended guidelines, and most of this was due to excess prescribing at discharge.

An accompanying editorial urged clinicians to "overcome inertia and tradition and change practice" in light of the evidence about short-course therapy. Specifically, they referenced the more than 45 randomized controlled trials and two meta-analyses that found "no difference in efficacy" between shorter and traditional therapy across a variety of infections, including pneumonia.

In November, a randomized trial in the New England Journal of Medicine found that adding a 2-day course of amoxicillin-clavulanate for patients who received targeted hypothermia resuscitation due to sudden cardiac arrest nearly halved the occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia during the first 7 days of hospitalization, compared to patients who received placebo. There was no significant difference between the two groups in other outcomes, however, including late ventilator-associated pneumonia, ICU length of stay, and mortality at day 28.

ACIP Updates Vaccine Guidance

In June, the CDC's Advisory Committee for Immunization practices voted to accept new guidance for the pneumococcal vaccine, 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate (PCV13, Prevnar) for older adults. The new policy said that PCV13 was recommended based on shared decision-making for this population who did not have an immunocompromising condition and had not received PCV13 before. These recommendations were formally added to the 2020 adult vaccination schedule in October.

Guidance for the flu vaccine, however, remained unchanged, other than the customary updating of its components. Confusion over the word "contraindication" with regard to the live attenuated influenza vaccine briefly derailed the panel's October meeting, with members ultimately agreeing to use the words "not recommended" for certain patient groups. The ACIP continues to recommend vaccination against flu for all people ages 6 months and older without such concerns.

Other research this year included:

HF Admissions Spike in Step with Flu

FluMist Flopped for Kids During Recent Flu Seasons

Whoopi Goldberg's Pneumonia Nightmare

Vaccinations, Flu Shots, and Multiple Sclerosis

Few CAP Patients Get Urinary Antigen Testing

Infection in Pregnancy Ups Child's Autism, Depression Risk

2019-06-12T00:00:00-0400

last updated 12.06.2019

Read the original:
Year in Review: Respiratory Infection - MedPage Today

Read the Rest...

First-of-its-Kind Artificial Neuron to Cure Chronic Diseases – Asgardia Space News

§ December 7th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on First-of-its-Kind Artificial Neuron to Cure Chronic Diseases – Asgardia Space News

Researchers at the University of Bath created a first-of-its-kind artificial functional neuron. The great achievement can be used to fight a number of diseases associated with neuronal degeneration, the invention was described in a newstudypublished in Nature Communications December 3

Neurons are the basic blocks of the nervous system: some receive information from the outside world, some transmit data throughout the body and others deliver orders from the brain to the organs.

The electrical properties of biological neurons have long been studied by scientists, however, the difficulty of measuring microscopic parameters that control the dynamics of nerve cells as well as the complicated biology of the cells stopped scientists from replicating them. Another major challenge researchers long struggled with was a difficulty in predicting how the cells respond to an electrical stimuli.

Until now, neurons have been like black boxes, but we have managed to open the black box and peer inside. Our work is paradigm changing because it provides a robust method to reproduce the electrical properties of real neurons in minute detail, explainsAlain Nogaret, leader of the project from the University of Bath Department of Physics.

For decades, development of artificial neurons that respond properly to signals was one of the most crucial goals in medicine. This team of researchers managed to develop the circuits and find the right parameters that allow these circuits to behave like biological cells. After the team successfully derived the equations that precisely explain the work of the brain cells, they developed the silicon chips.

We have managed to extract these parameters for biological neurons and plug these parameters into the synthetic circuits we have made, said Prof Nogaret.

Scientists managed to recreate two types of cells: neurons from the hippocampus, an area of the brain that plays a major role in memory, as well as the brain cells involved in the control of breathing.

Another major breakthrough was the neurons efficient use of energy. The artificial brain cell needs a relatively small, 140 nanoWatts, amount of power.

Petite brain chips designed by the team act like real nerve cells, responding to the stimuli identically to the biological cells. The grand achievement of scientists can some day be used to fight a number of Nero al degenerative diseases. The developed methodology paves the way towards making synthetic neurons to repair biocircuits of the central nervous system when their regulation of vital functions is lost to diseases, like sleep apnoea, heart failure or Alzheimers.

The outstanding work of scientists definitely deserves a round of applause from the scientific community, not only is it extremely painstaking research, it can potentially save thousands of lives.

Originally posted here:
First-of-its-Kind Artificial Neuron to Cure Chronic Diseases - Asgardia Space News

Read the Rest...

Prime Focal point on Product Innovation & Building to Lend a hand the Expansion of the Psychotropic Medicine Marketplace between 2018 – 2028 -…

§ December 7th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Prime Focal point on Product Innovation & Building to Lend a hand the Expansion of the Psychotropic Medicine Marketplace between 2018 – 2028 -…

Industry Intelligence File at the Psychotropic Medicine Marketplace

Long run Marketplace Insights, in a not too long ago revealed marketplace find out about, provides treasured insights associated with the full dynamics of the Psychotropic Medicine Marketplace within the present situation. Additional, the record assesses the long run potentialities of the Psychotropic Medicine via examining the quite a lot of marketplace parts together with the present traits, alternatives, restraints, and marketplace drivers.

As consistent with the record, the Psychotropic Medicine Marketplace is ready to develop at a CAGR of ~XX% over the forecast length 2018 2028 and exceed a worth of ~US$ XX via the tip of 2029. The record means that vital growth in generation, rising investments against R&D initiatives, and extending consciousness associated with curtailing commercial waste are one of the most number one elements which can be anticipated to pressure the expansion of the Psychotropic Medicine Marketplace right through the overview length 2018 2028.

ThisPress Free up will will let you to know the Quantity, expansion with Impacting Traits. Click on HERE To get SAMPLE PDF (Together with Complete TOC, Desk & Figures) at https://www.futuremarketinsights.co/reports/sample/REP-GB-9134

The introduced record provides a microscopic view of the marketplace situation in several areas. The political and financial setting are totally assessed to supply readability at the expansion potentialities of the Psychotropic Medicine marketplace in each and every regional marketplace.

Key Data that may be drawn from the Psychotropic Medicine Marketplace File:

This bankruptcy of the record tracks the trade potentialities of distinguished marketplace gamers running within the Psychotropic Medicine Marketplace. The earnings expansion, marketplace percentage, product portfolio, pricing, gross sales, and advertising and marketing methods of each and every corporate is mentioned within the record.

Necessary queries associated with the Psychotropic Medicine Marketplace addressed within the record:

Get Get right of entry to To TOC Overlaying 200+ Subjects athttps://www.futuremarketinsights.co/toc/REP-GB-9134

Key Avid gamers

One of the most main psychotropic drug producers provide over the globe are Pfizer Inc., Ely Lilly and Corporate, Woodland Laboratories, Mylan N.V., Randox Laboratories Ltd., FUJIFILM Wako Natural Chemical Company and others.

The analysis record gifts a complete overview of the marketplace and incorporates considerate insights, information, ancient knowledge, and statistically supported and industry-validated marketplace knowledge. It additionally incorporates projections the usage of an acceptable set of assumptions and methodologies. The analysis record supplies research and knowledge consistent with marketplace segments similar to geographies, software, and {industry}.

The record on Psychotropic Medicine Marketplace covers exhaust research on:

Regional research for Psychotropic Medicine Marketplace comprises:

The record on Psychotropic Medicine Marketplace is a compilation of first-hand knowledge, qualitative and quantitative overview via {industry} analysts, inputs from {industry} professionals and {industry} contributors around the price chain. The record on Psychotropic Medicine Marketplace supplies in-depth research of father or mother marketplace traits, macro-economic signs and governing elements at the side of marketplace beauty as consistent with segments. The record on Psychotropic Medicine Marketplace additionally maps the qualitative affect of quite a lot of marketplace elements on marketplace segments and geographies.

Psychotropic Medicine Marketplace File Highlights:

NOTE All statements of reality, opinion, or research expressed in reviews are the ones of the respective analysts. They dont essentially replicate formal positions or perspectives of Long run Marketplace Insights.

Request Custom designed File As In keeping with Your Necessities athttps://www.futuremarketinsights.co/customization-available/REP-GB-9134

Why Firms Believe FMI?

About Us

Long run Marketplace Insights (FMI) is a number one marketplace intelligence and consulting company. We ship syndicated analysis reviews, customized analysis reviews and consulting products and services which can be personalised in nature. FMI delivers a whole packaged resolution, which mixes present marketplace intelligence, statistical anecdotes, generation inputs, treasured expansion insights and an aerial view of the aggressive framework and long run marketplace traits.

Touch Us

Long run Marketplace Insights616 Company Means, Suite 2-9018,Valley Cottage, NY 10989,United StatesT: +1-347-918-3531F: +1-845-579-5705T (UK): + 44 (0) 20 7692 8790

Read the original post:
Prime Focal point on Product Innovation & Building to Lend a hand the Expansion of the Psychotropic Medicine Marketplace between 2018 - 2028 -...

Read the Rest...

Here’s what you need to know about superbugs in the ‘post-antibiotic era’ – Ottawa Citizen

§ December 7th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Here’s what you need to know about superbugs in the ‘post-antibiotic era’ – Ottawa Citizen

By Danielle Edwards

Antibiotics are considered one of the greatest breakthroughs in modern medicine. But in the United States, 35,000 people die a year after succumbing to germs that have evolved the ability to fend off the drugs designed to kill them. Its why two reports from the Centres for Disease Control (CDC) and an expert panel commissioned by the Council of Canadian Academies (CCA) have rung the alarm on antibiotic resistance, saying that millions of lives worldwide are at risk. Heres what you need to know about the rise of superbugs and why some experts are calling it the worlds deadliest health crisis.

How are antibiotics made?

Antibiotics are actually created naturally by bacteria to kill off neighbouring predatory organisms in an ecosystem.

In fact, Alexander Fleming made his world-changing discovery of penicillin in 1928 after observing a type of mould had antibiotic properties.

Scientists would go on to harvest soil samples to isolate more germ-killing medicine from microbes that organically evolved defence mechanisms.

Brett Finlay, a microbiology professor at the University of British Columbia, said its a simple process of natural selection.

When you put a selection pressure on any microbe, a small number of them are going to figure out how to avoid it if they can, he said.

Finlay, who sat as the chair for the CCA panel, added that microbes could evolve to reinforce their outer shells. The problem, he said, starts when those resistant microbes start to multiply.

Whats causes antibiotic resistance?

Mass antibiotic use started in earnest during the Second World War, and with large-scale usage came faster resistance rates. Finlay explained that, unlike humans, bacteria can much more effectively swap genetic information.

Once you have a resistance gene, which then resists these antibiotics in the population, it then spreads from microbe to microbe quite easily, he said.

The drugs are now used in several sectors. Though the CCA report stressed there was no one area to blame, it did list factors that have contributed to the weakening of antibiotic treatments.

The CDC estimates doctors prescribe 47 million courses of antibiotics yearly for infections that dont need them in the U.S.

The bulk of antibiotics in Canada 78 per cent are used in the production of livestock, some of them the same drugs used to treat human pathogens, which ups the chances of those germs developing resistance, as well.

Whats the worst-case scenario?

Both the reports warn of the wide-reaching effects of antibiotic resistance, like lower food production, increased hospital costs and the onset of millions of infections with no way to treat them.

Stop referring to a coming post-antibiotic era its already here, CDC Director Robert Redfield said in a letter accompanying the organizations report. You and I are living in a time when some miracle drugs no longer perform miracles and families are being ripped apart by a microscopic enemy.

Bacteria that cause illnesses like urinary tract infections and gonorrhea are some of the microbes researchers are most concerned about, especially since its becoming nearly impossible to develop new antibiotics, Finlay said.

Financial and scientific obstacles meant that no new major classes of antibiotics were approved to treat infections between 1962 and 2000.

In 2018, 26 per cent of diagnosed infections in Canada required further treatment and that number could jump to 40 per cent by 2050.

While the CDC said the number of infection-related deaths has decreased since it released a 2013 report on the resistance phenomenon, more than 2.8 million antibiotic-resistant infections are diagnosed in the U.S. every year.

There could be an enormous economic cost, as well. The CCA report projected the phenomenon could reduce Canadas GDP by up to $21 billion per year and rack up $8 billion in healthcare costs over the next thirty years.

Mitigation efforts?

Fighting antibiotics with antibiotics isnt the answer, the reports note. But they both say infection prevention, which includes good old handwashing, is one of the best ways to cut down on antibiotic use. Fewer infections means less need to prescribe the germ-killing drugs.

And medical innovations, like phage therapy which uses viruses to kill bacteria, could mean the end of our dependence on antibiotics.

Finlay said one of the biggest ways to slow the increase in resistance is stewardship making sure antibiotics are only used when theyre absolutely necessary.

You dont need antibiotic-containing detergents (that) youre using on your countertops to clean them. You dont have to use hand sanitizer every time you go out the door, he said.

Its not all bad news. There have been government efforts to lower antibiotic use (Health Canada announced last year the drugs could only be used for livestock with a valid prescription), but Finlay said it will take combined efforts from the healthcare sector and governments to take on the threat.

Its going to affect everyone, no one is immune from this, said Finlay. Whatever station in life you are, you get infections, and you need antibiotics. And if theyre not there, you suffer.

Read the rest here:
Here's what you need to know about superbugs in the 'post-antibiotic era' - Ottawa Citizen

Read the Rest...

The shocking history of the torpedo ray and other electric fish – Holmes County Times Advertiser

§ December 7th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on The shocking history of the torpedo ray and other electric fish – Holmes County Times Advertiser

It is fascinating to reflect back in history, imagine how an electrical shock from a fish was viewed when all of nature was interpreted on the basis of four elements, air, earth, fire, and water.

Many of us are aware of the lesser electric ray, Narcine brasiliensis, some perhaps too familiar considering the nearly 35-volt jolt it can deliver if touched. Less common locally is the related Atlantic torpedo, Torpedo nobiliana.

We intuitively understand the physical basis of an electric shock, with our lives dependent on an electrical infrastructure. Nevertheless, it is fascinating to reflect back in history, imagine how an electrical shock from a fish was viewed when all of nature was interpreted on the basis of four elements, air, earth, fire, and water. In contrast, electricity is a phenomenon of relatively recent history, popularized beginning in the 18th century by Benjamin Franklin flying his kite in a thunderstorm.

First, it is instructive to review the diversity of electric fish. Mostly, we think of electrogenic fish that produce an electric organ discharge (EOD). Then there are fish that are electrosensory, a sense we do not possess. Many fish are both electrosensory and generate EODs.

Fish can be strongly or weakly electrogenic. The former includes skates and rays, (the genus Torpedo contains 10 species, some generating EODs up to 220 volts), stargazers (to 50 volts), and the electric Nile catfish Malapterus electricus (to 350 volts). Most familiar is the South American electric eel, Electrophorus electricus, with EODs of up to 700 volts, jolts known to stun and disable a horse.

In contrast, weakly electric fish generate EODs around 1 volt, several hundred species in all including many common in the aquarium trade such as elephantnose and knifefishes. These fish are also electrosensory and communicate with each other electrically. Moreover, by monitoring objects that distort their own electric fields they can electrolocate, analogous to sonic location used by bats and porpoises, active mechanisms especially useful in the dark.

Other electrosensory fish are passive (no EODs), detecting the electrical fields of both animate and inanimate objects as weak as 1 nanovolt (10-9 V) per centimeter. To illustrate this extraordinary sensitivity consider that a shark can detect a flounder buried in the sand, and can navigate, monitoring its own electric field as it swims, its body acting as a conductor moving through the earths magnetic field, the biological equivalent of an electricity generator. The passive electrosense is a primitive feature found in lampreys, all elasmobranchs (sharks, skates and rays), sturgeon and paddlefish. Essentially an aquatic sensory mechanism, the duckbill platypus, a mammal, has developed a parallel electrosense used to detect prey.

The shocking history origins deal primarily with torpedoes abundant in Mediterranean waters and brought to the attention of scholars, physicians and philosophers during the classical Greco-Roman era. The earliest reference to torpedoes was in Hippocratic writings in the 5th century B.C. Plato and Socrates (4th century B.C.) alluded to their powers as magic, benumbing the mind, whereby the flat sea torpedo torpifies those who come into contact. The Greeks referred to the effect as nrk, from which narcotic, narcosis, narcotize were derived based on the fishs ability to cause numbness, torpor, and involuntary muscle twitches.

Aristotle (374-322 B.C.), writing in his Historia Animalium, noted its specialized numbing as a purposeful intelligence that it used to capture prey. He was supplied specimens by local fishermen and by Alexander the Great. These fishermen reported that the mysterious force of the torpedo could be felt even at a distance when touched holding a metal rod (trident) or the salty lines of a fishing net.

Pliny the Elder (1st century A.D.), the great Roman naturalist, wrote in his 37 volume Naturalis Historia that if only touched with the end of a spear or staff, this fish has the property of benumbing even the most vigorous arm and of riveting the feet of the runner. He interpreted the shock as an odor of emanation from the fish, a poison that could run up a spear and kill a man, even a horse, a mixture of science and fable.

Greco-Roman medical literature included many therapeutic uses for the torpedo discharge, of course without any idea of the force electricity. Among some 271 remedies ascribed to Scribonius (3 B.C.-54 A.D.) were treatments using torpedoes for headaches to gout. The latter, foot pain or podagra, was common among Roman aristocrats given their rich diets and lead poisoning from wine containers. The foot placed on a live torpedo on the moist shore relieved gout pain up to the knee. Headache relief involved placing a live torpedo on the spot of the pain but required subsequent removal lest ability to feel be taken away. This numbing effect is not so far-fetched knowing now that electrical stimulation is used clinically to relieve pain and thought to release endorphins.

In addition to relief of headache pain, Discorides (1st century A.D.) used torpedoes to treat a condition of the seat, now interpreted to mean application to the prolapsed seat (prolapsus ani in Latin), that is, hemorrhoids. This form of electrotherapy is potentially valid given that electrical stimulation can cause constriction of blood vessels and hemorrhoidal shrinkage.

Galen (129-200 A.D.), the most accomplished physician and philosopher in Roman antiquity, also tested the shock of the torpedo, finding it useful in treating headaches. In describing its analgesic remedy, he likened the effect to a cold venom, some form of corpuscular matter. He equated hand numbness transmitted through the trident to the lodestone (a magnet) effect in which a body can acquire the power of a separate object.

The immobilizing actions of the torpedo also captured the imagination of ancient poets who suggested that catching a torpedo can make an angler remorseful. Oppian (2nd century A.D.), writes poetically that the Cramp-fish (torpedo) paint their magick wands, where icy torch the strongest fin commands one touch of hers dams up the vital Flood, Contracts the Nerves, and clots the stagnate Blood. Torpedoes also appeared prominently in Mediterranean paintings and pottery.

Authors from classical antiquity significantly influenced how torpedoes, along with the Nile catfish, were perceived well into the Middle Ages, a period during which Christianity and Islam emerged along with a decline in the spirit of scientific investigation, the Dark Ages. Physicians still used torpedoes for head pain and podagra as specified in medical texts. Byzantine writings concerning nrk were essentially compilations from the previous classical era and associated the magical powers with various occult practices.

Well into the Renaissance, despite advances in architecture, medicine, and science, there was no further insight into the nature of the discharge. By the 16th century, European exploration and conquest had generated considerable interest in the torporific (electric) eel that horrified natives along the Orinoco River in South America. Still, the only explanation available was that the torpedo discharge was mechanical, associated with violent contractions in the fish.

The discharge itself was interpreted at the time according to atomistic theories of sensation attributed largely to Galileo, whereby microscopic pores, canals and glands produced minute corpuscles (atoms) used to explain multiple physiological processes including perspiration. This was incorporated in Stefano Lorenzinis (1678) corpuscular theory attributing numbness to corpuscles (molti corpuscoli) that entered the hand to block nerves as a result of touching the fish. The mechanical theory was later discredited since contractions by the torpedo proved to be invisible, unrepeatable, and any movements were no doubt affected by the tremor induced in the experimenters hand in response to the shock.

Electricity as a physical entity became established in mid-17th century Europe, confirmed scientifically by the 18th using instruments such as the Leyden jar, a capacitor that was introduced into the publics imagination by Abbe Jean-Antoine Nollet (1700-1770), in a demonstration before royal onlookers in Versailles that 180 hand-holding grenadiers who completed the circuit leaped in unison at its discharge.

These instruments were capable of producing sparks, akin to static electricity we can generate by stroking fur or amber, and were seemingly related to the demonstration of atmospheric electricity by Benjamin Franklin. Self-educated, Franklin abandoned his lucrative printing business in 1748 to study electricity and later moved to England in 1757 to join the Royal Society of London, where he contributed prominently to developments in fish electricity. He also is credited with the concept of polarity, based on his theory that lightning is charged differently between clouds (negative) and land (positive), and concluding that natural and man-made electricity are the same.

As interest in electricity grew in the 18th century, it led to numerous attempts, including by Franklin, to use electrotherapy to treat palsies, hysteria, and other paralyzing illnesses. Still, despite the ancient history of torpedo therapeutics, no scientific understanding of animal electricity was yet available. Although nerves were envisioned as conduits to the brain as early as the 4th century B.C., conveyance (conduction) along the nerve was still attributed variously to ethereal spirits, fluids, or mechanical vibrations.

As interest in animal electricity continued to grow, electric fish contributed significantly to the eventual electrical basis of physiological function in both nerve and muscle. A major contribution from the Dutch, with settlements in Guiana, S.A., came from awareness of the more powerful electric eel whose discharge was equated with that of the Leyden jar, both capable of knocking a person to the ground. The only difference was that neither spark (eq., lightning) nor weak crackling sound (eq., thunder) could be elicited from the eel, facts that contributed to remaining resistance to the idea of fish electricity.

An American physician who worked briefly in Guiana (Edward Bancroft, 1744-1821) presented evidence that shocks from the torporific eel traveled up the fishing line and could be felt by several people holding hands (in series). John Walsh (1726-1795), a wealthy English colonel with an interest in natural history provided singular evidence for the electrical nature of Torpedo.

Armed with a series of experiments outlined by his collaborator, Benjamin Franklin, Walsh traveled to La Rochelle and nearby lIsle de R on the French Atlantic coast where the rays were abundant. Using public demonstrations he showed that the discharge could be felt 40 feet away when connected to the fish by a wire, that up to eight persons holding hands in series were affected, and that two persons, one touching the upper surface of the fish, the other the lower surface, only felt the shock when they completed the circuit by holding hands. In letters back to Franklin, Walsh concluded that the effect is certainly torpedinal electricity.

His work was forwarded to Henry Cavendish (1731-1810), the brilliant chemist (discoverer of oxygen), physicist and member of the Royal Society (along with Walsh, Franklin, Bancroft and other notables), who provided quantitative explanations supporting fish electricity. Franklin returned to the United States in 1775 in fear of arrest as a spy as progression toward the American Revolution became obvious. Ironically, it was August 1, 1776, when Walsh finally succeeded in demonstrating the convincing spark from a fish discharge, made possible by the arrival of a live electric eel from Guiana whose discharge was 10 times greater than the torpedo.

The torpedo and electric eel were important in the realization that animals function electrically. As such they had great influence on two Italian physician scientists, Luigi Galvani (1773-1798) and Alessandro Volta (1745-1827). Galvanis experiments led him to propose that electricity was inherent in the tissues of the nerve by demonstrating that frog leg muscles twitched when the [motor] nerve was stimulated with a weak electrical current. One such experiment used long wires connected to an electrical device in the room. This is known to have inspired Mary Shelley to create Frankenstein in her 1817 saga by attracting the electrical activity from a lightning storm.

Volta claimed that the electricity was not intrinsic to the nerve but rather originated in the metals Galvani used to touch the nerve. His own experiments with the frog used a pile or battery that he is credited with inventing. This first battery, dissimilar metals sandwiched around moistened cardboard, was inspired in turn by the electric organ of the torpedo. From these signature experiments, preceded by work through the ages, it is clear that torporific fishes have played a major role in shaping civilization through the life sciences and medicine.

Lon Wilkens, an emeritus professor of neuroscience at the University of Missouri-St. Louis, lives on St. George Island.

More here:
The shocking history of the torpedo ray and other electric fish - Holmes County Times Advertiser

Read the Rest...

Concussion Alters How Information Is Transmitted Within the Brain, United States News#260731 – New Kerala

§ December 7th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Concussion Alters How Information Is Transmitted Within the Brain, United States News#260731 – New Kerala

CHICAGO: Damage from concussion alters the way information is transmitted between the two halves of the brain, according to a new study presented today at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA). Research has shown that the corpus callosum, a bundle of nerve fibers that carries signals between the brain's left and right hemispheres, is vulnerable to damage from mild traumatic brain injury, commonly known as concussion. Less is known about the impact of this damage on cognitive function.

To learn more, researchers at New York University (NYU) School of Medicine in New York City compared the condition of the corpus callosum in 36 patients with recent concussion to that of 27 healthy controls. They studied the participants' brains with two innovative advances, including an MRI technique that uses measures of water diffusion to provide a microscopic view of the brain's signal-carrying white matter.

Looking at how water molecules are diffusing in the nerve fibers in the corpus callosum and within the microenvironment around the nerve fibers allows us to better understand the white matter microstructural injury that occurs, said study co-author Melanie Wegener, M.D., resident physician at NYU Langone Health in New York City.

Dr. Wegener and colleagues combined the MRI findings with results from the study's second innovative advance, called an Interhemispheric Speed of Processing Task, a test developed at NYU Langone that evaluates how well the two hemispheres in the brain communicate with each other.

For the test, the participants were told to sit in a chair and focus their gaze on the letter X that was displayed on a screen directly in front of them. The researchers then flashed three-letter words to the right or the left of the X and asked the participants to say those words as quickly as possible. When the researchers evaluated this reaction time in both patients with concussion and healthy controls, they noticed an interesting phenomenon.

There is a definite and reproducible delay in reaction time to the words presented to the left of the X compared with words presented to the right visual field, Dr. Wegener said. This shows it takes time for information to cross the corpus callosum from one hemisphere to the other, which is measured by the difference in response time between words presented to different sides of our visual field.

This delay is likely due to the fact that language function is most often located in the brain's left hemisphere. This means that information presented to the left visual field is first transmitted to the right visual cortex in the brain and then has to cross over the corpus callosum to get to the left language center. In contrast, words that are presented to the right visual field do not need to cross the corpus callosum.

Performance on the test correlated with brain findings on MRI. In the healthy controls, reaction time corresponded with several diffusion measures in the splenium, an area of the corpus callosum located between the right visual cortex and the left language center. No such correlation was found in the concussion patients, suggesting microstructural changes relating to injury.

We saw a correlation between white matter microstructure injury and the clinical status of the patient, Dr. Wegener said. This information could ultimately help with treatment in patients who have mild traumatic brain injury.

For instance, Dr. Wegener said, patients could undergo MRI immediately after a concussion to see if they experienced any clinically important white matter injury and thus may benefit from early intervention.

Another thing we can do is use MRI to look at patients' brains during treatment and monitor the microstructure to see if there is a treatment-related response, she said.

Co-authors are Joshua Bacon, Ph.D., Sohae Chung, Ph.D., Xiuyuan Wang, M.S., Tamar Bacon, B.A., Joseph F. Rath, Ph.D., James S. Babb, Ph.D., and Yvonne W. Lui, M.D. The study was funded by the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.

Note Copies of RSNA 2019 news releases and electronic images will be available online at RSNA.org/press19 beginning Monday, Nov. 25.

RSNA is an association of over 53,400 radiologists, radiation oncologists, medical physicists and related scientists, promoting excellence in patient care and health care delivery through education, research and technologic innovation. The Society is based in Oak Brook, Ill. (RSNA.org)

Editor's note The data in these releases may differ from those in the published abstract and those actually presented at the meeting, as researchers continue to update their data right up until the meeting.

For patient-friendly information on brain MRI, visit RadiologyInfo.org.

See the rest here:
Concussion Alters How Information Is Transmitted Within the Brain, United States News#260731 - New Kerala

Read the Rest...

Thorough Report on Nanomedical Devices And Therapeutic Market: Focus on Advance Technology, Future Plans with Major Players: PerkinElmer,Arrowhead…

§ December 7th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Thorough Report on Nanomedical Devices And Therapeutic Market: Focus on Advance Technology, Future Plans with Major Players: PerkinElmer,Arrowhead…

Crystal Market Research in its upcoming report Global Nanomedical Devices And Therapeutic Market Forecast 2025 provides detailed study on market drivers, trends, market opportunities and other important details on global Nanomedical Devices And Therapeutic market.

Crystal Market Research has published an analytical observe titled Global Nanomedical Devices And Therapeutic Market. This statistical record specializes in the overall performance of each early information along with the latest tendencies. This Nanomedical Devices And Therapeutic report evaluates the market segmentation along with the aggressive landscape at worldwide as well as local level. The competitive analysis included in the global Nanomedical Devices And Therapeutic market study allows their readers to understand the difference between players and how they are operating amounts themselves on global scale. The research study gives deep insight on the current and Nanomedical Devices And Therapeutic future trends of the market along with the opportunities for the new players who are in the process of entering global Nanomedical Devices And Therapeutic market.

Click Here To Access The Sample Report @https://www.crystalmarketresearch.com/report-sample/HC101499

Continue

Check Exclusive Discount on this report @https://www.crystalmarketresearch.com/check-discount/HC101499

For More Details On this Report: https://www.crystalmarketresearch.com/send-an-enquiry/HC101499

Contacts Us:

Sherry | APAC Marketing Division: Level 23-1, Premier Suite

Mont Kiara, 50480 Kuala Lumpur

Malaysia

E-mail: sales@crystalmarketresearch.com

Read the original:
Thorough Report on Nanomedical Devices And Therapeutic Market: Focus on Advance Technology, Future Plans with Major Players: PerkinElmer,Arrowhead...

Read the Rest...

Nanobiotechnologies Applications, Markets & Companies Analysis 2019 – Updated Forecasts to 2023 & 2028 – ResearchAndMarkets.com – Business…

§ December 7th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Nanobiotechnologies Applications, Markets & Companies Analysis 2019 – Updated Forecasts to 2023 & 2028 – ResearchAndMarkets.com – Business…

DUBLIN--(BUSINESS WIRE)--The "Nanobiotechnologies - Applications, Markets & Companies" report from Jain PharmaBiotech has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering.

Nanotechnology is the creation and utilization of materials, devices, and systems through the control of matter on the nanometer-length scale (a nanometer is one billionth of a meter. Nanobiotechnology, an integration of physical sciences, molecular engineering, biology, chemistry and biotechnology holds considerable promise of advances in pharmaceuticals and healthcare.

The report starts with an introduction to various techniques and materials that are relevant to nanobiotechnology. It includes some of the physical forms of energy such as nanolasers. Some of the technologies are scaling down such as microfluidics to nanofluidic biochips and others are constructions from bottom up. Application in life sciences research, particularly at the cell level sets the stage for role of nanobiotechnology in healthcare in subsequent chapters.

Some of the earliest applications are in molecular diagnostics. Nanoparticles, particularly quantum dots, are playing important roles. In-vitro diagnostics, does not have any of the safety concerns associated with the fate of nanoparticles introduced into the human body. Numerous nanodevices and nanosystems for sequencing single molecules of DNA are feasible. Various nanodiagnostics that has been reviewed will improve the sensitivity and extend the present limits of molecular diagnostics.

An increase in the use of nanobiotechnology by the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries is anticipated. Nanotechnology will be applied at all stages of drug development - from formulations for optimal delivery to diagnostic applications in clinical trials. Many of the assays based on nanobiotechnology will enable high-throughput screening.

Some of the nanostructures such as fullerenes are themselves drug candidates as they allow precise grafting of active chemical groups in three-dimensional orientations. The most important pharmaceutical applications are in drug delivery. Apart from offering a solution to solubility problems, nanobiotechnology provides and intracellular delivery possibilities. Skin penetration is improved in transdermal drug delivery. A particularly effective application is as nonviral gene therapy vectors. Nanotechnology has the potential to provide controlled release devices with autonomous operation guided by the needs.

Nanomedicine is now within the realm of reality starting with nanodiagnostics and drug delivery facilitated by nanobiotechnology. Miniature devices such as nanorobots could carry out integrated diagnosis and therapy by refined and minimally invasive procedures, nanosurgery, as an alternative to crude surgery. Applications of nanobiotechnology are described according to various therapeutic systems.

Nanotechnology will markedly improve the implants and tissue engineering approaches as well. Of the over 1,000 clinical trials of nanomedicines, approximately 100 are selected and tabulated in major therapeutic areas. Other applications such as for management of biological warfare injuries and poisoning are included. Contribution of nanobiotechnology to nutrition and public health such as supply of purified water are also included.

There is some concern about the safety of nanoparticles introduced in the human body and released into the environment. Research is underway to address these issues. As yet there are no FDA directives to regulate nanobiotechnology but as products are ready to enter market, these are expected to be in place.

Future nanobiotechnology markets are calculated on the basis of the background markets in the areas of application and the share of this market by new technologies and state of development at any given year in the future. This is based on a comprehensive and thorough review of the current status of nanobiotechnology, research work in progress and anticipated progress.

There is definite indication of large growth of the market but it will be uneven and cannot be plotted as a steady growth curve. Marketing estimates are given according to areas of application, technologies and geographical distribution starting with 2018. The largest expansion is expected between the years 2023 and 2028.

Profiles of 252 companies, out of over 500 involved in this area, are included in the last chapter along with their 185 collaborations. The report is supplemented with 51 Tables, 32 figures and 800 references to the literature.

For more information about this report visit https://www.researchandmarkets.com/r/lrcr1q

Link:
Nanobiotechnologies Applications, Markets & Companies Analysis 2019 - Updated Forecasts to 2023 & 2028 - ResearchAndMarkets.com - Business...

Read the Rest...

Yuehe Lin named to National Academy of Inventors – WSU News

§ December 5th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Yuehe Lin named to National Academy of Inventors – WSU News

Yuehe Lin

Yuehe Lin, professor in the School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, has been named a fellow of the National Academy of Inventors (NAI).

He was cited for his highly prolific spirit of innovation in creating or facilitating inventions that have made a tangible impact on the quality of life, economic development, and welfare of society, according to the selection committee. Lin is one of 168 NAI Fellows for 2019, which is the highest professional distinction accorded solely to academic inventors. The program includes more than 1,000 fellows from 250 universities around the world that hold more than 41,500 U.S. patents.

Dr Lin has made significant research contributions with real-world impact in the fields of energy and health, said Mary Rezac, dean of WSUs Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture. His hugely varied work from finding possible new ways to treat cancer to innovations in water splitting for a future hydrogen economy and development of a better catalyst for fuel cells often comes down to simple solutions that can provide real change and improvements in peoples lives.

With WSU since 2013, Lin, who also holds a joint appointment at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, conducts research in nanotechnology, particularly development of small-scale devices, materials and analytical systems for biomedical diagnosis, drug delivery and energy and environmental applications.

He has more than 500 peer-reviewed publications, which have been cited more than 50,500 times, according to Google Scholar. He has an h-index, a measure of a scientists productivity and impact, of 112. He has been named among the worlds most highly cited researchers every year from 2014 to 2019 by the Web of Science Group.

He has received funding from the National Institutes of Health, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and U.S. Departments of Energy and Defense. He holds more than 20 patents, some of which have been licensed to industrial partners for commercialization.

Lin is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Royal Society of Chemistry and American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering as well as a member of the Washington State Academy of Sciences. He serves as editor or editorial board member for approximately 20 international journals, including Advance Materials Technologies; Analytica Chimica Acta; Biosensors and Bioelectronics; Electroanalysis; International Journal of Nanomedicine; Research; Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology; and Sensors and Actuators B.

Lin will join the induction ceremony for fellows on April 10 as part of the annual Conference of the National Academy of Inventors in Phoenix, AZ.

Follow this link:
Yuehe Lin named to National Academy of Inventors - WSU News

Read the Rest...

Nanomedicines Market Update: Which Player is going to acquire bigger Piece of Market? | Abbott, GE Healthcare, Johnson & Johnson, Merck and many…

§ December 5th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Nanomedicines Market Update: Which Player is going to acquire bigger Piece of Market? | Abbott, GE Healthcare, Johnson & Johnson, Merck and many…

The Nanomedicines market research report from ReportsValue consolidates the most important industry information while highlighting essential and valuable data. A report on the global Nanomedicines market has come out incorporating its research and analysis. The report provides the existing conditions, as well as, forecast for the period until 2025. A free sample report is also available for the benefit of readers and stakeholders.

GET A SAMPLE COPY https://reportsvalue.com/report/global-nanomedicines-market-size-status-and-forecast-2019-2025/#Free-Sample-Report

Growth Prospects

Researchers have done their homework on the current conditions in the global Nanomedicines market. This and the past performance enabled them to come out with an outlook for the period 2019 25. The report included revenue generation from the existing market players and based on all players; total market size is derived. Authors of the report have split into three segments based on geography, which is as follows:

By Key Players

By Nanomedicines market Types-

By Nanomedicines market Applications-

VIEW FULL REPORT DETAILS HERE https://reportsvalue.com/report/global-nanomedicines-market-size-status-and-forecast-2019-2025/#Buying-Enquiry

The report has an in-depth analysis and included global Nanomedicines industry experts inputs. The report covers the period between 2019 and 2025 and centered on both market landscape and opportunities for growth in the next few years. Another key factor is that researchers have added key vendors discussion about the market in the report.

Addressing Major Questions

Researchers have offered answers to some of the important questions that haunt industry players.

Some of them are given below:

There are 13 chapters to display an in-depth analysis of the report.

Table of contents

1. Report Overview2. Global Growth Trends3. Market Share by Manufacturers4. Market Size by Type5. Market Size by Application6. Production by Regions7. XYZ Consumption by Regions8. Company Profiles9. Market Forecast10. Value Chain and Sales Channels Analysis11. Opportunities & Challenges, Threat and Affecting Factors12. Key Findings13. Appendix

ACCESS THE FULL TOC HERE https://reportsvalue.com/report/global-nanomedicines-market-size-status-and-forecast-2019-2025/#Table-Of-Contents

About ReportsValue-

Reportsvalue is an involving new idea or methods company in the stream of market research and analytical reporting. By using our services, you will increase the efficiency of your business and enable you to focus on the other vital aspects of your operation, while we look after market research and reporting.

Contact Us-

Mr. PicardoEmail- [emailprotected]Web- http://www.reportsvalue.com

See the original post here:
Nanomedicines Market Update: Which Player is going to acquire bigger Piece of Market? | Abbott, GE Healthcare, Johnson & Johnson, Merck and many...

Read the Rest...

Potential cause of elevated nighttime blood pressure in patients with apnea identified – Newswise

§ December 5th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Potential cause of elevated nighttime blood pressure in patients with apnea identified – Newswise

MEDIA CONTACT

Available for logged-in reporters only

Newswise Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) affects an estimated 22 million Americans. In addition to sleep problems, the condition can cause other health issues, including high blood pressure, chronic heart failure and stroke. Some patients with OSA are at an even higher risk of cardiovascular problems because of a phenomenon called "reverse dipping" that causes blood pressure to rise rather than lower during sleep. Most people experience lower blood pressure at night. Now, University of Missouri School of Medicine researchers have found a potential cause for reverse dipping that may help patients with OSA get the help they need before cardiovascular disease develops.

"We can now identify those with OSA at the highest risk of cardiovascular problems in order to prevent them from developing additional complications," said David Gozal, MD, the Marie M. and Harry L. Smith Endowed Chair of Child Health at the MU School of Medicine. "We can treat those patients more aggressively to ensure they adhere to therapy and use their continuous positive airway pressure device (CPAP) properly."

Gozal and fellow MU collaborator Abdelnaby Khalyfa, PhD, studied 46 patients diagnosed with OSA. They ranged in age from 18 to 70. Fifteen participants were identified to have a rise in blood pressure during sleep, while the remaining 31 participants had blood pressure readings that either remained the same or declined at night. The researchers collected blood from each participant to study the messages cells produce and send to each other through microscopic packages called exosomes.

"We found that the cell messages coming from participants with night-time elevated blood pressure were different than those transmitted in subjects with normal blood pressure," Gozal said. "The altered messages caused the cells that line the blood vessels to become dysfunctional. Those disturbed vessels allowed inflammatory cells to enter the vessels' walls, causing hardening of those vessels and leading to cardiovascular disease."

Gozal said the cell message discovery will help clinicians personalize treatment for each patient diagnosed with OSA. A simple blood test administered at the beginning of a sleep study could indicate each patient's cardiovascular risk.

Gozal said additional research is needed to study the patients at highest risk of cardiovascular complications from OSA to see if CPAP compliance can actually reduce blood pressure or normalize the cell messages used to determine a patient's risk.

###

In addition to Gozal and Khalyfa, the study authors include Bharati Prasad, MD, University of Illinois Hospital and Health Sciences System; and Wen-Ching Chan, PhD, and Jorge Andrade, PhD, of the University of Chicago's Center for Research Informatics.

The study, "Circulating Plasma Exosomes in Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Reverse-Dipping Blood Pressure," was recently published in theEuropean Respiratory Journal. Research reported in this publication was supported by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. The authors of the study declare that they have no conflicts of interest related to this study. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the views of the funding agencies.

SEE ORIGINAL STUDY

Go here to read the rest:
Potential cause of elevated nighttime blood pressure in patients with apnea identified - Newswise

Read the Rest...

Spinning Disk Confocal Microscope Market Growth Fueled by Reviving Techniques to Treat Heart Failure with Cardiac Regenerative Medicine – MENAFN.COM

§ December 5th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Spinning Disk Confocal Microscope Market Growth Fueled by Reviving Techniques to Treat Heart Failure with Cardiac Regenerative Medicine – MENAFN.COM

(MENAFN - iCrowdNewsWire) Dec 5, 2019

Cardiac failure is an insidious disease with the mortality rate as high as that of cancer around the globe. Heart failure affecting at least 26 million people worldwide in 2017 and is increasing in prevalence. The only medical treatment for heart failure is cardiac transplantation, although the shortage of donor poses a serious problem. Cell transplantation therapy with regenerative cardiomyocytes is the only solution to minimize the higher mortality rates, which requires detailed information at the level of individual cardiomyocytes. Spinning disk confocal microscopy has emerged as a new high-tech method in cardiovascular medicine for exploring the stem cells for regenerating damaged organs. This innovative microscopic technology can be used to create 3D images of the structures within living cells. Higher-efficiency imaging at lower laser powers includes less photobleaching and phototoxicity, yet cost-effective than other confocal microscopes which are the prominent features of the spinning disk confocal microscopes (SDCM). Furthermore, technological advancements in microscopy and increasing spending on the research & development are the key factors fueling the spinning disk confocal microscope market share.

The global spinning disk confocal microscope market size was valued at $245 million as of 2018 and is expected to grow with a CAGR of 3.6% throughout the forecast period 2019-2025.

Extensive Usage of Spinning Disk Confocal Microscope in the Evaluation of Various Eye Diseases

Spinning disk confocal microscope is an imaging technique which eliminates out-of-focus light efficiently and improves the image contrast, making it easier to resolve small and dim structures in the living cell. This technique is ideal for imaging poor signals at high magnification and provides prolonged life imaging with minimal photodamage. SDCM is widely used in the evaluation of various eye ailments and is predominantly useful for imaging, identification, and detailed analysis of cornea cells. Cataract accounts for the world's leading vision impairment cause, affecting approximately 12.6 million people and 52.6 million people who live with severe to mild blindness worldwide. The confocal microscope helps to provide valuable information about wound healing in the postsurgical cornea, especially after keratorefractive and transplant surgery, which in turn, creates a huge opportunity for the growth of the spinning disk confocal microscope market share. Besides, in the pharmaceutical industry, increasing usage of this confocal microscopy in the classification of systems such as tablets, film coatings and colloidal systems, which in turn, spur the growth of the spinning disk confocal microscope market size.

Application of Spinning Disk Confocal Microscopy in Bio-imaging

Confocal microscopy allows the analysis of specimens without physical sectioning when these specimens are fluorescently labeled, then more color differentiation is possible. Besides, it allows the 3D reconstruction of the live cells and organisms. For instance, researchers of the State University of New York Downstate Medical Center have found that hypoxia, the condition of lack of oxygen in the body or region of the body tissues to sustain bodily functions is because of abnormal blood flow. This, in turn, is responsible for half of the seizure-related neuronal degeneration cases in epilepsy. Consequently, the microscopic technique enables the researchers to detect abnormality in the vasodynamics of brain. Instances as such are increasing the demand for the spinning disk confocal microscope market in bio-imaging.

North America Holding Major Share of the Spinning Disk Confocal Microscope Market

North America generated 34.4% of the spinning disk confocal microscope market global revenue in 2018. Growing adoption of the confocal microscope in living cell imaging, increasing application in dentistry, and government funding and policies for medical research are key factors triggering the growth of the spinning disk confocal microscope market in this region. For instance, as part of the 2019 budget, Canadian government has decided to spend approximately $4 billion on basic medical research and this funding is given to The Stem Cell Network, a non-profit organization in Ottawa which is active into clinical applications research. Also, Genome Canada, a non-profit organization in Ottawa which supports genomic research, will get about $77 million from the government for medical research. Thus, these increasing investments in research activities is boosting the North American spinning disk confocal microscope market.

Life Sciences Observing Lucrative Opportunities in the Global Spinning Disk Confocal Microscope Market

The application segment that will be creating the most lucrative opportunities for the spinning disk confocal microscope market is life sciences. This application segment is projected to grow at a CAGR of 32.3% through to 2025. To observe the internal workings of cellular processes in the living cells, this procedure is widely used by researchers in life science. Spinning disk confocal microscope use lower light levels and provide accurate cell physiology through real-time image acquisition. Thus, the cell study is aiding the growth of the life sciences segment in the global spinning disk confocal microscope market.

Talk to one of our sales representative about the full report by providing your details in the link below:

https://www.industryarc.com/support.php?id=18554

The Major Players in the Spinning Disk Confocal Microscope Market :

Prominent players in the spinning disk confocal microscope market include Bruker Corporation, Confocal.nl, Leica Microsystem, Nikon Corporation, Olympus Corporation, and ZEISS Group.

Bruker Corporation, an American-based scientific instruments manufacturer for molecular and materials research has launched its high-speed Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) system for life science microscopic applications on Jan 29, 2019. AFM features advanced bio-imaging with high speed and high resolution. These properties of the AFM system can provide researchers to perform experiments on individual cells and allow Bruker to follow dynamic processes on cellular and molecular levels in real-time. Secondly, Confocal.nl, Dutch-based microscopes manufacturer has launched new Re-scan Confocal Microscopy (RCM) modules on April 10, 2019. This new module features integrated optimized de-convolution and high scan speed.

Mergers and acquisitions are the other key strategies adopted by the players to stay ahead of their competitors. Bruker Corporation, an American-based scientific instruments manufacturer for molecular and materials research has announced its acquisition with Hain Lifescience GmbH, German-based molecular diagnosis systems developer on Aug 24, 2018. With this acquisition, Bruker has expanded its capabilities in microbial and viral pathogen detection and offering solutions for human genetic diseases. Such mergers and acquisitions aid the market players to expand their geographical boundaries and accentuate their footprint into the global spinning disk confocal microscope market.

Related Reports:

Microscopy Devices Market

https://www.industryarc.com/Report/116/Microscopy-Devices-Market.html

Surgical Microscopes Market

https://www.industryarc.com/Report/18476/surgical-microscopes-market-research-report-analysis.html

About IndustryARC:

IndustryARC primarily focuses on Cutting Edge Technologies and Newer Applications market research. Our Custom Research Services are designed to provide insights on the constant flux in the global supply-demand gap of markets. Our strong team of analysts enables us to meet the client research needs at a rapid speed, with a variety of options for your business. Any other custom requirements can be discussed with our team, drop an e-mail to[email protected]to discuss more about our consulting services.

MENAFN0512201900703403ID1099375804

See original here:
Spinning Disk Confocal Microscope Market Growth Fueled by Reviving Techniques to Treat Heart Failure with Cardiac Regenerative Medicine - MENAFN.COM

Read the Rest...

Some may think it’s gross, but putting a suitcase on your bed won’t make you sick – Stuff.co.nz

§ December 5th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Some may think it’s gross, but putting a suitcase on your bed won’t make you sick – Stuff.co.nz

It is unlikely that you come home from a trip and stand on top of your bed still wearing your street shoes.

Why would you? Your shoes are covered in God-knows-what, and your bed is a sacred space.

For some travellers, putting their suitcase on their bed is just as offensive. The wheels of our luggage tread the same soiled path as our shoes, rolling through airport bathrooms, sidewalks and public transportation.

To these travellers, the thought of plopping said suitcase atop the same place for sleeping is an affront to humanity.

Tero Vesalainen/123RF

Some people aren't quite as comfortable about putting their dirty suitcase on their bed.

READ MORE:* Germs on planes: Are they really that bad? * Opinion: Shoes and bags in the bedroom are gross, aren't they?*Germ hideouts even clean-freaks forget

While it might sound gross to put a worldly bag on your bed, is it actually harmful to your health? According to Phyllis Kozarsky, an expert travel health consultant for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's travellers' health branch and the chief medical editor of the CDC reference guide Health Information for the International Traveller, most public health professionals don't consider luggage a major transmitter of disease.

"We have not identified outbreaks related to dirty luggage," Kozarsky says.

Where travellers may benefit from cleaning their luggage is if there's a suspicion that their hotel room has a bedbug infestation.

"Then they certainly would benefit by vacuuming out their luggage or cleaning it after they returned home," Kozarsky says. But otherwise, she says, the bag is "not typically a source of transmission of illness".

Even if your luggage touching your bed won't hurt you, you might still be plain old revolted. After all, travel is a germ-addled experience.

"You have people ... carrying all types of different germs. Some of them are sick, and you now have them populating these public travel places," says Colleen Costello, CEO of Vital Vio, a company that makes antibacterial LED lights.

Your fellow travellers have to touch all the same things you have to touch, from the airport security bucketsto the airplane, the train ticketing machine to the handrail in your train car.

"They have microscopic germs on them. And, realistically, [janitorial staff] may be getting to clean them rather infrequently," Costello says of the many touch points involved in travel.

"Everything you bring into these public spaces can basically pick up or drop off different germs, and you can't see them. There's no way to really know when you or your personal belongings are exposed."

For your peace of mind, Costello recommends giving your bag a quick disinfection or storing it on a luggage rack. Technically speaking, you could go beyond disinfecting your luggage wheels and sanitise the rest of your travel experience - the airplane tray table, entertainment screen, armrests, hotel room door and remote control. But Kozarsky, the CDC travel medicine expert, doesn't vouch for that lifestyle.

"It's hard to keep up with every doorknob, every railing. Think of what you do between your home and your destination," Kozarsky says. "You can become a little neurotic that way."

Peerayot To-im/123RF

Even if it grosses you out, that suitcase likely won't make you sick.

We live in a germ-filled world. Coming into contact with bacteria is part of life, and trying to sanitise every travel accessory or surface we touch can turn into a Sisyphean task.

Instead, make sure you're washing your hands with soap and water after using the toilet and before you eat. Carry hand sanitiser for the times you don't have access to soap and water. Avoid touching your eyes and mouth as much as possible. And remember: Dodging illness isn't a perfect science. Getting a cold from time to time is human.

Here is the original post:
Some may think it's gross, but putting a suitcase on your bed won't make you sick - Stuff.co.nz

Read the Rest...

The shocking history of the torpedo ray and other electric fish – Apalachicola Times

§ December 5th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on The shocking history of the torpedo ray and other electric fish – Apalachicola Times

It is fascinating to reflect back in history, imagine how an electrical shock from a fish was viewed when all of nature was interpreted on the basis of four elements, air, earth, fire, and water.

Many of us are aware of the lesser electric ray, Narcine brasiliensis, some perhaps too familiar considering the nearly 35-volt jolt it can deliver if touched. Less common locally is the related Atlantic torpedo, Torpedo nobiliana.

We intuitively understand the physical basis of an electric shock, with our lives dependent on an electrical infrastructure. Nevertheless, it is fascinating to reflect back in history, imagine how an electrical shock from a fish was viewed when all of nature was interpreted on the basis of four elements, air, earth, fire, and water. In contrast, electricity is a phenomenon of relatively recent history, popularized beginning in the 18th century by Benjamin Franklin flying his kite in a thunderstorm.

First, it is instructive to review the diversity of electric fish. Mostly, we think of electrogenic fish that produce an electric organ discharge (EOD). Then there are fish that are electrosensory, a sense we do not possess. Many fish are both electrosensory and generate EODs.

Fish can be strongly or weakly electrogenic. The former includes skates and rays, (the genus Torpedo contains 10 species, some generating EODs up to 220 volts), stargazers (to 50 volts), and the electric Nile catfish Malapterus electricus (to 350 volts). Most familiar is the South American electric eel, Electrophorus electricus, with EODs of up to 700 volts, jolts known to stun and disable a horse.

In contrast, weakly electric fish generate EODs around 1 volt, several hundred species in all including many common in the aquarium trade such as elephantnose and knifefishes. These fish are also electrosensory and communicate with each other electrically. Moreover, by monitoring objects that distort their own electric fields they can electrolocate, analogous to sonic location used by bats and porpoises, active mechanisms especially useful in the dark.

Other electrosensory fish are passive (no EODs), detecting the electrical fields of both animate and inanimate objects as weak as 1 nanovolt (10-9 V) per centimeter. To illustrate this extraordinary sensitivity consider that a shark can detect a flounder buried in the sand, and can navigate, monitoring its own electric field as it swims, its body acting as a conductor moving through the earths magnetic field, the biological equivalent of an electricity generator. The passive electrosense is a primitive feature found in lampreys, all elasmobranchs (sharks, skates and rays), sturgeon and paddlefish. Essentially an aquatic sensory mechanism, the duckbill platypus, a mammal, has developed a parallel electrosense used to detect prey.

The shocking history origins deal primarily with torpedoes abundant in Mediterranean waters and brought to the attention of scholars, physicians and philosophers during the classical Greco-Roman era. The earliest reference to torpedoes was in Hippocratic writings in the 5th century B.C. Plato and Socrates (4th century B.C.) alluded to their powers as magic, benumbing the mind, whereby the flat sea torpedo torpifies those who come into contact. The Greeks referred to the effect as nrk, from which narcotic, narcosis, narcotize were derived based on the fishs ability to cause numbness, torpor, and involuntary muscle twitches.

Aristotle (374-322 B.C.), writing in his Historia Animalium, noted its specialized numbing as a purposeful intelligence that it used to capture prey. He was supplied specimens by local fishermen and by Alexander the Great. These fishermen reported that the mysterious force of the torpedo could be felt even at a distance when touched holding a metal rod (trident) or the salty lines of a fishing net.

Pliny the Elder (1st century A.D.), the great Roman naturalist, wrote in his 37 volume Naturalis Historia that if only touched with the end of a spear or staff, this fish has the property of benumbing even the most vigorous arm and of riveting the feet of the runner. He interpreted the shock as an odor of emanation from the fish, a poison that could run up a spear and kill a man, even a horse, a mixture of science and fable.

Greco-Roman medical literature included many therapeutic uses for the torpedo discharge, of course without any idea of the force electricity. Among some 271 remedies ascribed to Scribonius (3 B.C.-54 A.D.) were treatments using torpedoes for headaches to gout. The latter, foot pain or podagra, was common among Roman aristocrats given their rich diets and lead poisoning from wine containers. The foot placed on a live torpedo on the moist shore relieved gout pain up to the knee. Headache relief involved placing a live torpedo on the spot of the pain but required subsequent removal lest ability to feel be taken away. This numbing effect is not so far-fetched knowing now that electrical stimulation is used clinically to relieve pain and thought to release endorphins.

In addition to relief of headache pain, Discorides (1st century A.D.) used torpedoes to treat a condition of the seat, now interpreted to mean application to the prolapsed seat (prolapsus ani in Latin), that is, hemorrhoids. This form of electrotherapy is potentially valid given that electrical stimulation can cause constriction of blood vessels and hemorrhoidal shrinkage.

Galen (129-200 A.D.), the most accomplished physician and philosopher in Roman antiquity, also tested the shock of the torpedo, finding it useful in treating headaches. In describing its analgesic remedy, he likened the effect to a cold venom, some form of corpuscular matter. He equated hand numbness transmitted through the trident to the lodestone (a magnet) effect in which a body can acquire the power of a separate object.

The immobilizing actions of the torpedo also captured the imagination of ancient poets who suggested that catching a torpedo can make an angler remorseful. Oppian (2nd century A.D.), writes poetically that the Cramp-fish (torpedo) paint their magick wands, where icy torch the strongest fin commands one touch of hers dams up the vital Flood, Contracts the Nerves, and clots the stagnate Blood. Torpedoes also appeared prominently in Mediterranean paintings and pottery.

Authors from classical antiquity significantly influenced how torpedoes, along with the Nile catfish, were perceived well into the Middle Ages, a period during which Christianity and Islam emerged along with a decline in the spirit of scientific investigation, the Dark Ages. Physicians still used torpedoes for head pain and podagra as specified in medical texts. Byzantine writings concerning nrk were essentially compilations from the previous classical era and associated the magical powers with various occult practices.

Well into the Renaissance, despite advances in architecture, medicine, and science, there was no further insight into the nature of the discharge. By the 16th century, European exploration and conquest had generated considerable interest in the torporific (electric) eel that horrified natives along the Orinoco River in South America. Still, the only explanation available was that the torpedo discharge was mechanical, associated with violent contractions in the fish.

The discharge itself was interpreted at the time according to atomistic theories of sensation attributed largely to Galileo, whereby microscopic pores, canals and glands produced minute corpuscles (atoms) used to explain multiple physiological processes including perspiration. This was incorporated in Stefano Lorenzinis (1678) corpuscular theory attributing numbness to corpuscles (molti corpuscoli) that entered the hand to block nerves as a result of touching the fish. The mechanical theory was later discredited since contractions by the torpedo proved to be invisible, unrepeatable, and any movements were no doubt affected by the tremor induced in the experimenters hand in response to the shock.

Electricity as a physical entity became established in mid-17th century Europe, confirmed scientifically by the 18th using instruments such as the Leyden jar, a capacitor that was introduced into the publics imagination by Abbe Jean-Antoine Nollet (1700-1770), in a demonstration before royal onlookers in Versailles that 180 hand-holding grenadiers who completed the circuit leaped in unison at its discharge.

These instruments were capable of producing sparks, akin to static electricity we can generate by stroking fur or amber, and were seemingly related to the demonstration of atmospheric electricity by Benjamin Franklin. Self-educated, Franklin abandoned his lucrative printing business in 1748 to study electricity and later moved to England in 1757 to join the Royal Society of London, where he contributed prominently to developments in fish electricity. He also is credited with the concept of polarity, based on his theory that lightning is charged differently between clouds (negative) and land (positive), and concluding that natural and man-made electricity are the same.

As interest in electricity grew in the 18th century, it led to numerous attempts, including by Franklin, to use electrotherapy to treat palsies, hysteria, and other paralyzing illnesses. Still, despite the ancient history of torpedo therapeutics, no scientific understanding of animal electricity was yet available. Although nerves were envisioned as conduits to the brain as early as the 4th century B.C., conveyance (conduction) along the nerve was still attributed variously to ethereal spirits, fluids, or mechanical vibrations.

As interest in animal electricity continued to grow, electric fish contributed significantly to the eventual electrical basis of physiological function in both nerve and muscle. A major contribution from the Dutch, with settlements in Guiana, S.A., came from awareness of the more powerful electric eel whose discharge was equated with that of the Leyden jar, both capable of knocking a person to the ground. The only difference was that neither spark (eq., lightning) nor weak crackling sound (eq., thunder) could be elicited from the eel, facts that contributed to remaining resistance to the idea of fish electricity.

An American physician who worked briefly in Guiana (Edward Bancroft, 1744-1821) presented evidence that shocks from the torporific eel traveled up the fishing line and could be felt by several people holding hands (in series). John Walsh (1726-1795), a wealthy English colonel with an interest in natural history provided singular evidence for the electrical nature of Torpedo.

Armed with a series of experiments outlined by his collaborator, Benjamin Franklin, Walsh traveled to La Rochelle and nearby lIsle de R on the French Atlantic coast where the rays were abundant. Using public demonstrations he showed that the discharge could be felt 40 feet away when connected to the fish by a wire, that up to eight persons holding hands in series were affected, and that two persons, one touching the upper surface of the fish, the other the lower surface, only felt the shock when they completed the circuit by holding hands. In letters back to Franklin, Walsh concluded that the effect is certainly torpedinal electricity.

His work was forwarded to Henry Cavendish (1731-1810), the brilliant chemist (discoverer of oxygen), physicist and member of the Royal Society (along with Walsh, Franklin, Bancroft and other notables), who provided quantitative explanations supporting fish electricity. Franklin returned to the United States in 1775 in fear of arrest as a spy as progression toward the American Revolution became obvious. Ironically, it was August 1, 1776, when Walsh finally succeeded in demonstrating the convincing spark from a fish discharge, made possible by the arrival of a live electric eel from Guiana whose discharge was 10 times greater than the torpedo.

The torpedo and electric eel were important in the realization that animals function electrically. As such they had great influence on two Italian physician scientists, Luigi Galvani (1773-1798) and Alessandro Volta (1745-1827). Galvanis experiments led him to propose that electricity was inherent in the tissues of the nerve by demonstrating that frog leg muscles twitched when the [motor] nerve was stimulated with a weak electrical current. One such experiment used long wires connected to an electrical device in the room. This is known to have inspired Mary Shelley to create Frankenstein in her 1817 saga by attracting the electrical activity from a lightning storm.

Volta claimed that the electricity was not intrinsic to the nerve but rather originated in the metals Galvani used to touch the nerve. His own experiments with the frog used a pile or battery that he is credited with inventing. This first battery, dissimilar metals sandwiched around moistened cardboard, was inspired in turn by the electric organ of the torpedo. From these signature experiments, preceded by work through the ages, it is clear that torporific fishes have played a major role in shaping civilization through the life sciences and medicine.

Lon Wilkens, an emeritus professor of neuroscience at the University of Missouri-St. Louis, lives on St. George Island.

Read more:
The shocking history of the torpedo ray and other electric fish - Apalachicola Times

Read the Rest...

Sales of the Automotive Wiper Market to Anticipated to Exceed US$ XX by 2018 – 2026 – Hitz Dairies

§ December 5th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Sales of the Automotive Wiper Market to Anticipated to Exceed US$ XX by 2018 – 2026 – Hitz Dairies

Trade Intelligence Document on the World Automotive Wiper Market

Transparency Market Analysis, in a not too long ago revealed marketplace find out about, gives precious insights comparable to the total dynamics of the Automotive Wiper marketplace in the present situation. Additional, the document assesses the long term possibilities of the Automotive Wiper by examining the quite a lot of marketplace parts together with the present tendencies, alternatives, restraints, and marketplace drivers.

As in step with the document, the Automotive Wiper marketplace is ready to develop at a CAGR of ~XX% over the forecast length (2019-2029) and exceed a worth of ~US$ XX by the finish of 2029. The document means that vital growth in era, rising investments against R&D initiatives, and onset of leading edge answers are some of the number one components which are anticipated to power the expansion of the Automotive Wiper marketplace throughout the overview length.

Thrilling reductions for first-time consumers! Be offering expires quickly!

Request For Bargain On This Document @ https://www.transparencymarketresearch.co/sample/sample.php?flag=D&rep_id=25646

Regional Panorama

The offered document gives a microscopic view of the marketplace situation in numerous areas. The political and financial setting are completely assessed to supply readability on the expansion possibilities of the Automotive Wiper marketplace in each and every regional marketplace.

Aggressive Panorama

This bankruptcy of the document tracks the industry possibilities of distinguished marketplace gamers working in the Automotive Wiper marketplace. The earnings expansion, marketplace proportion, product portfolio, pricing, gross sales, and advertising methods of each and every corporate is mentioned in the document.

Car Kind Review

The document supplies vital knowledge pertaining to the adoption of the Automotive Wiper in numerous cars together with:

Regional Outlook

Geographically, the international lyophilized injectable medicine marketplace has been segmented into 5 main areas: North The us (the U.S., Canada), Europe (the U.Ok., Germany, France, Spain, Italy, and Leisure of Europe), Asia Pacific (India, China, Japan, Australia & New Zealand, and Leisure of Asia Pacific), Latin The us (Brazil, Mexico, and Leisure of Latin The us), and Heart East & Africa (South Africa, GCC International locations, and Leisure of Heart East & Africa). The marketplace measurement and forecast for each and every of those areas and the discussed nations/sub-areas were supplied for the length from 2016 to 2026, along side their respective CAGRs for the forecast length from 2018 to 2026, taking into consideration 2017 as the base 12 months. The analysis find out about additionally covers the aggressive situation in those areas.

Firms Discussed in Document

The document additionally profiles main gamers in the international lyophilized injectable medicine marketplace according to quite a lot of attributes comparable to corporate evaluate, monetary evaluate, product portfolio, industry methods, and up to date traits. Key gamers in the international marketplace are B. Braun Melsungen AG, Baxter, Becton, Dickinson and Corporate, Mylan N.V., Schott AG, SHL Staff, Vetter Pharma, CIRON Medicine & Prescribed drugs Pvt. Ltd, and Jubilant HollisterStier.

Request Pattern Document @ https://www.transparencymarketresearch.co/sample/sample.php?flag=B&rep_id=25646

Key Knowledge that may be drawn from the Automotive Wiper Market Document:

Necessary queries comparable to the Automotive Wiper marketplace addressed in the document:

Why Firms Agree with TMR?

RequestTOC For ThisDocument @ https://www.transparencymarketresearch.co/sample/sample.php?flag=T&rep_id=25646

See more here:
Sales of the Automotive Wiper Market to Anticipated to Exceed US$ XX by 2018 - 2026 - Hitz Dairies

Read the Rest...

Bushfires: What Facemask Works, And How To Deal With The Smoke – Junkee

§ December 5th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Bushfires: What Facemask Works, And How To Deal With The Smoke – Junkee

There's only one type of face mask that's effective.

Hazy skies, burning eyes and apocalyptic bushfires are becoming the new normal for those on Australias east coast.

But while it may look like the end of days this is just the beginning, with the Bureau of Meteorology telling Junkee they expect the smoke to hang around for weeks yet.

And according to the NSW Department of Environment, these bushfires have caused some of the highest air pollution ever seen in the state.

In the last few weeks both Sydney and Brisbane have recorded air quality worse than Beijing and no offence to Beijing, but thats when you know things are bad.

NSW has experienced other periods of poor air quality that lasted several weeks, including the 1994 Sydney bushfires and the Black Christmas bushfires of Dec 2001/Jan 2002, an environmental department spokesperson said.

This event however is the longest and the most widespread in our (60 years of) records.

Between 11 November and 3 December 2019, air quality in Sydney was measured as hazardous for 14 days.

Bushfire smoke is made up of a few things including tiny particles and gases like carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.

Larger particles are usually trapped in the nose and throat and swallowed, but particles smaller than 2.5 micrometers can reach the lungs and cause more serious health effects.

People with existing health conditions like asthma, bronchitis and emphysema are particularly at risk.

In a statement to Junkee a NSW Health spokesperson said the number of people in hospital last week with asthma or breathing problems was, not surprisingly, higher than usual across the state.

Smoke might cause no more than eye or throat irritation for most people, but those with known respiratory conditions, like asthma, need to be cautious, they said.

Those with asthma and other conditions should make sure to always carry their medication and follow their action plan.

This morning Doctors For The Environment Australia released a statement saying the health profession is concerned not enough is being done to mitigate and prepare for the health impacts of climate change.

Theyve also been busy shading our political leaders on Twitter:

In October the World Medical Association called for physicians to pressure their governments to go carbon neutral by 2030 to limit the life-threatening impacts on health.

Groups across Australia, including the Australian Medical Association, the Royal Australasian College of Physicians and Australasian College for Emergency Medicine, have since declared climate change to be a health emergency.

Obviously, the best way to reduce your exposure is to stay inside with the doors and windows shut. If you have air conditioning turn it on that can help filter out particles from indoor air.

People are also urged to avoid any outdoor physical activity (as if I need any more excuses).

Unfortunately most of us dont have the luxury of staying inside all day. If you are planning to head out dont bother investing in a normal face mask; theyre basically a waste of time. There is one type of mask out there designed to filter out a meaningful level of air pollution, called a P2 mask.

However, these need to be fitted correctly with an airtight seal to work. If any air leaks in theyre pretty much useless, and beards make this basically impossible.

Paper and cloth masks have become a more common sight around Sydney, but they dont provide any sort of filter for the microscopic particles found in bushfire smoke.

You can check out the latest air quality index here.

View original post here:
Bushfires: What Facemask Works, And How To Deal With The Smoke - Junkee

Read the Rest...

Hybrid antibiotics show promising results in eradicating deadly staph infections – News-Medical.net

§ December 4th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Hybrid antibiotics show promising results in eradicating deadly staph infections – News-Medical.net

Dec 4 2019

Eradicating deadly staph using a new breed of antibiotics has revealed promising results in research released by QUT, to help overcome one of the biggest modern medical challenges.

The bacteria attach to medical devices including catheters, artificial joints, implants and patients burns and wounds, establishing bacterial biofilms, a leading cause of failing antibiotic therapies and chronic infections.

QUT researchers have developed hybrid antibiotics designed to penetrate the slimy shield protecting invasive golden staph (Staphylococcus aureus) infections.

Led by Associate Professor Makrina Totsika and PhD student Anthony Verderosa (pictured below), the research has been published in top infectious diseases journal Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.

The study found hybrid antibiotics worked well by destroying Staph biofilms grown in the lab.

Biofilms are a sticky, slimy coating that often prevents conventional antibiotics from accessing bacterial cells, Mr Verderosa said.

We have developed a new breed of antibiotic that tricks biofilms into releasing their protected cells allowing access through the protective slimy coating of the biofilm.

This allows for the biofilms to be eradicated.

The PhD student and a recipient of a medal for his QUT Applied Science honours degree in chemistry described the new antibiotics as clever drugs for slimy bugs.

He said the microscopic compound emits a fluorescence signal enabling researchers to watch the drug penetrating the biofilm, either killing the bacteria directly or leaving them susceptible to killing.

Associate Professor Totsika said the majority of infections, even those not associated with an implanted medical device, involve biofilms in some way so the potential for these drugs is wide.

We are now gearing up to do pre-clinical testing. What is promising is the fact that our compounds are hybrids of drugs that are already in clinical use as stand-alone therapies, such as conventional antibiotics and nitroxides, so this offers hope that they could be translated into clinical therapies in the not so distant future.

Makrina Totsika, Associate Professor

Hospital acquired infections and increasing resistance to antibiotics has challenged medical researchers to find and test novel antimicrobial agents, including alternatives to antibiotics.

The World Health Organization has identified antibiotic resistant pathogens as one of the biggest threats to global health today.

Associate Professor Totsika said there was scope to apply the research beyond medicine, to agriculture, biotechnology and other industries.

She is the recipient of a QUT Vice-Chancellors Research Fellowship, and her research is supported by grants from the National Health and Medical Research Council and the Australian Research Council.

Researchers involved in developing the hybrid antibiotics came together from QUTs Infection and Immunity Research Program as well as the Molecular Design and Synthesis Chemistry program.

Source:

Journal reference:

Verderosa, A.D., et al. (2019) Nitroxide functionalized antibiotics are promising eradication agents against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01685-19.

The rest is here:
Hybrid antibiotics show promising results in eradicating deadly staph infections - News-Medical.net

Read the Rest...

Streptococcal Bacteria Hide From The Immune System In The Remains Of Blood Cells They Destroyed – IFLScience

§ December 4th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Streptococcal Bacteria Hide From The Immune System In The Remains Of Blood Cells They Destroyed – IFLScience

The human immune system is an astonishingly sophisticated defense system, but the bacteria and viruses that plague us have found some very clever ways to hide from it. The most recently discovered example is seriously metal; streptococcal bacteria use pieces of red blood cells they have torn apart as camouflage to hide from avenging immune cells.

Group A Streptococcus (GAS) bacteria is most familiar as the cause of Strep throat; which while unpleasant is seldom serious. However, the same group of bacteria sometimes invade the blood, lungs or muscles. In people with weakened immune systems or who are already fighting off other conditions, this can be lethal. An estimated half a million people die each year as a result, mostly in Africa.

Dr David Gonzalezof the University of California, San Diego has been exploring the methods GAS uses to evade the immune system. GAS cells release molecules that attach to red blood cells of the animal it has infected. Some go further, slicing these cells up like horror film serial killers.

Gonzalez noticed one of these molecules, named the S protein, appears to have many functions, one of which is binding the bacteria to the tattered remains of destroyed blood cells. After initial puzzlement, Gonzalez and his team wondered if they faced the Arya Stark of microbiology, hiding behind the faces of its victims. After all, the immune system wouldn't want to attack something that looked like blood cells.

The researchers modified the bacteria, removing the gene that codes for the S protein and discovered the immune cells have no difficulty finding, and destroying, the exposed invader in vitro. Likewise mice are killed by injections of the wild-type GAS, but show no symptoms when infected with the modified strain. Their findings are published inCell Reports.

The disguise is not just at a microscopic level. When placed in human blood, ordinary GAS bacteria turn so red they become hard to spot for scientists peering down the microscope. The modified version, however, just goes slightly pink.

GAS is currently treated with penicillin. Although it hasn't evolved resistance at anything like the speed of other pathogens, the rate of treatment failure is rising. Gonzalez hopes S protein-blocking medication could be the answer.

Better still, the mice injected with the modified version of GAS produced a strong immune response to the bacterium and vaccinated the mice against subsequent infections with the ordinary variety.

The usual disclaimers about mouse research not always translating to humans apply, and the experiments were done with only one of the many species of Streptococcus A, so a lot more work is required before we can vaccinate ourselves against GAS by removing its ill-gotten clothes.

[H/T:Smithsonian Mag]

Go here to read the rest:
Streptococcal Bacteria Hide From The Immune System In The Remains Of Blood Cells They Destroyed - IFLScience

Read the Rest...

Artificial Neurons on a Chip Developed to Treat Chronic Diseases – Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News

§ December 4th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Artificial Neurons on a Chip Developed to Treat Chronic Diseases – Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News

An international team of scientists has developed artificial neurons on silicon chips that behave just like neurons in the body. The first-of-its-kind achievement could lead to the development of medical devices for treating chronic diseases, such as heart failure, Alzheimers disease, or other neurodegenerative disorders. Critically, the artificial neurons not only behave just like biological neurons, but require just one-billionth the power of a microprocessor, making them ideally suited for use in medical implants and other bio-electronic devices.

Until now neurons have been like black boxes, but we have managed to open the black box and peer inside, stated research lead Alain Nogaret, PhD, professor from the University of Bath department of physics. Our work is paradigm-changing because it provides a robust method to reproduce the electrical properties of real neurons in minute detail. But its wider than that because our neurons only need 140 nanoWatts of power. Thats a billionth of the power requirement of a microprocessor, which other attempts to make synthetic neurons have used. This makes the neurons well suited for bio-electronic implants to treat chronic diseases.

The researchers, led by the University of Bath team, and including collaborators at the Universities of Bristol, Zurich, and Auckland, describe the artificial neurons in a study published in Nature Communications, titled, Optimal solid-state neurons.

Designing artificial neurons that respond to electrical signals from the nervous system in the same way that real neurons would has been a major goal in medicine for decades, as it would open up the possibility of curing conditions in which neurons dont work properly, have had their processes severed, as in spinal cord injury, or have died. Artificial neurons could repair diseased biocircuits by replicating their healthy function and responding adequately to biological feedback to restore body functions.

However, developing artificial neurons comes with immense challenges associated with the complex biology and hard-to-predict neuronal responses. The difficulty of measuring microscopic parameters that control the dynamics of ionic currents and the nonlinearity of ionic conductances has hampered so far theoretical efforts to build quantitative computational models and subsequently neuromorphic devices replicating the exact response of a biological neuron, the authors wrote.

Silicon neurons, synapses, and brain-inspired networks have all been proposed, but these designs werent meant to recapitulate the behavior of biological cells in detail, rather, they were intended to help identify the organizing principles of biology that could be applied to practical devices. The increasing focus on implantable bioelectronics to treat chronic disease is however changing this paradigm and is instilling new urgency in the need for low-power analog solid-state devices that accurately mimic biocircuits.

For their research to design artificial neurons, the researchers successfully modeled and derived equations to explain how neurons respond to electrical stimuli from other nerves. This is a hugely complicated task, as responses are non-linear, such that a doubling of signal strength may not elicit a reaction doubling. The response may be more, or less than double.

The team then designed silicon chips that accurately modeled biological ion channels, and confirmed that their silicon neurons precisely mimicked real, living neurons responding to a range of stimulations. To demonstrate their models the researchers accurately replicated the complete dynamics of hippocampal neurons and respiratory neurons from rats, under a wide range of stimuli. we built six-channel silicon devicesthat faithfully model CA1 hippocampal and respiratory neurons, they stated. The completed models predict the membrane voltage of biological neurons in excellent agreement (9497%) with the membrane voltage oscillations observed in response to 60 different current protocols.

The potential applications are manifold, the researchers believe. For example, were developing smart pacemakers that wont just stimulate the heart to pump at a steady rate but use these neurons to respond in real-time to demands placed on the heartwhich is what happens naturally in a healthy heart, Nogaret stated.

In heart failure for example, neurons in the base of the brain do not respond properly to nervous system feedback, they in turn do not send the right signals to the heart, which then does not pump as hard as it should. For example, the respiratory neurons which we have modeled couple the respiratory and cardiac rhythms and are responsible for respiratory sinus arrhythmia, the authors commented. Loss of this coupling through age or disease is a prognosis for sleep apnoea and heart failure. Therefore, a device that adapts to biofeedback in the same way as respiratory neurons may offer a much needed therapy for heart failure. Our accurate description of the neurobiology within a model derived from silicon physics answers this need.

Other possible applications could be in the treatment of conditions like Alzheimers and neuronal degenerative diseases more generally, Nogaret suggested. Our approach combines several breakthroughs. We can very accurately estimate the precise parameters that control any neurons behavior with high certainty. We have created physical models of the hardware and demonstrated its ability to successfully mimic the behavior of real living neurons. Our third breakthrough is the versatility of our model which allows for the inclusion of different types and functions of a range of complex mammalian neurons.

Study co-author Giacomo Indiveri, PhD, from the University of Zurich and ETF Zurich, commented, This work opens new horizons for neuromorphic chip design thanks to its unique approach to identifying crucial analog circuit parameters.

Added co-author, Julian Paton, PhD, a physiologist at the University of Auckland and the University of Bristol, said, Replicating the response of respiratory neurons in bioelectronics that can be miniaturized and implanted is very exciting and opens up enormous opportunities for smarter medical devices that drive towards personalized medicine approaches to a range of diseases and disabilities.

See original here:
Artificial Neurons on a Chip Developed to Treat Chronic Diseases - Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News

Read the Rest...

Investigating the Human Intestinal Mucus Barrier Up-close and Personal – Technology Networks

§ December 4th, 2019 § Filed under Nano Medicine § Tagged Comments Off on Investigating the Human Intestinal Mucus Barrier Up-close and Personal – Technology Networks

We have a mutualistic but complicated relationship with the collection of microbes in our gut, known as the intestinal microbiome. This complex community of bacteria breaks down different food components, and releases nutrients such as vitamins and a plethora of other factors that control functions in tissues way beyond the intestinal tract. However, the sheer numbers of microbes also present a threat as they can trigger inflammation, which is thought to be at the root of many intestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, radiation-induced intestinal injury, and some cancers.

To allow the uptake of beneficial substances from the gut lumen, and at the same time prevent gut microbes from contacting the intestinal epithelial tissue surface, specialized cells called goblet cells continuously produce mucus, the slimy goo-like substance that coats the entire intestinal surface. Mucus thus far has been notoriously difficult to study: its structure quickly disintegrates in surgically removed sections of the gut, the system most often used to study mucus, and no in vitro culture system has been able to reconstitute an in vivo-like mucus layer with the natural structure seen in living intestine outside the human body. Adding to these difficulties, mucus also differs between humans and other species, different sections of the intestinal tract, and even different individuals.

Now, focusing on the large intestine or colon which houses the greatest number of commensal microbes and has the thickest mucus layer, a team of tissue engineers at Harvards Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering has developed a colon-on-a-chip (Colon Chip) microfluidic culture device lined by patient-derived colon cells that spontaneously accumulates a mucus layer with the thickness, bi-layered structure, and barrier functions typically found in normal human colon. The mucosal surface in their model also responds to the inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by mounting a rapid swelling response. Their findings are published in Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

Our approach provides researchers with the opportunity to find answers to questions about normal and disease-associated mucus biology, such as its contributions to intestinal inflammatory diseases and cancers, and complex host-microbiome interactions, said Founding Director Donald Ingber, M.D., Ph.D., who is the senior investigator on the study. Importantly, we use patient-derived cells to line these devices and so this represents an entirely new approach for personalized medicine where it can be possible to study how mucus functions or dysfunctions in a particular patient, and to tailor therapy accordingly.

Ingber is also the Judah Folkman Professor of Vascular Biology at Harvard Medical School and the Vascular Biology Program at Boston Childrens Hospital, as well as Professor of Bioengineering at Harvards John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences. His team is part of a multi-institutional collaboration supported by a Cancer Research UK Grand Challenge grant in which his Wyss team investigates how inflammation-related changes contribute to formation of cancers, including colon cancers. The Grand Challenge is an ambitious international cancer research initiative, supporting world-leading teams of scientists to take on some of the toughest challenges in cancer, and giving them the freedom to try novel approaches at scale.

The teams approach starts out with patient-derived colon cells from colon resections and endoscopic biopsies that are first grown as organoids, tiny organized balls of colon tissue that contain mainly epithelial stem cells. After fragmenting the organoids, their cells are used to populate the upper of a two parallel channels of a microfluidic chip that are separated by a porous membrane. Simply by perfusing the channels continuously with nutrient medium, the colon stem cells grow into a continuous sheet and form highly functional goblet cells that secrete mucus.

Growing the cells on-chip under flow results in about 15% of epithelial cells spontaneously differentiating into goblet cells. Distributed throughout the epithelium, these produce an in vivo-like mucus layer, said first-author Alexandra Sontheimer-Phelps, a graduate student from the University of Freiburg, Germany, working in Ingbers group. At the same time, other epithelial cells that keep dividing also replenish the goblet cell population just like in living colon, which means that the chip can be maintained in steady-state conditions for more than two weeks, which makes it highly useful for longer-term studies.

The Wyss team showed that the colon epithelium in the chip is fully polarized with distinct markers restricted to its lumen-exposed, mucus-secreting side and its opposite membrane-binding side. Its goblet cells secrete the major mucus protein mucin 2 (MUC2), which when linked to complex chains of sugar molecules, assembles into multi-molecular network or gel that takes up water. Our approach actually produces the bi-layered structure of normal colon mucus with an inner dense layer that we show is impenetrable to bacteria-mimicking particles flowed through the intestinal channel, and a more loose outer layer that allows particles to enter. This has never been accomplished before in vitro, said Sontheimer-Phelps.

To investigate the functionality of the mucus, she and her co-workers exposed the chip to the inflammatory mediator PGE2. The mucus underwent rapid swelling within minutes and independent of any new mucus secretion, and this process of mucus accumulation can be visualized in living cultures by viewing the chips from the side with dark field illumination. This dynamic response could be blocked by inhibiting one particular ion channel, which pumps ions into the colon epithelium and passively allow water molecules to follow and apparently, this drives mucus swelling when stimulated by signals such as PGE2.

Mucus has long been thought to be a passive, host barrier, but it is becoming increasingly clear that microbial species affect its structure and function in addition to feeding on its carbohydrates as an energy source. Our in vitro system brings us one step closer to figuring out how individual bacterial species and more complex microbial communities can affect mucus and vice versa, as well as how this complex interplay impacts development of intestinal diseases. We also now have a testbed to discover new therapeutic drug and probiotic strategies that might prevent or reverse these diseases said Ingber.

Reference:Sontheimer-Phelps, A., Chou, D. B., Tovaglieri, A., Ferrante, T. C., Duckworth, T., Fadel, C., Ingber, D. E. (2019). Human colon-on-a-chip enables continuous in vitro analysis of colon mucus layer accumulation and physiology. Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmgh.2019.11.008

This article has been republished from the following materials. Note: material may have been edited for length and content. For further information, please contact the cited source.

Read the original post:
Investigating the Human Intestinal Mucus Barrier Up-close and Personal - Technology Networks

Read the Rest...

« Older Entries



Page 11234..1020..»